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Encyclopedia > Acre, Israel

Coordinates: 32°55′40″N, 35°04′54″E Akko may refer to: Another name for Acre, Israel Akko, Nigeria, in Cross River State. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

Acre

Old Acre from above
Hebrew עַכּוֹ
(Standard) ʻAkko
Arabic عكّا
Government City
District North
Population 45,800 (2005)
Jurisdiction 10,300 dunams (10.3 km²)
Mayor Shimon Lankri
The Old City, early 20th. See also Map
The Old City, early 20th. See also Map

Acre (or Akko) (English pronunciation [ˈɑːkɚ] or [ˈɑːkrə]; Hebrew: עַכּוֹʿakkō; Arabic: عكّا ʿakkā) [1], is a city in the Western Galilee district of northern Israel. It is situated on a low promontory at the northern extremity of the Haifa Bay. According to the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), Acre had a population 45,800 at the end of 2005. From ancient times, Acre was regarded as the key to the Levant because of its strategic coastal location. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (719x686, 76 KB) La bildo estas kopiita de wikipedia:he. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Jerusalem Tel Aviv-Jaffa Haifa Rishon LeZion Ashdod Beersheba Petah Tikva Netanya Holon Bnei Brak Bat Yam Ramat Gan Ashkelon Rehovot The following list of cities in Israel is based on the current index of the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS). ... Map of the districts of Israel Population density by geographic region, sub-district and district (thicker border indicates higher tier). ... The North District of Israel, highlighted. ... A dunam or dönüm, dunum, donum is a unit of area. ... The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Arabic redirects here. ... For other uses, see Galilee (disambiguation). ... Haifa Bay Haifa Bay is a small bay along the Mediterranean coast of Northern Israel. ... Israel Central Bureau of Statistics (הלשכה המרכזית לסטטיסטיקה) is a state organization for the creation and maintenance of numeric data related to populations vis-à-vis the ethnic makeup of Israel and its cities. ... The Levant The Levant (IPA: ) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ...

Contents

History

Acre is probably to be identified with the Aak of the tribute-lists of Thutmoses III (c. 1500 B.C.), and it is certainly the Akka of the Amarna letters. To the Hebrews it was known as Akko, but it is mentioned only once in the Old Testament, namely Judges 1:31, as one of the places from which the Israelites did not drive out the Canaanite inhabitants. Theoretically it was in the territory of the tribe of Asher, and Josephus assigns it by name to the district of one of Solomon's provincial governors. Throughout the period of Hebrew domination, however, its political connections were always with Phoenicia rather than with the Philistines: thus, around 725 BC it joined Sidon and Tyre in a revolt against Shalmaneser V. It had a stormy experience during the three centuries preceding the Christian era. Thutmose III (also written as Tuthmosis III; called Manahpi(r)ya in the Amarna letters) (? - 1426 BC), was Pharaoh of Egypt in the Eighteenth Dynasty. ... EA 161, letter by Aziru, leader of Amurru, (stating his case to pharaoh), one of the Amarna letters in cuneiform writing on a clay tablet. ... Look up Israelite in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... Book of Judges (Hebrew: Sefer Shoftim ספר שופטים) is a book of the Bible originally written in Hebrew. ... // [[Image:]] Map of Canaan For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ... In the Book of Genesis, Asher (אָשֵׁר, Standard Hebrew AÅ¡er, Tiberian Hebrew ʾĀšēr) is a son of Jacob and Zilpah, and the founder of the Tribe of Asher. ... A fanciful representation of Flavius Josephus, in an engraving in William Whistons translation of his works Josephus (37 – sometime after 100 CE),[1] who became known, in his capacity as a Roman citizen, as Titus Flavius Josephus,[2] was a 1st-century Jewish historian and apologist of priestly and... This article is about the Biblical figure. ... Phoenicia (or Phenicia ,[1] from Biblical Phenice [1]) was an ancient civilization centered in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coast of modern day Lebanon and Syria. ... Map showing the location of Philistine land and cities of Gaza, Ashdod, and Ashkelon Map of the southern Levant, c. ... Centuries: 9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC Decades: 770s BC 760s BC 750s BC 740s BC 730s BC - 720s BC - 710s BC 700s BC 690s BC 680s BC 670s BC Events and Trends 728 BC - Piye invades Egypt, conquering Memphis and receives the submission of the rulers... View of the new city the Sea Castle. ... The Triumphal Arch Tyre (Arabic , Phoenician , Hebrew Tzor, Tiberian Hebrew , Akkadian , Greek Týros) is a city in the South Governorate of Lebanon. ... Shalmaneser V (Akkadian: Shulmanu-asharid) was King of Assyria from 727 to 722 BC. He first appears as governor of Zimirra in Phoenicia in the reign of his father, Tiglath-Pileser III. At all events, on the death of Tiglath-Pileser, he succeeded to the throne as the 25th king... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is...


