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Encyclopedia > Actor
Actors in period costume sharing a joke whilst waiting between takes during location filming.
Actors in period costume sharing a joke whilst waiting between takes during location filming.

An actor, actress, player or rarely thespian (see terminology) is a person who acts in a dramatic production and who works in film, television, theatre, or radio in that capacity. The ancient Greek word for an actor, hypokrites, when rendered as a verb means "to interpret";[1] in this sense, an actor is one who interprets a dramatic character.[2] Download high resolution version (480x640, 105 KB)Actors in period costume, resting between takes whilst on location filming in London. ... Download high resolution version (480x640, 105 KB)Actors in period costume, resting between takes whilst on location filming in London. ... The word actor can mean: An actor is a person who plays a role in theater or cinema. ... Actors in period costume sharing a joke whilst waiting between takes during location filming. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... For other uses, see Drama (disambiguation). ... This article is about motion pictures. ... Serge Sudeikins poster for the Bat Theatre (1922). ... It has been suggested that Verbal agreement be merged into this article or section. ...

Contents

Terminology

The word actor refers to one who acts, while actress refers specifically to a female who acts. The Oxford English Dictionary states that originally "'actor' was used for both sexes". The English word actress does not derive from the Latin actrix, probably not even by way of French actrice; according to the Oxford English Dictionary, actress was "probably formed independently" in English. As actress is a specifically feminine word, some feminists assert that the word is sexist. Gender-neutral usage of actor has re-emerged in modern English,[3] especially when referring to male and female performers collectively, but actress remains a commonly used word. The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is the most successful dictionary of the English language, (not to be confused with the one-volume Oxford Dictionary of English, formerly New Oxford Dictionary of English, of... Feminism is a social theory and political movement primarily informed and motivated by the experience of women. ...


The gender-neutral term player was common in film in the early days of the Production Code, but is now generally deemed archaic. However, it remains in use in the theatre, often incorporated into the name of a theatre group or company (such as the East West Players). The Production Code (also known as the Hays Code) was a set of industry guidelines governing the production of American motion pictures. ... Serge Sudeikins poster for the Bat Theatre (1922). ... Category: ...


History

Two actors performing during a theatric play.
Two actors performing during a theatric play.

The first recorded case of an actor performing took place in 534 BC (probably on 23 November[citation needed], though the changes in calendar over the years make it hard to determine exactly) when the Greek performer Thespis stepped on to the stage at the Theatre Dionysus and became the first known person to speak words as a character in a play or story. Prior to Thespis' act, stories were only known to be told in song and dance and in third person narrative. In honour of Thespis,a 6th century B.C poet, actors are commonly called Thespians. Theatrical legend to this day maintains that Thespis exists as a mischievous spirit, and disasters in the theatre are sometimes blamed on his ghostly intervention. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 478 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Actor Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 478 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Actor Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Serge Sudeikins poster for the Bat Theatre (1922). ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Thespis car, relief of the Giottos Belltower in Florence, Italy, Nino Pisano, 1334-1336 Thespis (1965), bronze sculpture by Robert Cook, commissioned for the opening of the Canberra Theatre Thespis of Icaria (6th century BC) is claimed to be the first person ever to have a man-gina According... This article is about the musical composition. ... Storytelling is the art of portraying in words, images, and sounds what has happened in real or imagined events. ... For other uses, see Ghost (disambiguation). ...


Actors were traditionally not people of high status, and in the Early Middle Ages travelling acting troupes were often viewed with distrust. In many parts of Europe, actors could not even receive a Christian burial, and traditional beliefs of the region and time period held that this left any actor forever condemned. However, this negative perception was largely reversed in the 19th and 20th centuries as acting has become an honored and popular profession and art. Part of the cause is the easier popular access to dramatic film entertainment and the resulting rise of the movie star — as regards both their social status and the salaries they command.[citation needed] The combination of public presence and wealth has profoundly rehabilitated their image.[citation needed] Justinians wife Theodora and her retinue, in a 6th century mosaic from the Basilica of San Vitale in Ravenna. ... A movie star or film star is a celebrity who is a person known for his or her roles in motion pictures. ...


In the past, only men could become actors in some societies. In the ancient Greece and Rome [4] and the medieval world, it was considered disgraceful for a woman to go on the stage, and this belief continued right up until the 17th century, when in Venice it was broken. In the time of William Shakespeare, women's roles were generally played by men or boys. The British prohibition(Victor Andersen) was ended in the reign of Charles II who enjoyed watching female actors (actresses) on stage. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ...


