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Encyclopedia > Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Persian Empire

Achaemenid Empire.
Languages Persian, Elamite, Aramaic
Religions There was no official state religion. Zoroastrianism and numerous others religions, such as Judaism, were practiced.
Capitals Anshan,
Babylon,
Persepolis,
Pasargadae,
Susa
Area Near East
Existed 559 - 330 BCE
Founder of empires: Cyrus, The Great is still revered in modern Iran as he was in all the successor Persian Empires.

The Achaemenid Empire (Persian: هخامنشیان IPA: [haχɒmaneʃijɒn]) (559 BC–330 BC), or "Achaemenid Persian Empire", was the first of the Persian Empires to rule over significant portions of Greater Iran, the famous foe of the Greek city states (See Greco-Persian Wars), and the first of many successor Persian Empires to be accounted as such and to figure importantly in history—most often as a local superpower, or major regional power. It is also the state which freed the Israelites (Jews) from their Babylonian captivity, and instituted Aramaic, the language in which small portions of the Old Testament and many important historic records are written, to the greater near east as official language. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1676x869, 503 KB) Note : Inspired by Historical Atlas of Georges Duby (p. ... “Farsi” redirects here. ... Elamite is an extinct language, which was spoken in the ancient Elamite Empire. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... <math>Insert formula here</math>Link titleItalic textItalic textItalic textItalic textBold textBold text:For the Chinese city, see Anshan AnÅ¡an or Anzan (Persian انشان AnÅ¡an, modern Tepe Malyan, Tal-e Malyan 29. ... For other uses, see Babylon (disambiguation). ... Persepolis aerial view. ... Pasargadae (Persian: پاسارگاد) was a city in ancient Persia, and is today an archaeological site and one of Irans UNESCO World Heritage Sites. ... Winged sphinx from the palace of Darius the Great at Susa. ... The Near East is a term commonly used by archaeologists, geographers and historians, less commonly by journalists and commentators, to refer to the region encompassing Anatolia (the Asian portion of modern Turkey), the Levant (modern Israel/Palestine, the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, Jordan, Syria and Lebanon), Georgia, Armenia, and... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File links Cyrus_portrait. ... Image File history File links Cyrus_portrait. ... “Cyrus” redirects here. ... “Persia” redirects here. ... “Farsi” redirects here. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... “Persia” redirects here. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      Greater Iran (in Persian: Irān-e Bozorg, or Irān-zamÄ«n; the Encyclopedia Iranica uses the term Iranian Cultural Continent[1]) is a term for the Iranian plateau in addition to... Persian Wars redirects here. ... “Persia” redirects here. ...

At the height of its power, the Empire spanned three continents. It also eventually incorporated the following territories: in the east, modern Afghanistan and beyond into central Asia, and Pakistan; in the north and west, all of Asia Minor (modern Turkey), the upper Balkans peninsula (Thrace), and most of the Black Sea coastal regions; in the west and southwest the territories of modern Iraq, northern Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon, Syria, all significant population centers of ancient Egypt and as far west as portions of Libya. Encompassing approximately 7.5 million square kilometers, the Achaemenid Empire was territorially the largest empire of classical antiquity. Anatolia (Greek: &#945;&#957;&#945;&#964;&#959;&#955;&#951; anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD...


The empire began as a tributary state of the Medes but ended up conquering and enlarging the Median empire to include Egypt and Asia Minor. Under Xerxes, it came very close to conquering Ancient Greece. The Achaemenids were overthrown by the conquest of Alexander the Great in 330 BC. A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ... Mede nobility. ... Anatolia (Greek: &#945;&#957;&#945;&#964;&#959;&#955;&#951; anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... Xerxes may refer to these Persian kings: Xerxes I, reigned 485–465 BC, also known as Xerxes the Great. ... The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ...


History

The early period

Ancient bracelet, Achaemenid period, 500BC, Iran.
Ancient bracelet, Achaemenid period, 500BC, Iran.

The founder of this dynasty was supposedly Achaemenes: هخامنش (Old Persian Haxāmaniš "Of Friendly Mind"). He was succeeded by his son Teispes (Ciڑpi), who first took the title King of Anšān after seizing Anšān city from the Elamites. Inscriptions indicate that when Teispes died, two of his sons shared the throne as Cyrus (Kurush), king of Anšān, and Ariaramnes (Ariyāramna, 'Having the Iranians at Peace'), king of Parsua (later called Pārsa, that is, Persia Proper). They were succeeded by their respective sons Cambyses I of Anshan (Kambūjiya, "the Elder"), and Arsames (Aršāma "Having a Hero's Might") of Iran (Persia). Bracelet from Achaemenid Persia. ... Bracelet from Achaemenid Persia. ... This article concerns Achaemenes, founder of the first Persian dynasty. ... Teispes (675-640 BC) was the son of Achaemenes and a King of Persia. ... <math>Insert formula here</math>Link titleItalic textItalic textItalic textItalic textBold textBold text:For the Chinese city, see Anshan AnÅ¡an or Anzan (Persian انشان AnÅ¡an, modern Tepe Malyan, Tal-e Malyan 29. ... The ancient Elamite Empire lay to the east of Sumer and Akkad, in what is now southwestern Iran. ... Cyrus I was King of Anshan from c. ... Ariaramnes (Old Persian Ariyâramna, Peace of the Aryans) was an uncle of Cyrus the Great, probably a great-uncle and the king of Persia. ... // Introduction Fars is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Cambyses I the Elder (c. ... Arsames was King of Persia, but while still alive gave up the thone to Cyrus II of Persia. ...


In 559 BC, Cambyses I the Elder was succeeded as king of Anڑān by his son Cyrus II the Great, who also succeeded the still-living Arsames as King of Persia, thus reuniting the two realms. Cyrus is considered to be the first true king of the Achaemenid dynasty, as his predecessors were subservient to Media. Cyrus II conquered Media, Lydia and Babylon. Cyrus was politically shrewd, modeling himself as the "savior" of conquered nations. To reinforce this image, he instituted policies of religious freedom, and abolished slavery in the newly acquired cities. (Most notably the Jews of Babylon, as recorded in the Cyrus Cylinder and the Tanakh). It was the general policy of the Achaemenids to continue the Assyrian and Babylonian practice of transferring large populations between areas. This caused a great deal of cultural diffusion, blending many of the disparate clans together, and thus reducing previous tribal (and territorial) loyalties. As a result, the Achaemenid era was known as a relatively peaceful period in Middle Eastern history. Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 600s BC - 590s BC - 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC Events and Trends Carthage conquers Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica 559 BC - King Cambyses I of Anshan dies... “Cyrus” redirects here. ... Lydia (Greek ) is a historic region of western Anatolia, congruent with Turkeys modern provinces of Ä°zmir and Manisa. ... For other uses, see Babylon (disambiguation). ... The Cyrus Cylinder. ... For the musical collective, see Tanakh (band). ...


His immediate successors were less successful. Cyrus' son Cambyses II conquered Egypt, but died in July 522 BC as the result of either accident or suicide, during a revolt led by a sacerdotal clan that had lost its power following Cyrus' conquest of Media. These priests, who Herodotus called Magi, usurped the throne for one of their own, Gaumata, who then pretended to be Cambyses II's younger brother Smerdis (Pers. Bardiya), who had been assassinated some three years earlier. Owing to the despotic rule of Cambyses and his long absence in Egypt, "the whole people, Perses, Medes and all the other nations," acknowledged the usurper, especially as he granted a remission of taxes for three years (Herodotus iii. 68). Cambyses II (Persian Kambujiya), was the name borne by the son of Cyrus the Great. ... For other uses, see Magi (disambiguation). ... Smerdis was a Persian king of infamous memory. ...


It is important to note that the claim that Gaumata had impersonated Smerdis derive from Darius. Historians are divided over the possibility that the story of the impostor was invented by Darius as justification for his coup [1]. Darius made a similar claim when he later captured Babylon, announcing that the Babylonian king was not in fact Nebuchadnezzar III but an impostor named Nidintu-bel [2].

According to the Behistun Inscription, pseudo-Smerdis ruled for seven months before being overthrown in 522 BC by a member of a lateral branch of the Achaemenid family, Darius I (Old Persian Dāryavuš "Who Holds Firm the Good", also known as Darayarahush or Darius the Great). The Magi, though persecuted, continued to exist, and a year following the death of the first pseudo-Smerdis (Gaumata), had a second pseudo-Smerdis (named Vahyazdāta) attempt a coup. The coup, though initially successful, failed. Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Darius the Great (c. ... The Behistun Inscription, carved into a cliffside, gives the same text in three languages, telling the story of King Darius conquests, with the names of twenty-three provinces subject to him. ... Seal of Darius I, showing the king hunting on his chariot, and the symbol of Ahuramazda Darius the Great (Pers. ...


