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Encyclopedia > Acrylic glass
Acrylic glass
Other names polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)
methyl methacrylate resin
Identifiers
CAS number 9011-14-7
SMILES C[C](C)C(=O)OC
Properties
Molecular formula (C5O2H8)n
Molar mass varies
Density 1.19 g/cm³
Melting point

130-140 °C (265-285 °F) James Anderson is an academic staff member in the School of Systems Engineering at the University of Reading. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1004x1271, 16 KB) Summary Description: Skeletal formula of the polymethyl methacrylate repeating unit (Perspex, (C5O2H8)n). ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... The simplified molecular input line entry specification or SMILES is a specification for unambiguously describing the structure of chemical molecules using short ASCII strings. ... A chemical formula is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... Molar mass is the mass of one mole of a chemical element or chemical compound. ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ...

Boiling point

200.0 °C (392 °F) Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ...

Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)

Infobox disclaimer and references

Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) or poly (methyl 2-methylpropanoate) is the synthetic polymer of methyl methacrylate. This thermoplastic and transparent plastic is sold by the tradenames Plexiglas, Limacryl, R-Cast, Perspex, Plazcryl, Acrylex, Acrylite, Acrylplast, Altuglas, Polycast and Lucite and is commonly called acrylic glass or simply acrylic. The material was developed in 1928 in various laboratories and was brought to market in 1933 by Rohm and Haas Company. The plimsoll symbol as used in shipping In chemistry, the standard state of a material is its state at 1 bar (100 kilopascals exactly). ... Synthetic polymers are often referred to as plastics, such as the well-known polyethylene and nylon. ... Methyl methacrylate is a chemical compound mostly known as monomer for the production of the transparent plastic polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). ... For other uses, see Plastic (disambiguation). ... Transparent glass ball In optics, transparency is the property of allowing light to pass. ... For other uses, see Plastic (disambiguation). ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Rohm and Haas Co (NYSE: ROH), Philadelphia, Pennsylvania based company, manufactures miscellaneous materials. ...

Contents

Properties

The material is often used as an alternative to glass. Differences in the properties of the two materials include This article is about the material. ...

  • PMMA is less dense; its density can range from 1150-1190 kg/m3. This is less than half the density of glass which ranges 2400 to 2800 kg/m3.
  • PMMA has a higher impact strength than glass and does not shatter but instead breaks into large dull pieces.
  • PMMA is softer and more easily scratched than glass. This can be overcome with scratch-resistant coatings.
  • PMMA is typically processed at a lower temperature than glass, just 240-250 °C.
  • PMMA transmits up to 93% of visible light (per metre)[1]. A simple comparison with glass is not possible as glass is not a substance with a single composition and is made with an extreme range of optical transmittances from 0% to practically 100% (at least 99.99% infrared in long distance optical fibers).[2] Doped PMMA can achieve transmittances of 91% to 98%, suitable for consumer fiber.[3][4]
Skeletal structure of methyl methacrylate, the monomer that makes up PMMA
Skeletal structure of methyl methacrylate, the monomer that makes up PMMA
Structure of the PMMA polymer
Structure of the PMMA polymer
  • Unlike glass, PMMA does not filter ultraviolet (UV) light. PMMA transmits UV light down to 300 nm. Some manufacturers[5] add a coating to PMMA sheets to make them absorb UV light. PMMA molecules have great UV stability compared to polycarbonate.
  • PMMA allows infrared light of up to 2800 nm wavelength to pass. IR of longer wavelengths, up to 25,000 nm, are essentially blocked. Special formulations of colored PMMA exist to allow specific IR wavelengths to pass while blocking visible light (for remote control or heat sensor applications, for example).

