FACTOID # 21: 15% of Army recruits from South Dakota are Native American, which is roughly the same percentage for female Army recruits in the state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Acronym" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Acronym
It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Backronym and Apronym (Discuss)

Acronyms and initialisms are abbreviations, such as NATO, laser, and ABC, written as the initial letter or letters of words, and pronounced on the basis of this abbreviated written form. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Acronym and initialism. ... In linguistics, an apronym is a word, which as an acronym or backronym, has a meaning related to the meaning of the words constituting the acronym or backronym. ... It has been suggested that Apocopation be merged into this article or section. ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, the Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for collective security established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, DC, on 4 April 1949. ... Lasers range in size from microscopic diode lasers (top) with numerous applications, to football field sized neodymium glass lasers (bottom) used for inertial confinement fusion, nuclear weapons research and other high energy density physics experiments. ... Look up ABC, abc in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Of the two words, acronym is the much more frequently used and known; and some dictionaries, speakers, and writers use it to describe any abbreviation formed from initial letters.[1][2][3][4][5] This is a contentious point, however,and other sources differentiate between the two terms, restricting acronym to pronounceable words formed from the initial letter or letters of each of the constituent words—such as NATO (IPA pronunciation: [ˈneɪtoʊ] or [ˈneɪtəu]), from the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, or radar (pronounced [ˈreɪdɑ(ɹ)]), from radio detection and ranging—and restricting initialism to abbreviations pronounced as the names of the individual letters—such as FBI (pronounced [ɛf.biˈaɪ]) or HTML (pronounced [eɪtʃ.ti.ɛmˈɛl]).[6][7][8][9] The word alphabetism is sometimes used to describe these "letter name" abbreviations.[10] NATO 2002 Summit in Prague The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, the Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for collective security established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, DC, on 4 April 1949. ... The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation devised by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) used in spoken human language. ... This long range radar antenna, known as ALTAIR, is used to detect and track space objects in conjunction with ABM testing at the Ronald Reagan Test Site on the Kwajalein atoll[1]. Radar is a system that uses radio waves to detect, determine the distance of, and map, objects such... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a Federal police force which is the principal investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... An excerpt of HTML code with syntax highlighting In computing, HyperText Markup Language (HTML) is a markup language designed for the creation of web pages with hypertext and other information to be displayed in a web browser. ...


In English-language discussion of languages with syllable-based writing systems, such as Chinese, Japanese, and Korean, acronym describes short forms that take the first character of each (multi-character) element. For example, Beijing University—Beijing Daxue (literally, North-Capital Big-School 北京大学)—is widely known as Beida (literally, North-Big 北大). In describing such languages, the term initialism is inapplicable.

Contents


History

In the English language, the widespread use of acronyms, initialisms, and contractions is a relatively new linguistic phenomenon, having become most popular in the 20th and 21st centuries. As literacy rates rose, and as sciences and technologies advanced, bringing with them more complicated terms and concepts, the practice of abbreviating terms became increasingly convenient. The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) records the first printed use of the word initialism as occurring in 1899; acronym, in 1943. The word acronym comes from Greek: ακρος, akros, "topmost, extreme" + ονομα, onoma, "name". The word contraction when used alone, has several possible meanings in the English language. ... Linguistics is the scientific study of human language, and someone who engages in this study is called a linguist. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP). ... 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ...


Nonetheless, earlier examples of acronyms in other languages exist. The early Christians in Rome used a fish as a symbol for Jesus in part because of an acronym—fish in Greek is ΙΧΘΥΣ (ichthus), which was said to stand for Ιησους Χριστος Θεου Υιος Σωτηρ (Iesous CHristos THeou (h)Uios Soter: Jesus Christ, Son of God, Savior). Evidence of this interpretation dates from the 2nd and 3rd centuries and is preserved in the catacombs of Rome. And for centuries, the Church has used the inscription INRI over the crucifix, which stands for the Latin Iesus Nazarenus Rex Iudaeorum ("Jesus the Nazarene, King of the Jews"). Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as recounted in the Gospels. ... City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the People of Rome) Founded 21 April 753 BC (mythical), early 1st millennium BC (archaeological) Region Latium Area  - City Proper  1285 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 2,553,873 almost 4,300,000 1. ... The Guppy, also known as guppie (Poecilia reticulata) is one of the most popular freshwater aquarium fish species in the world. ... Jesus (8-2 BC/BCE — 29-36 AD/CE),[1] also known as Jesus of Nazareth, is the central figure of Christianity. ... The ichthys or fish symbol represents Christianity Ichthys (ιχθυς in the Greek alphabet, also transliterated Ichthus, Icthus, Ikhthus, etc), is the Greek word for fish. It refers to a symbol consisting of two intersecting arcs resembling the profile of a fish, used by the early Christians as a secret symbol... The 2nd century is the period from 101 - 200 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... // Overview Events 212: Constitutio Antoniniana grants citizenship to all free Roman men 212-216: Baths of Caracalla 230-232: Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east 235-284: Crisis of the Third Century shakes Roman Empire 250-538: Kofun era, the first... The original catacombs were a network a underground burial galleries near San Sebastiano fuori le mura, in Rome. ... A Crucifix with the INRI plaque attached, the Holy Spirit Church in KoÅ¡ice, Slovakia A Crucifix with the stylized INRI plaque attached, the cornfields near Mureck in rural Styria, Austria INRI is an abbreviation of the Latin phrase IESVS NAZARENVS REX IVDAEORVM, which translates to English as: Jesus the...


Initialisms are known to have been used in Rome dating back even earlier than the Christian era. For example, the official name for the Roman Empire (and the Republic before it) was abbreviated as SPQR (Senatus Populusque Romanus), showing a clear precedent. See also the SPQR series of murder mystery novels and the SPQR board game. ...


In Hebrew

People

Acronyms have been widely used in Hebrew since at least the Middle Ages. Several important rabbis are referred to with acronyms of their names. For example, Baal Shem Tov is called the Besht, Rav Moshe ben Maimon (Maimonides) is commonly known as Rambam, and Rabbi Moshe ben Nahman (Nahmanides) likewise known as the Ramban. Hebrew (עִבְרִית, ‘Ivrit) is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family spoken by more than seven million people in Israel and Jewish communities around the world. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Rabbi (Classical Hebrew רִבִּי ribbÄ«;; modern Ashkenazi and Israeli רַבִּי rabbÄ«) in Judaism, means teacher, or more literally great one. The word Rabbi is derived from the Hebrew root-word RaV, which in biblical Hebrew means great or distinguished, (in knowledge). In the ancient Judean schools (and among Sefaradim today) the sages... This article incorporates text from the public domain 1901-1906 Jewish Encyclopedia Israel ben Eliezer Rabbi Israel (Yisroel) ben Eliezer (about 1700 Okopy Świętej Tr jcy - May 22, 1760 Międzyborz) was a Jewish Orthodox mystical rabbi who is better known to most religious Jews as the Baal Shem Tov, or... Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Maimonides (March 30, 1135–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Spain and Egypt during the Middle Ages. ... Nahmanides (1194 - c. ...


Text

The usage of Hebrew acronyms extends to liturgical groupings: the word Tanakh is an acronym for Torah (Five Books of Moses), Nevi'im (Book of Prophets), and Ketuvim (Hagiographa). Tanakh [תנ״ך] (also Tanach, IPA: or ) is an acronym that identifies the Hebrew Bible. ... Torah () is a Hebrew word meaning teaching, instruction, or law. It is the central and most important document of Judaism revered by Jews through the ages. ... Neviim [נביאים] or Prophets is the second of the three major sections in the Tanakh (the Hebrew Bible). ... Ketuvim is the third and final section of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible). ...