According to Herodotus, the native leadership then debated the best form of government for the Empire. He reports that it was decided that oligarchy would divide them against one another, and democracy would bring about mob rule resulting in a charismatic leader resuming the monarchy. Therefore, they decided a new monarch was in order, particularly since they were in a position to choose him. Darius I was chosen monarch from amongst the leaders. He was cousin to Cambyses II and Smerdis, claiming Ariaramnes as his ancestor. Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: HÄ“rodotos Halikarnāsseus) was a Greek historian from Ionia who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Oligarchy (Greek , Oligarkhía) is a form of government where political power effectively rests with a small, elite segment of society (whether distinguished by wealth, family or military powers). ... Ochlocracy (Greek: &#959;&#967;&#955;&#959;&#954;&#961;&#945;&#964;&#953;&#945;; Latin: ochlocratia) is government by mob or a disorganized mass of people. ...


Darius I attacked the Greek mainland, which had supported rebellious Greek colonies under his aegis; but as a result of his defeat at the Battle of Marathon in 490, he was forced to pull the limits of his empire back to Asia Minor. Combatants Athens, Plataea Persia Commanders Miltiades, Callimachus â€ , Arimnestus Datis â€ ?, Artaphernes Strength 10,000 Athenians, 1,000 Plataeans 20,000 - 100,000 a Casualties 192 Athenians killed, 11 Plataeans killed (Herodotus) 6,400 killed, 7 ships captured (Herodotus) a These are modern consensus estimates. ... Anatolia (Greek: &#945;&#957;&#945;&#964;&#959;&#955;&#951; anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to...


The Achaemenids thereafter consolidated areas firmly under their control. It was Cyrus the Great and Darius the Great who, by sound and farsighted administrative planning, brilliant military maneuvering, and a humanistic world view, established the greatness of the Achaemenids and in less than thirty years raised them from an obscure tribe to a world power. It was during the reign of Darius I that Persepolis was built (518–516 BC) and which would serve as capital for several generations of Achaemenid kings. Ecbatana (Hagmatāna "City of Gatherings", modern Hamadan) in Media was greatly expanded during this period and served as the summer capital. “Cyrus” redirects here. ... Seal of Darius I, showing the king hunting on his chariot, and the symbol of Ahuramazda Darius the Great (Pers. ... Persepolis aerial view. ... Golden Rhyton from Irans Achaemenid period. ... Avicennas tomb in Hamedan Hamadan or Hamedan ( Persian: همدان ) is the capital city of Hamadan Province of Iran. ...


Greco-Persian Wars

Main article: Greco-Persian Wars
The world, c. 500 BC, showing the Achaemenid Empire's place in its larger geopolitical context.
The world, c. 500 BC, showing the Achaemenid Empire's place in its larger geopolitical context.

Xerxes I (485 BC465 BC, Old Persian Xšayārša "Hero Among Kings"), son of Darius I, organised a massive expedition aiming to conquer Greece. His army entered from the north of Greece, meeting little or no resistance through Macedonia and Thessaly, but met resistance from a small Greek force that held for three days at Thermopylae. Following Xerxes' victory at the Battle of Thermopylae, he sacked the evacuated city of Athens and prepared to meet the Greeks at their last line of defense at the Isthmus of Corinth and the Saronic Gulf. A naval battle in Artemisium came to be tactically indecisive as large storms destroyed ships from both sides. However, from strategic grounds it awarded the Persian fleet an uncontested Artemisium and Aegean Sea. The battle was stopped prematurely as the Greeks caught news of the defeat at Thermopylae and retreated. In 480 BC the Greeks won a decisive victory at Battle of Salamis and forced Xerxes to retire to Sardis. The army which he left in Greece under Mardonius was destroyed in 479 at the Battle of Plataea. The final defeat of the Persians at Mycale roused the Greek cities of Asia to revolt, and marked the end of the Greco-Persian Wars, along with Persian expansion to Europe. Persian Wars redirects here. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (4500x2234, 455 KB) // The world, c. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (4500x2234, 455 KB) // The world, c. ... Xerxes the Great (Old Persian: 𐎧𐏁𐎹𐎠𐎼𐏁𐎠[2]) was a king of Persia (reigned 485 BC–465 BC) of the Achaemenid dynasty. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC Years: 490 BC 489 BC 488 BC 487 BC 486 BC - 485 BC - 484 BC - 483 BC... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 510s BC 500s BC 490s BC 480s BC 470s BC - 460s BC - 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC Years: 470 BC 469 BC 468 BC 467 BC 466 BC - 465 BC - 464 BC 463 BC... Map showing Thessaly periphery in Greece Thessaly (Θεσσαλια; modern Greek Thessalía; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is one of the 13 peripheries of Greece, and is further sub-divided into 4 prefectures. ... Combatants Greek city-states Achaemenid Persia Commanders Leonidas â€  Xerxes the Great Strength 300 Spartans 700 Thespians[1] 6,000 other Greek allies1 200,000 to 1,000,000+ (Modern Estimates) (See below) Casualties 300 Spartans 900 Helots 1,000 Phocians 700 Thespians[1] 400 Thebans 25,000 (Herodotus)[2] 1... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... The Isthmus of Corinth is the narrow landbridge which connects the Peloponnesos peninsula with the mainland of Greece, near the city of Corinth. ... The Saronic Gulf or Gulf of Aegina in Greece forms part of the Aegean Sea and defines the eastern side of the isthmus of Corinth. ... For other uses, see Battle of Salamis (disambiguation). ... Mardonius was a Persian commander during the Persian Wars with Greece in the 5th century BC. He was the son of Gobryas and the son-in-law of Darius I of Persia, whose daughter Artozostra he had married. ... 479 pr. ... Combatants Greek city-states Persia Commanders Pausanias Mardonius â€  Strength 110,000 (Herodotus) ~40,000 (Modern Consensus) 300,000 (Herodotus) 50,000-70,000 [1][2][3] (Modern Consensus) Casualties 10,000+ (Ephorus and Diodorus) 1,360 (Plutarch) 759 (Herodotus) 43,000 survived (Herodotus) The Battle of Plataea was the final... Combatants Greek city-states Persia Commanders Leotychides Artaÿntes Strength About 40,000 60,000 men, 300 ships Casualties 40,000 The Battle of Mycale, Greek Μάχη Μυκάλης, Mache tes Mycales , was one of the two major battles that ended the Persian invasion of Greece, during the Greco-Persian Wars. ... Persian Wars redirects here. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Nonetheless, by the 5th century BC the Achaemenid kings ruled over territories roughly encompassing today's Iran, Iraq, Armenia, Afghanistan, Turkey, Bulgaria, eastern parts of Greece, Egypt, Syria, much of what is now Pakistan, Jordan, Israel, Palestine, Lebanon, Caucasia, Central Asia, Libya, and northern parts of Arabia. The empire eventually became the largest empire of the ancient world up to that point. Map of the British Mandate of Palestine. ... The Caucasus is a region in eastern Europe and western Asia between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea which includes the Caucasus mountains and surrounding lowlands. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... This is a list of the largest empires in world history. ...


At different times, the Achaemenids also ruled Egypt, although the Egyptians twice regained temporary independence from Persia. After the practice of Manetho, Egyptian historians refer to the period in Egypt when the Achaemenid dynasty ruled as the Twenty-Seventh (525 BC404 BC) and Thirty-First Dynasties (343332 BC) respectively. Manetho, also known as Manethon of Sebennytos, was an Egyptian historian and priest from Sebennytos who lived during the Ptolematic era, circa 3rd century BC. Manetho recorded Aegyptiaca (History of Egypt). ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC Events 529 BC - Cambyses II succeeds his father Cyrus as ruler of Persia. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC - 400s BC - 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC Years: 409 BC 408 BC 407 BC 406 BC 405 BC - 404 BC - 403 BC 402 BC... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 390s BC - 380s BC - 370s BC - 360s BC - 350s BC - 340s BC _ 330s BC - 320s BC - 310s BC - 300s BC - 290s BC 348 BC 347 BC 346 BC 345 BC 344 BC 343 BC 342 BC 341 BC... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC - 330s BC - 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 337 BC 336 BC 335 BC 334 BC 333 BC - 332 BC - 331 BC 329 BC 328...


The cultural phase

Achaemenid golden bowl with Lion imagery.
Achaemenid golden bowl with Lion imagery.

Xerxes I was followed by Artaxerxes I (465424 BC), who moved the capital from Persepolis to Babylon. It was during this reign that Elamite ceased to be the language of government, and Aramaic came into prominence. It was probably during this reign that the solar calendar (based on the Babylonian one) was introduced as the national calendar. Under Artaxerxes I, Zoroastrianism became the de-facto religion of state, and for this Artaxerxes I is today also known as the Constantine of that faith. Image File history File linksMetadata Gold_cup_kalardasht. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Gold_cup_kalardasht. ... Artaxerxes I was king of Persia from 464 BC to 424 BC. He belonged to the Achaemenid dynasty and was the successor of Xerxes I. He is mentioned in two books of the Bible, Ezra and Nehemiah. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 510s BC 500s BC 490s BC 480s BC 470s BC - 460s BC - 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC Years: 470 BC 469 BC 468 BC 467 BC 466 BC - 465 BC - 464 BC 463 BC... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC - 420s BC - 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC Years: 429 BC 428 BC 427 BC 426 BC 425 BC - 424 BC - 423 BC 422 BC... Elamite is an extinct language, which was spoken in the ancient Elamite Empire. ... In the Babylonian calendar a year consisted of 12 lunar months, each beginning when a new crescent moon was first sighted low on the western horizon at sunset. ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... For other uses, see Constantine I (disambiguation). ...