Techniques

General

Main article: Acting

Acting and actresses employ a variety of techniques that are learned through training and experience. Some of these are: Acting is the work of an actor or actress, which is a person in theatre, television, film, or any other storytelling medium who tells the story by portraying a character and, usually, speaking or singing the written text or play. ...

  1. The rigorous use of the voice to communicate a character's lines and express emotion. This is achieved through attention to diction and projection through correct breathing and articulation. It is also achieved through the tone and emphasis that an actor puts on words
  2. Physicalisation of a role in order to create a believable character for the audience and to use the acting space appropriately and correctly
  3. Use of gesture to complement the voice, interact with other actors and to bring emphasis to the words in a play, as well as having symbolic meaning.

Shakespeare is believed to have been commenting on the acting style and techniques of his era when Hamlet gives his advice to the players in the play-within-the-play. He encourages the actors to “speak the speech ... as I pronounced it to you,” and avoid “saw[ing] the air too much with your hand” , because even in a “whirlwind of passion, you must ... give it smoothness.” On the other hand, Hamlet urges the players to “Be not too tame neither.” He suggests that they make sure to “suit the action to the word, the word to the action”, taking care to “o'erstep not the modesty of nature.” As well, he told the players to not “... let those that play your clowns ... laugh, to set on some quantity of barren spectators to laugh too,” which Hamlet considered to be a “villainous” and “pitiful” tactic. Sister of Lisa Shakespeare redirects here. ... For other uses, see Hamlet (disambiguation). ...


The English critic Benedict Nightingale discussed and compared great classical actors of the long dead past, and the present, and their magical effects upon audiences, in this 1983 article from the New York Times, available online.[5] Benedict Nightingale is a British journalist and the regular theatre critic of the Times newspaper. ...


As opposite sex

Historically, acting was considered a man's profession; so, in Shakespeare's time, for instance, men and boys played all roles, including the female parts. However when an eighteen year Puritan prohibition of drama was lifted after the English Restoration of 1660, women began to appear on stage. The first occurrence of the term actress in the OED being by Dryden in 1700. Shakespeare redirects here. ... The Puritans were members of a group of radical Protestants which developed in England after the Reformation. ... Refinement meets burlesque in Restoration comedy. ... For other uses, see Restoration. ... OED stands for Oxford English Dictionary Office of Enrollment & Discipline This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... John Dryden John Dryden (August 19 {August 9 O.S.}, 1631 - May 12 {May 1 O.S.}, 1700) was an influential English poet, literary critic, translator and playwright, who dominated the literary life of Restoration England to such a point that the period came to be known in literary circles...


In Japan, men (onnagata) took over the female roles in kabuki theatre when women were banned from performing on stage during the Edo period. However, some forms of Chinese drama have females playing all the roles. This is the current Japanese collaboration of the week! Please help improve it to featured article standard. ... The oldest Kabuki theatre in Japan: the Minamiza in Kyoto The Kabukiza in Ginza is one of Tokyos leading kabuki theaters. ... The Edo period ), also called Tokugawa period, is a division of Japanese history running from 1603 to 1868. ...


In modern times, women sometimes play the roles of prepubescent boys. The stage role of Peter Pan, for example, is traditionally played by a woman, as are the principal boy and dame in British pantomime. This is uncommon in film, however, except in animated films and television programmes, where boys are sometimes voiced by women. For example, in The Simpsons the voice of Bart Simpson is provided by Nancy Cartwright. Opera has several "pants roles" traditionally sung by women, usually mezzo-sopranos. Examples are Hansel in Hänsel und Gretel, and Cherubino in The Marriage of Figaro. A male Caucasian toddler child A child (plural: children) is a young human. ... This article is about the play by J.M. Barrie. ... In pantomime, the principal boy role is the young male protagonist of the play, traditionally played by a young actress in boys clothes. ... A pantomime dame is a traditional character in British Panto. ... For other uses, see Pantomime (disambiguation). ... Animation refers to the process in which each frame of a film or movie is produced individually, whether generated as a computer graphic, or by photographing a drawn image, or by repeatedly making small changes to a model (see claymation and stop motion), and then photographing the result. ... Simpsons redirects here. ... For the comic book series of the same name, see Bart Simpson comics. ... Nancy Campbell Cartwright (born October 25, 1957 in Dayton, Ohio) is an American voice actress. ... For other uses, see Opera (disambiguation). ... A breeches role (also pants role or trouser role) is a role in which an actress appears in male clothes (breeches being tight-fitting knee-length pants, the standard male garment at the time breeches roles were introduced). ... A mezzo-soprano (meaning medium soprano in Italian) is a female singer with a range usually extending from the A below middle C to the F an eleventh above middle C. Mezzo-sopranos generally have a darker (or lower) vocal tone than sopranos, and their vocal range is between that... Hänsel und Gretel is an opera by Engelbert Humperdinck (Humperdinck himself described it as a fairy opera. ... Le nozze di Figaro ossia la folle giornata (Trans: ), K. 492, is an opera buffa (comic opera) composed in 1786 by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, with libretto by Lorenzo da Ponte, based on a stage comedy by Pierre Beaumarchais, Le mariage de Figaro (1784). ... Le nozze di Figaro ossia la folle giornata (Trans: ), K. 492, is an opera buffa (comic opera) composed in 1786 by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, with libretto by Lorenzo da Ponte, based on a stage comedy by Pierre Beaumarchais, Le mariage de Figaro (1784). ...


