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Encyclopedia > Acropolis, Athens
The Acropolis of Athens, seen from the hill of the Pnyx to the west.
The Acropolis of Athens, seen from the hill of the Pnyx to the west.

The Acropolis of Athens is the best known acropolis (high city) in Greece. Although there are many other acropolises in Greece, the significance of the Acropolis of Athens is such that it is commonly known as The Acropolis without qualification. The Acropolis is a flat-topped rock which rises 150 meters (512 feet) above sea level in the city of Athens, Greece. It was also known as Cecropia in honor of the legendary serpent-man, Kekrops or Cecrops, the first Athenian king. Download high resolution version (1280x960, 232 KB)Photo by Adam Carr This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (1280x960, 232 KB)Photo by Adam Carr This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The Pnyx (Greek Πνυξ, pronounced Xerxes in Ancient Greek, Pniks in Modern Greek), is a hill in central Athens, the capital of Greece. ... Acropolis in Athens. ... For other uses, see Athens (disambiguation). ... Superfamilies and Families Henophidia Aniliidae Anomochilidae Boidae Bolyeriidae Cylindrophiidae Loxocemidae Pythonidae Tropidophiidae Uropeltidae Xenopeltidae Typhlopoidea Anomalepididae Leptotyphlopidae Typhlopidae Xenophidia Acrochordidae Atractaspididae Colubridae Elapidae Hydrophiidae Viperidae Snakes (from Old English snaca, and ultimately from PIE base *snag- or *sneg-, to crawl), also known as ophidians, are cold blooded legless reptiles closely... The name Cecrops means face with a tail and it is said that this mythical Greek king, born from the earth itself, had his top half shaped like a man and the bottom half in serpent or fish-tail form. ...


Coordinates: 37°58′17″N, 23°43′36″E

Contents


Geology of the rock

The Acropolis of Athens, seen from the north, with the restored Stoa of Attalus in the foreground
The Acropolis of Athens, seen from the north, with the restored Stoa of Attalus in the foreground

The Acropolis rises sharply from the plain of Attica with steep cliffs on three sides. It is accessible by foot only to the west, where it is linked by a low ridge to the hill of the Areopagus. It is formed by a layer of blue-grey limestone, which is very hard but water-permeable. This rests on a layer of schist-sandstone marl, softer than the limestone but water-impermeable. This arrangement leads to the ready formation of artesian springs, as well as sheltered caves at the hill's feet, which was also a factor that attracted human habitation on and around the rock from early on. Download high resolution version (1280x960, 202 KB) Missing image The Acropolis of Athens File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (1280x960, 202 KB) Missing image The Acropolis of Athens File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Stoa of Attalos The Stoa of Attalos (also spelt Attalus) is one of the most impressive buildings in the Athenian Agora. ... Attica (in Greek: Αττική, Attike; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a periphery (subdivision) in Greece, containing Athens, the capital of Greece. ... The Areopagus or Areios Pagos is the Hill of Ares, north-west of the Acropolis, which in classical times functioned as the chief homicide court of Athens. ... Limey shale overlaid by limestone. ... Schist The schists form a group of medium-grade metamorphic rocks, chiefly notable for the preponderance of lamellar minerals such as micas, chlorite, talc, hornblende, graphite, and others. ... Sandstone near Stadtroda, Germany Sandstone is a sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-size mineral or rock grains. ... Marls are calcium carbonate or lime rich muds or mudstones which contain variable amounts of clays and calcite or aragonite. ...


Early human presence

The south wall of the Acropolis of Athens, seen from the Theatre of Dionysus.
The south wall of the Acropolis of Athens, seen from the Theatre of Dionysus.