Artaxerxes I died in Susa, and his body was brought to Persepolis for interment in the tomb of his forebears. Artaxerxes I was immediately succeeded by his eldest son Xerxes II, who was however assassinated by one of his half-brothers a few weeks later. Darius II was then in Babylon, where he rallied support for himself. He marched eastwards, disposed and put to death the assassin and was crowned in his stead.


From 412 Darius II (423404 BC), at the instance of the able Tissaphernes, gave support now to Athens, now to Sparta, but in 407, Darius' son Cyrus the Younger was appointed to replace Tissaphernes and aid was given entirely to Sparta which finally defeated Athens in 404. In the same year, Darius fell fatally ill and died in Babylon. At his deathbed, his Babylonian wife Parysatis pleaded with Darius to have her second eldest son Cyrus (the Younger) crowned, but Darius refused. Darius II, originally called Ochus and often surnamed Nothus (from Greek &#957;&#959;&#952;&#959;&#962;, meaning bastard), was emperor of Persia from 423 BC to 404 BC. Artaxerxes I, who died shortly after December 24, 424 BC, was followed by his son Xerxes II. After a month and a... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC - 420s BC - 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC Years: 428 BC 427 BC 426 BC 425 BC 424 BC - 423 BC - 422 BC 421 BC... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC - 400s BC - 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC Years: 409 BC 408 BC 407 BC 406 BC 405 BC - 404 BC - 403 BC 402 BC... Cyrus the Younger, son of Darius II and Parysatis, was a Persian prince and general. ... Parysatis was the illegitimate daughter of Artaxerxes I, Emperor of Persia and Andia of Babylon. ...


Darius was then succeeded by his eldest son Artaxerxes II Mnemon. Plutarch relates (probably on the authority of Ctesias) that the displaced Tissaphernes came to the new king on his coronation day to warn him that his younger brother Cyrus (the Younger) was preparing to assassinate him during the ceremony. Artaxerxes had Cyrus arrested and would have had him put to death if their mother Parysatis had not intervened. Cyrus was then sent back as Satrap of Lydia, where he prepared an armed rebellion. Cyrus and Artaxerxes met in the Battle of Cunaxa in 401 BC, where Cyrus was killed. Artaxerxes II (c. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Ctesias of Cnidus (in Caria) (Greek ), was a Greek physician and historian, who flourished in the 5th century BC. In early life he was physician to Artaxerxes Mnemon, whom he accompanied in 401 BC on his expedition against his brother Cyrus the Younger. ... The Battle of Cunaxa was fought in 401 BC between Cyrus the Younger and his elder brother Arsaces, who had seized the Persian throne as Artaxerxes II in 404 BC. Cyrus gathered an army of Greek mercenaries under the Spartan general Clearchus, and met Artaxerxes at Cunaxa on the left... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC - 400s BC - 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC Years: 406 BC 405 BC 404 BC 403 BC 402 BC - 401 BC - 400 BC 399 BC...


Artaxerxes II (404358 BC), was the longest reigning of the Achaemenid kings and it was during this 45-year period of (relative) peace and stability that many of the monuments of the era were constructed. Artaxerxes moved the capital back to Persepolis, which he greatly extended. Also the summer capital at Ecbatana was lavishly extended with gilded columns and roof tiles of silver and copper (Polybius, 10.27.12). The extraordinary innovation of the Zoroastrian shrine cults can also be dated to his reign, and it was probably during this period that Zoroastrianism was disseminated throughout Asia Minor and the Levant, and from there to Armenia. The temples, though serving a religious purpose, were however not a purely selfless act: they also served as an important source of income. From the Babylonian kings, the Achaemenids had taken over the concept of a mandatory temple tax, a one-tenth tithe which all inhabitants paid to the temple nearest to their land or other source of income (Dandamaev & Lukonin, 1989:361–362). A share of this income called the quppu ša šarri, "kings chest"—an ingenious institution originally introduced by Nabonidus—was then turned over to the ruler. In retrospect, Artaxerxes is generally regarded as an amiable man who lacked the moral fibre to be a really successful ruler. However, six centuries later Ardeshir I, founder of the second Persian Empire, would consider himself Artaxerxes' successor, a grand testimony of the importance of Artaxerxes to the Persian psyche. Artaxerxes II (c. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC - 400s BC - 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC Years: 409 BC 408 BC 407 BC 406 BC 405 BC - 404 BC - 403 BC 402 BC... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC - 350s BC - 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 363 BC 362 BC 361 BC 360 BC 359 BC 358 BC 357 BC 356 BC 355... Anatolia (Greek: &#945;&#957;&#945;&#964;&#959;&#955;&#951; anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... The Levant The Levant (IPA: ) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... Nabonidus (Akkadian Nabû-nāʾid) was the last King of Babylon, who ruled the Neo-Babylonian Empire from 556 BC to 539 BC. His reign was characterized by his lack of interest in the politics and religion of his kingdom, preferring instead to study the older temples and antiquities in... Silver coin of Ardashir I with a fire altar on its verso (British Museum London). ...


Fall of the empire

According to Greek sources, Artaxerxes' successor Artaxerxes III (358 BC338 BC) came to the throne by bloody means, ensuring his place upon the throne by the assassination of eight of his half-brothers. In 343 BC Artaxerxes III defeated Nectanebo II, driving him from Egypt, and made Egypt once again a Persian satrapy. In 338 BC, the very year that Philip of Macedon united the Greek states (by force) and so paved the way for Alexander, Artaxerxes III died of natural causes (according to cuneiform sources) but according to the Greek historian Diodorus, Artaxerxes was murdered by his minister, Bagoas.[1] Artaxerxes III ruled Persia from 358 BC to 338 BC. He was the son of Artaxerxes II and was succeeded by Arses of Persia (also known as Artaxerxes IV). ... Events Earthquake in Nicaea. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC - 330s BC - 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 343 BC 342 BC 341 BC 340 BC 339 BC - 338 BC - 337 BC 336 BC 335... Nectanebo II (ruled 360 - 343 BC), also known by the name Nakhthoreb, was the third and last king of the Thirtieth dynasty of Egypt and the last native ruler of the country. ... Philip II of Macedon: victory medal (niketerion) struck in Tarsus, 2nd c. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ...


Artxerxes III was succeeded by Artaxerxes IV Arses, who before he could act was also poisoned by Bagoas. Bagoas is further said to have killed not only all Arses' children, but many of the other princes of the land. Bagoas then had Darius III (336 BC330 BC), a nephew of Artaxerxes IV, placed on the throne. Artaxerxes IV Arses, King of Persia between 338 BC and 336 BC. He was the youngest son of King Artaxerxes III and was not expected to succeed to the throne of Persia. ... Darius III or Codomannus (c. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC - 330s BC - 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 341 BC 340 BC 339 BC 338 BC 337 BC - 336 BC - 335 BC 334 BC 333... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC - 330s BC - 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 335 BC 334 BC 333 BC 332 BC 331 BC - 330 BC - 329 BC 328 BC 327...


Darius III, although previously Satrap of Armenia, had no training in governing the empire. Nonetheless, he showed his mettle in his first year as emperor by personally forcing Bagoas to swallow poison. In 334 BC, when Darius was just succeeding in subduing Egypt again, Alexander attacked Asia Minor and although the western Satraps met him in force, these were no match for the (now) battle-hardened Macedonian troops. Following the battles of Issus (332 BC), then Gaugamela (331 BC), Alexander marched on Susa, which likewise capitulated and surrendered vast treasure. Alexander then went eastwards to Persepolis which surrendered in early 330 BC. From Persepolis, Alexander headed north to Pasargadae where he treated the tomb of Cyrus II with respect. From there he headed to Ecbatan, where Darius III had sought refuge. Darius III was killed, and on orders from Alexander, his body was taken with full honors to Persepolis for interment. The Orontid Dynasty was the first Armenian dynasty. ... For other uses, see Battle of Issus (disambiguation). ... Combatants Macedon Achaemenid Persia Commanders Alexander the Great Darius III Strength 9,000 peltasts,[1] 31,000 hoplites,[1][2] 7,000 cavalry[2] 1,000,000 total (See Size of Persian army) Casualties 4,000 40,000[3] The Battle of Gaugamela (IPA: ) took place in 331 BC between... Persepolis aerial view. ...


The Achaemenid era was succeeded by the Seleucid era, that is, by the generals of Alexander and their descendants. They in turn would be succeeded by the Arsacid dynasty of Parthia in North-Eastern Iran, who would (quite spuriously) claim Artaxerxes II for their ancestor. Istakhr, one of the vassal kingdoms of the Arsacids would be overthrown by Papak, a priest of the temple there. Papak's son, Ardeshir I, who named himself in remembrance of Artaxerxes II, revolted against the Parthians, defeated them and went on to establish the second Persian Empire, 556 years after the end of the first. Silver coin of Ardashir I with a fire altar on its verso (British Museum London). ...


Politics and administration

Government

The Behistun Inscription tells the story of Darius I's conquests, with the names of twenty-three satrapys subject to him.

