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Encyclopedia > Actinic keratosis
Actinic keratosis
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 L57.0
ICD-9 702.0

Actinic keratosis (also called solar keratosis, or AK) is a premalignant condition of thick, scaly, or crusty patches of skin. It is most common in fair-skinned people who are frequently exposed to the sun, because their pigment isn't very protective. It usually is accompanied by solar damage. Since some of these pre-cancers progress to squamous cell carcinoma, they should be treated. The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... // L00-L99 - Diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue (L00-L08) Infections of the skin and subcutaneous tissue (L00) Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (L01) Impetigo (L02) Cutaneous abscess, furuncle and carbuncle (L03) Cellulitis (L04) Acute lymphadenitis (L05) Pilonidal cyst (L08) Other local infections of skin and subcutaneous tissue (L081) Erythrasma... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... A premalignant condition is a disease, syndrome, or finding that, if left untreated, may lead to cancer. ... Natural Ultramarine pigment in powdered form. ... Sol redirects here. ... Biopsy of a highly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the mouth. ...

When skin is exposed to the sun constantly, thick, scaly, or crusty bumps appear. The scaly or crusty part of the bump is dry and rough. The growths start out as flat scaly areas, and later grow into a tough, wart-like area.

An actinic keratosis site commonly ranges between 2 and 6 millimeters in size, and can be dark or light, tan, pink, red, a combination of all these, or have the same pigment as the surrounding skin. It may appear on any sun-exposed area, such as the face, ears, neck, scalp, chest, backs of hands, forearms, or lips. Actinism is a property of radiation (particularly solar radiation) that leads to the production of photochemical effects. ... Keratosis can refer to: actinic keratosis (also known as solar keratosis) seborrheic keratosis keratosis pilaris (KP) Category: ‪Disambiguation‬ ... A millimetre (American spelling: millimeter), symbol mm is an SI unit of length that is equal to one thousandth of a metre. ... Sol redirects here. ...



Preventative measures recommended for AK are similar to those for skin cancer:

  • Not staying in the sun for long periods of time without protection (e.g.:sunscreen, clothing, hats).
  • Frequently applying powerful sunscreens with SPF ratings greater than 15 and that also block both UVA and UVB light.
  • Using sunscreen even in winter sun exposure.
  • Wearing sun protective clothing such as hats, long-sleeved shirts, long skirts, or pants.
  • Avoiding sun exposure during noon hours is very helpful because ultraviolet light is the most powerful at that time.

Sunscreen (also known as sunblock, suntan lotion) is a lotion, spray or other topical product that is intended to protect the skin from the suns ultraviolet (UV) radiation. ... Sunscreen or sunblock is a lotion that is applied to reduce skin damage by blocking ultraviolet radiation from the sun. ... Uva is a three-letter abbreviation with multiple meanings, as described below: Uva Province in Sri Lanka Uva is a parish in the Portuguese municipality of Vimioso Ultraviolet-A rays (UV-A) Ultraviolet Light Absorber University of Virginia (UVa), in the United States Universiteit van Amsterdam (UvA), one of the... Note: Ultraviolet is also the name of a 1998 UK television miniseries about vampires. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... // Sun protective clothing is clothing specifically designed for sun protection and is produced from a fabric rated for its level of ultraviolet (UV) protection. ... For other uses, see Ultraviolet (disambiguation). ...


Doctors can usually identify AK by doing a thorough examination. A biopsy may be necessary when the keratosis is large and/or thick, to make sure that the bump is a keratosis and not a skin cancer. Seborrheic keratoses are other bumps that appear in groups like the actinic keratosis but are not caused by sun exposure, and are not related to skin cancers. Seborrheic keratoses may be mistaken for an actinic keratosis. Brain biopsy A biopsy (in Greek: bios = life and opsy = look/appearance) is a medical test involving the removal of cells or tissues for examination. ... Skin cancer is a malignant growth on the skin which can have many causes. ... Seborrheic keratosis (Seborrhoeic keratosisis) a kind of benign skin growth that is very common among people over 40 years of age. ...


