FACTOID # 3: South Carolina has the highest rate of violent crimes and aggravated assaults per capita among US states.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Act of Parliament

An Act of Parliament or Act is law enacted by the parliament (see legislation). Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... The House of Representatives Chamber of the Parliament of Australia in Canberra. ... Legislation (or statutory law) is law which has been promulgated (or enacted) by a legislature or other governing body. ...

Contents

Bills

The genesis of an Act of Parliament is often a formal written proposal known as a White Paper, which if accepted will be prepared in the form of a proposed law known as a Bill. The Bill will then be introduced into the Parliament (House of Commons, House of Representatives, House of Lords or the Senate) for debate and possible approval and enactment. A white paper is an authoritative report. ... A bill is a proposed new law introduced within a legislature that has not been ratified, adopted, or received assent. ... British House of Commons Canadian House of Commons The House of Commons is the elected lower house of the bicameral parliament in the United Kingdom and Canada. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      House of Representatives is a name used for legislative bodies in many countries. ... This article is about the British House of Lords. ... For the band, see Senate (band). ... An approval rating is a polling term which reflects the percent of respondents to an opinion poll who approve of a particular person or program. ... Coming into force (also called enforcement or enactment) refers to the date and process by which legislation, or part of legislation, comes to have legal force and effect. ...


By constitutional convention, Bills that contain provisions significantly relating to taxation or public expenditure are introduced into the House of Commons in the UK; in Canada and Ireland, this is the law. A constitutional convention is an informal and uncodified procedural agreement that is followed by the institutions of a state. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... British House of Commons Canadian House of Commons The House of Commons is the elected lower house of the bicameral parliament in the United Kingdom and Canada. ...


In the United Kingdom, Law Commission bills and consolidation bills start in the House of Lords. The Law Commission is an independent body set up by Parliament in 1965 to keep the law of England and Wales under review and recommend necessary reforms. ... A consolidation bill is a bill introduced into the Parliament of the United Kingdom with the intention of consolidating several Acts of Parliament and/or Statutory Instruments into one Act. ... This article is about the British House of Lords. ...


In some countries, such as Spain and Portugal, a Bill has different names depending on whether it is initiated by the government (eg. "Project") or by the Parliament (eg. "Proposition" or Private Member's Bill). A Private Members Bill is a proposed law introduced by a backbench member of parliament, whether from the government or the opposition side, to that legislature or parliament. ...


An Act may be introduced to parliament also by means of a Private Member's Bill. A Private Members Bill is a proposed law introduced by a backbench member of parliament, whether from the government or the opposition side, to that legislature or parliament. ...


Procedure

United Kingdom

United Kingdom Parliament

In the United Kingdom Parliament, each bill passes through the following stages:

  1. Pre-legislative scrutiny: It is increasingly common for a small number of Government bills to be published in draft before they are presented in Parliament. These bills are then considered either by the relevant select committee of the House of Commons or by an ad hoc Joint Committee of both Houses. This is not strictly speaking part of the legislative process, but it provides an opportunity for the Committee to express a view on the bill and propose amendments before it is introduced.
  2. First reading: This is a formality; no vote occurs. The Bill is presented and ordered to be printed and, in the case of Private Members' bills, a date is set for second reading.
    • In the case of a Government Bill, Explanatory Notes, which try to explain the effect of the Bill in more simple language are also usually ordered to be printed.
    • A Government Bill can be introduced first into either House. Bills which deal primarily with taxation or public expenditure begin their passage in the Commons, since the financial privileges of that House mean that it has primacy in these matters (see Parliament Acts 1911 and 1949). Conversely, bills relating to the judicial system, Law Commission bills and consolidation bills begin their passage in the House of Lords which by convention has primacy in these matters.
  3. Second reading: A debate on the general principles of the bill is followed by a vote. Normally, the Second Reading of a Government bill is approved. A defeat for a Government bill on this Reading usually signifies a major loss. If the bill is read a second time, it is proceeds to the committee stage.
    • Procedural Orders and Resolutions: Immediately after Second Reading, in the case of Government Bills, the House normally passes forthwith (i.e. without debate) a Programme Order, setting out the timetable for the committee and remaining stages of the Bill. It may also pass a separate Money Resolution, authorising any expenditure arising from the Bill; and/or a Ways and Means Resolution, authorising any new taxes or charges the Bill creates.
    • Bills are not programmed in the House of Lords.
  4. Committee stage: This usually takes place in a standing committee in the Commons and on the Floor of the House in the Lords. In the United Kingdom, the House of Commons utilizes the following committees on bills:
    • Standing Committee: Despite the name, a standing committee is a committee specifically constituted for a certain bill. Its membership reflects the strengths of the parties in the House. Now known as a Public Bill Committee http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm/stand.htm
    • Special Standing Committee: The committee investigates the issues and principles of the bill before sending it to a regular Standing Committee. This procedure has been used very rarely in recent years (the Adoption and Children Bill in 2001-02 is the only recent example); the pre-legislative scrutiny process (see above) is now preferred.
    • Select Committee: A specialized committee that normally conducts oversight hearings for a certain Department considers the bill. This procedure has not been used in recent years, with the exception of the quinquennial Armed Forces Bill, which is always referred to a select committee.
    • Committee of the Whole House: The whole house sits as a committee in the House of Commons to consider a bill. Bills usually considered in this way are the principal parts of the annual Finance Bill, bills of first-class constitutional importance (for example, the Scotland Act 1998) and bills that are so uncontroversial that the committee stage may be dispensed with quickly and easily on the floor of the House, without the need to nominate a committee (some Private Members' Bills are usually dealt with this way each year). This is also the procedure used in the upper house.
    • Grand Committee (House of Lords): This is a recent new procedure used for some bills which is intended to speed up business. Although it takes place in a separate room, it is technically still a committee of the whole House in that all members can attend and participate. Procedure is the same as for a Committee in the main Chamber, but there are no votes.
    The committee considers each clause of the bill, and may make amendments to it. Significant amendments may be made at committee stage. In some cases, whole groups of clauses are inserted or removed. However, almost all the amendments which are agreed to in committee will have been tabled by the Government to correct deficiencies in the bill, to enact changes to policy made since the bill was introduced (or, in some cases, to import material which was not ready when the bill was presented), or to reflect concessions made as a result of earlier debate.
  5. Consideration (or Report) stage: this takes place on the Floor of the House, and is a further opportunity to amend the bill. Unlike committee stage, the House need not consider every clause of the bill, only those to which amendments have been tabled.
  6. Third reading: a debate on the final text of the bill, as amended. In the Lords, further amendments may be made on third reading, in the Commons it is usually a short debate followed by a single vote; amendments are not permitted.
  7. Passage: The Bill is then sent to the other House (to the Lords, if it originated in the Commons; to the Commons, if it is a Lords Bill), which may amend it. The Commons may reject a bill from the Lords outright; the Lords may amend a bill from the Commons but, if they reject it, the Commons may force it through without the Lords' consent in the following Session of Parliament, as is detailed below. Furthermore, the Lords can neither initiate nor amend Money Bills, bills dealing exclusively with public expenditure or the raising of revenue. If the other House amends the Bill, the Bill and amendments are sent back for a further stage.
  8. Consideration of Lords/Commons Amendments: The House in which the bill originated considers the amendments made in the other House. It may agree to them, amend them, propose other amendments in lieu or reject them. A Bill may pass backwards and forwards several times at this stage, as each House amends or rejects changes proposed by the other. If each House insists on disagreeing with the other, the Bill is lost, unless the Parliament Acts are invoked.

The Parliament Acts: Under the Parliament Acts 1911 and 1949, which do not apply for bills seeking to extend Parliament's length to more than five years, if the Lords reject a bill originated in the House of Commons, then the Commons may pass that bill again in the next session. The Bill is then submitted for Royal Assent even though the Lords did not pass it. Also, if the Lords do not approve of a Money Bill within thirty days of passage in the Commons, the bill is submitted for Royal Assent nevertheless. A first reading is when a bill is introduced to a legislature. ... Passing of the Parliament Bill, 1911, from the drawing by S. Begg The Parliament Acts are two Acts of Parliament of the United Kingdom, passed in 1911 and 1949. ... The Law Commission is an independent body set up by Parliament in 1965 to keep the law of England and Wales under review and recommend necessary reforms. ... A consolidation bill is a bill introduced into the Parliament of the United Kingdom with the intention of consolidating several Acts of Parliament and/or Statutory Instruments into one Act. ... A second reading is the state of the legislative process where a draft of a bill is read a second time. ... Budget generally refers to a list of all planned expenses and revenues. ... The Scotland Act 1998 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom at Westminster. ... A third reading is the stage of a legislative process in which a bill is read with all amendments and given final approval by a legislative body. ... The Palace of Westminster, also known as the Houses of Parliament. ... // The granting of Royal Assent is the formal method by which a constitutional monarch completes the legislative process of lawmaking by formally assenting to an Act of Parliament. ...