The Achaemenids were absolutists who allowed a certain amount of regional autonomy in the form of the satrapy system. A satrapy was an administrative unit, usually organized on a geographical basis. A satrap (governor) administered the region, a general supervised military recruitment and ensured order, and a state secretary kept official records. The general and the state secretary reported directly to the central government. ImageMetadata File history File links Darius_I_the_Greats_inscription. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Darius_I_the_Greats_inscription. ... The Behistun Inscription, carved into a cliffside, gives the same text in three languages, telling the story of King Darius conquests, with the names of twenty-three provinces subject to him. ... Seal of Darius I, showing the king hunting on his chariot, and the symbol of Ahuramazda Darius the Great (Pers. ... Look up satrap in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up satrap in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Accomplishments of Darius' reign included codification of the data, a universal legal system upon which much of later Iranian law would be based, and construction of a new capital at Persepolis, where vassal states would offer their yearly tribute at the festival celebrating the spring equinox. Persepolis aerial view. ...


The practice of slavery in Achaemenid Persia was generally banned, although there is evidence that conquered and/or rebellious armies were sold into captivity.[2] Zoroastrianism, the de facto religion of the empire, explicitly forbids slavery,[3] and the kings of Achaemenid Persia followed this ban to varying degrees, as evidenced by the freeing of the Jews at Babylon, and the construction of Persepolis by paid workers.


Satrapies

Communications

The twenty satrapies were linked by a 2,500-kilometer highway, the most impressive stretch being the Royal Road from Susa to Sardis, built by command of Darius I. Relays of mounted couriers could reach the remotest of areas in fifteen days. Despite the relative local independence afforded by the satrapy system, royal inspectors, the "eyes and ears of the king," toured the empire and reported on local conditions. The king also maintained a personal bodyguard of 10,000 men, called the Immortals. The map of Achaemenid Empire and the Royal Road. ... Winged sphinx from the palace of Darius the Great at Susa. ... A recent view of the ceremonial court of the thermae–gymnasium complex in Sardis, dated to 211—212 AD Sardis, also Sardes (Lydian: Sfard, Greek: Σάρδεις, Persian: Sparda), modern Sart in the Manisa province of Turkey, was the capital of the ancient kingdom of Lydia, the seat of a proconsul under... A Persian Immortal wielding a spear, wicker shield, dagger, and bow. ...


Trade and economy

The Persepolis Ruins.
The Persepolis Ruins.

Darius revolutionized the economy by placing it on a silver and gold coinage system. Trade was extensive, and under the Achaemenids there was an efficient infrastructure that facilitated the exchange of commodities in the far reaches of the empire. Tariffs on trade were one of the empire's main sources of revenue, along with agriculture and tribute. Image File history File linksMetadata Perse. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Perse. ... Persepolis aerial view. ...


Culture

Behistun Inscription, column 1 (DB I 1–15).

The Achaemenid Empire, which at the height of its glory had more than 20 nations under its control, was built on the most basic principles - that of truth and justice, which formed the bases of the Achaemenid culture. Based on the Zoroastrian doctrine, it was the strong emphasis on honesty and integrity that gave the ancient Persians credibility to rule the world, even in the eyes of the people belonging to the conquered nations. Herodotus in his mid-5th century BC account of Persian residents of the Pontus recorded that the most disgraceful thing in the world [the Perses] think, is to tell a lie; the next worst, to owe a debt: because, among other reasons, the debtor is obliged to tell lies. Herodotus also reports that Persian youths, from their fifth year to their twentieth year, were instructed in three things - to ride a horse, to draw a bow and to speak the Truth. Truth for the sake of truth, was the universal motto and the very core of the Achaemenid culture that was followed not only by the great kings, but even the ordinary Persians made it a point to adhere to this code of conduct. Download high resolution version (1000x331, 137 KB)Behistun Inscription, Column 1 (DB I 1-15) Sketch: Fr. ... Download high resolution version (1000x331, 137 KB)Behistun Inscription, Column 1 (DB I 1-15) Sketch: Fr. ... The Behistun Inscription, carved into a cliffside, gives the same text in three languages, telling the story of King Darius conquests, with the names of twenty-three provinces subject to him. ... Time Saving Truth from Falsehood and Envy, François Lemoyne, 1737 For other uses, see Truth (disambiguation). ... This article is about the concept of justice. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hērodotos Halikarnāsseus) was a Greek historian from Ionia who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ...


In Achaemenid Iran, the lie, druj, is considered to be a cardinal sin, and it was punishable by death in some extreme cases. Tablets discovered by archaeologists in 1930s[4] at the site of Persepolis give us adequate evidence about the love and veneration for the culture of truth during the Achaemenian period. These tablets contain the names of ordinary Iranians, mainly traders and warehouse-keepers.[5] According to Professor Stanley Insler of Yale University, as many as 72 names of officials and petty clerks found on these tablets contain the word truth.[6] Thus, says Insler, we have Artapana, protector of truth, Artakama, lover of truth, Artamanah, truth-minded, Artafarnah, possessing splendour of truth, Artazusta, delighting in truth, Artastuna, pillar of truth, Artafrida, prospering the truth and Artahunara, having nobility of truth. It was Darius the Great, who laid down the ordinance of good regulations during his reign. King Darius' testimony about his constant battle against the lie is found in cuneiform inscriptions. Carved high up in the Behistun mountain on the road to Kermanshah, Darius testifies: Cardinal Jaime Lachica Sin (born August 31, 1928 in the Philippines) was the 14th of 16 children of Juan Sin and Maxima Lachica. ... Persepolis aerial view. ... “Yale” redirects here. ... Look up Cuneiform in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Behistun Inscription, carved into a cliffside, gives the same text in three languages, telling the story of King Darius conquests, with the names of twenty-three provinces subject to him. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

Silver rhytons such as this were ubiquitous and used as a drinking vessel in Persia, underscoring the eclectic taste of the Achaemenids. The fanciful beast that forms its base is both mammal and bird.
Silver rhytons such as this were ubiquitous and used as a drinking vessel in Persia, underscoring the eclectic taste of the Achaemenids. The fanciful beast that forms its base is both mammal and bird.
I was not a lie-follower, I was not a doer of wrong ... According to righteousness I conducted myself. Neither to the weak or to the powerful did I do wrong. The man who cooperated with my house, him I rewarded well; who so did injury, him I punished well.

Darius had his hands full dealing with large-scale rebellion which broke out the empire. After fighting successfully with nine traitors in a year, Darius records his battles against them for posterity and tells us how it was the lie that made them rebel against the empire. At Behistun, Darius says: Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 393 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (420 × 640 pixel, file size: 260 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This Ryhton is located at the British Museum. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 393 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (420 × 640 pixel, file size: 260 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This Ryhton is located at the British Museum. ... A Rhyton (Greek ῥυτόν rutón) is a ceremonial drinking cup shaped like an animal head or horn. ...

I smote them and took prisoner nine kings. One was Gaumata by name, a Magian; he lied; thus he said: I am Smerdis, the son of Cyrus...One, Acina by name, an Elamite; he lied; thus he said: I am king in Elam...One, Nidintu-Bel by name, a Babylonian; he lied; thus he said: I am Nebuchadnezzar, the son of Nabonidus. King Darius then tells us, The Lie made them rebellious, so that these men deceived the people.[7]

Then an advice to his son Xerxes, who is to succeed him as the great king: Xerxes the Great (Old Persian: 𐎧𐏁𐎹𐎠𐎼𐏁𐎠[2]) was a king of Persia (reigned 485 BC–465 BC) of the Achaemenid dynasty. ...

Thou who shalt be king hereafter, protect yourself vigorously from the Lie; the man who shall be a lie-follower, him do thou punish well, if thus thou shall think. May my country be secure!

Language

During the reign of Cyrus and Darius, and as long as the seat of government was still at Susa in Elam, the language of the Achaemenid chancellory was Elamite. This is primarily attested in the Persepolis fortification and treasury tablets that reveal details of the day-to-day functioning of the empire.[5] In the grand rock-face inscriptions of the kings, the Elamite texts are always accompanied by Akkadian and Old Persian inscriptions, and it appears that in these cases, the Elamite texts are translations of the Old Persian ones. It is then likely that although Elamite was used by the capital government in Susa, it was not a standardized language of government everywhere in the empire. The use of Elamite is not attested after 458 BC. Winged sphinx from the palace of Darius the Great at Susa. ... Elam (Persian: تمدن ایلام) is one of the oldest recorded civilizations. ... Elamite is an extinct language, which was spoken in the ancient Elamite Empire. ... Akkadian (lišānum akkadītum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ...


Following the conquest of Mesopotamia, the Aramaic language (as used in that territory) was adopted as the "vehicle for written communication between the different regions of the vast empire with its different peoples and languages. The use of a single official language, which modern scholarship has dubbed Official Aramaic or Imperial Aramaic, can be assumed to have greatly contributed to the astonishing success of the Achaemenids in holding their far-flung empire together for as long as they did."[8] In 1955, Richard Frye questioned the classification of Imperial Aramaic as an "official language", noting that no surviving edict expressly and unambiguously accorded that status to any particular language.[9] Frye reclassifies Imperial Aramaic as the "lingua franca" of the Achaemenid territories, suggesting then that the Achaemenid-era use of Aramaic was more pervasive than generally thought. Many centuries after the fall of the empire, Aramaic script and - as ideograms - Aramaic vocabulary would survive as the essential characteristics of the Pahlavi writing system.[10] Aramaic is a group of Semitic languages with a 3,000-year history. ... Aramaic is a group of Semitic languages with a 3,000-year history. ... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ... The Pahlavi script was used broadly in the Sasanid Persian Empire to write down Middle Persian for secular, as well as religious purposes. ...