Various modalities are employed in the treatment of actinic keratosis:

  • Cryosurgery, e.g. with liquid nitrogen, by "freezing off" the AKs.
  • 5-fluorouracil (a chemotherapy agent): a cream that contains this medication causes AKs to become red and inflamed before they fall off.
  • Photodynamic therapy: this new therapy involves injecting a chemical into the bloodstream, which makes AKs more sensitive to any form of light.
  • Laser , notably CO2 and Er:YAG lasers. A Laser resurfacing technique is often used with diffuse AKs.
  • Electrocautery: burning off AKs with electricity.
  • Immunotherapy: topical treatment with imiquimod (Aldara), an immune enhancing agent
  • Different forms of surgery.
  • Crocodile oil: is available as a skin balm and has been used successfully as is a natural remedy.

Regular follow-up after treatment is advised by many doctors. The regular checks are to make sure new bumps have not developed and that old ones haven't become thicker and/or have skin disease. Cryosurgery (cryotherapy) is the application of extreme cold to destroy abnormal or diseased tissue. ... A tank of liquid nitrogen, used to supply a cryogenic freezer (for storing laboratory samples at a temperature of about -150 Celsius). ... Fluorouracil (5-FU) is a drug that is used in the treatment of cancer. ... Chemotherapy, in its most general sense, refers to treatment of disease by chemicals that kill cells, specifically those of micro-organisms or cancer. ... Inflammation is the first response of the immune system to infection or irritation and may be referred to as the innate cascade. ... Shown is close up of surgeons hands in an operating room with a beam of light traveling along fiber optics for photodynamic therapy. ... For other uses, see Laser (disambiguation). ... Laser resurfacing is a technique used during laser surgery wherein molecular bonds of a material are dissolved by a laser. ... Hot cauters were applied to tissues or arteries to stop them from bleeding. ... The term immunotherapy incorporates an array of strategies of treatment based upon the concept of modulating the immune system to achieve a prophylactic and/or therapeutic goal. ... Imiquimod (INN, marketed by 3M under the trade name Aldara) is a prescription medication that acts as an immune response modifier. ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ...

Experimental treatments

In 2007, Australia biopharmaceutical company Clinuvel Pharmaceuticals Limited began clinical trials with a melanocyte-stimulating hormone called melanotan which they refer to with the proprietary name CUV1647 for actinic keratosis in organ transplant patients.[1][2] This box:      In health care, a clinical trial is a comparison test of a medication or other medical treatment (such as a medical device), versus a placebo (inactive look-a-like), other medications or devices, or the standard medical treatment for a patients condition. ... Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) is a peptide hormone produced by cells in the intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland. ... Melanotan 1 and melanotan II are both analogs of the peptide hormone alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) that tend to induce skin tanning. ... Proprietary indicates that a party, or proprietor, exercises private ownership, control or use over an item of property, usually to the exclusion of other parties. ...

