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Encyclopedia > Achaemenid Dynasty
History of Iran
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 The Persepolis Ruins
The Persepolis Ruins

The Achaemenid dynasty (Old Persian:Hakamanishiya, Persian: هخامنشیان) - was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire. At the height of their power, around 500 BC, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly encompassing parts of today's Iran, Iraq, Armenia, Afghanistan, Turkey, Bulgaria, small part of Greece, Egypt, Syria, much of what is now [[India]/Pakistan, Jordan, Israel/Palestine, Lebanon, Caucasia, Central Asia, Arabia, and Libya. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Iran is one of the worlds oldest continuous major civilizations. ... The following is a comprehensive list of all Persian Empires and their rulers: // Early realms in Iran Elamite Kingdom, 3000–660 BC The Elamites were a people located in Susa, in what is now Khuzestan province. ... Silver cup from Marvdasht, Fars, with Proto-Elamite inscription on it. ... The Jiroft Kingdom or Jiroft Civilization (تمدن جيرفت) is a relatively recent and ongoing multinational archeological project that aims to uncover an unknown civilization in a series of newly discovered sites in Irans Kerman Province, located at 28° 48 N latitude and 57° 46 E Longitude, known as Jiroft or Halilrud... Elam (Persian: ایلام) is one of the most ancient civilizations on record. ... The Mannaeans (or Mannai, Mannae, Biblical Minni) were an ancient people of unknown origin, who lived in the territory of present-day Iranian Azerbaijan around the 10th to 7th century BC. At that time they were neighbours of the empires of Assyria and Urartu, as well as other small buffer... The Medes(ancient Kurdistan) were an Iranian people, who lived in the north, western, and northwestern portions of present-day Iran, and roughly the areas of present day Tehran, Hamedan, Azarbaijan, north of Esfahan, Zanjan, and Kurdistan. ... The Seleucid Empire was one of several political states founded after the death of Alexander the Great, whose generals squabbled over the division of Alexanders empire. ... Parthia, or known in their native Iranian language as Ashkâniân [2] (also called the Arsacid Empire) was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. It was the second dynasty of... The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Empire (Persian: Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia (Iran) during the era of the third Persian Empire from 226 until 651. ... The Islamic conquest of Iran (637-651 CE) destroyed the Sassanid Empire and led to the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Iran. ... The Tahirid dynasty ruled the northeastern Persian region of Khorasan between AD 821-873. ... The Saffarid dynasty of Persia ruled a short-lived empire centred on Seistan, a border district between modern-day Afghanistan and Iran, between 861-1003. ... The Sāmānid dynasty (875-999) was a Persian dynasty in Central Asia, named after its founder Saman Khoda. ... Tomb of Ghaboos ebne Voshmgir, built in 1007AD, rises 160 ft from its base. ... The Buwayhids or Buyyids or Ä€l-i Buyeh, were a Yazdani tribal confederation from Daylam, a region on the southern shore of the Caspian Sea. ... The Ghaznavid Empire was a state in the region of todays Afghanistan that existed from 963 to 1187. ... The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq;in Turkish Selçuklu, in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān ; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa;) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turkics and a dynasty that ruled parts of Central Asia and the Middle East from the 11th to 14th... The Khwarezmid Empire (also known as the Khwarezmian Empire) was a Iranian state in the 11th century in Khwarezmia that lasted until the Mongol invasion in 1220. ... Khanates of Mongolian Empire: Il-Khanate, Chagatai Khanate, Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... The Muzaffarids were a Sunni Arab family that came to power in Iran following the breakup of the Ilkhanate in the 14th century. ... Flag of the Timurid Empire according to the Catalan Atlas c. ... The Safavids were a long-lasting Turkic-speaking Iranian dynasty that ruled from 1501 to 1736 and first established Shiite Islam as Persias official religion. ... Tomb of Nader Shah Afshar, a popular tourist attraction in Mashad. ... Vakeel mosque, Shiraz. ... The Qajar dynasty was the ruling family of Persia from 1781 to 1925. ... The Pahlavi dynasty began with the crowning of Reza Shah Pahlavi in 1925 and ended with the Iranian Revolution of 1979, and the subsequent collapse of the ancient tradition of Iranian monarchy. ... Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... Image File history File links Persepolis_Ruins. ... Image File history File links Persepolis_Ruins. ... See Aryan Language or Old Persian For more information visit: *[Ancient Iranian Languages & Literature The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies (CAIS) ... Persian may refer to more than one article: the Western name for Iranian (see Iran/Persia naming controversy) Persian, an Iranian language the Persians, an ethnic group a Persian, a breed of cat Persian, a Pokémon character Etymology English Persian < Old English, < Latin *Persianus, < Latin Persia, < ancient Greek Persis... The term Persian Empire refers to a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau. ... Map of the British Mandate of Palestine. ... The Caucasus is a region in eastern Europe and western Asia between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea which includes the Caucasus mountains and surrounding lowlands. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ...