The earliest artifacts from the area point to the Middle Neolithic era, although there have been documented habitations in Attica from the Early Neolithic (6000 BCE). Once into the Bronze Age, there is little doubt that a Mycenaean megaron must have stood on top of the hill, housing the local potentate and his household, guards, the local cult facilities and a number of workshops and ordinary habitations. The compound was surrounded by a thick Cyclopean circuit wall (between 4.50 and 6 ?meters?) consisting of two parapets built with large stone blocks and cemented with an earth mortar called emplekton. The wall follows typical Mycenaean convention in that its gate was arranged obliquely, with a parapet and tower overhanging the incomers' right-hand side, thus facilitating defense. There were two lesser approaches up the hill on its north side, consisting of steep, narrow flights of steps cut in the rock. Homer must refer to this state of affairs when he mentions the "strong-built House of Erechtheus" (Odyssey 7.81). It was during that time that an earthquake caused a fissure near the northeastern edge, one that ran all the way down to the marl layer and in which water duly collected. An elaborate set of stairs was built and the well was used as a protected source of drinking water during some portion of the Mycenaean period, as it was invaluable in times of siege. Acropolis from Olympeion File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Acropolis from Olympeion File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... 37. ... An array of Neolithic artefacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools Excavated dwellings at Skara Brae Scotland, Europes most complete Neolithic village. ... (7th millennium BC – 6th millennium BC – 5th millennium BC – other millennia) Events c. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Mycenaean can have the following meanings: coming from or belonging to the ancient town of Mycenae in Pelloponese in Greece; belonging to the culture of the Mycenaean period of the eastern Mediterranean in the late Bronze Age; the Mycenaean language, an ancient form of Greek, known from inscriptions in Linear... The megaron is the great hall of Minoan-Mycenaean culture, a rectangular hall, fronted by an open, two-columned porch and a more or less central hearth traditional in Greece since Mycenaean times. ... Cyclopean is a descriptor applied to the characteristic wall-building method of the Mycenaean culture. ... A parapet consists of a dwarf wall along the edge of a roof, or round a lead flat, terrace walk, etc. ... The Homère Caetani bust at the Louvre, a 2nd century Roman copy of a 2nd century BC Greek original. ... Erechtheus in Greek Mythology was the name of a king of Athens, and a secondary name for two other characters In Homers Iliad the name is applied to the earth-born son of Hephaestus later mostly called Erichthonius by later writers. ... Odysseus and Nausicaä - by Charles Gleyre For other uses, see Odyssey (disambiguation). ...


The Dark Ages

The Acropolis of Athens, seen from the Temple of Olympian Zeus to the south-east.
The Acropolis of Athens, seen from the Temple of Olympian Zeus to the south-east.

It seems that the Acropolis might have been spared of the violent destruction of other Mycenaean palaces, as there are no signs of fire or other large-scale destruction in what few artifacts of that time survive. This ties with the standard Athenian folklore that the area resisted the Dorians successfully. Not much is known as to the precise state of building on the rock leading up to the archaic era, except that the Acropolis was taken over by Kylon in the Kylonian revolt, and twice by Pisistratus: all attempts directed at seizing political power by coups d' etat. Nevertheless it seems that a nine-gate wall, the Enneapylon, had been built around the biggest water spring, the "Clepsydra", at the northwestern foot. It was Pisistratus who initially established a precinct for Artemis Brauronia, the cult of his hometown, Brauron, on the southwestern side of the rock, next to the circuit wall. Acropolis from Olympeion File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Acropolis from Olympeion File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Temple of Olympian Zeus, Athens: the massive scale of the columns can be seen The Temple of Olympian Zeus, also known as the Olympeion (in Greek Ναός του Ολυμπίου Διός or Naos tou Olimpiou Dios), is an ancient temple, now in ruins, in the centre of Athens. ... Cylon (also spelled Kylon) was an Athenian associated with the first reliably dated event in Athenian history, the Cylonian affair. ... Pisistratus Peisistratos is the name of a major Athenian ruler, as well as a minor character in the Odyssey. ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... Clepsydra may refer to An ancient type of clock: see Clepsydra (clock) An invertebrate: see Clepsydra (animal) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Pisistratus Peisistratos is the name of a major Athenian ruler, as well as a minor character in the Odyssey. ... The Artemis of Versailles, a Roman copy of a Hellenistic marble sculpture, now at the Louvre Museum. ... Brauron is an early sanctuary site of Attica. ...


Archaic Acropolis

Stairs leading up to the Propylea.
Stairs leading up to the Propylea.