External links


  1. ^ Clinuvel » Investors » FAQs
  2. ^ Australian Life Scientist - Tackling skin cancer in organ transplant patients
  • Abel EA (1989). "Cutaneous manifestations of immunosuppression in organ transplant recipients". J Am Acad Dermatol 21 (2 Pt 1): 167–79. PMID 2671063. 
  • Fitzpatrick TB (1988). "The validity and practicality of sun-reactive skin types I through VI". Arch Dermatol 124 (6): 869–71. PMID 3377516. 
  • Glogau RG (2000). "The risk of progression to invasive disease". J Am Acad Dermatol 42 (1 Pt 2): 23–4. PMID 10607353. 
  • Gordon D, Silverstone H. (1969). "The biologic effects of ultraviolet radiation", in Ubach F, editor: The Biologic Effects of Ultraviolet Radiation. Oxford (UK): Pergamon Press, p. 625. 
  • Lookingbill DP, Lookingbill GL, Leppard B (1995). "Actinic damage and skin cancer in albinos in northern Tanzania: findings in 164 patients enrolled in an outreach skin care program". J Am Acad Dermatol 32 (4): 653–8. PMID 7896957. 
  • Marshall V (1974). "Premalignant and malignant skin tumours in immunosuppressed patients". Transplantation 17 (3): 272–5. PMID 4592184. 
  • Scotto J, Fears TR, Fraumeni JF. Incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancer in the United States. Publication No (NIH) 82-2433. Washington, DC: US Dept Health and Human Services; 1983.
This article is about the organ. ... The subcutis is the layer of tissue directly underlying the cutis. ... In zootomy, the integumentary system is the external covering of the body, comprising the skin, hair, scales, nails, sweat glands and their products (sweat and mucus). ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... Staphylococcus (in Greek staphyle means bunch of grapes and coccos means granule) is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria. ... Boil or furuncle is a skin disease caused by the inflammation of hair follicles, thus resulting in the localized accumulation of pus and dead tissues. ... For other uses, see Carbuncle (disambiguation). ... This article is about the nail disease. ... Species See text. ... Erythrasma is a skin disease that can result in pink patches, which can turn into brown scales. ... For the packaging type, see Blister pack. ... Pemphigus is an autoimmune disorder that causes blistering and raw sores on skin and mucous membranes. ... Bullous pemphigoid, also referred to as BP, is a chronic autoimmune skin disease, involving the formation of blisters below the surface of the skin and antibodies against collagen XVII. It can also (albeit only rarely) involve the mucous membranes, and has been shown to afflict dogs, cats, pigs, and horses... Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) or Duhrings Disease, is a skin disorder often associated with celiac disease. ... Dermatitis is a blanket term literally meaning inflammation of the skin. It is usually used to refer to eczema, which is also known as Dermatitis eczema. ... For the beetle, see Exema. ... For the album by Ivor Cutler, see Dandruff (album). ... An infant with Cradle Cap Close up image of Cradle Cap Cradle Cap (Infantile seborrhoeic dermatitis, or crusta lactea, milk crust, honeycomb disease; croûte de lait, eczéma infantile, dermatite atopique infantile (French); ne shqip njihet si - rrjebull ose rrjebulla (Albanian); crosta lattea (Italian); and σμηγματόρροια του τριχωτού της κεφαλής των νεογνών (Greek)) is a patchy... Diaper rash (U.S.) or nappy rash (UK), is a generic term applied to skin rashes in the diaper area that are caused by a various skin disorders and/or irritants. ... Toxicodendron pubescens (Atlantic Poison-oak), one of a large number of species containing urushiol irritants. ... Contact dermatitis is a term for a skin reaction resulting from exposure to allergens or irritants. ... Erythroderma refers to a skin disorder characterized by the widespread reddening of the skin. ... Lichen simplex chronicus is a skin disorder characterized by chronic itching and scratching. ... Prurigo nodularis (PN) is a skin disease characterised by pruritic (itchy) nodules which usually appear on the arms or legs. ... For other uses, see Itch (disambiguation). ... Pruritus ani is a medical term which refers to persistent itching of the anus (and in Latin means literally the same thing). ... Nummular dermatitis is one of the many forms of dermatitis. ... Late stage of dyshidrosis on the hands Also known as Dyshidrotic Eczema Dyshidrotic Dermatitis Pompholyx Dyshidrosis is a skin condition that is characterized by small blisters on the hands or feet. ... Pityriasis alba is a common skin condition mostly occurring in children and usually seen as dry, fine scaled, pale patches on their faces. ... A papulosquamous disorder is a condition which presents with both papules and scales,[1] or both scaly papules and plaques. ... Psoriatic arthritis (or Arthropathic psoriasis) is a type of inflammatory arthritis that affects around 20% of people suffering from the chronic skin condition Psoriasis. ... Parapsoriasis refers to one of a group of skin disorders that are characterized primarily by their resemblance to psoriasis (red, scaly lesions), rather than by their underlying etiology. ... Pityriasis Lichenoides et Varioliformis Acuta, or Mucha Habermanns Disease, short form PLEVA, is a disease of the immune