The Greek and Roman periods

The Greek historians name it Ake (Josephus calls it also Akre); but the name was changed to Antiochia Ptolemais shortly after Alexander the Great's conquest, and then to Ptolemais, probably by Ptolemy Soter, after the partition of the kingdom of Alexander the Great. [1] For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... cleopatra ruled seneca for 10 years before she ruled Egypt. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ...


Strabo refers to the city as once a rendezvous for the Persians in their expeditions against Egypt. About 165 BC Simon Maccabaeus defeated the Syrians in many battles in Galilee, and drove them into Ptolemais. About 153 BC Alexander Balas, son of Antiochus Epiphanes, contesting the Syrian crown with Demetrius, seized the city, which opened its gates to him. Demetrius offered many bribes to the Maccabees to obtain Jewish support against his rival, including the revenues of Ptolemais for the benefit of the Temple in Jerusalem, but in vain. Jonathan threw in his lot with Alexander, and in 150 BC he was received by him with great honour in Ptolemais. Some years later, however, Tryphon, an officer of the Syrians, who had grown suspicious of the Maccabees, enticed Jonathan into Ptolemais and there treacherously took him prisoner. The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... Persia redirects here. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC - 160s BC - 150s BC140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 170 BC 169 BC 168 BC 167 BC 166 BC - 165 BC - 164 BC 163 BC 162... Simon Maccabaeus (died 134 BC) was a member of the Maccabees family. ... For other uses, see Galilee (disambiguation). ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC - 150s BC - 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC Years: 158 BC 157 BC 156 BC 155 BC 154 BC - 153 BC - 152 BC 151 BC... Silver coin of Alexander I Balas Alexander Balas (i. ... Coin of Antiochus IV Epiphanes (reigned 175 - 163 BC). ... Look up Demetrius in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Wojciech Stattlers Machabeusze (Maccabees), 1844 The Maccabees (Hebrew: מכבים or מקבים, Makabim) were Jewish rebels who fought against the rule of Antiochus IV Epiphanes of the Hellenistic Seleucid dynasty, who was succeeded by his infant son Antiochus V Eupator. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... The Temple in Jerusalem or Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash and meaning literally The Holy House) was located on the Temple Mount (Har HaBayit) in the old city of Jerusalem. ... Jonathan Maccabaeus was leader of the Hasmonean Dynasty of Judea from 161 to 143 BC. He is called also Apphus (Ἀπφοῦς [Syriac, (image) ] = the dissembler or the diplomat, in allusion to a trait prominent in him; 1 Maccabees ii. ... Alexander Balas becomes ruler of the Seleucid Empire. ...