It is known with some certainty that a sizeable temple sacred to Athena Polias (Protectress of the City) was erected by mid-6th century BC. This Doric limestone building, from which many relics survive, is referred to as the "Bluebeard" temple, named after the pedimental three-bodied man-serpent sculpture, whose beards were painted dark blue. Whether this temple replaced an older one, or a mere sacred precinct or altar, is not known. In the late 6th century BC yet another temple was built, usually referred to as the Archaios Naos (Old Temple). It is thought that the so-called Doerpfeld foundations might have belonged to this temple, which may have been sacred not to Polias but to Athena Parthenos (Virgin), at least for as long as the Polias "Bluebeard" temple stood. It is not known how long these temples coexisted. To confuse matters further, by the time the "Bluebeard" Temple had been dismantled, a yet newer and grander marble building, the "Older Parthenon", was started following the victory at Marathon in 490 BCE. To accommodate it, the south part of the summit was cleared of older remnants, made level by adding some 8,000 two-ton blocks of Piraeus limestone, a foundation 11 meters deep at some points, and the rest filled with earth kept in place by the retaining wall. The Mycenaean gate was demolished and replaced with the Old Propylon, a monumental colonnaded structure whose purpose was strictly ceremonial, rather than defensive. The Older Parthenon was caught unfinished by the invading Persians in 480 BCE, and was razed to the ground and burnt, along with the Archaios Neos and practically everything else on the rock. Once the Persian Wars were over, the Athenians put the place in order, first ceremonially burying objects of worship and art that were rendered unsuitable for further use. This "Persian debris" is the richest archaeological treasure excavated on the Acropolis, as its burial had protected it from further destruction through the ages. Download high resolution version (1746x1068, 697 KB)Acropolis of Athens This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (1746x1068, 697 KB)Acropolis of Athens This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) // Overview The 5th and 6th centuries BC were a time of empires, but more importantly, a time of learning and philosophy. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) // Overview The 5th and 6th centuries BC were a time of empires, but more importantly, a time of learning and philosophy. ... Combatants Athens and Plataea Persia Commanders Miltiades, Callimachus† Darius I of Persia, Artaphernes Strength About 10,000 Athenians and 1,000 Plataeans 20,000-60,000 by modern estimates 1 Casualties 192 Athenians and 11 Plateans dead 6,400 dead, 7 ships captured 1 Ancient sources give numbers ranging from... View of Piraeus A night ferry about to leave the port of Piraeus for the Dodecanese Piraeus, or Peiraeus (Modern Greek: Πειραιάς Peiraiás or Pireás, Ancient Greek / Katharevousa: Πειραιεύς Pireéfs) is a city in the periphery of Attica, Greece, located south of Athens. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC Years: 485 BC 484 BC 483 BC 482 BC 481 BC _ 480 BC _ 479 BC... The Greco-Persian Wars or Persian Wars were a series of conflicts between the Greek world and the Persian Empire that started about 500 BC and lasted until 448 BC. The term can also refer to the continual warfare of the Roman Empire and Byzantine Empire against the Parthians and... Perserschutt, Acropolis, 1866 The Perserschutt (German: Persian debris, or refuse) was the bulk of architectural and votive sculptures destroyed by the invading Persian army on the Acropolis of Athens in 480 BCE, and then ceremonially buried by the Athenians upon the departure of the Persians. ...


The Periclean building program

The western side of the Parthenon.
The western side of the Parthenon.

Most of the major temples were rebuilt under the leadership of Pericles during the Golden Age of Athens (460–430 BC). Phidias, a great Athenian sculptor, and Ictinus and Callicrates, two famous architects, were responsible for the reconstruction. Download high resolution version (1740x1062, 600 KB)Acropolis of Athens This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (1740x1062, 600 KB)Acropolis of Athens This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Pericles or Perikles (ca. ... The Golden Age by Pietro da Cortona. ... Phidias (or Pheidias) son of Charmides, (c. ... Iktinos (also Iktious or Ictinus) was an architect active in the mid 5th century BC, who, together with Kallikrates designed the Parthenon (447?–432 B.C.) in Athens, Greece. ... Kallikrates was one of the two architects of the Parthenon, active mid-5th century BC. He was responsible for the Temple of Athena Nike, also on the Acropolis. ...

Propylaea, the first gateway at the top of the daunting marble stairs.
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Propylaea, the first gateway at the top of the daunting marble stairs.