Having an actor dress as the opposite sex for comic effect is also a long standing tradition in comic theatre and film. Most of Shakespeare's comedies include instances of overt cross-dressing, such as Francis Flute in A Midsummer Night's Dream. The movie A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum stars Jack Gilford dressing as a young bride. Tony Curtis and Jack Lemmon famously posed as women to escape gangsters in the Billy Wilder film Some Like It Hot. Cross-dressing for comic effect was a frequently used device in most of the thirty Carry On films. Dustin Hoffman and Robin Williams each appeared in a hit comedy film in which they played most scenes dressed as a woman. This articles is about cross-dressing in general, that is the act of wearing the clothing of another gender for any reason. ... Francis Flute is a character in the play A Midsummer Nights Dream. ... For other uses, see A Midsummer Nights Dream (disambiguation). ... Hi! Youre car can speak <a href=http://immobilizer. ... Jack Gilford Jack Gilford (July 25, 1908 – June 2, 1990) was an American actor with a long and successful career on the Broadway stage, films and television. ... For other persons named Tony Curtis, see Tony Curtis (disambiguation). ... John Uhler Lemmon III (February 8, 1925 – June 27, 2001), better known as Jack Lemmon, was a two-time Academy Award and Cannes Award-winning American actor and comedian. ... Billy Wilder (June 22, 1906 – March 27, 2002) was an Austrian-born, Jewish-American journalist, screenwriter, film director, and producer whose career spanned more than 50 years and 60 films. ... Some Like It Hot is a 1959 comedy film directed by Billy Wilder. ... The Carry On films were a long-running series of British low-budget comedy films, directed by Gerald Thomas and produced by Peter Rogers. ... Dustin Lee Hoffman (born August 8, 1937) is a two-time Academy Award-winning, BAFTA-winning, and five-time Golden Globe-winning American method actor. ... This article is about the American actor and comedian; for other people named Robin Williams, see Robin Williams (disambiguation). ...


Several roles in modern plays and musicals are played by a member of the opposite sex (rather than a character cross-dressing), such as the character Edna Turnblad in Hairspray — played by Divine in the original film, Harvey Fierstein in the Broadway musical, and John Travolta in the 2007 movie musical. Occasionally the issue is further complicated through a woman acting as a man pretending to be a woman, like Julie Andrews in Victor/Victoria or Gwyneth Paltrow in Shakespeare in Love. Divine with dogs Harris Glenn Milstead (October 19, 1945 – March 7, 1988) was best known for his drag persona, Divine. ... This article is about the 1988 film. ... Harvey Forbes Fierstein (born June 6, 1952 in Brooklyn, New York) is a Jewish Tony Award-winning and Emmy Award-winning [1] American actor, playwright, and screenwriter. ... Hairspray is a musical with music by Marc Shaiman, lyrics by Scott Wittman and Shaiman and a book by Mark ODonnell and Thomas Meehan, based on the 1988 John Waters movie Hairspray. ... John Joseph Travolta (born February 18, 1954) is an Academy Award-nominated and Golden Globe Award-winning American actor, dancer, and singer, best known for his leading roles in films such as Saturday Night Fever, Grease and Pulp Fiction. ... This article is about the 2007 film. ... Dame Julie Elizabeth Andrews, DBE (born Julia Elizabeth Wells[1] on 1 October 1935[2]) is an award-winning English actress, singer, author and cultural icon. ... Victor/Victoria is a 1982 musical comedy film. ... Gwyneth Kate Paltrow (born September 27, 1972)[1] is an Academy Award-, Golden Globe- and two-time Screen Actors Guild Award-winning American actress. ... Shakespeare in Love is an award-winning 1998 romantic comedy film. ...