Enacting formula

Each Act commences with one of the following: An enacting formula is a short phrase that introduces the main provisions of a law enacted by some legislatures. ...


Standard

Be it enacted by the Queen's [King's] most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and Commons, in this present Parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows:-

For money bills A money bill is a bill that solely concerns taxation or government spending, as opposed to changes in public law. ...

We, Your Majesty's most dutiful and loyal subjects, the Commons of the United Kingdom in Parliament assembled, towards raising the necessary supplies to defray Your Majesty's public expenses, and making an addition to the public revenue, have freely and voluntarily resolved to give and grant unto Your Majesty the several duties hereinafter mentioned; and do therefore most humbly beseech Your Majesty that it may be enacted, and be it enacted by the Queen's [King's] most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and Commons, in this present Parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows:-

Under the Parliament Acts: Passing of the Parliament Bill, 1911, from the drawing by S. Begg The Parliament Acts are two Acts of Parliament of the United Kingdom, passed in 1911 and 1949. ...

BE IT ENACTED by The Queen's [King's] most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Commons in this present Parliament assembled, in accordance with the provisions of the Parliament Acts 1911 and 1949, and by the authority of the same, as follows:-

Scottish Parliament

In the Scottish Parliament, bills pass through the following stages:

  1. Introduction: The Bill is introduced to the Parliament together with its accompanying documents - Explanatory Notes, a Policy Memorandum setting out the policy underlying the Bill and a Financial Memorandum setting out the costs and savings associated with it. Statements from the Presiding Officer and the member in charge of the Bill are also lodged, indicating whether the Bill is within the legislative competence of the Parliament.
  2. Stage One: The Bill is considered by one or more of the subject Committees of the Parliament, which normally take evidence from the bill's promoter and other interested parties before reporting to the Parliament on the principles of the Bill. Other Committees, notably the Finance and Subordinate Legislation Committees, may also feed in at this stage. The report from the Committee is followed by a debate in the full Parliament.
  3. Stage Two: The Bill returns to the subject Committee where it is subject to line-by-line scrutiny and amendment. This is similar to the Committee Stage in the UK Parliament.
  4. Stage Three: The Bill as amended by the Committee returns to the full Parliament. There is a further opportunity for amendment, followed by a debate on the whole Bill, at the end of which the Parliament decides whether to pass the Bill.
  5. Royal Assent: After the Bill has been passed, the Presiding Officer submits it to Her Majesty for Royal Assent. However he cannot do so until a 4-week period has elapsed during which the Law Officers of the Scottish Executive or UK Government can refer the Bill to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council for a ruling on whether the Bill is within the powers of the Parliament.

There are special procedures for emergency Bills, members Bills (similar to Private Member's Bills in the UK Parliament), committee Bills, and private Bills. The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council is one of the highest courts in the United Kingdom. ...


Australia

In Australia, the bill passes through the following stages:

  1. First Reading: Again, this stage is a mere formality.
  2. Second Reading: As in the UK, the stage involves a debate on the general principles of the bill is followed by a vote. Again, the Second Reading of a Government bill is usually approved. A defeat for a Government bill on this Reading signifies a major loss. If the bill is read a second time, it is then considered in detail
  3. Consideration in Detail: This usually takes place on the Floor of the House. Generally, committees are not used to consider the bill in detail.
  4. Third reading: A debate on the final text of the bill, as amended. Very rarely do debates occur during this stage.
  5. Passage: The Bill is then sent to the other House (to the Senate, if it originated in the House of Representatives; to the Representatives, if it is a Senate Bill), which may amend it. If the other House amends the Bill, the Bill and amendments are sent back to the original House for a further stage.
  6. Consideration of Senate/Representatives Amendments: The House in which the bill originated considers the amendments made in the other House. It may agree to them, amend them, propose other amendments in lieu or reject them. However, the Senate may not amend Money Bills, though it can "request" the House to make amendments. A Bill may pass backwards and forwards several times at this stage, as each House amends or rejects changes proposed by the other. If each House insists on disagreeing with the other, the Bill is lost.
  7. Disagreement between the Houses: Often, when a bill cannot be passed in the same form by both Houses, it is "laid aside." Sometimes, a special constitutional procedure allowing the passage of the bill without the agreement of both houses is allowed. If the House twice passes the same bill, and the Senate twice fails to pass that bill (either through rejection or through the passage of unacceptable amendments), then the Governor-General may dissolve both Houses of Parliament. If the House again passes the bill after the election, but the deadlock between the Houses persists, then the Governor-General may convene a joint sitting of both Houses, where a final decision will be taken on the bill. The procedure only applies if the bill originated in the House of Representatives. Six double-dissolutions have occurred, though a joint session only became necessary once.