PMMA can be joined using cyanoacrylate cement (so-called "Superglue"), or by using liquid di- or trichloromethane to dissolve the plastic at the joint which then fuses and sets, forming an almost invisible weld. PMMA can also be easily polished to restore cut edges to full transparency. For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... In the fields of optics and spectroscopy, transmittance is the fraction of incident light at a specified wavelength that passes through a sample. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1215x976, 14 KB) Summary Description: Skeletal formula of methyl methacrylate (methyl 2-methylprop-2-enoate, C5H8O2). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1215x976, 14 KB) Summary Description: Skeletal formula of methyl methacrylate (methyl 2-methylprop-2-enoate, C5H8O2). ... Methyl methacrylate is a chemical compound mostly known as monomer for the production of the transparent plastic polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). ... In chemistry, a monomer (from Greek mono one and meros part) is a small molecule that may become chemically bonded to other monomers to form a polymer. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Ultraviolet (disambiguation). ... A nanometre (American spelling: nanometer, symbol nm) (Greek: νάνος, nanos, dwarf; μετρώ, metrό, count) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth of a metre (or one millionth of a millimetre), which is the current SI base unit of length. ... Polycarbonates are a particular group of thermoplastic polyesters. ... For other uses, see Infrared (disambiguation). ... A nanometre (American spelling: nanometer, symbol nm) (Greek: νάνος, nanos, dwarf; μετρώ, metrό, count) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth of a metre (or one millionth of a millimetre), which is the current SI base unit of length. ... For other uses, see Wavelength (disambiguation). ... The optical spectrum (light or visible spectrum) is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye. ... For other uses, see Remote control (disambiguation). ... A tube of Super glue Cyanoacrylate is the generic name for substances such as methyl-2-cyanoacrylate, which is typically sold under trademarks like Superglue and Krazy Glue, and 2-octyl cyanoacrylate or n-butyl-cyanoacrylate, which are used in medical glues such as Dermabond and Traumaseal. ... R-phrases S-phrases , , Flash point None Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... R-phrases , , , S-phrases , Flash point Non-flammable U.S. Permissible exposure limit (PEL) 50 ppm (240 mg/m3) (OSHA) Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Welding is a fabrication process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing coalescence. ...


The refractive index of PMMA compounds usually ranges from 1.4893 to 1.4899 (a vacuum's is 1). The refractive index (or index of refraction) of a medium is a measure for how much the speed of light (or other waves such as sound waves) is reduced inside the medium. ...


To produce 1 kg of PMMA, about 2 kg of petroleum is needed. In the presence of oxygen, PMMA ignites at 460° C and burns completely to form only carbon dioxide and water. “Kg” redirects here. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - creator of the process of refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ...


Related polymer poly(methyl acrylate)

The polymer of methyl acrylate, PMA or poly(methyl acrylate), is similar to poly(methyl methacrylate), except for the lack of methyl groups on the backbone carbon chain.[6] PMA is a soft white rubbery material that is softer than PMMA because its long polymer chains are thinner and smoother and can more easily slide past each other.


Uses

PMMA or Acrylic is a versatile material and has been used in a wide range of fields and applications.


Impact resistant substitute for glass

  • PMMA Acrylic glass is commonly used for constructing residential and commercial aquariums.
  • PMMA is used in the lenses of exterior lights of automobiles. [7]
  • The spectator protection in ice hockey stadiums is made of PMMA.
  • Motorcycle helmet visors
  • Police vehicles for riot control often have the regular glass replaced with acrylic to protect the occupants from thrown objects.
  • Acrylic is used for viewing ports and even complete hulls of submersibles, such as the Alicia submarine's viewing spheres and the Bathyscaphe Trieste's windows.
  • Polycast acrylic sheet is the most widely used material in aircraft transparencies (windows). In applications where the aircraft is pressurized, stretched acrylic is used.

“Aquaria” redirects here. ... Ice hockey, known simply as hockey in areas where it is more common than field hockey, is a team sport played on ice. ... Two white motorcycle helmets, full-face and open-face. ... French mobile gendarmes doing riot control. ... Alicia is a 6-seater submarine operated by the National Marine Aquarium in Plymouth, England. ... The bathyscaphe Trieste Trieste was a Swiss designed deep-diving research bathyscaphe (deep boat) with a crew of two people, which reached a record-breaking depth of about 10,900 m (about 35,760 ft), in the deepest part of the oceans, the Challenger Deep, in 1960. ...