Although Old Persian also appears on some seals and art objects, that language is attested primarily in the Achaemenid inscriptions of Western Iran, suggesting then that Old Persian was the common language of that region. However, by the reign of Artaxerxes II, the grammar and orthography of the inscriptions was so "far from perfect"[11] that it has been suggested that the scribes who composed those texts had already largely forgotten the language, and had to rely on older inscriptions, which they to a great extent reproduced verbatim.[12]


Customs

Herodotus mentions that the Persians were given to great birthday feasts, which would be followed by many desserts, a treat which they reproached the Greeks for omitting from their meals. Likewise, he observed that the Persians drank wine in large quantities and used it even for counsel, deliberating on important affairs when drunk, and deciding the next day, when sober, whether to act on the decision or set it aside.


On their methods of greeting, he asserts that equals kissed on the lips, persons of some difference in rank kissed on the cheek, and the lowest ranks would prostrate on the ground to the upper ranks. It is known that men of high rank practiced polygamy, and were reputed to have a number of wives and a greater number of concubines. On their same-sex relations, high ranked men kept favorites, such as Bagoas (courtier) who was one of Darius III's favorites and who later became Alexander's eromenos. Persian pederasty and its origins was debated even in ancient times. Herodotus claimed they had learned it from the Greeks: "...and [the Persians'] luxurious practices are of all kinds, and all borrowed: the Greeks taught them pederasty." (Histories;I.135, tr. A.D. Godley) However, Plutarch asserts that the Persians used eunuch boys "the Greek way" long before contact between the cultures. (De Malig. Herod. xiii.ll) The term polygamy (many marriages in late Greek) is used in related ways in social anthropology, sociobiology, and sociology. ... Bagoas (in Old Persian Bagoi) was a eunuch in the Persian Empire in the 4th Century BCE. He was reportedly the lover of Alexander the Great. ... Darius III or Codomannus (c. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... In the pederastic tradition of Classical Athens, the eromenos (Greek ἐρόμενος, pl. ... The term pederasty or paederasty can refer to a wide range of erotic practices, generally between adult and adolescent males. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ...


Also from Herodotus we learn that the Persians had a very high regard for truth, teaching the respect of truth to their children and despising nothing so much as a lie. On the education of the children, we learn that from the age of five until twenty they were taught to ride, shoot the bow, and speak the truth. Until the age of five children spent all their time among the women and never met the father, so that, should they die in infancy, he would not sorrow over their loss. (Herodotus, The History, passim)


Religion

It was during the Achaemenid period that Zoroastrianism reached South-Western Iran, where it came to be accepted by the rulers and through them became a defining element of Persian culture. The religion was not only accompanied by a formalization of the concepts and divinities of the traditional (Indo-)Iranian pantheon but also introduced several novel ideas, including that of free will, which is arguably Zoroaster's greatest contribution to religious philosophy. Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... Free Will in Theology is an important part of the debate on free will in general. ... Zoroaster (Greek Ζωροάστρης, Zōroastrēs) or Zarathustra (Avestan: Zaraθuštra), also referred to as Zartosht (Persian: ), was an ancient Iranian prophet and religious poet. ...


Under the patronage of the Achaemenid kings, and by the 5th century BCE as the de-facto religion of the state, Zoroastrianism would reach all corners of the empire. In turn, Zoroastrianism would be subject to the first syncretic influences, in particular from the Semitic lands to the west, from which the divinities of the religion would gain astral and planetary aspects and from where the temple cult originates.


For in the mid-5th century BCE, that is during the reign of Artaxerxes I and Darius II, Herodotus wrote "[the Perses] have no images of the gods, no temples nor altars, and consider the use of them a sign of folly. This comes, I think, from their not believing the gods to have the same nature with men, as the Greeks imagine." He claims the Persians offer sacrifice to: "the sun and moon, to the earth, to fire, to water, and to the winds. These are the only gods whose worship has come down to them from ancient times. At a later period they began the worship of Urania, which they borrowed from the Arabians and Assyrians. Mylitta is the name by which the Assyrians know this goddess, whom the Arabians call Alitta, and the Persians [Anahita]." (The original name here is Mithra, which has since been explained to be a confusion of Anahita with Mithra, understandable since they were commonly worshipped together in one temple).


From the Babylonian scholar-priest Berosus, who—although writing over 70 years after the reign of Artaxerxes II Mnemon—records that the emperor had been the first to make cult statues of divinities and had them placed them in temples in many of the major cities of the empire (Berosus, III.65). Berosus also substantiates Herodotus when he says the Persians knew of no images of gods until Artaxerxes II erected those images. On the means of sacrifice, Herodotus adds "they raise no altar, light no fire, pour no libations." This sentence has been interpreted to identify a critical (but later) accretions to Zoroastrianism. An altar with a wood-burning fire and the Yasna service at which libations are poured are all clearly identifiable with modern Zoroastrianism, but were apparently practices that had not yet developed in the mid-5th century. Boyce also assigns that development to the reign of Artaxerxes II (4th century BC), as an orthodox response to the innovation of the shrine cults. Berossos (also Berossus or Berosus) Greek: &#914;&#949;&#961;&#959;&#963;&#963;&#959;&#962;, was a Hellenistic Babylonian writer. ... Artaxerxes II (c. ... See Avesta Municipality for the Swedish town Yasna 28. ...


Herodotus also observed that "no prayer or offering can be made without a magus present" but this should not be confused with what is today understood by the term magus, that is a magupat (modern Persian: mobed), a Zoroastrian priest. Nor does Herodotus' description of the term as one of the tribes or castes of the Medes necessarily imply that these magi were Medians. They were simply a hereditary priesthood to be found all over Western Iran and although (originally) not associated with any one specific religion, they were traditionally responsible for all ritual and religious services. Although the unequivocal identification of the magus with Zoroastrianism came later (Sassanid era, 3rd–7th c. AD), it is from Herodotus' magus of the mid-5th century that Zoroastrianism was subject to doctrinal modifications that are today considered to be revocations of the original teachings of the prophet. Also, many of the ritual practices described in the Avesta's Vendidad (such as exposure of the dead) were already practiced by the magu of Herodotus ' time. For other uses, see Magi (disambiguation). ... See Avesta Municipality for the Swedish town Yasna 28. ... A late 19th century engraving of a Zoroastrian Tower of Silence in Mumbai. ...


Art and architecture

Achaemenid silver spoon with handle shaped in form of a duck's neck. Excavated in Pasargad. National Museum of Iran.
Golden Rhyton exacavated at Ecbatana. Kept at National Museum of Iran.
Golden Rhyton exacavated at Ecbatana. Kept at National Museum of Iran.

Achaemenid art, like Achaemenid religion, was a blend of many elements. Just as the Achaemenids were tolerant in matters of local government and custom, as long as Persians controlled the general policy and administration of the empire, so also were they tolerant in art so long as the finished and total effect was Persian. At Pasargadae (Pārsagad), the capital of Cyrus II and Cambyses II, and at Persepolis, the neighboring city founded by Darius the Great and used by all of his successors, one can trace to a foreign origin almost all of the several details in the construction and embellishment of the architecture and the sculptured reliefs; but the conception, planning, and overall finished product are distinctly Persian. Image File history File linksMetadata Achaemenid_spoon. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Achaemenid_spoon. ... Tomb of Cyrus II Pasargadae was a city in ancient Persia, and is today an archeological site. ... Entrance of the National Museum of Iran, the vault is built in the style of Persias Sassanid vaults The National Museum of Iran (in Persian: &#1605;&#1608;&#1586;&#1607; &#1575;&#1740;&#1585;&#1575;&#1606; &#1576;&#1575;&#1587;&#1578;&#1575;&#1606; Muze-ye Irân-e Bâstân) is... Image File history File links Image by Zereshk. ... Image File history File links Image by Zereshk. ... Golden Rhyton from Irans Achaemenid period. ... Entrance of the National Museum of Iran, the vault is built in the style of Persias Sassanid vaults The National Museum of Iran (in Persian: &#1605;&#1608;&#1586;&#1607; &#1575;&#1740;&#1585;&#1575;&#1606; &#1576;&#1575;&#1587;&#1578;&#1575;&#1606; Muze-ye Irân-e Bâstân) is... Pasargadae (Persian: پاسارگاد) was a city in ancient Persia, and is today an archaeological site and one of Irans UNESCO World Heritage Sites. ... Persepolis aerial view. ...