Most often, though, one will find use of acronyms as acrostics, in both prayer, poetry, and kabbalistic works. Because each Hebrew letter also has a numeric value, embedding an acrostic may give an additional layer of meaning to these works. An acrostic (from the late Greek akróstichon, from ákros, extreme, and stíchos, verse) is a poem or other text written in an alphabetic script, in which the first letter, syllable or word of each verse, paragraph or other recurring feature in the text spells out another message. ... The tree of life Kabbalah (קבלה Reception, Standard Hebrew Qabbala, Tiberian Hebrew Qabbālāh; also written variously as Cabala, Cabalah, Cabbala, Cabbalah, Kabala, Kabalah, Kabbala, Qabala, Qabalah) is a religious philosophical system claiming an insight into divine nature. ...


One purpose of acrostics was as a mnemonic or a way for an author to weave his name as a signature, or some other spiritual thought, into his work, at a time when much was memorized. Examples of prayers which contain acrostics include: A mnemonic (pronounced in American English, in British English) is a memory aid. ...

  • Shokhen Ad - Lines are written so that letters line up vertically, spelling the name Yitzchak, which may refer to the patriarch Yitzchak, or to an unknown author.
  • Ashrei - The first letter of every verse starts with a consecutive letter of the Hebrew alphabet

It is also a common part of Jewish thought to make inferences based on hidden acrostics. For example the Hebrew words for "man" (he: אישׁ) and "woman" (he: אשׁה) can be used to draw the inference that marriage, the joining of a man and a woman, is a spiritual relationship, because if one removes from each of the words "man" and "woman", one of the letters in the word "God" (he: י-ה), all that is left when "God" is removed from the joining of the two, is the word for destruction (he: אשׁ lit: fire) in place of each. Isaac or Yitzhak (יִצְחָק He will laugh. ... This article is mainly about Hebrew letters. ... This article describes the Jewish religion; for a consideration of ethnic, historic, and cultural aspects of the Jewish identity refer to the article Jew. ...


So much can be interpreted from Hebrew, and attributed to or inferred from it, that an interpretational system, called exegesis, has been developed along these lines. This article discusses textual hermeneutics. ...


The Tetragrammaton

Main article: Tetragrammaton

Greek, tetragrammaton is the Hebrew spelling of the Abrahamic god, that is, יהוה (commonly transliterated as "YHVH", "YHWH", "Yahweh", or "Jehovah"), which Jews do not speak aloud, and protect when written (see Geniza). Scribes are prohibited from correcting, modifying, or erasing this word, or any series of four words which all begin, or all end, with these letters. Friday night Shabbat Kiddush begins "Vayahi Erev, Vayahi Boker, Yom HaShishi. Vayachulu Hashamyim ..." Even though the first sentence is unnecessary to say, it would be breaking up the tetragrammaton not to say it. The first four words, then, are completely unnecessary, but it would make the next two words grammatically incorrect. Therefore, Jews whisper the first four words, and say the rest out loud. The Tetragrammaton (Greek: τετραγράμματον; word with four letters) is the usual reference to the Hebrew name for God, which is spelled (in the Hebrew alphabet): (yodh) (heh) (vav) (heh) or (YHWH). ... Hebrew (עִבְרִית, ‘Ivrit) is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family spoken by more than seven million people in Israel and Jewish communities around the world. ... map showing the prevalence of Abrahamic (purple) and Dharmic (yellow) religions in each country. ... God denotes the deity believed by monotheists to be the sole creator and ruler of the universe. ... The Tetragrammaton in Phoenician (1100 BC to 300 CE), Aramaic (10th Century BC to 0) and modern Hebrew scripts. ... A Genizah or Geniza (Hebrew burial; according to S. D. Goitein, from the Persian word gonj storehouse, treasure) is the storeroom or depository in a synagogue, usually specifically a cemetery for worn-out Hebrew language books and papers on religious topics. ... Illustration of a 15th century scribe This is about scribe, the profession. ... Shabbat (שבת shabbāt, rest Hebrew, or Shabbos in Ashkenazic pronunciation), is the weekly day of rest in Judaism. ... Shabbat, or Shabbos (Ashkenazic pronunciation) (שבת shabbāṯ, rest), is a day of rest that is observed once a week, from sundown on Friday until nightfall on Saturday, by practitioners of Judaism, as well as by many secular Jews. ...


Usage

Acronyms are used most often to abbreviate names of organizations and long or frequently referenced terms. The armed forces and government agencies frequently employ acronyms and initialisms, perhaps most famously in the "alphabet agencies" created by Franklin D. Roosevelt under the New Deal. A military or military force (n. ... FDR redirects here. ... This article is becoming very long. ...


Jargon

Acronyms and initialisms often occur in jargon. An acronym may have different meanings in different areas of industry, writing, and scholarship. This has led some to obfuscate the meaning either intentionally, to deter those without such domain-specific knowledge, or unintentionally, by creating acronyms that already existed. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Bias

Because acronyms so closely relate to the common vernacular, they facilitate widespread usage, which makes it possible for them to enter the lexicon without people knowing their etymology. An example of this is the use of B.C. and A.D. in dating events. The earliest instance recorded in the OED for A.D. (Latin Anno Domini, "in the year of the Lord") is from A.D. 1579. B.C. stands for Before Christ. These terms distinguish those years before a speculated birth year of Jesus from those during and after his life, and were developed by Christians. BCE ("Before the Common Era") and CE ("Common Era")—entirely equivalent to B.C. and A.D., respectively—are alternative abbreviations and seen as less Christian-centric. BC may stand for: Before Christ (see Anno Domini) : an abbreviation used to refer to a year before the beginning of the year count that starts with the supposed year of the birth of Jesus. ... Dionysius Exiguus invented Anno Domini years to date Easter. ... Events January 6 - The Union of Atrecht united the southern Netherlands under the Duke of Parma, governor in the name of king Philip II of Spain. ... Jesus (8-2 BC/BCE — 29-36 AD/CE),[1] also known as Jesus of Nazareth, is the central figure of Christianity. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as recounted in the Gospels. ... The Common Era (CE or C.E.), sometimes known as the Current Era or Christian Era, is the period of measured time beginning with the year 1 (the traditional birthdate of Jesus) to the present. ... The Common Era (CE or C.E.), sometimes known as the Current Era or Christian Era, is the period of measured time beginning with the year 1 (the traditional birthdate of Jesus) to the present. ...


Early examples in English

  • A.M. (Latin ante meridiem, "before noon") and P.M. (Latin post meridiem, "after noon")
  • O.K., a term of disputed origin, dating back at least to the early 19th century, now used around the world
  • n.g., for "no good", from 1838

The 12-hour clock is a timekeeping convention in which the 24 hours of the day are divided into two periods called ante meridiem (a. ... The 12-hour clock is a timekeeping convention in which the 24 hours of the day are divided into two periods called ante meridiem (a. ... Look up okay in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... | Jöns Jakob Berzelius, discoverer of protein 1838 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...

Written usage

Written presentation of both acronyms and initialisms varies from person to person and from one body's suggested or required usage to that of another.