Medical technologies and implants

  • PMMA has a good degree of compatibility with human tissue, and can be used for replacement intraocular lenses in the eye when the original lens has been removed in the treatment of cataracts. Hard contact lenses are frequently made of this material. Soft contact lenses are often made of a related polymer, where acrylate monomers containing one or more hydroxyl groups make them hydrophilic.
  • In orthopaedics, PMMA bone cement is used to affix implants and to remodel lost bone. It is supplied as a powder with liquid methyl methacrylate (MMA). When mixed these yield a dough-like cement that gradually hardens. Surgeons can judge the curing of the PMMA bone cement by pressing their thumb on it. Although PMMA is biologically compatible, MMA is considered to be an irritant and a possible carcinogen. PMMA has also been linked to cardiopulmonary events in the operating room due to hypotension. [8] Bone cement acts like a grout and not so much like a glue in arthroplasty. Although sticky, it primarily fills the spaces between the prosthesis and the bone preventing motion. It has a Young's modulus between cancellous bone and cortical bone. Thus it is a load sharing entity in the body not causing bone resorption. [9]
  • Dentures are often made of PMMA, and can be colour-matched to the patient's teeth. In cosmetic surgery, tiny PMMA microspheres suspended in some biological fluid are injected under the skin to reduce wrinkles or scars permanently.

Biological tissue is a collection of interconnected cells that perform a similar function within an organism. ... An intraocular lens (IOL) is an implanted lens in the eye, usually replacing the existing crystalline lens because it has been clouded over by a cataract, or as a form of refractive surgery to change the eyes optical power. ... For other uses, see Eye (disambiguation). ... Human eye cross-sectional view, showing position of human lens. ... A pair of contact lenses, positioned with the concave side facing upward. ... Hydroxide is a functional group consisting of oxygen and hydrogen: -O−H It has a charge of 1-. The term hydroxyl group is used when the functional group -OH is counted as a substituent of an organic compound. ... The adjective hydrophilic describes something that likes water (from Greek hydros = water; philos = friend). ... Orthopedic surgery or orthopedics (BE: orthopaedics) is the branch of surgery concerned with acute, chronic, traumatic and recurrent injuries and other disorders of the locomotor system, its musclular and bone parts. ... Methyl methacrylate is a chemical compound mostly known as monomer for the production of the transparent plastic polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). ... The hazard symbol for carcinogenic chemicals in the Globally Harmonized System. ... Wikibooks has more about this subject: First Aid/CPR Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an emergency first aid protocol for a victim of cardiac arrest. ... In physiology and medicine, hypotension refers to an abnormally low blood pressure. ... Grout is a construction material used to embed rebars in masonry walls, connect sections of pre-cast concrete, fill voids, and seal joints (like those between tiles). ... Arthroplasty (literally formation of joint) is an operative procedure of orthopaedic surgery performed for replacing the arthritic or dysfunctional joint surface with something better or remodeling or realigning the joint by osteotomy or some other procedures. ... In solid mechanics, Youngs modulus (E) is a measure of the stiffness of a given material. ... Cancellous bone (or trabecular bone, or spongy bone) is a spongy type of bone with a very high surface area, found at the ends of long bones. ... Cortical bone, also known as compact bone is one of two main types of osseous tissues. ... Bone resorption is the process by which osteoclasts break down bone and release the minerals, resulting in a transfer of calcium from bone fluid to the blood. ... Categories: Stub | Dentistry ... Plastic surgery is a general term for operative manual and instrumental treatment which is performed for functional or aesthetic reasons. ...

Artistic and aesthetic uses

  • Acrylic paint essentially consists of PMMA suspended in water; however since PMMA is hydrophobic, a substance with both hydrophobic and hydrophilic groups needs to be added to facilitate the suspension.
  • Modern furniture makers, especially in the 1960s and 1970s, seeking to give their products a space age esthetic incorporated Lucite and other PMMA products into their designs, especially office chairs. Many other products (for example, guitars) are sometimes made with acrylic glass, giving otherwise ordinary objects a transparent or futuristic look.
  • Perspex has been used as a surface to paint on, for example by Salvador Dalí.
  • Occasionally used as a glass substitute in picture framing, due to its relatively inexpensive cost, light weight, and shatter-resistant nature, as well as the fact that it can be ordered in larger sizes than standard picture-framing glass. Conventional glass may or may not be preferred.
  • From approximately the 1960s onward, sculptors and glass artists began using acrylics, especially taking advantage of the material's flexibility, light weight, cost and its capacity to refract and filter light.