system. ... Pityriasis lichenoides chronica is the chronic version of the Pityriasis lichenoides et varioliformis acuta, also called Mucha Habermanns Disease. ... Pityriasis rosea is a skin disease marked by patches of pink, oval rash. ... Lichen planus is an inflammatory disease that affects the skin and the oral mucosa. ... Pityriasis Rubra Pilaris (PRP) is a chronic rare skin disorder characterized by reddish orange color of the skin, and scaling, flaky skin. ... Lichen nitidus is a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown etiology[1], characterized by 1-2mm, discrete and uniform, shiny, flat-topped, pale flesh-colored or reddish-brown papules[2][3] that may be hypopigmented in blacks, and, occasionally, minimal scaling is present or can be induced by rubbing the surface... Erythema is redness of the skin caused by capillary congestion. ... Seen in about 5 percent of the population, Dermatographism is caused by Mast cells in the surface of the skin releasing histamines upon light scratching of the skins surface. ... Cholinergic urticaria is subcategory of physical urticaria (aka hives) that is a skin rash brought on by a hypersensitive reaction to body heat. ... Erythema is redness of the skin caused by capillary congestion. ... Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) is a severe and potentially life-threatening (15% of cases) disease, it is a hypersensitivity complex affecting the skin and the mucous membranes, a severe expression of erythema multiforme (EM) (and so SJS is also called erythema multiforme major). ... Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) is a severe and life-threatening condition. ... Toxic epidermal necrolysis is a life-threatening and usually drug-induced dermatological condition that occurs more often in women than in men. ... Erythema nodosum is a form of inflammation of the subcutaneous fatty tissue. ... Erythema annulare centrifugum is a descriptive term for a skin lesion consisting of redness (=erythema) in a ring form (=annulare) that spreads from the center (= centrifugum). ... Erythema marginatum is described as the presence of pink rings on the trunk and inner surfaces of the arms and legs which come and go for as long as several months. ... For other uses, see Radiation (disambiguation). ... Polymorphic Light Eruption (PLE) is a skin complaint caused by sunlight. ... Radiodermatitis is a skin disease associated with prolonged exposure to radiation. ... Erythema ab igne (EAI, or dermatitis ab igne) refers to skin that is reddened due to repeated exposure to heat radiation. ... Skin appendages are appendages that are associated with the skin and serve a particular function. ... Nail diseases are in a separate category from diseases of the skin. ... Onychocryptosis, commonly known as ingrown nails (unguis incarnatus) or ingrowing nails, is a common form of nail disease. ... Onychogryposis, also called rams-horn nail, is a thickening and increase in curvature of the nail. ... Beaus lines: Deep grooved lines that run from side to side on the fingernail. ... Yellow Nail Syndrome is the term that describes the triad of pleural effusions, lymphoedema and yellow dystrophic nails. ... Leukonychia (or Leuconychia) is a medical term for white discoloration appearing on nails. ... Alopecia is a set of disorders ranging from male and female pattern alopecia (alopecia androgenetica), to alopecia areata, which involves the loss of some of the hair from the head, alopecia totalis, which involves the loss of all head hair, to the most extreme form, alopecia universalis, which involves the... Alopecia totalis is the loss of all head hair. ... Alopecia universalis is a medical disorder in which the afflicted are unable to grow hair on the entire body. ... Ophiasis is a form of alopecia areata characterized by the the loss of hair in the shape of a wave at the circumference of the head. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Telogen Effluvium is characterized by sudden, diffuse hair loss caused by an interruption in the normal hair growth cycle. ... A form of Alopecia (gradual hair loss) caused primarily by pulling force being applied to the hair. ... Lichen planus is an inflammatory disease that usually affects the skin, the mouth, or sometimes both. ... Trichorrhexis nodosa is a defect in the hair shaft characterized by thickening or weak points (nodes) that cause the hair to break off easily. ... Hypertrichosis is a medical term, also known as Wolfitis, referring to a condition of excessive body hair. ... Hirsutism (from Latin hirsutus = shaggy, hairy) is defined as excessive and increased hair growth in women in locations where the occurrence of terminal hair normally is minimal or absent. ... This article is about a skin disease commonly found during adolescence. ... Rosacea (IPA: ) is a common but often misunderstood condition that is estimated to affect over 45 million people worldwide. ... Perioral dermatitis Perioral dermatitis, a condition related to acne vulgaris, consists of red superficial pustules around the mouth and chin and the sides of the nose. ... Rhinophyma is a descriptive term for a large, bulbous, ruddy appearance of the nose caused by granulomatous infiltration. ... An epidermoid cyst is a benign cyst, developed out of ectodermal tissue. ... Close-up