Punctuation

Traditionally, in English, abbreviations have been written with a full stop / period / point in place of the deleted part, although the colon and apostrophe have also had this role. In the case of most acronyms and initialisms, each letter is an abbreviation of a separate word and, in theory, should get its own termination mark. Such punctuation is diminishing with the belief that the presence of all-capital letters is sufficient to indicate that the word is an abbreviation. A full stop or period, also called a full point, is the punctuation mark commonly placed at the end of several different types of sentences in English and several other languages. ... A colon (:) is a punctuation mark, visually consisting of two equally sized dots centered on the same vertical line. ... An apostrophe An apostrophe ( â€™ ) is a punctuation and sometimes diacritic mark in languages written in the Latin alphabet. ...


Some influential style guides, such as that of the BBC, no longer require punctuation, or even proscribe it. Larry Trask, American author of The Penguin Guide to Punctuation, states categorically that, in British English, "this tiresome and unnecessary practice is now obsolete"[1], though some other sources are not so absolute in their pronouncements. Style guides generally give guidance on language use. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC, sometimes also known as the Beeb or Auntie) is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world, founded in 1922. ... Penguin Books is a British publisher founded in 1935 by Allen Lane. ... Dialect areas of England British English (BrE) is a term used to differentiate between the form of the English language used in the British Isles and those used elsewhere. ...


Nevertheless, some influential style guides, many of them American, still require periods in certain instances. The New York Times’ guide recommends them after unpronounceable abbreviations, such as K.G.B., but not for pronounceable ones (acronyms), such as NATO.[2] Style guides generally give guidance on language use. ... The New York Times is a newspaper published in New York City by Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. ... The KGB emblem and motto: The sword and the shield KGB (transliteration of КГБ) is the Russian-language abbreviation for State Security Committee, (Russian: ; Komitet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosti). ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, the Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for collective security established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, DC, on 4 April 1949. ...


Some style manuals also base the letters' case on their number. The New York Times, for example, keeps NATO in all capitals (while several guides in the British press may render it Nato), but uses lowercase in Unicef (from United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund) because it is more than four letters. In orthography and typography, letter case (or just case) is the distinction between majuscule (capital or upper-case) and minuscule (lower-case) letters. ... UNICEF logo The United Nations Childrens Fund or UNICEF was established by the United Nations General Assembly on December 11, 1946. ...


Some acronyms undergo assimilation into ordinary words, when they become common: for example, when technical terms become commonplace among non-technical people. Often they are then written in lower case, and eventually it is widely forgotten that the word was derived from the initials of others: scuba ("Self-Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus") and laser ("Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation"), for instance. The term anacronym has been coined as a portmanteau of the words anachronism and acronym to describe acronyms whose original meaning is unknown to most speakers. Minuscule, or lower case, is the smaller form (case) of letters (in the Roman alphabet: a, b, c, ...). Originally alphabets were written entirely in majuscule (capital) letters which were spaced between well-defined upper and lower bounds. ... SCUBA is an acronym for Self-Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus. ... Lasers range in size from microscopic diode lasers (top) with numerous applications, to football field sized neodymium glass lasers (bottom) used for inertial confinement fusion, nuclear weapons research and other high energy density physics experiments. ... Look up Portmanteau word in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Anachronism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


When a multiple-letter abbreviation is formed from a single word, periods are generally proscribed, although they may be common in informal, personal usage. TV, for example, may stand for a single word (television or transvestite, for instance), and is generally spelled without punctuation (except in the plural). Although PS stands for the single word postscript (or the Latin postscriptum), it is often spelled with periods (P.S.). (Wikiquote abbreviates television as T.V.) Wikiquote logo Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ...


Plurals

The traditional style of pluralizing single letters with the addition of ’s (for example, Bs come after As) was extended to some of the earliest initialisms, which tended to be written with periods to indicate the omission of letters; some writers still pluralize initialisms in this way. Additionally, because an apostrophe can stand for missing letters, an abbreviation of compact discs, for example, can logically be rendered CD’s. Some style guides continue to require such apostrophes—perhaps partly to make it clear that the lowercase s is only for pluralization and would not appear in the singular form of the word, for some acronyms and abbreviations do include lowercase letters.


However, it has become common among many writers to inflect initialisms as ordinary words, using simple s, without an apostrophe, for the plural. In this case, compact discs becomes CDs. The logic here is that the apostrophe should be restricted to possessives: for example, the CD’s label (the label of the compact disc). Inflection or inflexion refers to a modification or marking of a word (or more precisely lexeme) so that it reflects grammatical (i. ...


Multiple options arise when initialisms are spelled with periods and are pluralized: for example, compact discs may become C.D.’s, C.D’s, or C.D.s. Possessive plurals that also include apostrophes for mere pluralization and periods may appear especially complex: for example, the C.D.’s’ labels (the labels of the compact discs). Some see this as yet another reason to use apostrophes only for possessives and not for plurals. (In The New York Times, the plural possessive of G.I., which the newspaper prints with periods in reference to United States Army soldiers, is G.I.’s, with no apostrophe after the s.) To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


The argument that initialisms should have no different plural form (for example, "If D can stand for disc, it can also stand for discs") is generally disregarded because of the practicality in distinguishing singulars and plurals. This is not the case, however, when the abbreviation is understood to describe a plural noun already: for example, U.S. is short for United States, but not United State. In this case, the options for making a possessive form of an abbreviation that is already in its plural form without a final s may seem awkward: for example, U.S.’, U.S’, U.S.’s, etc. In such instances, possessive abbreviations are often foregone in favor of simple attributive usage (for example, the U.S. economy) or expanding the abbreviation to its full form and then making the possessive (for example, the United States' economy). An adjective is a part of speech which modifies a noun, usually describing it or making its meaning more specific. ...


Abbreviations that come from single, rather than multiple, words—such as TV (television)—are pluralized both with and without apostrophes, depending on the logic followed: that the apostrophe shows the omission of letters and makes the s clear as only a pluralizer (TV’s); or that the apostrophe should be reserved for the possessive (TVs).


Especially in the 18th century, some writers of English considered numerals as abbreviations of whole words and punctuated them accordingly: for example, Thomas Jefferson, who employed such usage, might have abbreviated "I have two apples" with "I have 2. apples", with a period after the numeral. This consideration of numerals as abbreviations of whole words may be the reason behind the use of apostrophes in the plurals that denote decades: for example, the 1970’s. Thomas Jefferson (April 13, 1743 N.S. – July 4, 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–1809), principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and an influential Founding Father of the United States. ...


Some writers omit this apostrophe, and would use it only for the possessive: for example, In 1970’s mid-term elections, ... (the mid-term elections of the year 1970). In The New York Times, the pluralizing apostrophe is retained, but the truncating apostrophe when the century numerals are omitted is not used, so that the aforementioned decade is described in the NYT as the 70’s. The television sitcom That ’70s Show uses the apostrophe for the omission of the century numerals and forms the plural with a simple s. It is assumed that, in the NYT, something belonging to the decade of the 1970s might be described as the 1970’s’ or the 70’s’. A sitcom or situation comedy is a genre of comedy performance originally devised for radio but today typically found on television. ... That 70s Show was an American television sitcom centered on the lives of a group of teenagers living in the fictional town of Point Place, Wisconsin from 1976 to December 31, 1979. ...


In the German language, numerals also appear with periods after them; but these are abbreviations of the ordinals. For example, the word zwei (two) is abbreviated with 2 (the numeral alone), but the word zweite (second) is abbreviated with 2. (period after the numeral). German (called Deutsch in German; in German the term germanisch is equivalent to English Germanic), is a member of the western group of Germanic languages and is one of the worlds major languages. ...