The city was also assaulted and captured by Alexander Jannaeus, by Cleopatra VII of Egypt and by Tigranes II of Armenia. Here Herod built a gymnasium, and here the Jews met Petronius, sent to set up statues of the emperor in the Temple, and persuaded him to turn back. St Paul spent a day in Ptolemais (Acts 21:7). A Roman colonia was established at the city, Colonia Claudii Cæsaris. [2] Alexander Jannaeus (also known as Alexander Jannai/Yannai), king of Judea from (103 BCE to 76 BCE), son of John Hyrcanus, inherited the throne from his brother Aristobulus, and appears to have married his brothers widow, Shlamtzion or Shlomtzion or Shelomit, also known as Salome Alexandra, according to the... Cleopatra was a co-ruler of Egypt with her father (Ptolemy XII Auletes), her brothers/husbands Ptolemy XIII and Ptolemy XIV, consummated a liaison with Gaius Julius Caesar that solidified her grip on the throne, and, after Caesars assassination, aligned with Mark Antony, with whom she produced twins. ... This article is about a king of Armenia in the first century B.C. For other historical figures with the same name (including other kings of Armenia) see Tigranes Coin of Tigranes II Tigranes the Great (ruled 95-56 BC) (also called Tigranes II and sometimes Tigranes I) was a... Herod was the name of several members of the Herodian Dynasty of Roman Iudaea Province: Herod the Great (c. ... The gymnasium functioned as a training facility for competitors in public games. ... This article is about the Roman author Petronius. ... Temple of Hephaestus, an Doric Greek temple in Athens with the original entrance facing east, 449 BC (western face depicted) For other uses, see Temple (disambiguation). ... Paul of Tarsus (b. ... A Roman colonia (plural coloniae) was originally a Roman outpost established in conquered territory to secure it. ...

Acre harbour
Acre harbour

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Arab rule and the Crusades

The Arabs captured the city in 638 CE, and held it until the Crusaders conquered Acre in 1104. The Crusaders made the town their chief port in Palestine. It was re-taken by Saladin in 1187, besieged by Guy of Lusignan in 1189 at the Siege of Acre, and again captured by Richard the Lionheart in 1191. It then became the capital of the remnant of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. In 1229 it was placed under the control of the Knights Hospitaller (whence came one of its alternative names). It was the final stronghold of the Crusader state, and fell to a bloody siege to the Mameluks in 1291. The Ottomans under Sultan Selim I captured the city in 1517, after which it fell into almost total decay. Maundrell in 1697 found it a complete ruin, save for a khan (caravanserai) occupied by some French merchants, a mosque and a few poor cottages. Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... Saladin, properly known as Salah al-DÄ«n Yusuf ibn Ayyub (Arabic: , Kurdish: ) (c. ... Imaginary portrait of Guy of Lusignan by François-Edouard Picot, c. ... The Siege of Acre was the most important event of the Third Crusade, lasting from August 28, 1189 until July 12, 1191, and the first time in the history of the crusades that the king was compelled to personally see to the defense of the Holy Land. ... Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England and ruler of the Angevin Empire from 6 July 1189 until his death. ... The kingdom of Jerusalem and the other Crusader states (in shades of green) in the context of the Near East in 1135. ... The Knights Hospitaller (also known as the , Sovereign Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta, Knights of Malta, Knights of Rhodes, and Chevaliers of Malta; French: Ordre des Hospitaliers) is a Christian organization that began as an Amalfitan hospital founded in Jerusalem in 1080 to provide... The Siege of Acre took place in 1291 and resulted in the fall of Acre, the last territory of the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem. ... An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (or Mameluks) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim Caliphs and the Ottoman Empire, and who on more than one occasion seized power for... Ottoman redirects here. ... Selim I (Ottoman: سليم الأول, Turkish:) (also known as the Grim or the Brave, Yavuz in Turkish, the long name is Yavuz Sultan Selim)(October 10, 1465 – September 22, 1520) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1512 to 1520. ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ...


(The Crusaders called the city "Acre" or "Saint-Jean d'Acre" since they mistakenly identified it with the Philistine city of Ekron, in southern Israel (Tel Miqne-Ekron). Josephus' mention of "Akre" should be checked to see exactly which city he was referring to.) The city of Ekron (Hebrew עֶקְרוֹן, Standard Hebrew ʻEqron, Tiberian Hebrew ʻEqrôn) was one of the five Philistine cities in southwestern Canaan. ...