of an infected sebaceous cyst that has abscessed, located behind the ear lobe. ... Steatocystoma multiplex is a congenital conditions resulting in multiple cysts on the body. ... Pseudofolliculitis barbae (pronounced //) is a medical term for persistent inflammation caused by shaving. ... Hidradenitis suppurativa or HS is a skin disease that affects areas bearing apocrine sweat glands and hair follicles; such as the underarms, groin and buttocks. ... Folliculitis is inflammation of one or more hair follicles. ... A diagrammatic sectional view of the skin (magnified). ... Not to be confused with malaria. ... Anhidrosis means lack of sweating. ... Sweating (also called perspiration or sometimes transpiration) is the loss of a watery fluid, consisting mainly of sodium chloride and urea in solution, that is secreted by the sweat glands in the skin of mammals. ... Bromhidrosis or body odor (also called bromidrosis, osmidrosis and ozochrotia) is the smell of bacteria growing on the body. ... Chromhidrosis is a rare condition characterized by the secretion of colored sweat. ... Fox-Fordyce disease is a chronic blockage of the sweat gland ducts with a secondary, nonbacterial inflammatory response to the secretions and cellular debris in the cysts. ... Not to be confused with alphos, a form of leprosy once called vitiligo. ... Melasma (also known as chloasma or the mask of pregnancy when present in pregnant women) is a tan or dark facial skin discoloration. ... Freckles are small colored spots of melanin on the exposed skin or membrane of people with complexions fair enough for them to be visible. ... Café au lait spots or cafe-au-lait spots (CAL) are pigmented birthmarks. ... Lentigo is a type of brown skin lesion. ... Liver spots are blemishes on the skin associated with ageing and exposure to ultra-violet radiation from the sun. ... Seborrheic keratosis (Seborrhoeic keratosisis) a kind of benign skin growth that is very common among people over 40 years of age. ... Acanthosis nigricans is a brown to black, poorly defined, velvety hyperpigmentation of the skin, usually present in the posterior and lateral folds of the neck, the axilla, groin, umbilicus, and other areas. ... This article is about calluses and corns of human skin. ... Bedsores, more properly termed pressure ulcers, are ulcers (sores) caused by pressure, friction or shear on vulnerable areas of the body, such as bony or cartilaginous areas. ... Lichen sclerosus (LS) (also known as lichen sclerosus et atrophicus (LSA), white-spot disease) is an uncommon disease of unknown cause that results in white patches on the skin, which may cause scarring on and around genital skin[1]. Several risk factors have been proposed, including autoimmune diseases, infections and... Acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans (ACA) also known as Pick-Herxheimer disease, is a skin rash indicative of the third or late stage of European Lyme borreliosis. ... A keloid is a special type of scar which results in an overgrowth of tissue at the site of a healed skin injury. ... Granuloma annulare is a chronic skin disease consisting of a rash with reddish bumps arranged in a circle or ring. ... Necrobiosis lipoidica is a necrotizing skin condition that usually occurs in patients with diabetes. ... Granuloma faciale (GF) is an uncommon benign chronic skin disease of unknown origin characterized by single or multiple cutaneous nodules, usually occurring over the face. ... Her first appearance was in Atari Force #1, Morphea is a DC Comics character who is an alien Canopian in the DC Universe. ... Calcinosis cutis (or cutaneous calcification) is a type of calcinosis wherein calcium deposits form in the skin. ... Sclerodactyly is a localized thickening and tightness of the skin of the fingers or toes. ... Ainhum disease is the autoamputation of the fifth toe. ... Vasculitis (plural: vasculitides), a group of diseases featuring inflammation of the wall of blood vessels including veins (phlebitis), arteries (arteritis) and capillaries due to leukocyte migration and resultant damage. ... Livedoid vasculitis (also known as livedo vasculitis, livedo reticularis, and livedoid vasculopathy) is a vascular disorder mostly affecting women. ... Pyogenic granuloma, also referred to as pregnancy tumor, is a primarily oral pathologic condition that appears in the mouth as an overgrowth of tissue due to irritation or trauma. ... // Q00-Q99 - Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities (Q00-Q07) Congenital malformations of the nervous system (Q00) Anencephaly and similar malformations (Q01) Encephalocele (Q02) Microcephaly (Q03) Congenital hydrocephalus (Q04) Other congenital malformations of brain (Q05) Spina bifida (Q06) Other congenital malformations of spinal cord (Q07) Other congenital malformations of nervous...

  Results from FactBites:
Skin Cancer Treatment - National Cancer Institute (772 words)
Nonmelanoma skin cancer and actinic keratosis often appear as a change in the skin.
Tests or procedures that examine the skin are used to detect (find) and diagnose nonmelanoma skin cancer and actinic keratosis.
Actinic keratosis is a skin condition that sometimes develops into squamous cell carcinoma.
  More results at FactBites »



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