In some languages, the convention of doubling the letters in the initialism is used to indicate plural words: for example, the Spanish EE.UU., for Estados Unidos (United States). This convention is followed for a limited number of English abbreviations, such as pp. for pages (although this is actually derived from the Latin abbreviation for paginae). PP can stand for: pp stands for pianissimo in dynamics (music). ...


Acronyms that are now always rendered in the lowercase are pluralized as regular English nouns: for example, lasers.


When an acronym is part of a function in computing that is conventionally written in lowercase, it is common to use an apostrophe to pluralize or otherwise conjugate the token. This practice results in sentences like "Be sure to remove extraneous dll’s" (more than one dll). In computer lingo, it is common to use the name of a computer program, format, or function, acronym or not, as a verb; for example "Sam zipped the files" or "Sam zip’ed the files" means that Sam used a computer program to combine and/or compress the files in the ZIP format. In such verbification of abbreviations, there is confusion about how to conjugate: for example, if the verb IM (pronounced as separate letters) means to send (someone) an instant message, the past tense may be rendered IM’ed, IMed, IM’d, or IMd—and the third-person singular present indicative may be IM’s or IMs. In computer science, a subroutine (function, procedure, or subprogram) is a sequence of code which performs a specific task, as part of a larger program, and is grouped as one or more statement blocks; such code is sometimes collected into software libraries. ... An apostrophe An apostrophe ( â€™ ) is a punctuation and sometimes diacritic mark in languages written in the Latin alphabet. ... DLL is an abbreviation which can commonly mean: Data link layer, a layer in the OSI network architecture model Dynamically Linked Library, a binary application library file format in Microsoft Windows and IBM OS/2 (see the Dynamic linking section of the Library (computer science) article) Doubly Linked List, a... Speech community is a concept in sociolinguistics that describes a more or less discrete group of people who use language in a unique and mutually accepted way among themselves. ... The ZIP file format is a popular data compression and archival format. ... Verbification, or Verbing is a process in linguistics whereby nouns, adjectives, and other words are transformed into verbs. ...


Numerals and constituent words

While typically abbreviations exclude the initials of short function words (such as "and", "or", "of", or "to"), they are sometimes included in acronyms to make them pronounceable. Function words are words that have little lexical meaning or have ambiguous meaning, but instead serve to express grammatical relationships with other words within a sentence, or specify the attitude or mood of the speaker. ...


Numbers (both cardinal and ordinal) in names are often represented by digits rather than initial letters: as in 4GL (Fourth generation language) or G77 (Group of 77). Large numbers may use metric prefixes, as with Y2K for "Year 2000". Exceptions using initials for numbers include TLA (three-letter acronym/abbreviation) and GoF (Gang of Four). Abbreviations using numbers for other purposes include repetitions, such as W3C (World Wide Web Consortium); pronunciation, such as B2B (business to business); and numeronyms, such as i18n (internationalization; 18 represents the 18 letters between the initial i and the final n). Here are examples of how to name numbers in English. ... Here are examples of how to name numbers in English. ... In mathematics and computer science, a numerical digit is a symbol, e. ... A fourth-generation programming language (or 4GL) is a programming language designed with a specific purpose in mind such as the development of commercial business software. ... link titlelink titlelink titlelink titlelink title--210. ... An SI prefix is a prefix that can be applied to an SI unit to form a decimal multiple or submultiple. ... The year 2000 problem (also known as the Y2K problem and the millennium bug) was a flaw in computer program design that caused some date-related processing to operate incorrectly for dates and times on and after January 1, 2000. ... The TLA (three-letter acronym or three-letter abbreviation) is a TLA and is the most popular type of abbreviation in technical terminology, and is also very common in general language. ... In software engineering, the Gang of Four (or GoF) are Erich Gamma, Richard Helm, Ralph Johnson and John Vlissides, authors of the seminal book Design Patterns. ... The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is a consortium that produces standards—recommendations, as they call them—for the World Wide Web. ... Business-to-business (B2B) describes relations of commercial partners, without serving the end consumer. ... A numeronym is a number based word. ...


In some cases, an acronym or initialism has been turned into a name, creating a pseudo-acronym. For example, the letters making up the name of the SAT (pronounced as letters) college entrance test no longer officially stand for anything. This trend has been common with many companies hoping to retain their brand recognition while simultaneously moving away from what they saw as an outdated image: American Telephone and Telegraph became AT&T (its parent/child, SBC, followed suit prior to its acquisition of AT&T and after its acquisition of a number of the other Baby Bells, changing from Southwestern Bell Corporation), Kentucky Fried Chicken became KFC, British Petroleum became BP to emphasize that it was no longer only an oil company (captured by its motto "beyond petroleum"), Silicon Graphics, Incorporated became SGI to emphasize that it was no longer only a computer graphics company. DVD now has no official meaning: its advocates couldn't agree on whether the initials stood for "Digital Video Disc" or "Digital Versatile Disc", and now both terms are used. A pseudo-acronym is an apparent acronym or other abbreviation which doesnt stand for anything, or cannot be officially expanded to some meaning. ... The SATs (pronounced S-A-T not sat) are standardized tests, formerly called the Scholastic Aptitude Tests and Scholastic Assessment Tests, frequently used by colleges and universities in the United States to aid in the selection of incoming freshmen. ... In marketing, a brand is a collection of feelings toward an economic producer. ... AT&T Inc. ... A portrait of Col. ... KFC (formerly known as Kentucky Fried Chicken) is a division of Yum! Brands, Inc. ... BP plc (LSE: BP, NYSE: BP, TYO: 5051 ), originally British Petroleum, is a British energy company with headquarters in London, one of five vertically integrated private sector oil, natural gas, and petrol (gasoline) supermajors in the world, along with Royal Dutch Shell, ExxonMobil, Chevron, and Total. ... BP plc (LSE: BP, NYSE: BP, TYO: 5051 ), originally British Petroleum, is a British energy company with headquarters in London, one of five vertically integrated private sector oil, natural gas, and petrol (gasoline) supermajors in the world, along with Royal Dutch Shell, ExxonMobil, Chevron, and Total. ... Current Silicon Graphics logo. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Initialisms may have advantages in international markets: for example, some national affiliates of International Business Machines are legally incorporated as "IBM" (or, for example, "IBM Canada") to avoid translating the full name into local languages. Similarly, "UBS" is the name of the merged Union Bank of Switzerland and Swiss Bank Corporation. An affiliate is a commercial entity with a relationship with a peer or a larger entity. ... International Business Machines Corporation (IBM, or colloquially, Big Blue) (NYSE: IBM) (incorporated June 15, 1911, in operation since 1888) is headquartered in Armonk, New York, USA. The company manufactures and sells computer hardware, software, and services. ... UBS AG (NYSE: UBS; SWX: [1]; TYO: 8657 ) is a financial services company, headquartered in Basel and Zürich, Switzerland. ... Union Bank of Switzerland was located in Switzerland. ... Swiss Bank Corporation (German: Schweizerischer Bankverein (SBV), French: Société de Banque Suisse (SBS), Italian:Società di Banca Svizzera) The history of the Swiss Bank Corporation (SBC) dates to 1854 and the consitution of Bankverein by which six Private Banking-houses: Bischoff zu St Alban, Ehinger & Cie. ...