Darius I ("Darius the Great") was the first to speak of Achaemenes, who he claimed was an ancestor of Cyrus II ("Cyrus the Great", ca. 576 - 529 BC), and therefore the progenitor of the entire line of Achaemenid rulers. However, some scholars hold that Achaemenes was a fictional character used to legitimize Darius' rule, and that Darius I usurped the Persian throne. In any case, the name Achaemenid has been commonly accepted for the line of Persian kings beginning at least with Darius I. When the name refers to the entire line of early Persian rulers, including Cyrus II and his son Cambyses, the Achaemenid era stretches from about 650 to 330 BC. Seal of Darius I, showing the king hunting on his chariot, and the symbol of Ahuramazda Darius the Great (Pers. ... This article concerns Achaemenes, founder of the first Persian dynasty. ... Cyrus the Great Cyrus II of Persia, widely known as Cyrus the Great, (ca. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 620s BC 610s BC 600s BC 590s BC 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC 550s BC 540s BC 530s BC 520s BC Events and Trends 579 BC - Servius Tullius succeeds the assassinated Lucius Tarquinius Priscus as king of Rome. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC Events 529 BC - Cambyses II succeeds his father Cyrus as ruler of Persia. ...


At different times, the Achaemenids also ruled Egypt, although the Egyptians twice regained their independence from Persia. After the practice of Manetho, Egyptian historians refer to the period in Egypt when the Achaemenid dynasty ruled as the Twenty-Seventh (525 BC - 404 BC) and Thirty-First Dynasties (343- 332 BC). Manetho, also known as Manethon of Sebennytos, was an Egyptian historian and priest from Sebennytos who lived during the Ptolematic era, circa 3rd century BC. Manetho recorded Aegyptiaca (History of Egypt). ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC Events 529 BC - Cambyses II succeeds his father Cyrus as ruler of Persia. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC - 400s BC - 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC Years: 409 BC 408 BC 407 BC 406 BC 405 BC - 404 BC - 403 BC 402 BC... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 390s BC - 380s BC - 370s BC - 360s BC - 350s BC - 340s BC _ 330s BC - 320s BC - 310s BC - 300s BC - 290s BC 348 BC 347 BC 346 BC 345 BC 344 BC 343 BC 342 BC 341 BC... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC - 330s BC - 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 337 BC 336 BC 335 BC 334 BC 333 BC - 332 BC - 331 BC 329 BC 328...


The last Achaemenid king was Darius III (336 BC - 330 BC), who was defeated by Alexander III of Macedon. After the Macedonian conquest, the Persian Empire was annexed by Alexander (See "Achaemenid rulers" below for full list of rulers). Darius III or Codomannus (c. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC - 330s BC - 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 341 BC 340 BC 339 BC 338 BC 337 BC - 336 BC - 335 BC 334 BC 333... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC - 330s BC - 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 335 BC 334 BC 333 BC 332 BC 331 BC - 330 BC - 329 BC 328 BC 327... Alexander the Great (in Greek , transliterated Megas Alexandros) (July 356 BC – June 11, 323 BC), King of Macedon (336–323 BC), is considered one of the most successful military commanders in world history, conquering most of the world known to the ancient Greeks before his death. ... The Vergina Sun, a symbol associated with the Macedonian kingdom and today copyrighted by the World Intellectual Property Organization as a Greek emblem of state [1]. Macedon or Macedonia (from Greek ; see also List of traditional Greek place names) was the name of an ancient kingdom in the northern-most... The Persepolis Ruins The Achaemenid dynasty (Old Persian:Hakamanishiya, Persian: هخامنشیان) - was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire. ...

Contents


History

 An Achaemenid era Mastiff Statue
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An Achaemenid era Mastiff Statue
Persian Bull, Oriental institute, Chicago
Persian Bull, Oriental institute, Chicago