Canada

In Canada, the bill passes through the following stages:

  1. First Reading: Again, this stage is a mere formality.
  2. Second Reading: As in the UK, the stage involves a debate on the general principles of the bill is followed by a vote. Again, the Second Reading of a Government bill is usually approved. A defeat for a Government bill on this Reading signifies a major loss. If the bill is read a second time, then it progresses to the committee stage.
  3. Committee stage: This usually takes place in a standing committee in the Commons.
    • Standing Committee: The standing committee is a permanent one; each committee deals with bills in specific subject areas. Canada's standing committees is similar to the UK's select committees.
    • Special Committee: The procedure is not used often.
    • Legislative Committee: A legislative committee is especially appointed for a certain bill, like the UK's standing committees.
    • Committee of the Whole House: The whole house sits as a committee in the House of Commons to consider appropriation bills.
    The committee considers each clause of the bill, and may make amendments to it. Significant amendments may be made at committee stage. In some cases, whole groups of clauses are inserted or removed. However, almost all the amendments which are agreed to in committee will have been tabled by the Government to correct deficiencies in the bill or to enact changes to policy made since the bill was introduced (or, in some cases, to import material which was not ready when the bill was presented).
  4. Consideration (or Report) stage: this takes place on the Floor of the House, and is a further opportunity to amend the bill.
  5. Third reading: A debate on the final text of the bill, as amended. Very rarely do debates occur during this stage.
  6. Passage: The Bill is then sent to the other House (to the Senate, if it originated in the House of Commons; to the Commons, if it is a Senate Bill), which may amend it. If the other House amends the Bill, the Bill and amendments are sent back to the original House for a further stage.
  7. Consideration of Senate/Commons Amendments: The House in which the bill originated considers the amendments made in the other House. It may agree to them, amend them, propose other amendments in lieu or reject them. If each House insists on disagreeing with the other, the Bill is lost.
  8. Disagreement between the Houses: There is no specific procedure under which the Senate's disagreement can be overruled by the Commons. The Senate's rejection is absolute.

The debate on each stage is actually debate on a specific motion. For the first reading, there is no debate. For the second and third readings, the motion is "That this bill be now read a second [third] time." In the Committee stage, the debate is on the motions for specific amendments and the motion "That the clause [as amended] stand part of the bill," which is presented on every clause, whether amended or not. In the Report stage, the debate is on the motions for specific amendments. The final motion is "That the bill do now pass."


Since the mid-19th century, in most but not all cases, the votes by the House of Commons are a formality in which the vote is predetermined by party lines. Because the Westminster system requires the government to keep the support of the House of Commons, the rejection of a bill by Commons is a major political crisis. Therefore, the government will in almost all cases ensure passage of a bill by a combination of modifying the bill so that it is acceptable to members of the ruling party and pressuring party members to vote for the bill. Unlike the American or UK systems, a Member of Parliament rarely votes against party instructions. The Houses of Parliament, also known as the Palace of Westminster, in London. ...


Exceptions are cases of political crisis or matters of conscience such as the age of consent, in which the government may declare a free vote in which Members of Parliament are absolved of the requirement of voting with their party. A conscience vote or free vote is a type of vote in a legislative body where legislators are each expected to vote according to their own personal conscience rather than according to an official line set down by their political party. ...


It can either fail or pass and then go on to final, formal examination by the Governor General who invariably gives it the Royal Assent. Although the Governor General can in theory refuse to endorse a bill at this stage, this power has not been used in recent times. A Governor-General is most generally a governor of high rank, or a principal governor ranking above ordinary governors. ...