Rebranding can lead to redundant-acronym syndrome, as when Trustee Savings Bank became TSB Bank. A few high-tech companies have taken the redundant acronym to the extreme: for example, ISM Information Systems Management Corp. and SHL Systemhouse Ltd. Another common example is RAM memory, which is redundant because RAM (random-access memory) includes the initial of the word memory; NIC card is similarly redundant, NIC standing for network-interface card. PIN stands for personal identification number, obviating the second word in PIN number. Other examples include ATM machine (Automatic Teller Machine machine), EAB bank (European American Bank bank), and the formerly redundant SAT test (Scholastic Achievement/Aptitude/Assessment Test test, now simply SAT Reasoning Test). RAS syndrome (Redundant Acronym Syndrome syndrome) is the common tendency to use one of the words which make up an acronym or initialism as well as the abbreviation itself, thus in effect repeating that word. ... Trustee Savings Bank (TSB) may refer to: First Trust Bank, Northern Ireland Lloyds-TSB Bank, United Kingdom Permanent TSB, Republic of Ireland Historically the Trustee Savings Bank system was a (loosely) unified system in Britain and Ireland. ... High tech refers to tech that is at the cutting-edge - the most high tech currently available. ... Sharma Ram (disambiguation) Ram Sharma is an amazing, talented teenager that lives in Canada His talents include rapping, comedy, and cooking He is bound to success! ... NIC can mean: a Network Information Centre for the Internet Domain Name System a network interface card or device (NID) for a computer the National Inventors Council in the U.S. during World War II the National Intelligence Council in the U.S. since 1979 a newly industrialized country the... ATM is an initialism with the following meanings: Automated teller machine or automatic teller machine, a cash dispenser or cash machine Association of Teachers of Mathematics in the UK. Adobe Type Manager, font management software from Adobe Systems Advanced Traffic Management and Arterial Traffic Management, terms used in the intelligent... The SAT (pronounced S-A-T) Reasoning Test, formerly called the Scholastic Aptitude Test and Scholastic Assessment Test, is a type of standardized test frequently used by colleges and universities in the United States to aid in the selection of incoming students. ...


Sometimes, the initials are kept but the meaning is changed. SADD, for instance, originally Students against Driving Drunk, changed the full form of its name to Students against Destructive Decisions. YM originally stood for Young Miss, and later Young & Modern, but now stands for simply Your Magazine. Students Against Drunk Driving is an after-school program aimed at keeping students from drinking alcoholic beverages and then driving, and also keeping them off drugs. ... YM or Ym may refer to: YM (magazine), a U.S. magazine geared towards teenage girls the IATA code for Montenegro Airlines The Youth Meeting program of CISV Yottametre, a unit for length or distance YM (selective medium), a combination of yeast and mold, a selective medium Yarmouth Mariners, a...


When initialisms are defined in print, especially in the case of industry-specific jargon, the initial letters of the full words are often capitalized. While this is logical for proper nouns, such as Kentucky Fried Chicken, some usage writers have argued that it is technically incorrect for other terms, such as storage area network. Such capitalization is widespread in English publications; but "back-capitalization"—from SAN to give Storage Area Network, for example—is considered incorrect. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For capitalize in the context of Capital Letters, see Capitalization and Majuscule. ... A noun, or noun substantive, is a word or phrase that refers to a person, place, thing, event, substance or quality. ... In computing, a storage area network (SAN) is a network designed to attach computer storage devices such as disk array controllers and tape libraries to servers. ...


Nomenclature

"Initialism" originally referred to abbreviations formed from initials, without reference to pronunciation, but during the middle portion of the twentieth century, when acronyms and initialisms saw more use than ever before, the word "acronym" was coined for abbreviations which are pronounced as a word, like "NATO" or "AIDS". The term "initialism" is now typically taken to refer to abbreviations which are pronounced by sounding out the name of each constituent letter (e.g., HTML). However, in general usage, "acronym" is used by some speakers and writers to cover both forms, while others prefer to observe a difference. In addition, to many users, "initialisms" are also simply known as "abbreviations". NATO 2002 Summit in Prague The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, the Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for collective security established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, DC, on 4 April 1949. ... The Red ribbon is a symbol for solidarity with HIV-positive people and those living with AIDS. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS or Aids) is a collection of symptoms and infections in humans resulting from the specific damage to the immune system caused by infection with... An excerpt of HTML code with syntax highlighting In computing, HyperText Markup Language (HTML) is a markup language designed for the creation of web pages with hypertext and other information to be displayed in a web browser. ...


There is no agreement as to what to call abbreviations that contain single letters, but can otherwise be pronounced as a word, such as JPEG (jay-peg) or MS-DOS (em-ess-doss). These abbreviations are sometimes referred to as acronym-initialism hybrids, although they are grouped by most under the broad meaning of "acronym". In computing, JPEG (pronounced JAY-peg) is a commonly used standard method of lossy compression for photographic images. ... Microsofts disk operating system, MS-DOS, was Microsofts implementation of DOS, which was the first popular operating system for the IBM PC, and until recently, was widely used on the PC compatible platform. ...


Examples

  • pronounced as a word, containing only initial letters:
    • FNMA: (Fannie Mae) Federal National Mortgage Association
    • laser: light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation
    • NATO: North Atlantic Treaty Organisation
    • scuba: self-contained underwater breathing apparatus
    • ACET: AIDSCare Education Training
  • pronounced as a word, containing non-initial letters:
    • Amphetamine: Alpha-methyl-phenethylamine
    • Gestapo: Geheime Staatspolizei ("secret state police")
    • Interpol: International Criminal Police Organization
    • radar: radio detection and ranging
  • pronounced as a word or names of letters, depending on speaker or context:
    • IRA: ([ˈaɪrə] or [aɪ.ɑr.eɪ]): When used for Irish Republican Army, always pronounced as letters; when used for Individual Retirement Account, can be pronounced as letters or as a word.
    • FAQ: ([fæk] or [ɛf.eɪ.kɪu]) frequently asked questions
    • SAT: ([sæt] or [ɛs.eɪ.ti]) Scholastic Achievement (or Aptitude) Test(s)
    • SQL: ([sikwəɫ] or [ɛs.kɪu.ɛl]) Structured Query Language
    • VAT: ([væt] or [vi.eɪ.ti]): value-added tax
  • pronounced as a combination of names of letters and a word:
    • CD-ROM: ([si.di.rɒm]) Compact Disc read-only memory
    • IUPAC: ([aɪ.ju.pæk]) International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
    • JPEG: ([ˈdʒeɪpɛg]) Joint Photographic Experts Group
    • PDFORRA: ([pi.di.fɔrə]) Permanent Defence Forces Other Ranks Representative Association
  • pronounced only as the names of letters
    • BBC: British Broadcasting Corporation
    • DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid
    • LED: light-emitting diode
    • OB-GYN: obstetrics and gyn(a)ecology or obstetrician and gyn(a)ecologist
  • pronounced as the names of letters that also sound like words
    • YRUU: ([waɪ.ɑr.ju.ju]) Young Religious Unitarian Universalists
  • pronounced as the names of letters to distinguish it from the word the abbreviation forms
  • pronounced as the names of letters but with a shortcut
    • AAA: ([trɪpəɫ.eɪ]) American Automobile Association or anti-aircraft artillery
    • IEEE: (aɪ.trɪpəɫ.i) Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
    • NAACP: (ɛn.dʌbəɫ.eɪ.si.pi) National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
    • NCAA: ([ɛn.si.dʌbəɫ.eɪ]) National Collegiate Athletic Association
  • shortcut incorporated into name
    • 3M: ([θri.ɛm]) originally Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company
    • : ([i.θri]) Electronic Entertainment Exposition
    • I18N: Internationalization (18 letters are omitted)
    • L10N: Localization (10 letters are omitted)
    • W3C: ([dʌbəɫju.θri.si]) World Wide Web Consortium
  • recursive acronyms, in which the abbreviation itself is the expansion of one initial (particularly enjoyed by the open-source community)
    • GNU: GNUs Not Unix
    • HURD: HIRD of Unix-Replacing Daemons, where "HIRD" stands for "HURD of Interfaces Representing Depth"
    • VISA: VISA International Service Association
    • WINE: WINE Is Not an Emulator
    • PHP: PHP Hypertext Preprocessor
  • pseudo-acronyms are used because, when pronounced as intended, they resemble the sounds of other words:

The federal government of the United States created the Federal National Mortgage Association (FNMA) (NYSE: FNM), commonly known as Fannie Mae, in 1938 to establish a secondary market for mortgages insured by the Federal Housing Administration (FHA). ... Lasers range in size from microscopic diode lasers (top) with numerous applications, to football field sized neodymium glass lasers (bottom) used for inertial confinement fusion, nuclear weapons research and other high energy density physics experiments. ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, the Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for collective security established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, DC, on 4 April 1949. ... SCUBA is an acronym for Self-Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus. ... ACET International is a global network of independent agencies and church-based organisations seeking to encourage effective and compassionate responses to AIDS and related issues in every nation. ... Amphetamine (alpha-methyl-phenethylamine), also known as speed, is a synthetic stimulant used to suppress the appetite, control weight, and treat disorders including narcolepsy and Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. ... The Deaths Head emblem similar to Skull and crossbones, often used as the insignia of the Gestapo The (contraction of Geheime Staatspolizei; secret state police) was the official secret police of Nazi Germany. ... Interpol logo INTERPOL (or International Criminal Police Organization) was created in 1923 to assist international criminal police co-operation. ... This long range radar antenna, known as ALTAIR, is used to detect and track space objects in conjunction with ABM testing at the Ronald Reagan Test Site on the Kwajalein atoll[1]. Radar is a system that uses radio waves to detect, determine the distance of, and map, objects such... The acronym IRA may refer to: Irish Republican Army See also List of IRAs Irish Republican Army, the self-proclaimed Army of the Irish Republic that fought the Irish War of Independence against British rule, 1916 - 1921 Irish Republican Army (1922-1969): Originally the Anti-Treaty or Republican side in... The West Cork Flying Column during the War of Independence. ... An Individual Retirement Account (or IRA) is a retirement plan account that provides some tax advantages for retirement savings in the United States. ... FAQ is an abbreviation for Frequently Asked Question(s). The term refers to listed questions and answers, all supposed to be frequently asked in some context, and pertaining to a particular topic. ... The SAT (pronounced S-A-T) Reasoning Test, formerly called the Scholastic Aptitude Test and Scholastic Assessment Test, is a type of standardized test frequently used by colleges and universities in the United States to aid in the selection of incoming students. ... SQL (commonly expanded to Structured Query Language — see History for the terms derivation) is the most popular computer language used to create, modify, retrieve and manipulate data from relational database management systems. ... Value added tax. ... The CD-ROM (an abbreviation for Compact Disc Read-Only Memory (ROM)) is a non-volatile optical data storage medium using the same physical format as audio compact discs, readable by a computer with a CD-ROM drive. ... The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international non-governmental organization devoted to the advancement of chemistry. ... In computing, JPEG (pronounced JAY-peg) is a commonly used standard method of lossy compression for photographic images. ... The Irish Defence Forces are the army, navy and air force of the Republic of Ireland. ... This article is an overview article about the Crown chartered British Broadcasting Corporation formed in 1927. ... The general structure of a section of DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid —usually in the form of a double helix— that contains the genetic instructions specifying the biological development of all cellular forms of life, and most viruses. ... External links LEd Category: TeX ... Obstetrics and gynecology (often abbreviated OB/GYN in the U.S. and Canada and O&G elsewhere) form a single medical speciality and have a combined postgraduate training program. ... YRUU (Young Religious Unitarian Universalists) is a youth organization that exists within the UUA (Unitarian Universalist Association), an organization of Unitarian Universalists in the United States of America. ... Oil India Limited (OIL) is a oil company under the administrative control of Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas, Government of India. ... A recursive acronym is an acronym (or occasionally, a backronym) which refers to itself in the expression for which it stands, similar to a recursive abbreviation. ... The AAA logo The AAA (usually read triple-A, or sometimes three As), formerly known as the American Automobile Association, is an American not-for-profit automobile lobby group and service organization. ... Not to be confused with the Institution of Electrical Engineers (IEE). ... The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, or NAACP, is one of the oldest and most influential civil rights organizations in the United States. ... The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA, often pronounced N-C-Double-A or N-C-Two-A) is a voluntary association of about 1200 institutions, conferences, organizations and individuals that organizes the athletics programs of many colleges and universities in the United States. ... 3M Company (NYSE: MMM); formerly Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company until 2002) is an American corporation with a worldwide presence that produces over 55,000 products, including adhesives, abrasives, laminates, passive fire protection, electronic circuits and displays, and pharmaceuticals. ... E³ logo Presented by the Entertainment Software Association, the Electronic Entertainment Expo, commonly known and composed as E3 (besides the organiser’s usage of E³, the superscript version is rarely used), is the worlds largest annual trade show for the computer and video games industry. ... Internationalization and localization are means of adapting products such as publications or software for non-native environments, especially other nations and cultures. ... The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is a consortium that produces standards—recommendations, as they call them—for the World Wide Web. ... A recursive acronym is an acronym (or occasionally, a backronym) which refers to itself in the expression for which it stands, similar to a recursive abbreviation. ... GNU (pronounced ) is a free software operating system consisting of a kernel, libraries, system tools, compilers and many end-user applications. ... The GNU Hurd is a Unix-like kernel that sets the base for the GNU operating system. ... Bold text Visa is a brand of credit card and debit card operated by the Visa International Service Association of San Francisco, California, USA, an economic joint venture of 21,000 financial institutions that issue and market Visa products. ... Wine is an alcoholic beverage produced by the fermentation of fruit, typically grapes though a number of other fruits are also quite popular - such as plum, elderberry and blackcurrant. ... For other uses, see PHP (disambiguation). ... A pseudo-acronym is an apparent acronym or other abbreviation which doesnt stand for anything, or cannot be officially expanded to some meaning. ... The ICQ Logo ICQ is an instant messaging computer program, owned by Time Warners America Online subsidiary. ... OU812 is the eighth album by American hard rock band Van Halen, released in 1988 (see 1988 in music). ... Van Halen is an American rock band formed in the early-1970s. ... A ships or boats anchor is used to attach the vessel to the bottom at a specific point. ...

Trivia

The longest acronym, according to the 1965 edition of Acronyms, Initialisms and Abbreviations Dictionary, is ADCOMSUBORDCOMPHIBSPAC, a United States Navy term that stands for "Administrative Command, Amphibious Forces, Pacific Fleet Subordinate Command." The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for conducting naval operations. ...


The world's longest initialism, according to the Guinness Book of World Records is NIIOMTPLABOPARMBETZHELBETRABSBOMONIMONKONOTDTEKHSTROMONT. The 56-letter initialism (54 in Cyrillic) is from the Concise Dictionary of Soviet Terminology and means "The laboratory for shuttering, reinforcement, concrete and ferroconcrete operations for composite-monolithic and monolithic constructions of the Department of the Technology of Building-assembly operations of the Scientific Research Institute of the Organization for building mechanization and technical aid of the Academy of Building and Architecture of the USSR." The Guinness Book of Records (or in recent editions Guinness World Records, and in previous US editions Guinness Book of World Records) is a book published annually, containing an internationally recognized collection of superlatives: both in terms of human achievement and the extrema of the natural world. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (or azbuka, from the old name of the first letters) is an alphabet used to write six natural Slavic languages (Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Serbian, and Ukrainian) and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ...