Moreover, when Cyrus chose to build Pasargadae, he had a long artistic tradition behind him that was probably already distinctly Iranian and that was in many ways the equal of any. The columned hall in architecture can now be seen as belonging to an architectural tradition on the Iranian Plateau that extended back through the Median period to at least the beginning of the 1st millennium BC. The rich Achaemenid gold work, which inscriptions suggest may have been a specialty of the Medes, was in the tradition of the delicate metalwork found in Iron Age II times at Hasanlu and still earlier at Marlik. Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... Teppe Hasanlu or Tappeh Hasanlu is an ancient archeological site in West Azarbaijan, Iran. ... Roodbar (also spelled Roudbar or rudbar) is the highest city near the Caspian (viewed on Google Earth in Northern Iran/Southern Caspian). ...


This Achaemenid artistic style is particularly evident at Persepolis: with its carefully proportioned and well-organized ground plan, rich architectural ornament, and magnificent decorative reliefs, the palace there is one of the great artistic legacies of the ancient world. In its art and architecture, Persepolis celebrates the king and the office of the monarch and reflected Darius' perception of himself as the leader of a conglomerate people to whom he had given a new and single identity. The Achaemenids took the art forms and the cultural and religious traditions of many of the ancient Middle Eastern peoples and combined them into a single form.


In describing the construction of his palace at Susa, Darius records that "The cedar timber from there (a mountain by name Lebanon) was brought, the yaka timber was brought from Gandara and from Carmania. The gold was brought from Sardis and from Bactria . . . the precious stone lapis-lazuli and carnelian . . . was brought from Sogdiana. The turquoise from Chorasmia, the silver and ebony from Egypt, the ornamentation from Ionia, the ivory from Ethiopia and from Sind and from Arachosia. The stone-cutters who wrought the stone, those were Ionians and Sardians. The goldsmiths were Medes and Egyptians. The men who wrought the wood, those were Sardians and Egyptians. The men who wrought the baked brick, those were Babylonians. The men who adorned the wall, those were Medes and Egyptians." The Yaka are an ethnic group of Southwestern Democratic Republic of the Congo and Angola. ... Buddhas First Sermon at Sarnath, Kushan Period, ca. ... Kerman is a province rich in historical sites and monuments. ... A recent view of the ceremonial court of the thermae–gymnasium complex in Sardis, dated to 211—212 AD Sardis, also Sardes (Lydian: Sfard, Greek: Σάρδεις, Persian: Sparda), modern Sart in the Manisa province of Turkey, was the capital of the ancient kingdom of Lydia, the seat of a proconsul under... Bactria, about 320 BC Bactria (Bactriana, Bākhtar in Persian, also Bhalika in Arabic and Indian languages, and Ta-Hia in Chinese) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra or Balhika or Bokhdi (now... Sogdiana, ca. ... Khwarezmid Empire (1190-1220) Khwarezm was a series of states centered on the Amu Darya river delta of the former Aral Sea, in modern Uzbekistan, extending across the Ust-Urt plateau and possibly as far west as the eastern shores of the northern Caspian Sea. ... Location of Ionia Ionia (Greek Ιωνία; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was an ancient region of southwestern coastal Anatolia (in present-day Turkey, the region nearest Ä°zmir,) on the Aegean Sea. ... Le de de Sind de ou de Sindh de (Sindhi: ‎, Urdu: ‎, Hindi: ) peut se rapporter : * Sindh de le Pakistan (de 1970), retitré du ** de province de Sind dedans 1990 * [[provinces de |Sind] de province de Sind (1936-1955)] de lInde britannique (1936-04-01 - 1947-08-13) ** de le... Arachosia is the ancient name of an area that corresponds to the southern part of today s Afghanistan, around the city of Kandahar. ... A recent view of the ceremonial court of the thermae–gymnasium complex in Sardis, dated to 211—212 AD Sardis, also Sardes (Lydian: Sfard, Greek: Σάρδεις, Persian: Sparda), modern Sart in the Manisa province of Turkey, was the capital of the ancient kingdom of Lydia, the seat of a proconsul under... Mede nobility. ...


This was an imperial art on a scale the world had not seen before. Materials and artists were drawn from all the lands ruled by the great kings, and thus tastes, styles, and motifs became mixed together in an eclectic art and architecture that in itself mirrored the empire and the Achaemenid understanding of how that empire ought to function.