Bills being reviewed by Parliament are assingned numbers: 2 to 200 for government bills, 201 to 1000 for private member's bills, and 1001 up for private bills. They are preceded by C- if they originate in the House of Commons, or S- if they originate in the Senate. For example, Bill C-250 was a private member's bill introduced in the House. Bills C-1 and S-1 are pro forma formalities. A Private Members Bill is a proposed law introduced by a backbench member of parliament, whether from the government or the opposition side, to that legislature or parliament. ... A private bill is the term used for legislation that originates from a particular member of a legislature or parliament or from a member of the public. ... An Act to amend the Criminal Code (hate propaganda), popularly known as Bill C-250, its title during the second session of the 37th Canadian parliament in which it was passed, was a controversial piece of Canadian legislation. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Many companies report pro forma earnings, in addition to normal earnings calculated under the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP), in their quarterly and yearly financial reports. ...


See also: List of Acts of Parliament of Canada The following is a List of Acts of Parliament of Canada passed since 1867. ...


New Zealand

In New Zealand, the bill passes through the following stages:

  1. First Reading: MPs debate and vote on the bill. If a bill is approved, it passes on to the committee stage.
  2. Select Committee stage: The bill is considered by a Select Committee, which scrutinises the bill in detail and hears public submissions on the matter. The Committee may recommend amendments to the bill.
  3. Second Reading: The general principles of the bill are debated, and a vote is held. If the bill is approved, it is put before a Committee of the House.
  4. Committee of the House: The bill is debated and voted on, clause by clause, by the whole House sitting as a committee.
  5. Third Reading: Summarising arguments are made, and a final vote is taken. If the bill is approved, it is passed to the Governor-General for Royal Assent. New Zealand has no upper house, and so no approval is necessary.

UK details

Types of Acts

Acts of Parliament are of three types -

  1. Public Acts are for laws of general application (e.g. reforming the criminal justice system), which affect a general class or category of persons. Such a class or category might include, for example, all citizens, all people above or below a certain age, all pensioners, prisoners, local authorities or public limited companies.
  2. Private Acts (styled Personal Acts since 1948) affect a specific person (real or legal) differently from others. They include acts to confer powers on certain local authorities (but not others), acts affecting certain companies established by Act of Parliament (e.g. TSB, Transas), and acts which allow major works projects (e.g. the Channel Tunnel Rail Link), which grant special powers on the company undertaking the work (e.g. the compulsory purchase of land). Personal acts are a sub-category of private acts, which confer specific rights or duties on a named individual or individuals (e.g. allowing two persons to marry even though they are within a "prohibited degree of consanguinity or affinity").
  3. Hybrid Acts combine elements of both Public and Private acts. They are very rare, though the Crossrail Bill, a hybrid bill to build a railway across London from west to east, is currently before the House of Commons[1].

Private Bills, common in the 19th Century, are now rare, as new planning legislation introduced in the 1960s removed the need for many of them. They are subject to a different procedure from that for Public Bills, described above, involving a quasi-judicial committee of three MPs. It has been suggested that Trustee Savings Bank be merged into this article or section. ... The British terminal at Cheriton in west Folkestone, from the Pilgrims Way. ... In law, eminent domain is the power of the state to appropriate private property for its own use without the owners consent. ... For other uses, see Crossrail (disambiguation). ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The three letter acronym MPS can refer to: Mail Preference Service, a list of people who do not want to get direct mail Marginal propensity to save, the rate at which a population saves money Masters of Professional Studies, a terminal Masters degree Media Processing Server, a Nortel self service...


It is important not to confuse Private Bills with Private Member's Bills; the latter are classed as Public Bills. A Private Members Bill is a proposed law introduced by a backbench member of parliament, whether from the government or the opposition side, to that legislature or parliament. ...


Sovereignty

In the UK, Parliament has almost unlimited sovereignty. As such Acts of Parliament are generally without limit or constraint. Although in modern times, European Law and Human Rights Legislation can overturn some Acts, this is only because another Act has declared so. Similarly, although Parliament has devolved significant powers to the Scottish Parliament, the Northern Ireland Assembly and the National Assembly for Wales, it is free to overrule or even abolish those institutions, although this would be unlikely in practice. For the national legislative body up to 1707, see Parliament of Scotland. ... The logo of the Northern Ireland Assembly, a six flowered linen or flax plant. ... Established 1999 by the Government of Wales Act 1998 Presiding Officer Lord Elis-Thomas AM (Plaid) Since May 12, 1999 Deputy Presiding Officer Rosemary Butler AM (Lab) Leader of the House Carwyn Jones AM (Lab) Chief Executive and Clerk to the Assembly Claire Clancy Political parties 6 Welsh Labour (26...