Sometimes an acronym's official meaning is crafted to fit an acronym that actually means something that sounds less "official". For instance, the Massive Ordnance Air Blast (MOAB) weapon recently developed in the United States is popularly called the "mother of all bombs" since it is the largest conventional bomb in the world; it is widely assumed that the "mother of all wars" phrase was the true inspiration for the MOAB acronym. The Massive Ordnance Air Blast bomb (MOAB) (also known as the Mother Of All Bombs) is a large-yield conventional air-to-surface bomb developed by the United States military, touted as the most powerful non-nuclear weapon ever designed. ...


During the 1960s trend for action-adventure spy thrillers, it was a common practice for fictional spy organizations or their nemeses to employ names that were acronyms (or more accurately, backronyms). Sometimes these acronyms made sense but most of the time, they were words incongruously crammed together for the mere purpose of obtaining a catchy acronym, traditionally a heroic sounding one for the good guys and an appropriately menacing one for the bad guys. This has become one of the most commonly parodied clichés of the spy thriller genre. They were presumably inspired by SMERSH, which appeared in the James Bond stories and sounded fictional, but really was a branch of Soviet intellligence. These acronyms are often spelled with periods/points/stops to make it clear that they stand for longer terms and are not simply the usual English words that they resemble, even though the punctuation would otherwise seem to indicate that the abbreviations should be pronounced as the names of the individual letters. Among the most popular: The outrageously crowded Woodstock festival epitomized the popular antiwar movement of the 60s. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Acronym and initialism. ... SMERSH (in capitalised letters) is a Soviet counterintelligence agency that was featured in Ian Flemings early James Bond novels and films as 007s nemesis. ... The James Bond 007 gun logo James Bond, also known as 007 (pronounced double-oh seven), is a fictional British spy created by writer Ian Fleming in 1953. ...

  • A.P.E. and C.H.U.M.P., from Lancelot Link, Secret Chimp (probably the only spy series with an all-chimpanzee cast)
  • C.O.N.T.R.O.L. and K.A.O.S., from the Get Smart television series
  • D.O.O.P. (Democratic Order of Planets), an intentionally silly example in the Futurama television series.
  • E.V.I.L. (Every Villain Is Lemons), an intentionally silly example from the Spongebob Squarepants television series.
  • F.I.R.M., from the Airwolf television series
  • G.U.N. (Guardian Unit of Nations), an organization from the Sonic the Hedgehog series who opposed the creation of Shadow and the Biolizard
  • H.A.R.M., from the No One Lives Forever (NOLF) series of computer games, which were released in the 1990s, but were based in 1960s pop culture. What H.A.R.M actually stands for is never revealed, and speculation about its true meaning is the subject of several jokes in both games. (However, in the 1966 spy film Agent for H.A.R.M., it stands for Human Aetiological Relations Machine.)
  • K.A.B.O.O.M. (Key Atomic Benefits Organization of Mankind), from The Naked Gun 2½: The Smell of Fear.
  • M.A.S.K. (Mobile Armored Strike Kommand), the mask-wearing cohort from 1980s Saturday-morning cartoon M.A.S.K.
  • P.A.G.A.N. (People against Goodness and Normalcy) from the film Dragnet
  • S.H.A.D.O. (Supreme Headquarters Alien Defence Organisation) in the Gerry Anderson television series UFO.
  • S.H.I.E.L.D. (originally Supreme Headquarters, International Espionage, Law Enforcement Division; later Strategic Hazard Intervention, Espionage and Logistics Directorate), from the Nick Fury, Agent of S.H.I.E.L.D. Marvel comics
  • Shlekht in the Morecambe and Wise film The Intelligence Men
  • S.P.E.C.T.R.E. (Special Executive for Counter-intelligence, Terrorism, Revenge, and Extortion), from the James Bond series.
  • S.T.E.N.C.H. (Society for the Total Extermination of Non-Conforming Humans) in Carry On Spying.
  • T.H.U.N.D.E.R. (The Higher United Nations Defense Enforcement Reserves)
  • V.E.N.O.M. (The Vicious, Evil Network of Mayhem), the evil mask-wearing cohort from 1980s Saturday-morning cartoon M.A.S.K.
  • V.I.L.E. (The Villains International League of Evil), Carmen Sandiego's band of international thieves.
  • U.N.C.L.E. (United Network Command for Law and Enforcement) and T.H.R.U.S.H, from The Man from U.N.C.L.E.. (The meaning of T.H.R.U.S.H. was never revealed on the series; but, in the novelizations it was stated to be "Technological Hierarchy for the Removal of Undesirables and the Subjugation of Humanity".)
  • W.O.O.H.P. (World Organization of Human Protection), the fictitious organization from Totally Spies!, an animated series on Cartoon Network.