During the 5th century BC, the acropolis gained its final shape. After winning at Eurymedon in 468 BC, Cimon and Themistocles ordered the reconstruction of southern and northern walls, and Pericles entrusted the building of the Parthenon to Ictinus and Phidias. In 437 BC Mnesicles started building the Propylaea, monumental gates with columns of Penteli marble, partly built upon the old propylaea of Pisistratus. These colonnades were almost finished in the year 432 BC and had two wings, the northern one serving as picture gallery. At the same time, south of the propylaea, the building of the small Ionic temple of Athena Nike started. After an interruption caused by the Peloponnesian War, the temple was finished in the time of Nicias' peace, between 421 BC and 415 BC. Image File history File linksMetadata Propylaia_437-2_BC_4. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Propylaia_437-2_BC_4. ... (6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) The 5th and 6th centuries BC are a period of philosophical brilliance among advanced civilizations. ... Combatants Delian League Persia Commanders Cimon Unknown Strength Unknown 200 ships Casualties The naval Battle of the Eurymedon took place between 470 BC and 466 BC on the Eurymedon River in Pamphylia in Asia Minor, and was between the Athenian-led Delian League and Persia. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 5th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC 490s BC 480s BC 470s BC - 460s BC - 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 473 BC 472 BC 471 BC 470 BC 469 BC 468 BC 467 BC 466 BC 465... This article or section should include material fromKimon Cimon (died 450 BC?) was a major figure of the 470s BC and 460s BC in Athens, and the son of Miltiades. ... Themistocles (ca. ... Pericles or Perikles (ca. ... The Parthenon seen from the hill of the Pnyx to the west The Parthenon (Greek: Παρθενώνας) was a temple of Athena, built in the 5th century BC on the Acropolis of Athens. ... Phidias (or Pheidias) son of Charmides, (c. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC - 430s BC - 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC Years: 442 BC 441 BC 440 BC 439 BC 438 BC - 437 BC - 436 BC 435 BC... Mnesicles (5th century BCE) was the architect of the great Propylaea of the Athenian Acropolis, set up by Pericles about 437 BCE. The Erechtheum is also sometimes ascribed to him. ... Crowds of tourists climb the steps to the Propylaea, gateway to the Acropolis, Athens Stairs leading up to the Propylea The Propylaea, Propylea or Propylaia (Greek Προπυλαια) is the monumental gateway that serves as the entrance to the Acropolis in Athens. ... Pentéli or Pendeli, (Greek: Πεντέλη, ancient forms: Pentele or Pentelicus, Mendeli in medieval times) is a tall mountain and mountain range situated northeast of Athens and southwest of Marathon. ... Venus de Milo, front. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC - 430s BC - 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC Years: 437 BC 436 BC 435 BC 434 BC 433 BC 432 BC 431 BC 430 BC... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Delian League led by Athens Peloponnesian League led by Sparta Commanders Pericles Cleon Nicias Alcibiades Archidamus II Brasidas Lysander Map of the Greek world at the start of the Peloponnesian War The Peloponnesian War began in 431 BC between the Athenian Empire (or The Delian League) and the Peloponnesian... Nicias (d. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC - 420s BC - 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC Years: 426 BC 425 BC 424 BC 423 BC 422 BC - 421 BC - 420 BC 419 BC... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC - 410s BC - 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC Years: 420 BC 419 BC 418 BC 417 BC 416 BC - 415 BC - 414 BC 413 BC...

Propylaea, the gateway to the Acropolis.
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Propylaea, the gateway to the Acropolis.