British law is also made through Statutory Instruments (SIs). These are laws which are made in the name of a Government minister, exercising legislative powers delegated to him or her by Act of Parliament. Some of these must be approved by Parliament before they can become law, others need only be laid before Parliament a certain number of days (usually 40) before coming into force. They are used because they are much faster and simpler to implement than a full act of Parliament, and are more easily amended to reflect changing circumstances. SIs are sometimes described as "secondary legislation, not second class legislation"[citation needed]. They have the same force as an Act of Parliament, and much of the UK's law is made in this way. There are literally thousands of SIs each year, compared with around 50 Acts. Statutory Instruments are also used to bring Acts into force. Most Acts have sections that come into effect upon Royal Assent, or at a set date thereafter. However, other sections are brought into force using a SI which is titled [Act Name] (Commencement) No. # Order. Whilst most legislation has had a maximum of half a dozen Commencement Orders, this is not a strict limit as some Acts have had over 10. Statutory Instruments (SIs) are parts of United Kingdom law separate from Acts of Parliament which do not require full Parliamentary approval before becoming law. ...


International treaties are not effective in domestic UK law until enforced by an Act of Parliament (e.g. The European Communities Act, which brought the UK into the European Union, the Single European Act which allowed for the creation of the single European internal market or the Outer Space Act which deals with international treaties on Space). A single market is a customs union with common policies on product regulation, and freedom of movement of all the four factors of production (land, enterprise, capital and labour). ...


Historical records

All UK Acts of Parliament since 1497 are kept in the House of Lords Record Office, including the oldest Act: The "Taking of Apprentices for Worsteads in the County of Norfolk" Act 1497, a reference to the wool worsted manufacture at Worstead in Norfolk, England. 1497 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Worsted is the name of a dick the cloth made from this yarn, as well as a yarn weight category. ... Worstead is a village and civil parish in the English county of Norfolk. ... For alternative meanings see: Norfolk (disambiguation) Norfolk (pronounced NOR-fk) is a low-lying county in East Anglia in the east of southern England. ...


Acts before 1962 are referenced using 'Year of reign', 'Monarch', c., 'Chapter number' — e.g. 16 Charles II c. 2 — to define a chapter of the appropriate statute book. Since 1962, the regnal year has been replaced by the calendar year. All recent Acts have a short title, or citation (e.g. Local Government Act 2003, National Health Service Act 1974).


Acts in force

The UK's Ministry of Justice (United Kingdom) publishes most Acts of Parliament in an on-line statute law database. It is the official revised edition of the primary legislation of the United Kingdom. The database shows Acts as amended by subsequent legislation and is the statute book of UK legislation. The Ministry of Justice is a department of the government of the United Kingdom, reorganized from the former Department for Constitutional Affairs. ... The Statute of Grand Duchy of Lithuania A statute is a formal, written law of a country or state, written and enacted by its legislative authority, perhaps to then be ratified by the highest executive in the government, and finally published. ... Legislation (or statutory law) is law which has been promulgated (or enacted) by a legislature or other governing body. ...


Acts of constitutional importance

Important Acts in UK constitutional history include:

See also: List of Acts of Parliament of the United Kingdom Parliament The Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542 were a series of parliamentary measures by which the legal system of Wales was annexed to England and the norms of English administration introduced in order to create a single state and a single legal jurisdiction, which is frequently referred to as England... English Bill of Rights (1689). ... Act of Settlement The Electress Sophia of Hanover The Act of Settlement (12 & 13 Wm 3 c. ... The Acts of Union were twin Acts of Parliament passed in 1707 (taking effect on 26 March) by the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. ... The Act of Union 1800 merged the Kingdom of Ireland and the Kingdom of Great Britain (itself a merger of England and Wales and Scotland under the Act of Union 1707) to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland on 1 January 1801. ... The Representation of the People Act 1832, commonly known as the Reform Act 1832, was an Act of Parliament that introduced wide-ranging changes to the electoral system of the United Kingdom. ... In the United Kingdom, the Reform Act could refer to various Acts Reform Act 1832 (The First Reform Act or The Great Reform Act), which abolished rotten boroughs and gave representation to previously unrepresented urban areas like Birmingham etc. ... Representation of the People Act can refer to the following acts: Representation of the People Act 1884 Representation of the People Act 1918 Representation of the People Act 1928 Representation of the People Act 1948 Representation of the People Act 1969 Representation of the People Act 1983 Representation of the... The term rotten borough referred to a parliamentary borough or constituency in Great Britain and Ireland which, due to size and population, was controlled and used by a patron to exercise undue and unrepresentative influence within parliament. ... The Palace of Westminster, also known as the Houses of Parliament. ... This article is about the Statute of Westminster relating to the British Empire and its dominions. ... The European Communities Act (1972 c. ... The Human Rights Act 1998 is an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom which received Royal Assent on November 9, 1998, and mostly came into force on October 2, 2000. ... The Scotland Act 1998 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom at Westminster. ... The Government of Wales Act, 1998 (1998 c. ... The Government of Wales Act 2006 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... This is an list of links to lists of of Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom grouped by period. ...