A Bigger Splash, 1967. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Hydrophobe (from the Greek (hydros) water and (phobos) fear) in chemistry refers to the physical property of a molecule that is repelled by water. ... Hydrophile, from the Greek (hydros) water and φιλια (philia) friendship, refers to a physical property of a molecule that can transiently bond with water (H2O) through hydrogen bonding. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Mixture. ... For the UK band, see Furniture (band). ... The Space Shuttle takes off on a manned mission to space. ... Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domènech, 1st Marquis of Púbol (May 11, 1904 – January 23, 1989), was a Spanish surrealist painter of Catalan descent born in Figueres, Catalonia (Spain). ... This article is about the material. ... A picture frame is a container added to a picture in order to enhance it, make it easier to display or, in some cases, to protect it. ...

Other uses

  • The material is used to produce laserdiscs, and sometimes also for DVDs, but the more expensive polycarbonate (also used for CDs) has better properties when exposed to moisture.
  • Artificial fingernails are made of acrylic.
  • In the 1960s, luthier Dan Armstrong developed a line of electric guitars and basses whose bodies were made completely of acrylic. These instruments were marketed under the Ampeg brand. Ibanez [10] and BC Rich have also made acrylic guitars.
  • Recently a blacklight-reactive tattoo ink using PMMA microcapsules was developed. This ink is reportedly safe for use, and claims to be Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved for use on wildlife that may enter the food supply.
  • In semiconductor research and industry, PMMA aids as a resist in the electron beam lithography process. A solution consisting of the polymer in a solvent is used to spin coat silicon wafers with a thin film. Patterns on this can be made by an electron beam (using an electron microscope), deep UV light (shorter wavelength than the standard photolithography process), or X-rays. Exposure to these creates chain scission or (de-cross-linking) within the PMMA, allowing for the selective removal of exposed areas by a chemical developer, making it a positive photoresist. PMMA's advantage is that it allows for extremely high resolution (nanoscale) patterns to be made. It is an invaluable tool in nanotechnology.
  • Small strips of PMMA are used as dosimeter devices during the Gamma Irradiation process. The optical density of PMMA changes as the Gamma dose increases and can be measured with a spectrophotometer.
  • It is used as a light guide for the backlights in TFT-LCDs.
  • Plastic optical fiber used for short distance communication is made from PMMA, and perfluorinated PMMA, clad with fluorinated PMMA, in situations where its flexibility and cheaper installation costs outweigh its poor heat tolerance and higher attenuation over glass fiber.
  • Ludwig-Musser makes a line of acrylic drums called Vistalites. They are well known as being used by Led Zeppelin drummer John Bonham.

Not to be confused with disk laser, a type of solid-state laser in a flat configuration. ... DVD (also known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc) is a popular optical disc storage media format. ... Polycarbonates are a particular group of thermoplastic polyesters. ... CD may stand for: Compact Disc Canadian Forces Decoration Cash Dispenser (at least used in Japan) CD LPMud Driver Centrum-Demokraterne (Centre Democrats of Denmark) Certificate of Deposit ÄŒeské Dráhy (Czech Railways) Chad (NATO country code) Chalmers Datorförening (computer club of the Chalmers University of Technology) a 1960s... Dan Armstrong was an expert guitar luthier and recording session musician. ... Ampeg is an instrument amplifier manufacturer. ... This article is about the guitar manufacturer. ... B.C. Rich use unusual shapes for their guitars, like this Warlock B.C. Rich is a manufacturer of guitars and bass guitars. ... BlackLight Is a Rock Band set up April 2006. ... For other uses, see Tattoo (disambiguation). ... An ink is a liquid containing various pigments and/or dyes used for coloring a surface to render an image or text. ... Micro-encapsulation is a process in which tiny particles or droplets are surrounded by a coating to give small capsules with many useful properties. ... “FDA” redirects here. ... The United States Food and Drug Administration is the government agency responsible for regulating food, dietary supplements, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, biologics and blood products in the United States. ... A semiconductor is a solid whose electrical conductivity is in between that of a conductor and that of an insulator, and can be controlled over a wide range, either permanently or dynamically. ... In semiconductor fabrication, resist refers to both: A thin layer used to transfer a circuit pattern to the semiconductor substrate which it is deposited upon. ... // Conventional electron-beam lithography The practice of using a beam of electrons to generate patterns on a surface is known as Electron beam lithography. ... For other uses, see Solvent (disambiguation). ... Spin coating is a procedure used to apply uniform thin films to flat substrates. ... Not to be confused with Silicone. ... An electron microscope is a type of microscope that uses electrons as a way to illuminate and create an image of a specimen. ... Photolithography is a process used in semiconductor device fabrication to transfer a pattern from a photomask (also called reticle) to the surface of a substrate. ... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... Vulcanization is an example of cross-linking. ... Nanotechnology refers broadly to a field of applied science and technology whose unifying theme is the control of matter on the atomic and molecular scale, normally 1 to 100 nanometers, and the fabrication of devices within that size range. ... A dosimeter is any device used to measure an individuals exposure to a hazardous environment, particularly when the hazard is cumulative over long intervals of time, or ones lifetime. ... Gamma (uppercase Γ, lowercase γ) is the third letter of the Greek alphabet. ... In physics, spectrophotometry is the quantitative study of spectra. ... A 15 TFT-LCD TFT-LCD (thin film transistor liquid crystal display) is a variant of liquid crystal display (LCD) which uses thin film transistor (TFT) technology to improve image quality. ... Plastic optical fiber (POF) is an optical fiber which is made out of plastic. ... Ludwig-Musser is a drum and percussion instrument manufacturer owned by Conn-Selmer, Inc. ... John Henry Bonzo Bonham (May 31, 1948 – September 25, 1980) was an English drummer and member of the English rock band Led Zeppelin. ...