Lancelot Link, Secret Chimp was a television show from 1970-1972 which featured a cast of chimpanzees who were given apparent speaking roles by overdubbing them with human voices. ... Type Species Simia troglodytes Blumenbach, 1775 Species Pan troglodytes Pan paniscus Chimpanzee, often shortened to chimp, is the common name for the two extant species in the genus Pan. ... Look up Control in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In the televison show Get Smart, KAOS was the International Organization of Evil; formed in 1902 in Bolcavest. ... Get Smart was an American comedy television series that ran from September 18, 1965 to May 1970; a revival of the series ran from January to February 1995. ... The Democratic Order of Planets (D.O.O.P.) is a fictional organization of planets (similar to the United Federation of Planets from Star Trek) from the television show Futurama. ... Futurama is an American animated television series that follows Philip J. Fry after he is cryonically frozen at midnight, December 31, 1999 and is defrosted a thousand years later in the year 2999. ... SpongeBob SquarePants is a popular American animated television series and media franchise shown on various TV networks around the world, though its usually on Nickelodeon. ... Airwolf is a 1980s American television series about a supersonic military helicopter of the same name. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Sonic the Hedgehog for Sega Genesis The Sonic the Hedgehog series is a franchise of video games released by Sega (usually developed by their Sonic Team division) and starring their mascot character Sonic the Hedgehog. ... Shadow the Hedgehog ) is a fictional character from the Sonic the Hedgehog series. ... Biolizard, as seen in Sonic X. The Biolizard is a formidable enemy from the Sonic the Hedgehog fictional universe, whose first appearance was in Sonic Adventure 2. ... No One Lives Forever, commonly abbreviated NOLF, is the name of a computer game and video game series by Monolith Productions. ... See also 1990s, the band The 1990s decade refers to the years from 1990 to 1999, inclusive, sometimes informally including popular culture from 2000 and 2001. ... The outrageously crowded Woodstock festival epitomized the popular antiwar movement of the 60s. ... 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1966 calendar). ... Agent for H.A.R.M. is a production that was released in 1966 in the U.S. It was directed by Gerd Oswald, and starred Peter Mark Richman as Adam Chance and Barbara Bouchet as Ava Vestok. ... The M.A.S.K. Logo M.A.S.K. is an animated television series produced by DIC Enterprises, Inc and also the toyline of the same name sold by Kenner. ... Saturday morning cartoon is the colloquial term for the animated television programming which was typically scheduled on Saturday mornings on the major American television networks from the 1960s to the 1990s. ... Dragnet opening frame from the 1967 version. ... UFO was a British television science fiction series created by Gerry Anderson and produced by Andersons and Lew Grades Century 21 Productions for Grades ITC Entertainment company. ... Gerry Anderson and Sylvia Anderson are most famous as the production team for several futuristic childrens television shows involving specially modified marionettes, a process called supermarionation. Their most famous production is Thunderbirds, which was produced by their production company, originally known as AP Films and later renamed Century 21... UFO was a British television science fiction series created by Gerry Anderson and produced by Andersons and Lew Grades Century 21 Productions for Grades ITC Entertainment company. ... S.H.I.E.L.D. (originally an acronym for Supreme Headquarters, International Espionage, Law-Enforcement Division, subsequently changed to Strategic Hazard Intervention, Espionage and Logistics Directorate) is a fictional counterterrorism and intelligence agency in the Marvel Universe that often deals with superhuman threats. ... Nicholas Joseph Nick Fury is a fictional World War II army hero and present-day superspy in the Marvel Comics universe Created by Stan Lee and Jack Kirby, Fury first appeared in #1 (May 1963), a combat series that portrayed the cigar-chomping Fury as leader of an elite U... Marvel Comics, sometimes called by the nickname House of Ideas, is an American comic book company. ... Morecambe and Wise Morecambe and Wise were a famous British comic double act comprising Eric Morecambe OBE and Ernie Wise OBE. The act lasted four decades until Morecambes retirement, shortly before his death in 1984. ... S.P.E.C.T.R.E.s leader, Ernst Stavro Blofeld The SPecial Executive for Counter-intelligence, Terrorism, Revenge and Extortion (S.P.E.C.T.R.E.) is a fictional terrorist organization led by Ernst Stavro Blofeld. ... The James Bond 007 gun logo James Bond, also known as 007 (pronounced double-oh seven), is a fictional British spy created by writer Ian Fleming in 1953. ... The Carry On films were a long-running series of British popular low-budget comedy films, directed by Gerald Thomas and produced by Peter Rogers. ... Wally Woods cover for the first issue T.H.U.N.D.E.R. Agents is a team of comic book superheroes originally published by Tower Comics in the 1960s. ... V.I.L.E. (The Villains International League of Evil) is the name of a fictional villain group in the Carmen Sandiego series that is dedicated to causing as much chaos around the world as possible in order for Carmen Sandiego to show off her intellectual abilities. ... Carmen Sandiego, as she appeared in {Carmen Sandiego|redirect) Carmen Isabela Sandiego is the eponymous fictional character featured in a long-running series of educational games and television shows in the United States and Canada. ... U.N.C.L.E. was an acromyn for the United Network Command for Law Enforcement. ... Rare childrens storybook based upon Left to right: David McCallum, Robert Vaughn, and the late Leo G. Carroll. ... The World Organization of Human Protection (or WOOHP) is a secret, worldwide crime-fighting organization in the animated series Totally Spies. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Cartoon Network is a cable television network created by Turner Broadcasting which primarily shows animated programming. ...

See also

Words in English with the suffix -onym (from the Greek onoma which means name) refer to words with a particular property. ... Internet slang is slang which Internet users have coined and promulgated. ... Acronym Finder is a World Wide Web searchable database of acronyms and abbreviations and their meanings. ... This is the list of abbreviations in English language. ... This list contains acronyms, initialisms, and pseudo-blends. ... This is a list of songs titled as acronyms and/or initialisms. ... RAS syndrome (Redundant Acronym Syndrome syndrome) is the common tendency to use one of the words which make up an acronym or initialism as well as the abbreviation itself, thus in effect repeating that word. ... The TLA (three-letter acronym or three-letter abbreviation) is a TLA and is the most popular type of abbreviation in technical terminology, and is also very common in general language. ... Acrosticdoublespeak is a form of Orwellian satire, in which an acrostically constructed humorous message emerges from a grammatically and factually correct statement. ... In linguistics, an apronym is a word, which as an acronym or backronym, has a meaning related to the meaning of the words constituting the acronym or backronym. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Acronym and initialism. ... A pseudo-acronym is an apparent acronym or other abbreviation which doesnt stand for anything, or cannot be officially expanded to some meaning. ... A recursive acronym is an acronym (or occasionally, a backronym) which refers to itself in the expression for which it stands, similar to a recursive abbreviation. ... Newspeak is a fictional language in George Orwells novel Nineteen Eighty-Four. ... A syllabic abbreviation is an abbreviation formed from (usually) initial syllables of several words, such as Interpol = International + police. ... Acronyms are very popular in the Philippines. ...

References

  1. ^ Israel, Mark, Alt.English.Usage Fast-Access FAQ, accessed May 2, 2006. "'Dictionaries, however, do not make this distinction [between acronyms and initialisms] because writers in general do not'"
  2. ^ The Internet Acronym Server, accessed May 2, 2006. "Contrary to what some sources say, acronyms do not have to be pronounceable words (for example FBI is spelled out when spoken, whereas NASA is not)."
  3. ^ "acronym." Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary, accessed May 2, 2006. "an abbreviation (as FBI) formed from initial letters"
  4. ^ Crystal, David (1995). The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language, Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521559855. p. 120: "However, some linguists do not recognize a sharp distinction between acronyms and initialisms, but use the former term for both."
  5. ^ "acronym". The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English (1991), Oxford University Press. p. 12: "a word, usu[ally] pronounced as such, formed from the initial letters of other words (e.g. Ernie, laser, Nato)".
  6. ^ "acronym" Oxford English Dictionary. Ed. J.A. Simpson and E.S.C. Weiner. 2nd ed. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989. OED Online Oxford University Press. Accessed May 2, 2006.
  7. ^ Crystal, David (1995). The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language, Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521559855. p. 120: "Initialisms [...] are spoken as individual letters, such as BBC, DJ, MP, EEC, e.g., and USA", "Acronyms [...] are pronounced as single words, such as NATO, laser, UNESCO, and SALT (talks). Such items would never have periods separating the letters—a contrast with initialisms, where punctuation is often present (especially in older styles of English)."
  8. ^ "acronym". Webster’s New Universal Unabridged Dictionary (2003), Barnes & Noble. ISBN 0760749752. "2. a set of initials representing a name, organization, or the like, with each letter pronounced separately, as FBI for Federal Bureau of Investigation."
  9. ^ "initialism". The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English (1991), Oxford University Press. p. 609: "a group of initial letters used as an abbreviation for a name or expression, each letter being pronounced separately (e.g. BBC)".
  10. ^ Crystal, David (1995). The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language, Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521559855. p. 120: "Initialisms [...] are spoken as individual letters, such as BBC, DJ, MP, EEC, e.g., and USA; also called alphabetisms."

Professor David Crystal, OBE (born 1941 in Lisburn, Northern Ireland, UK) is a linguist, academic and author. ... Professor David Crystal, OBE (born 1941 in Lisburn, Northern Ireland, UK) is a linguist, academic and author. ... Professor David Crystal, OBE (born 1941 in Lisburn, Northern Ireland, UK) is a linguist, academic and author. ...

External links

  • Teen Chat Decoder — Teen chat room acronym datase helps parents decode their teens chat room language
  • AbbreviationZ — a human edited database of acronyms and abbreviations
  • Acronym Finder — a human edited database of acronyms and abbreviations (over 475,000 entries)
  • Special Dictionary — searchable database of acronyms and abbreviations
  • No Slang — slang and acronyms translator
  • [3] The Great Abbreviations & Acronyms Hunt

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m