Achaemenid kings and leaders

History of Greater Iran
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After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      Greater Iran (in Persian: Irān-e Bozorg, or Irān-zamÄ«n; the Encyclopedia Iranica uses the term Iranian Cultural Continent[1]) is a term for the Iranian plateau in addition to... “Persia” redirects here. ... The following is a comprehensive list of all Persian Empires and their rulers: // The Elamites were a people located in Susa, in what is now Khuzestan province. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Islamic conquest of Afghanistan. ... “BCE” redirects here. ... Zayandeh River Civilization (تمدن زاینده رود) is a hypothetical pre-historic culture that is supposed to have flourished around the Zayandeh River in Iran in the 5th millennium BC.[1] During the 2006 excavations, the Iranian archaeologists uncovered some artifacts that they linked to those from Sialk and Marvdasht. ... The 5500 year old skeletons and other unearthed artifacts here are preserved and off access to visitors. ... edit The Jiroft Kingdom or Jiroft Civilization (تمدن جيرفت) was an ancient civilization that existed in what is now Iran from roughly 3000 BCE to ? BCE. Research into this civilization is a relatively recent and ongoing multinational archaeological project that is uncovering a previously unknown civilization in a series of newly discovered... Silver cup from Marvdasht, Fars, with Proto-Elamite inscription on it. ... The Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex (or BMAC, also known as the Oxus civilization) the modern archaeological designation for a Bronze Age culture of Central Asia, dated to ca. ... Elam (Persian: تمدن ایلام) is one of the oldest recorded civilizations. ... The Mannaeans (or Mannai, Mannae, Biblical Minni) were an ancient people of unknown origin, who lived in the territory of present-day Iranian Azerbaijan around the 10th to 7th century BC. At that time they were neighbours of the empires of Assyria and Urartu, as well as other small buffer... Mede nobility. ... The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic successor state of Alexander the Greats dominion. ... The Greco-Bactrian Kingdom (or Graeco-Bactrian Kingdom) covered the areas of Bactria and Sogdiana, comprising todays northern Afghanistan and parts of Central Asia, the easternmost area of the Hellenistic world, from 250 to 125 BCE. The expansion of the Greco-Bactrians into northern India from 180 BCE established... Parthia[1] (Middle Persian: اشکانیان Ashkâniân) was a civilization situated in the northeast of modern Iran, but at its height covering all of Iran proper, as well as regions of the modern countries of Armenia, Iraq, Georgia, eastern Turkey, eastern Syria, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Kuwait, the Persian Gulf... “BCE” redirects here. ... “BCE” redirects here. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty (Persian: []) is the name used for the fourth Iranian dynasty, and the second Persian Empire (226–651). ... The Hephthalites, also known as White Huns, were a nomadic people who lived across northern China, Central Asia, and northern India in the fourth through sixth centuries. ... The Kushano-Hephthalites (565 - 670 CE) were the successors of Kushans and Hephthalites. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Islamic conquest of Afghanistan. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Islamic conquest of Afghanistan. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... The Tahirid dynasty ruled the northeastern Persian region of Khorasan between AD 821-873. ... The Alavids (سلسله علویان طبرستان in Persian) were a Shia emirate based in Tabaristan of Iran. ... The Saffarid dynasty of Persia ruled a short-lived empire centred on Seistan, a border district between modern-day Afghanistan and Iran, between 861-1003. ... The Samanids (875-999) (in Persian: Samanian) were a Persian dynasty in Central Asia and eastern Iran, named after its founder Saman Khoda. ... The tomb of Ghaboos ebne Voshmgir, built in 1007AD, rises 160 ft from its base. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Ghaznavid Empire (سلسله غزنویان in Persian) was a state in the region of todays Afghanistan that existed from 962 to 1187. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Ghurids (or Ghorids; self-designation: ShansabānÄ«) (Persian: ) were a Sunni Muslim dynasty in Khorasan, most likely of Eastern Persians (Tajiks)[1][2] origin. ... This article is about political entity known as Great Seljuq Empire. ... Khwarezmid Empire After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Khwarezmian Empire, more commonly known as the empire of the Khwarezm Shahs[1] (Persian: , KhwārezmÅ¡hāḥīān, Kings of Khwarezmia) was a Persianate[2][3][4] Sunni Muslim dynasty... Khanates of Mongolian Empire: Il-Khanate, Chagatai Khanate, Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... The Muzaffarids were a Sunni Arab family that came to power in Iran following the breakup of the Ilkhanate in the 14th century. ... The Chupanids, also known as the Chobanids, (سلسله امرای چوپانی, Amir Chupani), were descendants of a Mongol family that came to prominence in 14th century Persia. ... edit The Jalayirids (آل جلایر) were a Mongol descendant dynasty which ruled over Iraq and western Persia [1] after the breakup of the Mongol Khanate of Persia (or Ilkhanate) in the 1330s. ... Timurid Dynasty at its Greatest Extent The Timurids (Chaghatay/Persian: - TÄ«mÅ«rÄ«yān), self-designated GurkānÄ« (Persian: ), were a Central Asian Sunni Muslim dynasty whose empire included the whole of Central Asia, Iran and modern Afghanistan, as well as large parts of Mesopotamia and Caucasus. ... Flag of the Kara Koyunlu For the district in Turkey, see Karakoyunlu. ... Flag of the Ak Koyunlu (Colours are speculative) The Akkoyunlu or the White Sheep Turkomans (Azeri-Turkish: AÄŸqoyunlular/Akkoyunlular) were a Turkoman tribal federation that ruled present-day Azerbaijan, eastern Anatolia, northern Iraq and western Iran from 1378 to 1508. ... The Safavid Empire at its 1512 borders. ... Flag Mughal Empire at its greatest extent in 1700 Capital Agra, Delhi Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai; later also Urdu) Government Monarchy List of Mughal emperors  - 1526-1530 Babur  - 1530–1539 and after restoration 1555–1556 Humayun  - 1556–1605 Akbar  - 1605–1627 Jahangir  - 1628–1658 Shah Jahan  - 1659–1707... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Hotaki dynasty (1709-1738) was founded by Muhamad Baqer Hotaki, an ethnic Tatar. ... Afsharid Dynasty (1723-1735) Bronze statue of Nader Shah, by Master Sadighi. ... In its final decades of its existence, the Soviet Union consisted of 15 Soviet Socialist Republics (SSR), often called simply Soviet republics. ... The Durrani Empire was a larger state that included modern Afghanistan, Pakistan, parts of eastern Iran and western India. ... // It was not until 1826 that the energetic Dost Mohammad was able to exert sufficient control over his brothers to take over the throne in Kabul, where he proclaimed himself amir. ... Reign of King Amanullah, 1919-1929 Amanullah Khan reigned in Afghanistan from 1919, achieving full independence from the British Empire shortly afterwards. ... // Reign of Mohammed Nadir Shah, 1929-1933 Mohammed Nadir Shah quickly abolished most of Amanullah Khans reforms, but despite his efforts to rebuild an army that had just been engaged in suppressing a rebellion, the forces remained weak while the religious and tribal leaders grew strong. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... The Democratic Republic of Afghanistan was the communist governance in Afghanistan between 1978 and 1992. ... After the Soviets withdrew completely from Afghanistan in February 1989, fighting between the communist backed government and mujahideen continued. ... This is a timeline of the history of Afghanistan. ... Azerbaijan or Azarbeijan (Azerbaijani: Azerbaycan, Azerbeycan) is historically and geographically Eurasian and stretches from the Caucasus region, which is adjacent to the Caspian Sea, to the Zagros in Iran. ... Azerbaijan or Azarbeijan (Azerbaijani: Azerbaycan, Azerbeycan) is historically and geographically Eurasian and stretches from the Caucasus region, which is adjacent to the Caspian Sea, to the Zagros in Iran. ... Motto: None Anthem: AzÉ™rbaycan Respublikasının DövlÉ™t Himni March of Azerbaijan Map of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic from 1919 to 1920. ... State motto: Бүтүн өлкәләрин пролетарлары, бирләшин! Workers of the world, unite! Official language None. ... The name Bahrain comes from Arabic Bahárayn, literally meaning two seas, which is thought to be an inaccurate folk etymology for the much older, non-Semitic term, Bahran; according to some scholars Bahran originates from Varahrdn, the later form of the old Avestan Verethragna - a Zoroastrian divinity that is... The name Bahrain comes from Arabic Bahárayn, literally meaning two seas, which is thought to be an inaccurate folk etymology for the much older, non-Semitic term, Bahran; according to some scholars Bahran originates from Varahrdn, the later form of the old Avestan Verethragna - a Zoroastrian divinity that is... Vakeel mosque, Shiraz. ... The Qajar dynasty ( ) (Persian: ‎ - or دودمان قاجار - Qâjâr) was the ruling family of Persia from 1781 to 1925. ... The Pahlavi dynasty (in Persian: دودمان پهلوی) of Iran began with the crowning of Reza Shah Pahlavi in 1925 and ended with the Iranian Revolution of 1979, and the subsequent collapse of the ancient tradition of Iranian monarchy. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Iranian Revolution (also known as the Islamic Revolution,[1][2][3][4][5][6] Persian: انقلاب اسلامی, Enghelābe Eslāmi) was the revolution that transformed Iran from a monarchy under Shah Mohammad Reza... The Interim Government of Iran (1979-1980) was the first government established in Iran after the Islamic Revolution. ... “Ottoman” redirects here. ... This article includes an overview from prehistory to the present in the region of the current state of Iraq in Mesopotamia. ... This article includes an overview from prehistory to the present in the region of the current state of Iraq in Mesopotamia. ... The Emirate of Bukhara (1747-1920) was a state in Central Asia, with its capital in Bukhara and was a Russian protectorate from 1868. ... Flag Capital Bukhara Language(s) Tajik, Uzbek, Bukhori Religion Sunni Islam, Sufism (Naqshbandi), Judaism Government Socialist republic President Faizullah Khojaev Historical era Interwar period  - Monarchy overthrown 1920-09-02  - Established October 8, 1920  - Joined the Uzbek SSR February 17, 1925 The Bukharan Peoples Soviet Republic (Russian: Бухарская Народная Советская Республика) was the name... State motto: Uzbek: Бутун дунё пролетарлари, бирлашингиз! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Tashkent Official language None. ... State motto: Пролетарҳои ҳамаи мамлакатҳо, як шавед! Official language None. ... State motto: Пролетарҳои ҳамаи мамлакатҳо, як шавед! Official language None. ... The Emirate of Bukhara (1747-1920) was a state in Central Asia, with its capital in Bukhara and was a Russian protectorate from 1868. ... State motto: Uzbek: Бутун дунё пролетарлари, бирлашингиз! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Tashkent Official language None. ...

Unattested

The epigraphic evidence for these rulers cannot be confirmed and are often considered to have been invented by Darius I

Seal of Darius I, showing the king hunting on his chariot, and the symbol of Ahuramazda Darius the Great (Pers. ... This article concerns Achaemenes, founder of the first Persian dynasty. ... Ariaramnes (Old Persian Ariyâramna, Peace of the Aryans) was an uncle of Cyrus the Great, probably a great-uncle and the king of Persia. ... Arsames (Old Persian Ar&#353;âma) was the son of Ariaramnes and co-ruler with Cambyses I. His name in the Greek sources is . ...

Attested

Teispes (675-640 BC) was the son of Achaemenes and a King of Persia. ... Cyrus I was King of Anshan from c. ... Cambyses I the Elder (c. ... “Cyrus” redirects here. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 600s BC - 590s BC - 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC Events and Trends Carthage conquers Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica 559 BC - King Cambyses I of Anshan dies... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC Events and Trends 538 BC - Babylon occupied by Jews transported to Babylon are allowed to return to... Cambyses II (Persian Kambujiya), was the name borne by the son of Cyrus the Great. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC Events 529 BC - Cambyses II succeeds his father Cyrus as ruler of Persia. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC Events 529 BC - Cambyses II succeeds his father Cyrus as ruler of Persia. ... Smerdis was a Persian king of infamous memory. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC Events 529 BC - Cambyses II succeeds his father Cyrus as ruler of Persia. ... Darius the Great (c. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC Events 529 BC - Cambyses II succeeds his father Cyrus as ruler of Persia. ... Centuries: 6th century BCE - 5th century BCE - 4th century BCE Decades: 530s BCE 520s BCE 510s BCE 500s BCE 490s BCE - 480s BCE - 470s BCE 460s BCE 450s BCE 420s BCE 430s BCE Years: 491 BCE 490 BCE 489 BCE 488 BCE 487 BCE - 486 BCE - 485 BCE 484 BCE... Xerxes the Great (Old Persian: 𐎧𐏁𐎹𐎠𐎼𐏁𐎠[2]) was a king of Persia (reigned 485 BC–465 BC) of the Achaemenid dynasty. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC Years: 490 BC 489 BC 488 BC 487 BC 486 BC - 485 BC - 484 BC - 483 BC... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 510s BC 500s BC 490s BC 480s BC 470s BC - 460s BC - 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC Years: 470 BC 469 BC 468 BC 467 BC 466 BC - 465 BC - 464 BC 463 BC... A sculpture dating back to the time of Achaemenid Empire Artaxerxes I (Artakhshathra I) was king of the Persian Empire from 465 BC to 424 The name as given is the Greek form; the Persian form is Artakhshathra. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 510s BC 500s BC 490s BC 480s BC 470s BC - 460s BC - 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC Years: 470 BC 469 BC 468 BC 467 BC 466 BC - 465 BC - 464 BC 463 BC... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC - 420s BC - 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC Years: 429 BC 428 BC 427 BC 426 BC 425 BC - 424 BC - 423 BC 422 BC... Xerxes II was a Persian king and the son and successor of Artaxerxes I. After a reign of forty-five days, he was assassinated in 424 BC by his brother Sogdianus, who in turn was murdered by Darius II. He is an obscure historical figure known primarily from the writings... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC - 420s BC - 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC Years: 429 BC 428 BC 427 BC 426 BC 425 BC - 424 BC - 423 BC 422 BC... Sogdianus , king of Persia (424 - 423 BC). ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC - 420s BC - 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC Years: 429 BC 428 BC 427 BC 426 BC 425 BC - 424 BC - 423 BC 422 BC... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC - 420s BC - 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC Years: 428 BC 427 BC 426 BC 425 BC 424 BC - 423 BC - 422 BC 421 BC... Darius II, originally called Ochus and often surnamed Nothus (from Greek νοθος, meaning assface), was king of the Persian Empire from 423 BC to 404 BC. Artaxerxes I, who died shortly after December 24, 424 BC, was followed by his son Xerxes II. After a month and a half Xerxes II... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC - 420s BC - 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC Years: 428 BC 427 BC 426 BC 425 BC 424 BC - 423 BC - 422 BC 421 BC... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC - 400s BC - 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC Years: 410 BC 409 BC 408 BC 407 BC 406 BC - 405 BC - 404 BC 403 BC... Artaxerxes II Memnon (c. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC - 400s BC - 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC Years: 409 BC 408 BC 407 BC 406 BC 405 BC - 404 BC - 403 BC 402 BC... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 364 BC 363 BC 362 BC 361 BC 360 BC 359 BC 358 BC 357 BC 356... Xenophon, Greek historian Xenophon (In Greek , ca. ... Artaxerxes III ruled Persia from 358 BC to 338 BC. He was the son of Artaxerxes II and was succeeded by Arses of Persia (also known as Artaxerxes IV). ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC - 350s BC - 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 363 BC 362 BC 361 BC 360 BC 359 BC 358 BC 357 BC 356 BC 355... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC - 330s BC - 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 343 BC 342 BC 341 BC 340 BC 339 BC - 338 BC - 337 BC 336 BC 335... Artaxerxes IV Bumcheeks, King of Persia between 338 BC and 336 BC. He was the youngest son of King Artaxerxes III and was not expected to succeed to the throne of Persia. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC - 330s BC - 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 343 BC 342 BC 341 BC 340 BC 339 BC - 338 BC - 337 BC 336 BC 335... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC - 330s BC - 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 341 BC 340 BC 339 BC 338 BC 337 BC - 336 BC - 335 BC 334 BC 333... Darius III or Codomannus (c. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC - 330s BC - 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 341 BC 340 BC 339 BC 338 BC 337 BC - 336 BC - 335 BC 334 BC 333... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC - 330s BC - 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 335 BC 334 BC 333 BC 332 BC 331 BC - 330 BC - 329 BC 328 BC 327...