At the same period they started the building of the Erechtheum, a combination of sacred precincts including the temples of Athena Polias, Poseidon, Erechtheus, Cecrops, Erse, Pandrosos and Aglauros, with its so-called the Kore Porch (or Caryatids' balcony). Between the temple of Athena Nike and the Parthenon there was the temenos of Artemis Brauronia, the goddess represented as a bear and worshipped in the deme of Brauron. The archaic xoanon of the goddess and a statue made by Praxiteles in the 4th century BC were both in the sanctuary. Behind the Propylaea, Phidias' gigantic bronze statue of Athena Promachos ("she who fights in the front line"), built between 450 BC and 448 BC, dominated the ensemble. The base was 1.50 meters high, while the total height of the statue was 9 meters. The goddess held a lance whose gilt tip could be seen as a reflection by crews on ships rounding Cape Sounion, and a giant shield on the left side, decorated by Mys with images of the fight between the Centaurs and the Lapiths. Other monuments that have left almost nothing visible to the present day are the Chalkotheke, the Pandroseion, Pandion's sanctuary, Athena's altar, Zeus Polieus's sanctuary and, from Roman times on, the circular temple of Augustus and Rome. Image File history File linksMetadata Propylaia_437-2_BC.JPG Summary Ron Waller, personal photograph - Propylea, Acropolis, Athens, April 2006 Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Propylaia_437-2_BC.JPG Summary Ron Waller, personal photograph - Propylea, Acropolis, Athens, April 2006 Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Erechtheum, from SW The Erechtheum, or Erecththeion, is an ancient Greek temple on the north side of the Acropolis of Athens in Greece, notable for a design that is both elegant and unusual. ... Neptune reigns in the city centre, Bristol, formerly the largest port in England outside London. ... The Caryatid Porch of the Erechtheion, Athens A drawing of the Erechtheion caryatids A caryatid is a sculpted female figure serving as an architectural element such as a column or a pillar supporting an entablature on its head. ... Temenos (from the Greek verb meaning to cut) is the Greek term in archaeology given to a piece of land which forms the enclosure of a temple, or sanctuary. ... The Artemis of Versailles, a Roman copy of a Hellenistic marble sculpture, now at the Louvre Museum. ... In biology, a deme (rhymes with team) is another word for a local population of organisms of one species that actively interbreed with one another and share a distinct gene pool. ... Xoanon Publishing was founded in 1992 e. ... Ceres, the Roman goddess of agriculture A goddess is a female deity, in contrast with a male deity known as a god. A great many cultures have goddesses, sometimes alone, but more often as part of a larger pantheon that includes both of the conventional genders and in some cases... Praxiteles of Athens, the son of Cephisodotus, was the greatest of the Attic sculptors of the 4th century BC, who has left an imperishable mark on the history of art. ... (5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) // Events Invasion of the Celts into Ireland Battle of the Allia and subsequent Gaulish sack of Rome 383 BCE Second Buddhist Councel at Vesali. ... The Athena Promachos (she who fights in the front line) was a colossal bronze statue which stood between the Propylaia and the Parthenon on the acropolis of Athens. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 500s BC 490s BC 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC - 450s BC - 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC Years: 455 BC 454 BC 453 BC 452 BC 451 BC - 450 BC - 449 BC 448 BC... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 490s BC 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC - 440s BC - 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC Years: 453 BC 452 BC 451 BC 450 BC 449 BC - 448 BC - 447 BC 446 BC... Cape Sounion, looking out to the Aegean islands The cape of Sounion or Sounio, previously known as Sunium (in ancient Greek Σούνιον) is located 65 kilometres south-east of Athens, in Attica. ... Guido Reni, Abduction of Deianira, 1620-21 In Greek mythology, the centaurs (Greek: Κένταυροι) are a race part human and part horse, with a horses body, including all four legs, and a human head and torso with arms. ... In Greek mythology, the Lapiths were a semi-legenday, semi-historical race, whose home was in Thessaly in the valley of the Peneus. ... Augustus (Latin:IMPERATOR CAESAR DIVI FILIVS AVGVSTVS[1]; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August AD 14), known to modern historians as Octavian in English for the period of his life prior to 27 BC, was the first and one of the most important of the Roman Emperors, though he downplayed... City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the People of Rome) Founded 21 April 753 BC (mythical), early 1st millennium BC (archaeological) Region Latium Area  - City Proper  1285 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 2,553,873 almost 4,300,000 1. ...


Cultural significance

The Erechtheum and Athena's olive tree.
The Erechtheum and Athena's olive tree.
The Erechtheum and caryatids guarding the tomb.