Ottoman rule

Al-Jezzar mosque in Acre. The mosque was built by Jezzar Pasha between 1800 and 1814

Towards the end of the 18th century it revived under the rule of Dhaher El-Omar, the local sheikh: his successor, Jezzar Pasha, governor of Damascus, improved and fortified it, but by heavy imposts secured for himself all the benefits derived from his improvements. About 1780 Jezzar peremptorily banished the French trading colony, in spite of protests from the French government, and refused to receive a consul. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Ahmed al-Jazzar (Arabic أحمد الجزار, lived 1720-1804) was the ruler of Acre and Galilee during Ottoman rule from 1775 till his death. ... // ON MAY 5 1853 MR.FADER HAD SEX WITH A MAN NAME MR WIEN THEN THEY HAD SON NAMEDMRS COTURE AND MR MANOOGIAN WENT INTO MRS HASKELLS OFFICE NAKED AND DANCED AROUND AND MASTERBATED ON HER CHEST AND SHE LICKED IT OFF THEN THEY HAD ORAL SEEX WITH NAPLOEAN OF... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Dhaher El-Omar (Arabic ظاهر العمر الزيداني zāhir al-`umar az-zaydānī, born ca. ... Ahmed al-Jazzar (Arabic أحمد الجزار, lived 1720-1804) was the ruler of Acre and Galilee during Ottoman rule from 1775 till his death. ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ...


In 1799 Napoleon, in pursuance of his scheme for raising a Syrian rebellion against Turkish domination, appeared before Acre, but after a siege of two months (March–May) was repulsed by the Turks, aided by Sir Sidney Smith and a force of British sailors. Having lost his siege cannons to Smith, Napoleon attempted to lay siege to the walled city defended by Ottoman troops on 20 March 1799, using only his infantry and small-caliber cannons, a strategy which failed, leading to his retreat two months later on May 21. For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... Sir William Sidney Smith KCB (21 June 1764 – 26 May 1840) was the British admiral of whom Napoleon Bonaparte said, That man made me miss my destiny. // Early life and career Sidney Smith, as he always called himself, was born into a military and naval family with connections to the... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Jezzar was succeeded on his death by his son Suleiman, under whose milder rule the town advanced in prosperity till 1831, when Ibrahim Pasha besieged and reduced the town and destroyed its buildings. On November 4, 1840 it was bombarded by the allied British, Austrian and French squadrons, and in the following year restored to Turkish rule. Ibrahim Pasha (Arabic: ابراهيم باشا) ‎ (1789 – 10 November 1848), a 19th century general of Egypt. ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


The British Mandate

The Old City as seen today
The Old City as seen today

The citadel of Acre was used by the British as a prison mainly for political prisoners, and as a location for a gallows. Jewish underground movement activists, such as Zeev Jabotinsky and Shlomo Ben-Yosef, an Irgun activist, were jailed in the citadel-prison of Acre. Ben-Yosef was the first Jew to be executed under the British mandate. According to the first census after the British rule over Acre, the province's population was 100,000 inhabitants, most of whom were Shiite Turks, Turkomans, Azeris, Persians, Bosnians, Albanians, and Circassians as well as a small community of Greeks.[citations needed] It included the modern cities of Sidon, Tyre, Nabatiye, Nahariyya, and some other inner villages and towns such as Umm al-Faraj, Mazra'a, Dayr al-Qassi. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... This article is about a type of fortification. ... These gallows in Tombstone Courthouse State Historic Park are maintained by Arizona State Parks. ... Zeev Jabotinsky Zeev (Vladimir) Jabotinsky (alternatively Zhabotinski) (Hebrew: , Russian: ; October 18, 1880 - August 4, 1940) was a Zionist leader, author, orator, soldier, and founder of the Jewish Legion in World War I. // Early life Born in Odessa, Ukraine, he was raised in a traditional Jewish home and learned... Shlomo Ben-Yosef was born in Poland as Shalom Tabachnik on May 7, 1913. ... Irgun emblem. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Nahariyya (Hebrew: נַהֲרִיָּה, unofficially also spelled Nahariya or Naharia; Arabic: نهاريّا Ancient Israelite city of Akhziv) is a city of the North District of Israel. ... Umm al-Faraj was a Palestinian village that was captured by Israel during the 1948 Arab-Israeli war. ... For the location in Lebanon, see Mazraa Mazraa is an Arab town (local council) in northern Israel. ... Dayr al-Qassi was a Palestinian village that was captured by Israel during the 1948 Arab-Israeli war. ...