Acting awards

Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are the most prominent and most watched film awards ceremony in the world. ... The Cannes Film Festival (French: le Festival de Cannes), founded in 1939, is one of the worlds oldest, most influential and prestigious film festivals. ... The Golden Globe Award The Golden Globe Awards are American awards for motion pictures and television programs, given out each year during a formal dinner. ... An Emmy Award. ... The Genie Awards are given out to recognize the best of Canadian films and television, by the Academy of Canadian Cinema and Television. ... The Gemini Awards are an annual awards ceremony that celebrates the achievements for TV members of the Academy of Canadian Cinema & Television. ... BAFTA Award The British Academy of Film and Television Arts (BAFTA), is a British organisation that hosts annual awards shows for film, television, childrens film and television, and interactive media. ... The British Academy of Film and Television Arts (BAFTA), is a British organization that hosts annual awards shows for film, television, childrens film and television, and interactive media. ... What is popularly called the Tony Award (formally, the Antoinette Perry Award for Excellence in Theatre) is an annual award celebrating achievements in live American theater, including musical theater, primarily honoring productions on Broadway in New York. ... For other uses of Broadway, see Broadway. ... The Laurence Olivier Awards, previously known as The Society of West End Theatre Awards, were renamed in honour of British actor Laurence Olivier, Baron Olivier in 1984, having first been established in 1976. ... Laurence Olivier, as photographed in 1939 by Carl Van Vechten Laurence Kerr Olivier, Baron Olivier, OM (May 22, 1907 – July 11, 1989) was an English actor and director, esteemed by many as the greatest actor of the 20th century. ... The Screen Actors Guild (S.A.G.) is the labor union representing over 120,000 film actors in the United States. ... The National Film Awards, commonly known as the National Awards, are arguably the most prestigious and prominent film awards in India. ... India is a major regional center for cinema. ... The Filmfare Awards ceremony is one of the oldest and most prominent film events given for Hindi films in India [1] and is sometimes referred to as the Indian Oscars. ... Bollywood (Hindi: , Urdu: ) is the informal term popularly used for Mumbai-based Hindi-language film industry in India. ... The Goya Awards, known in Spanish as los Premios Goya, are Spains main national film awards. ... The Donostia-San Sebastián International Film Festival is an annual film festival which originated in 1953 and is held in the Spanish town of Donostia. ... The César Award is the national film award of France first given out in 1975. ... The Australian Film Institute (AFI) was established in 1958. ... The Berlin International Film Festival, also called the Berlinale is one of the most important film festivals in Europe. ... IFTA may refer to: Independent Film & Television Alliance International Fuel Tax Agreement The IFTA Awards, The Irish Film & Television Academy Awards Category: ... The Kids Choice Awards is an awards ceremony hosted by Nickelodeon. ...

See also

Acting is the work of an actor or actress, which is a person in theatre, television, film, or any other storytelling medium who tells the story by portraying a character and, usually, speaking or singing the written text or play. ... A voice actor (also a voice artist) is a person who provides voices for animated characters (including those in feature films, television series, animated shorts), voice-overs in radio and television commercials, audio dramas, dubbed foreign language films, video games, puppet shows, and amusement rides. ... A leading actor, leading actress, or simply lead, plays the role of the protagonist in a film or play. ... A supporting actor performs roles in a play or movie other than that of protagonist. ... A character actor is an actor, especially in motion pictures, who predominantly performs in similar roles throughout the course of a career. ... A bit part is a supporting acting role with at least one line of dialogue. ... A movie star or film star is a celebrity who is a person known for his or her roles in motion pictures. ... For other uses, see Celebrity (disambiguation). ... This article is about stunt performance. ... This is an alphabetical list of notable male film actors. ... List of English actresses List of American actresses List of Chinese actresses List of Japanese actresses List of Indian actresses List of Philippine actresses List of Iranian actresses List of Italian actresses List of Thai actresses Bond girl WAMPAS Baby Stars Categories: | ... Method acting is an acting technique in which actors try to replicate real life emotional conditions under which the character operates, in an effort to create a life-like, realistic performance. ... ‘Presentational acting’ and the related ‘representational acting’ are critical terms used within theatre aesthetics and criticism. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Thespis car, relief of the Giottos Belltower in Florence, Italy, Nino Pisano, 1334-1336 Thespis (1965), bronze sculpture by Robert Cook, commissioned for the opening of the Canberra Theatre Thespis of Icaria (6th century BC) is claimed to be the first person ever to have a man-gina According... This article is about the musical variety theatre. ... For other uses, see Charisma (disambiguation). ... The Q Score is a way to measure the familiarity and appeal of a brand, company, celebrity, cartoon character or television show. ... Dramatis personæ is a Latin phrase (literally the persons of the drama), recorded in English since 1730 but in international use, for the characters in the plot of a play, and is used to refer collectively to the characters represented in a dramatic work (various forms of theater, but also...