Governors of the Province of Yehud (Jerusalem)

[Source: Gary N. Knoppers, I Chronicles 1 - 9 (New York:Doubleday, 2003), p. 335.] For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Zrubavel (Hebrew: , Zərubbāvel; traditional English: Zerubbabel; Greek: ζοροβαβελ, Zŏrobabel) was the grandson of Jehoiachin, penultimate King of Judah. ... Nehemiah or Nechemya (נְחֶמְיָה Comforted of/is the LORD (YHWH), Standard Hebrew Nəḥemya, Tiberian Hebrew Nəḥemyāh, ) is a major figure in the post-exile history of the Jews as recorded in the Bible, and is believed to be the primary author of the Book of Nehemiah. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Book of Chronicles is a book in the Hebrew Bible (also see Old Testament). ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Doubleday is one of the largest book publishing companies in the world. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Chr. Walker, "Achaemenid Chronology and the Babylonian Sources," in: John Curtis (ed.), Mesopotamia and Iran in the Persian Period: Conquest and Imperialism, 539-331 BC (London 1997), page 22.
  2. ^ M. Dandamayev, “Foreign Slaves on the Estates of the Achaemenid Kings and their Nobles,” in Trudy dvadtsat' pyatogo mezhdunarodnogo kongressa vostokovedov II, Moscow, 1963, pp. 151­-52
  3. ^ http://www.zarathushtra.com/z/article/dgm/vol2.htm
  4. ^ Garrison, Mark B. and Root, Margaret C. (2001). Seals on the Persepolis Fortification Tablets, Volume 1. Images of Heroic Encounter (OIP 117). Chicago: Online Oriental Institute Publications. Retrieved on 2007-01-09. 
  5. ^ a b Dandamayev, Muhammad (2003). "Persepolis Elamite Tablets". Encyclopedia Iranica. Retrieved on 2007-01-09. 
  6. ^ Insler, Stanley (1975). The Love of Truth in Ancient Iran. Retrieved on 2007-01-09. In Insler, Stanley; Duchesne-Guillemin, J. (ed.) (1975). The Gāthās of Zarathustra (Acta Iranica 8). Liege: Brill. .
  7. ^ Darius, Behishtan (DB), Column 1. From Kent, Roland G. (1953). Old Persian: Grammar, texts, lexicon. New Haven: American Oriental Society. 
  8. ^ Shaked, Saul (1987). "Aramaic". Encyclopedia Iranica 2. New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul. 250-261.  p. 251
  9. ^ Frye, Richard N. (1955). "Review of G. R. Driver's "Aramaic Documents of the Fifth Century B. C."". Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 18 (3/4): 456-461.  p. 457.
  10. ^ Geiger, Wilhelm & Ernst Kuhn (2002). Grundriss der iranischen Philologie: Band I. Abteilung 1. Boston: Adamant.  pp. 249ff.
  11. ^ Ware, James R. and Kent, Roland G. (1924). "The Old Persian Cuniform Inscriptions of Artaxerxes II and Artaxerxes III". Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association 55: 52-61.  p. 53
  12. ^ Gershevitch, Ilya (1964). "Zoroaster's own contribution". Journal of Near Eastern Studies 23 (1).  p. 20.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

“Persia” redirects here. ... “Cyrus” redirects here. ... Seal of Darius I, showing the king hunting on his chariot, and the symbol of Ahuramazda Darius the Great (Pers. ... Esther (1865), by John Everett Millais Esther (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ), born Hadassah, was a woman in the Hebrew Bible, the queen of Ahasuerus (commonly identified with either Xerxes I or Artaxerxes II), and heroine of the Biblical Book of Esther which is named after her. ... Persepolis aerial view. ... The following is a comprehensive list of all Persian Empires and their rulers: // The Elamites were a people located in Susa, in what is now Khuzestan province. ... Pharaoh was the ancient Egyptian name for the office of kingship. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty (Persian: []) is the name used for the fourth Iranian dynasty, and the second Persian Empire (226–651). ... The map of Achaemenid Empire and the Royal Road. ... Kamboja (Sanskrit: कम्बोज) was the ancient name of a Hindu country, and the Indo-Iranian Kshatriya tribe, the Kambojas, settled therein. ... Kambojas are a very ancient Kshatriya tribe of the north-western parts of the Indian subcontinent and what is now Afghanistan, frequently mentioned in ancient texts, although not in the Rig Veda. ... Kamboja was the name of an ancient country and the Indo-Iranian warrior tribe settled therein. ... Kamboja was the ancient name of a country and the tribe settled therein. ... Epic Mahabharata refers to a king or warrior whom it calls Kamboja. ...

References

  • Stronach, David "Darius at Pasargadae: A Neglected Source for the History of Early Persia," Topoi
  • Stronach, David "Anshan and Parsa: Early Achaemenid History, Art and Architecture on the Iranian Plateau". In: John Curtis, ed., Mesopotamia and Iran in the Persian Period: Conquest and Imperialism 539–331, 35–53. London: British Museum Press 1997.

Further reading

  • Ancient Persia, Josef Wiesehofer
  • Forgotten Empire: The World of Ancient Persia, J. E Curtis and N. Tallis
  • From Cyrus to Alexander: A History of the Persian Empire, Pierre Briant
  • The Greco-Persian Wars, Peter Green
  • The Greek and Persian Wars 499–386 BC, Philip De Souza
  • The Heritage of Persia, Richard N. Frye
  • History of the Persian Empire, A.T. Olmstead
  • The Persian Empire, Lindsay Allen
  • The Persian Empire, J.M. Cook
  • Persian Fire: The First World Empire and the Battle for the West, Tom Holland
  • Pictorial History of Iran: Ancient Persia Before Islam 15000 B.C.–625 A.D., Amini Sam
  • Timelife Persians: Masters of the Empire (Lost Civilizations)
  • Dandamaev, M.A. A Political History of the Achaemenid Empire. Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers, 1989 (ISBN 90-04-09172-6).
  • Hallock, R., Persepolis Fortification Tablets

Pierre Briant (Angers, September 30, 1940) is a French Iranologist, Professor of History and Civilisation of the Achaemenid World and the Empire of Alexander the Great at the Collège de France (1999 onwards), Doctor Honoris Causa at the University of Chicago, and founder of the website Achemenet. ... Richard Nelson Frye (c. ... Richard Treadwel Hallock (Passaic, New Jersey, 5 April 1906 - Chicago, November 20, 1980) was an American Assyriologist and Elamitologist. ...

External links

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Achaemenid dynasty

Scene from southern Anatolia The History of Anatolia covers the civilizations, and states established in and around the Anatolia, a peninsula of Western Asia. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Iran - The Achaemenid Empire (748 words)
Trade was extensive, and under the Achaemenids there was an efficient infrastructure that facilitated the exchange of commodities among the far reaches of the empire.
Trade was one of the empire's main sources of revenue, along with agriculture and tribute.
This Achaemenid artistic style is evident in the iconography of Persepolis, which celebrates the king and the office of the monarch.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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