See also

Polystyrene (IPA: ) is a polymer made from the monomer styrene, a liquid hydrocarbon that is commercially manufactured from petroleum by the chemical industry. ... Polycarbonates are a particular group of thermoplastic polyesters. ...

References

  1. ^ MatWeb material property database - Overview of General Purpose Acrylic molding resin
  2. ^ Fiber Optic Cable Tutorial ARC Electronics, 'optical fiber attenuation ranges from 0.5dB/km' (99.988% transmission per metre)
  3. ^ Basics of Plastic Optical Fiber (Part 2) MITSUBISHI RAYON CO., LTD., 2003, 'POF is not suitable for long-distance transmission. compared with quartz fiber, there is a large transmission loss', PMMA graph shows 0.25 db/m loss (94.4% transmission) at 400nm (violet), improving to 0.08 db/m loss (98.2 % transmission) from 500 to 580nm (green, yellow), worsening to 0.44 db/m (91.2% transmission) at 620 (orange) and 700nm (red) with a trough of 0.14 db/m (96.8% transmission) at 650nm (orange red)
  4. ^ American Computer Optics 18in Tempered LCD Glass MatWeb material property database, 'Transmission, Visible 98 %'
  5. ^ Altuglas International Plexiglas UF-3 UF-4 and UF-5 sheets
  6. ^ Polymethyl acrylate and polyethyl acrylate, Encyclopædia Britannica
  7. ^ Kutz, Myer, Handbook of Materials Selection. John Wiley & Sons 2002. pg 341
  8. ^ American Journal of Neuroradiology, 23:601-604, April 2002.
  9. ^ Miller, Review of Orthopaedics, 4th Edition, p 129.
  10. ^ http://www.ibanezregister.com/Gallery/js/gal-js2k.htm and http://ibanez.com/eg/guitar.aspx?m=JEM20TH

www.vitroflex.com


  Results from FactBites:
 
Acrylic glass - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (725 words)
This thermoplastic and transparent plastic is sold by the tradenames Plexiglas, Perspex, Acrylite, Acrylplast, and Lucite and is commonly called acrylic glass or simply acrylic.
The material is often used as an alternative to glass.
Acrylic paint essentially consists of PMMA suspended in water; however since PMMA is hydrophobic, a substance with both hydrophobic and hydrophilic groups needs to be added to facilitate the suspension.
Nova Display, Inc. - Acrylic & Glass Accessories - Poster Holders, Leaflet Dispensers, Cubes & Cabinets, ... (460 words)
Acrylic is one of the hardest forms of clear plastic and is much harder to scratch or gouge than polycarbonate (another clear plastic material).
Acrylic has excellent UV properties, meaning it is very clear and will not yellow unless under the most extreme circumstances.
Acrylic is about five times stronger than glass and is extremely hard to break with side impact.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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