On May 4, 1947, the Irgun broke into the Acre citadel prison in order to release Jewish activists imprisoned there by the British. Some 255 inmates escaped, the majority Arab [3]. Twenty-seven prisoners from armed Jewish groups escaped (20 from Irgun, seven from Lehi). In the immediate aftermath of the raid, nine were killed, five attackers and eight escapees were captured. is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Irgun emblem. ... Irgun emblem. ... For other uses, see Lehi. ...


Despite the heavy toll in human lives, the action was described by foreign journalists as "the greatest jail break in history." The London Ha'aretz correspondent wrote on May 5: Haaretz (הארץ, The Land) is an Israeli newspaper, founded in 1919. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

"The attack on Acre jail has been seen here as a serious blow to British prestige... Military circles described the attack as a strategic masterpiece."

The New York Herald Tribune wrote that the underground had carried out "an ambitious mission, their most challenging so far, in perfect fashion." Of the five captured attackers, three who had been carrying weapons were tried and sentenced to death; the other two, minors who were unarmed when captured, received life sentences. [4] The New York Herald Tribune was a newspaper created in 1924 when the New York Tribune acquired the New York Herald. ... Life imprisonment is a term used for a particular kind of sentence of imprisonment. ...


Israeli rule

Acre fell under territory assigned by the 1947 UN Partition Plan to a future Arab State in Palestine. The town was captured by the Jewish Haganah army on May 17, 1948, during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. The Israeli Haganah army forced about three-fourths of its native Arab population (1944 est. pop. 13,000) to flee from the city during this time. On 29 November 1947 the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine or United Nations General Assembly Resolution 181, a plan to resolve the Arab-Israeli conflict in the British Mandate of Palestine, was approved by the United Nations General Assembly. ... The Haganah (Hebrew: Defense, ×”×’× ×”) was a Zionist para-military organization in Palestine during the British mandate of Palestine from 1920 to 1948. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants  Israel Haganah Irgun Lehi Palmach Foreign Volunteers Egypt, Syria, Transjordan,  Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Holy War Army, Arab Liberation Army Commanders Yaakov Dori, Yigael Yadin John Bagot Glubb, Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, Hasan Salama, Fawzi Al-Qawuqji, Ahmed Ali al-Mwawi Strength  Israel: 29,677 initially rising... The Haganah (Hebrew: Defense, ×”×’× ×”) was a Zionist para-military organization in Palestine during the British mandate of Palestine from 1920 to 1948. ...


The old city of Acre has been designated by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site and contains a tunnel leading to a 13th century fortress of the Knights Templar. Since the 1990s, there are vast works of archeological excavations and preservations of ancient structures in progress. Acre has one of the highest proportions of non-Jews of any of Israel's cities with an Arab and Druze population of approximately 27.6%, as well as a small community of Bahá'ís. The city is a magnet for tourists and the home of the country's steel industry. It also produces exports including iron, chemicals, and textiles. UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... Religions Druze Scriptures Rasail al-hikmah (Epistles of Wisdom) Languages Arabic. ... This article is about the generally-recognized global religious community. ...


Acre today

Old City of Acre*
UNESCO World Heritage Site

State Party Flag of Israel Israel
Type Cultural
Criteria ii, iii, v
Reference 1042
Region Europe and North America
Inscription History
Inscription 2001  (25th Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
† Region as classified by UNESCO.
The Acre harbour in 2005
The Acre harbour in 2005

Acre's Old City has been designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Since the 1990s, the Old Acre Development Company has been carrying out important conservation work, and many archeological digs are under way. Among the city's many historical landmarks is an underground passageway leading to a fortress of the Knights Templar from the 13th century. A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 843 KB) Summary Template:IMAGE Source: http://ru. ... As of 2006, there are a total of 830 World Heritage Sites located in 138 State Parties. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... This is a list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Europe. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... the harbour at Acco, Israel. ... the harbour at Acco, Israel. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... For other uses, see Knights Templar (disambiguation). ...