Topical Acts

Acts of Parliament currently of special interest:

Enabling legislation for the British national identity card was passed under the Identity Cards Act 2006 [1]. The multi-billion pound scheme [2] has yet to enter procurement. ... The Terrorism Act 2000 is a current United Kingdom Act of Parliament - An Act to make provision about terrorism; and to make temporary provision for Northern Ireland about the prosecution and punishment of certain offences, the preservation of peace and the maintenance of order. ... Freedom of Information logo See Freedom of information in the United Kingdom for a general discussion of freedom of information legislation throughout the United Kingdom. ...

Numbering

Historically, Acts were given names, which sufficed as there were few acts, but as the number of Acts increased it became convenient to number.

  • In England, Acts came to be numbered from 1 in each year of the sovereign's reign, until 1962. Hence 14 Charles II c. 4 which was the fourth Act passed in the fourteenth year of the reign of Charles II.
  • In Victoria, Australia, Acts are numbered from 1 starting from 1860, hence Act 9876 of 2006.
  • In New South Wales, Acts are numbered from 1 starting in each calendar year, hence Act 98 of 2006.

The Act of Uniformity was an Act of the Parliament of England, 14 Charles II c. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ...

See also

This is a incomplete list of Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom (or its predecessors) for the years to 1987, and a complete list of Acts passed from 1 January 1988 to the dissolution of Parliament on 11 April 2005. ... Halsbury’s Statutes of England and Wales (commonly referred to as Halsburys Statutes) provides an up-to-date version of the amended text of every Public General Act of Parliament or Church of England Measure currently in force in England and Wales (and to various extents in Scotland and... An Act of Vaginapenis is a bill or resolution adopted by both houses of the United States Congress to which one of the following events has happened: Acceptance by the President of the United States, Inaction by the President after ten days from reception (excluding Sundays) while the Congress is...

References

  1. ^ http://www.parliament.uk/about_commons/prbohoc/hybrid_bills.cfm

External links

  • Acts of Parliament (since 1267) revised to date are available free on-line under Crown copyright terms from the Department of Constitution Affairs (SLD).

  Results from FactBites:
 
Parliament Act - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2429 words)
The Act was a reaction to the clash between the Liberal government and the House of Lords, culminating in the so-called "People's Budget" of the Chancellor of the Exchequer David Lloyd George in 1909, which proposed the introduction of a land tax based on the ideas of the American tax reformer Henry George.
Since the 1949 Act was passed, doubts had been raised by legal academics as to whether the use of the 1911 Act to pass the 1949 Act, amending the 1911 Act itself, was valid.
After this, the 1949 Act, and the validity of Acts made under it, remained unchallenged until after the Parliament Acts were used to force through the Hunting Act 2004, when the Countryside Alliance raised the question of the validity of the 1949 Act.
Act of Parliament - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3449 words)
The genesis for an Act of Parliament is often a formal written proposal known as a White Paper, which if accepted will be prepared in the form of a proposed law known as a Bill.
The Parliament Acts: Under the Parliament Acts 1911 and 1949, which do not apply for bills seeking to extend Parliament's length to more than five years, if the Lords reject a bill originated in the House of Commons, then the Commons may pass that bill again in the next session.
All UK Acts of Parliament since 1497 are kept in the House of Lords Record Office, including the oldest Act: The "Taking of Apprentices for Worsteads in the County of Norfolk" Act 1497, a reference to the wool worsted manufacture at Worstead in Norfolk, England.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m