Every four years the Athenians held a festival called the Panathenaea that rivalled the Olympic Games in popularity. During the festival, a procession moved through Athens up to the Acropolis and into the Parthenon (as depicted in the frieze on the inside of the Parthenon). There, a vast robe of woven wool (peplos) was ceremoniously placed on Phidias' massive ivory and gold statue of Athena. Download high resolution version (1740x1128, 644 KB)Acropolis of Athens This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (1740x1128, 644 KB)Acropolis of Athens This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Erechtheion,_Parthenon,_Athens,_R_Waller_April_2006. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Erechtheion,_Parthenon,_Athens,_R_Waller_April_2006. ... The Panathenaic Games were a set of games held every four years in Athens in Ancient Greece. ... For months before the Olympic Games, runners relay the Olympic Flame from Olympia to the opening ceremony. ... The Parthenon seen from the hill of the Pnyx to the west The Parthenon (Greek: Παρθενώνας) was a temple of Athena, built in the 5th century BC on the Acropolis of Athens. ... A peplos (Greek: πέπλος) is a body-length Greek garment worn by women dating to before 500 BC. The peplos is essentially a tubular cloth, folded inside-out from the top about halfway down, so that what was the top of the tube is now at the waist and the bottom... Drawing from a sculpture of Athena at the Louvre. ...


Art and architecture

Remains of the Theatre of Dionysos.
Remains of the Theatre of Dionysos.
Odeum of Herodes Atticus partially reconstructed.
Odeum of Herodes Atticus partially reconstructed.

The entrance to the Acropolis was a monumental gateway called the Propylaea. At the near right of the Propylaea is the tiny Temple of Athena Nike. A bronze statue of Athena, sculpted by Phidias, originally stood at its center. At the center of the acropolis is the Parthenon or Temple of Athena Parthenos (Athena the Virgin). To the left of the Propylaea is the Erechtheum with columns known as caryatids sculpted as figures of women. There are also the remains of an outdoor theatre called Theatre of Dionysusin which all the extraordinary plays of the Greek dramatists were first performed. One a few hundred yards away, there is the partially reconstructed Theatre of Herodes Atticus, giving a clear picture of how the Theatre of Dionysos must have looked, although both would have had roofs and very elaborate and substantial backdrops to their stages; the Odeum (theatre) of Herodes has a majestic and towering set of arches and pillars with a huge marbled walk way leading to the stage and the arches would probably have been two higher still. This theatre is used every summer for modern productions of the early plays. Seating an audience of several thousand, the acoustics were/are perfect, allowing the Greek audiences to marvel at the early plays of such inspiring playwrights and Athenian tragedians: Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides. Image File history File linksMetadata Theatre_of_Dionysos. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Theatre_of_Dionysos. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Odeum_of_Herodes_Atticus_partailly_reconstructed. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Odeum_of_Herodes_Atticus_partailly_reconstructed. ... Crowds of tourists climb the steps to the Propylaea, gateway to the Acropolis, Athens Stairs leading up to the Propylea The Propylaea, Propylea or Propylaia (Greek Προπυλαια) is the monumental gateway that serves as the entrance to the Acropolis in Athens. ... The Athena Nike was the earliest Ionic building to be built on the Acropolis around 427 BC. The temple was completed during the unrest of the Peloponnesian war. ... Phidias (or Pheidias) son of Charmides, (c. ... The Parthenon seen from the hill of the Pnyx to the west The Parthenon (Greek: Παρθενώνας) was a temple of Athena, built in the 5th century BC on the Acropolis of Athens. ... Erechtheum, from SW The Erechtheum, or Erecththeion, is an ancient Greek temple on the north side of the Acropolis of Athens in Greece, notable for a design that is both elegant and unusual. ... 37. ...


External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Acropolis, Athens - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1615 words)
The Acropolis of Athens, seen from the hill of the Pnyx to the west.
At the center of the acropolis is the Parthenon or Temple of Athena Parthenos (Athena the Virgin).
Acropolis of Athens — AcropolisofAthens.gr — one monument, one heritage
Acropolis - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (299 words)
The word "Acropolis", though Greek in origin and associated primarily with Greek cities (Athens, Argos, Thebes, and Corinth with its Acrocorinth), may be applied generically to all such citadels (Rome, Jerusalem, Celtic Bratislava, many in Asia Minor, or even Castle Hill at Edinburgh).
The most famous example of the kind is the Acropolis of Athens, which, by reason of its historical associations and the famous buildings erected upon it, is generally known without qualification as simply "The Acropolis".
Acropolis in Athens from the south-west with the Propylea and the Temple of Nike (left centre) and the theatre of Herodes Atticus (below left).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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