The walls

19th century mortar, facing the sea, in the walls of Acre
19th century mortar, facing the sea, in the walls of Acre

In 1750, Daher El-Omar, the ruler of Acre, utilized the remnants of the Crusader walls as a foundation for his walls. They were reinforced between 1775 and 1799 by Jezzar Pasha and survived Napoleon's siege. The wall was thin: its height was 10 to 13 metres (33 to 43 feet) and its thickness only one metre (3 feet). Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1536 × 2048 pixel, file size: 781 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) . File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1536 × 2048 pixel, file size: 781 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) . File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... US soldier loading a M224 60-mm mortar. ... Daher El-Omar (1775-?), the Arab-Bedouin ruler of the Galilee district at Israel in the 18th century. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... Ahmed al-Jazzar (Arabic أحمد الجزار, lived 1720-1804) was the ruler of Acre and Galilee during Ottoman rule from 1775 till his death. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ...


A heavy land defense wall was built north and east to the city in 1800-1814 by Jezzar Pasha (called by the locals Al-Jezzar) and his Jewish advisor Haim Farkhi. This wall is the first notable thing to come into sight when coming to Acre. It is a modern counter artillery fortification which includes a thick defensive wall, a dry moat, cannon outposts and three Burges (large defensive towers). The defensive wall of Braşov, Romania. ... Ahmed al-Jazzar (Arabic أحمد الجزار, lived 1720-1804) was the ruler of Acre and Galilee during Ottoman rule from 1775 till his death. ... 19th century cannon, set in the wall of Acre near a sign commemorating Farhi. ... For the fortification of food, see Food fortification. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Separation barrier. ... The moated manor house of Baddesley Clinton in Warwickshire, England Moats (also known as a Fosse) were deep and wide water-filled trenches, excavated to provide a barrier against attack upon castle ramparts or other fortifications. ... For other uses, see Cannon (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The sea wall, which remains mostly complete, is the original El-Omar's wall that was reinforced by al-Jezzar.


The Great Mosque

The Al Jezzar mosque was built by Jezzar Pasha (d. 1804) from materials taken from Caesarea Maritima: his tomb is within. The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... Ahmed al-Jazzar (Arabic أحمد الجزار, lived 1720-1804) was the ruler of Acre and Galilee during Ottoman rule from 1775 till his death. ... Caesarea Palaestina, also called Caesarea Maritima, a town built by Herod the Great about 25 - 13 BC, lies on the sea-coast of Israel about halfway between Tel Aviv and Haifa, on the site of a place previously called Pyrgos Stratonos (Strato or Stratons Tower, in Latin Turris Stratonis). ...


Hamam al Basha

Hamam is a hot Turkish bath. Acre's Hamam is notable mainly because it was used by the Irgun as a bridge to break into the citadel's prison. Hamam may refer to: Turkish bath in Turkish Hamam (film), European film Hamam (soap), brand of soap in India Sam Hammam, Lebanese buisinessman and soccer guru Category: ... // Public baths originated from a communal need for cleanliness. ... Irgun emblem. ...


The Citadel

The current building which consists the citadel of Acre is an Ottoman fortification, built on the foundation of the Hospitallerian citadel. The citadel was part of the city's defensive formation, reinforcing the northern wall. Ottoman redirects here. ... The Knights Hospitaller (the or Knights of Malta or Knights of Rhodes) is a tradition which began as a Benedictine nursing Order founded in the 11th century based in the Holy Land, but soon became a militant Christian Chivalric Order under its own charter, and was charged with the care...


During the 20th century the citadel was used mainly as a prison and as the site for a gallows. During the British mandate period, activists of Jewish Zionist resistance movements were held prisoner there; some were executed there. In 1947, members of the Irgun broke into the citadel and released many prisoners. This article is about a type of fortification. ... These gallows in Tombstone Courthouse State Historic Park are maintained by Arizona State Parks. ... The British Mandate of Palestine was a swathe of territory in the Middle East, formerly belonging to the Ottoman Empire, which the League of Nations entrusted to the United Kingdom to administer in the aftermath of World War I as a Mandate Territory. ... Irgun emblem. ...