Further reading

  • An Actor Prepares by Konstantin Stanislavski (Theatre Arts Books, ISBN 0-87830-983-7, 1989)
  • A Dream of Passion: The Development of the Method by Lee Strasberg (Plume Books, ISBN 0-452-26198-8, 1990)
  • Sanford Meisner on Acting by Sanford Meisner (Vintage, ISBN 0-394-75059-4, 1987)
  • Letters to a Young Actor by Robert Brustein (Basic Books, ISBN 0-465-00806-2, 2005).
  • The Alexander Technique Manual by Richard Brennan (Connections Book Publishing ISBN 1-85906-163-X, 2004)
  • The Empty Space by Peter Brook
  • The Technique of Acting by Stella Adler
  • Acting Power by Robert Cohen, (McGraw-Hill, 1987)
  • Acting Professionally: Raw Facts About Careers in Acting by Robert Cohen (2003). (McGraw-Hill, ISBN 0-072-56259-5, 2003)

A portrait of Konstantin Stanislavski by Valentin Serov. ... Lee Strasberg (November 17, 1901 – February 17, 1982) was an American director, actor, producer, and acting teacher. ... Sanford Meisner (August 31, 1905-February 2nd, 1997) was an actor and acting coach well known for the Meisner technique. ... Robert Brustein Born in New York in 1927, Robert Brustein was educated at Amherst (B.A. 1948) and Columbia University (M.A. 1949 and Ph. ... For the British politician, see Peter Brooke. ... Stella Adler (February 10, 1901 – December 21, 1992) was an American actress, and for decades was regarded as Americas foremost acting teacher. ...

Works cited

  • Elam, Keir. 1980. The Semiotics of Theatre and Drama. New Accents Ser. London and New York: Methuen. ISBN 0416720609.
  • Weimann, Robert. 1978. Shakespeare and the Popular Tradition in the Theater: Studies in the Social Dimension of Dramatic Form and Function. Ed. Robert Schwartz. Baltimore and London: The John Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0801835062.

Semiotics, semiotic studies, or semiology is the study of signs and symbols, both individually and grouped into sign systems. ...

References

  1. ^ Hypokrites (related to our word for hypocrite) also means, less often, "to answer" the tragic chorus. See Weimann (1978, 2).
  2. ^ This is true whether the character than an actor plays is based on a real person or a fictional one, even themselves (when the actor is 'playing themselves,' as in some forms of experimental performance art, or, more commonly, as in John Malkovich's performance in the film Being John Malkovich); to act is to create a character in performance: "The dramatic world can be extended to include the 'author', the 'audience' and even the 'theatre'; but these remain 'possible' surrogates, not the 'actual' referents as such" (Elam 1980, 110).
  3. ^ dictionary.com actor retrieved 13 November 2007
  4. ^ Women Actors in Ancient Rome 27 December 2002, BBC
  5. ^ [1] New York Times

Hypocrisy is the act of condemning or calling for the condemnation of another person when the critic is guilty of the act for which he demands that the accused be condemned. ... This article is about Performance art. ... Being John Malkovich is a 1999 film written by Charlie Kaufman and directed by Spike Jonze. ...

External links

Look up actor, actress, player in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
  • Actors' Equity Association (AEA): a union representing U. S. theatre actors and stage managers.
  • American Federation of Television and Radio Artists (AFTRA): a union representing U. S. television and radio actors and broadcasters (on-air journalists, etc.).
  • British Actors' Equity: a trade union representing UK artists, including actors, singers, dancers, choreographers, stage managers, theatre directors and designers, variety and circus artists, television and radio presenters, walk-on and supporting artists, stunt performers and directors and theatre fight directors.
  • Media Entertainment & Arts Alliance: an Australian/New Zealand trade union representing everyone in the media, entertainment, sports, and arts industries.
  • Acting, Just the Facts an article on being an actor
  • Screen Actors Guild (SAG): a union representing U. S. film and TV actors.
Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ...

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