The founder of this dynasty was supposedly Achaemenes (Old Persian Haxāmaniš "Of Friendly Mind"). He was succeeded by his son Teispes (Cišpi), who first took the title King of Anšān after seizing that city from the Elamites. Inscriptions indicate that when Teispes died, two of his sons shared the throne as Cyrus I (Kūru), king of Anšān, and Ariaramnes (Ariyāramna "Having the Iranians at Peace"), king of Parsua (later called Pārsa "Persia", hence Fārsi, the native name for modern Persian). They were succeeded by their respective sons Cambyses I of Anshan (Kambūjiya, "the Elder"), and Arsames (Aršāma "Having a Hero's Might") of Persia. Image File history File links Persian_Empire-_Mastiff. ... Image File history File links Persian_Empire-_Mastiff. ... Image File history File links Persian_Bull_5thc_Oriental_Institute_Chicago. ... Image File history File links Persian_Bull_5thc_Oriental_Institute_Chicago. ... This article concerns Achaemenes, founder of the first Persian dynasty. ... Teispes (675-640 BC) was the son of Achaemenes and a King of Persia. ... <math>Insert formula here</math>Link titleItalic textItalic textItalic textItalic textBold textBold text:For the Chinese city, see Anshan AnÅ¡an or Anzan (Persian انشان AnÅ¡an, modern Tepe Malyan, Tal-e Malyan 29. ... The ancient Elamite Empire lay to the east of Sumer and Akkad, in what is now southwestern Iran. ... Cyrus I was King of Anshan from c. ... Ariaramnes (Old Persian Ariyâramna, Peace of the Aryans) was an uncle of Cyrus the Great, probably a great-uncle and the king of Persia. ... Cambyses I the Elder (c. ... Arsames was King of Persia, but while still alive gave up the thone to Cyrus II of Persia. ...


In 559 BC, Cambyses I the Elder was succeeded as king of Anšān by his son Cyrus II the Great, who also succeeded the still-living Arsames as King of Persia, thus reuniting the two realms. Cyrus II is considered to be the first king of the Achaemenid dynasty to be properly called so, as his predecessors were subservient to Media. Cyrus II conquered Media, Lydia and Babylon. Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 600s BC - 590s BC - 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC Events and Trends Carthage conquers Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica 559 BC - King Cambyses I of Anshan dies... Cyrus the Great Cyrus II of Persia, also known as Cyrus the Great or Cyrus the Elder, (ca. ... Lydia (disambiguation) Lydia is a historic region of western Anatolia, congruent with Turkeys modern provinces of Ä°zmir and Manisa. ... Babylon is the Greek variant of Akkadian Babilu, an ancient city in Mesopotamia (modern Al Hillah, Iraq). ...


His successors were less successful. Cyrus' unstable son Cambyses II conquered Egypt, but died in July 522 BC as the result of either accident or suicide, during a revolt led by a priest, Gaumata. Gaumata usurped the throne by pretending to be Smerdis (Pers. Bardiya; Cambyses' brother whom he had secretly had assassinated in 525, before starting out for his Egyptian campaign) until he was overthrown in 522 BC by a member of a lateral branch of the Achaemenid family, Darius I (Old Persian Dārayawuš "Who Holds Firm the Good", also known as Darayarahush or Darius the Great). Cambyses II (Persian Kambujiya), was the name borne by the son of Cyrus the Great. ... Smerdis was a Persian king of infamous memory. ... Seal of Darius I, showing the king hunting on his chariot, and the symbol of Ahuramazda Darius the Great (Pers. ...


According to Herodotus, the native leadership then debated the best form of government for the Empire. He reports that it was decided that oligarchy would divide them against one another, and democracy would bring about mob rule resulting in a charismatic leader resuming the monarchy. Therefore, they decided a new monarch was in order, particularly since they were in a position to choose him. Darius I was chosen monarch from amongst the leaders. He was cousin to Cambyses II and Smerdis, claiming Ariaramnes as his ancestor. Bust of Herodotus at Naples Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: , Herodotos) was a historian who lived in the 5th century BC (484 BC-ca. ... Oligarchy is a political regime where most or all political power effectively rests with a small segment of society (typically the most powerful, whether by wealth, family, military strength, ruthlessness, or political influence). ...


Darius attacked the Greek mainland, which had supported rebellious Greek colonies under his aegis; but as a result of his defeat at the Battle of Marathon in 490, he was forced to retract the limits of the empire to Asia Minor. Combatants Athens Persia Commanders Miltiades, Callimachus Darius I of Persia, Artaphernes Strength About 10,000 No more than 20,000 (26,000 according to Herodotus) Casualties 192 dead About 6,400 dead The Battle of Marathon (490 BC) was the culmination of King Darius I of Persias first major... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion of Turkey. ...


The Achaemenids thereafter consolidated areas firmly under their control. It was Cyrus and Darius who, by sound and farsighted administrative planning, brilliant military maneuvering, and a humanistic worldview, established the greatness of the Achaemenids and in less than thirty years raised them from an obscure tribe to a world power.