Today, the citadel of Acre contains the following:

  • The Ottoman fortifications (including the tower and the moat).
  • Acre Old City Visitor Centers.
  • The "enchanted garden": a new garden that is planted according to historical description of the garden that was there during the Crusades period.
  • Acre's British prison and the gallows.
  • Memorial for Jewish resistance fighters executed during the British mandate.
  • A Museum for the Jewish resistance prisoners, מוזיאון אסירי המחתרות .
  • Prison cell of Bahá'u'lláh, Founder of the Bahá'í Faith.
  • Knights' Halls (see below).

As of August 2004, the citadel is partly closed due to preservation work. This article is about the medieval crusades. ... Shrine of Baháulláh Baháulláh (ba-haa-ol-laa Arabic: Glory of God) (November 12, 1817 - May 29, 1892), born Mírzá usayn-`Alí (Persian: ), was the founder of the Baháí Faith. ... This article is about the generally-recognized global religious community. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Knights' Halls

Under the citadel and prison of Acre, archeological excavations revealed a complex of halls, which was built and used by the Hospitallers Knights. This complex was a part of the Hospitallers' citadel, which was combined in the northern wall of Acre. This article is about a type of fortification. ... Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... The Knights Hospitaller (the or Knights of Malta or Knights of Rhodes) is a tradition which began as a Benedictine nursing Order founded in the 11th century based in the Holy Land, but soon became a militant Christian Chivalric Order under its own charter, and was charged with the care... This article is about a type of fortification. ... A brick wall A wall is a usually solid structure that defines and sometimes protects an area. ...


The complex includes:

  • Six semi-joint halls.
  • One large hall, recently excavated.
  • Dungeon.
  • Dining room (with a tunnel).
  • Posta and Crypta (remains of an ancient Gothic church).

(Those interested in medieval European remains should also visit the Church of Saint George and adjacent houses at the Genovese Square (called Kikar ha-Genovezim or Kikar Genoa in Hebrew). There were also residential quarters and marketplaces run by merchants from Pisa and Amalfi in Crusader and medieval Acre, so today there are also Pisa and Amalfi Squares in the old city.)


Bahá'í holy places

The corner of the shrine where Bahá'u'lláh is buried.
The corner of the shrine where Bahá'u'lláh is buried.

There are many Bahá'í holy places in and around Acre. They originate from Bahá'u'lláh's imprisonment in the Citadel during Ottoman Rule. The final years of Bahá'u'lláh's life were spent in the Mansion of Bahjí, just outside Acre, even though he was still formally a prisoner of the Ottoman Empire. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1728x1560, 2245 KB) cropped version of Image:Bahji-Santuari. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1728x1560, 2245 KB) cropped version of Image:Bahji-Santuari. ... Shrine of Baháulláh from the North Located in Bahji near Akká, the Shrine of Baháulláh is the most holy place for Baháís - their Qiblih. ... This article is about the generally-recognized global religious community. ... Shrine of Baháulláh Baháulláh (ba-haa-ol-laa Arabic: Glory of God) (November 12, 1817 - May 29, 1892), born Mírzá usayn-`Alí (Persian: ), was the founder of the Baháí Faith. ... Aerial view of the complex of Baháí administrative buildings on Mt. ... The Mansion of Bahji is a term used to describe a summer house where Baháulláh died in 1892. ...


Bahá'u'lláh died on May 29, 1892 in Bahjí, and his shrine is the most holy place for Bahá'ís — their Qiblih, the location that Bahá'ís should face when saying their daily obligatory prayers. It contains the remains of Bahá'u'lláh and is near the spot where he died in the Mansion of Bahjí. is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Shrine of Baháulláh from the North Located in Bahji near Akká, the Shrine of Baháulláh is the most holy place for Baháís - their Qiblih. ... In the Baháí Faith the Qiblih refers to the location that Baháís should face when saying their daily obligatory prayers, and is fixed at the Shrine of Baháulláh in Bahjí, near Akká which is in present day Israel. ...


Other Bahá'í holy places in Acre include the House of `Abbúd (where Bahá'u'lláh and his family resided) and the House of `Abdu'lláh Páshá (where later 'Abdu'l-Bahá resided with his family), and the Garden of Ridván where Bahá'u'lláh enjoyed spending the later part of his life. Aerial view of the complex of Baháí administrative buildings on Mt. ... Aerial view of the complex of Baháí administrative buildings on Mt. ... Aerial view of the complex of Baháí administrative buildings on Mt. ...


Sports

The city's major football team Hapoel Acre currently play in Liga Leumit, the second tier of Israeli football. They did play briefly in the top division during the 1970s, but have spent the majority of their history in the lower leagues. Hapoel Acre F.C. (Hebrew: הפועל עכו) are a football club from the northern Israeli city of Acre. ... The Liga Leumit (Hebrew:ליגה לאומית) is the second-highest division overall in the Israeli football league system after Ligat haAl. ... Football is the unofficial national sport of Israel. ... For Ligat haAl basketball, see Ligat Winner. ...


Transportation

Bus

Acre has a central bus station that is served by Egged buses. Services include fairly modest internal service and relatively extensive inter-city service. Due to its strategic location, Acre central bus station has bus links to major cities and towns as Haifa, Nahariya, Karmiel, Zefat, Kiryat Shmona, Sakhnin, as well as lines connecting it to nearby smaller villages. Egged A bendy city bus in Israel. ... Hebrew Arabic حَيْفَا Founded in 3rd century CE Government City District Haifa Population 267,000 1,039,000 (metropolitan area) Jurisdiction 63,666 dunams (63. ... Nahariyya (נהריה; unofficially also spelled Nahariya or Naharia) is a city in the North District in Israel. ... Karmiel Karmiel is a city in northern Israel. ... Safed (Hebrew צפת Tzfat, Arabic صفد Safad, other English spellings Zefat,Safad,Tsfat etc. ... Qiryat Shemona (קרית שמונה; unofficially also spelled Kiryat Shmona) is a city in the North District in Israel. ... Sakhnin (Arabic: سخنين; Hebrew: סחנין) is an Arab town in northern Israel. ...


Rail

Acre is served by the Acre Railway Station. Acre Railway Station (‎, Taḥanat HaRakevet Akko) is an Israel Railways passenger station serving the city of Acre (Akko) and the surrounding towns and villages. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Modern spellings:
    Arabic: عكّا ʿAkkā
    Hebrew עַכּוֹ
    Standard Hebrew ʿAkko
    Tiberian Hebrew ʿAkkô
    Bahá'í orthography `Akká
    Spoken word: Spoken content icon
    Other spellings and historical names of the city include Accho, Acco, and formerly Aak, Ake, Akre, Akke, Ocina, Antiochia Ptolemais (Greek: Αντιόχεια της Πτολεμαΐδος), Antiochenes, Ptolemais Antiochenes, Ptolemais or Ptolemaïs, Colonia Claudii Cæsaris, and St.-Jean d'Acre (Acre for short)

The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing languages such as Arabic, Persian, Urdu, and others. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... The Modern Hebrew language is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family. ... Tiberian Hebrew is an oral tradition of pronunciation for ancient forms of Hebrew, especially the Hebrew of the Bible, that was given written form by masoretic scholars in the Jewish community at Tiberias in the early middle ages, beginning in the 8th century. ... Baháí orthography uses certain accents when writing Baháí terms. ... Image File history File links Sound-icon. ...

Sister cities

Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Leaning Tower of Pisa. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Austria. ... Bregenz is the capital of Vorarlberg, the westernmost federal state of Austria. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... See also: Kanton Canton or canton may refer to: canton (country subdivision), a territorial subdivision of a country the upper left (hoist) quarter of a flag, see flag terminology canton (heraldry), a subordinary occupying the (shield holders) upper right-hand ninth of the field canton (liqueur), a ginger-flavored... This article is about the U.S. State. ...

See also

This article is about the medieval crusades. ... Daher El-Omar (1775-?), the Arab-Bedouin ruler of the Galilee district at Israel in the 18th century. ... The District of Acre (also known as the Province of Acre) was one of the Districts of Palestine, established by the Ottoman Empire, was located within the boundaries of the modern State of Israel. ... 19th century cannon, set in the wall of Acre near a sign commemorating Farhi. ... The Spring of the Cow (Arabic: is a spring in Akka, Israel. ...

External links

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