The zenith of Achaemenid power was achieved during Darius' reign (521 BC - 485 BC) and that of his son Xerxes I (485 BC - 465 BC, Old Persian Xšāyaršā "Hero Among Kings"). These two rulers built great, beautiful palaces in the ancient cities of Persepolis (built 518-516 BC), Susa and Ecbatana (Hagmatāna "City of Gatherings"). The Persian Empire reached its greatest extent in this period. Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC Events 529 BC - Cambyses II succeeds his father Cyrus as ruler of Persia. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC Years: 490 BC 489 BC 488 BC 487 BC 486 BC - 485 BC - 484 BC - 483 BC... Xerxes I (خشایارشاه), was a Persian king (reigned 485 - 465 BC) of the Achaemenid dynasty. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC Years: 490 BC 489 BC 488 BC 487 BC 486 BC - 485 BC - 484 BC - 483 BC... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 510s BC 500s BC 490s BC 480s BC 470s BC - 460s BC - 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC Years: 470 BC 469 BC 468 BC 467 BC 466 BC - 465 BC - 464 BC 463 BC... Location of Persepolis Persepolis was an ancient capital of the Persian Achaemenid Empire, situated some 70 km northeast of Shiraz, not far from where the small river Pulwar flows into the Kur (Kyrus). ... For other uses of the name Susa please see this page. ... Ecbatana (Hañgmatana in Old Persian, Agbatana in Aeschylus, written Agamtanu by Nabonidos, and Agamatanu at Behistun) was the capital of Astyages (Istuvegü), which was taken by the Persian emperor Cyrus the Great in the sixth year of Nabonidos (549 BC). ...


Decline

A relief of Persian soldier on the walls of Persepolis, the capital of the Achaemenid Empire
A relief of Persian soldier on the walls of Persepolis, the capital of the Achaemenid Empire

After the death of Xerxes I (465 BC), the decline of the dynasty began. Persia saw a sequence of weak rulers ruling the empire. Decadence became rampant, and the army, finance and government administration were neglected. The last Achaemenid king was Darius III (336 BC - 330 BC), who was defeated by Alexander III of Macedon. After the Macedonian conquest, the Persian Empire was annexed by Alexander. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Location of Persepolis Persepolis was an ancient capital of the Persian Achaemenid Empire, situated some 70 km northeast of Shiraz, not far from where the small river Pulwar flows into the Kur (Kyrus). ... Xerxes I (خشایارشاه), was a Persian king (reigned 485 - 465 BC) of the Achaemenid dynasty. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 510s BC 500s BC 490s BC 480s BC 470s BC - 460s BC - 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC Years: 470 BC 469 BC 468 BC 467 BC 466 BC - 465 BC - 464 BC 463 BC... Darius III or Codomannus (c. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC - 330s BC - 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 341 BC 340 BC 339 BC 338 BC 337 BC - 336 BC - 335 BC 334 BC 333... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC - 330s BC - 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 335 BC 334 BC 333 BC 332 BC 331 BC - 330 BC - 329 BC 328 BC 327... Alexander the Great (in Greek , transliterated Megas Alexandros) (July 356 BC – June 11, 323 BC), King of Macedon (336–323 BC), is considered one of the most successful military commanders in world history, conquering most of the world known to the ancient Greeks before his death. ... The Vergina Sun, a symbol associated with the Macedonian kingdom and today copyrighted by the World Intellectual Property Organization as a Greek emblem of state [1]. Macedon or Macedonia (from Greek ; see also List of traditional Greek place names) was the name of an ancient kingdom in the northern-most...


System of governing

The Achaeminid Dynasty at its greatest extent, 490 BC
The Achaeminid Dynasty at its greatest extent, 490 BC

The Achaemenids were enlightened despots who allowed a certain amount of regional autonomy in the form of the satrapy system. A satrapy was an administrative unit, usually organized on a geographical basis. A satrap (governor) administered the region, a general supervised military recruitment and ensured order, and a state secretary kept official records. The general and the state secretary reported directly to the central government. The twenty satrapies were linked by a 2,500-kilometer highway, the most impressive stretch being the Royal Road from Susa to Sardis, built by command of Darius I. Relays of mounted couriers could reach the remotest of areas in fifteen days. Despite the relative local independence afforded by the satrapy system, royal inspectors, the "eyes and ears of the king," toured the empire and reported on local conditions. The king also maintained a personal bodyguard of 10,000 men, called the Immortals. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (971x741, 78 KB) Summary The Persian Empire in 490 BC. Created by the Department of History, United States Military Academy, West Point Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (971x741, 78 KB) Summary The Persian Empire in 490 BC. Created by the Department of History, United States Military Academy, West Point Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 540s BC 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC Years: 495 BC 494 BC 493 BC 492 BC 491 BC - 490 BC - 489 BC 488 BC... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Royal Road was an ancient highway built by the Persian king Darius I in the 5th Century BCE. Darius built the road to facilitate rapid communication throughout his very large empire from Susa to Sardis. ... For other uses of the name Susa please see this page. ... Sardis, (also Sardes) the capital of the ancient kingdom of Lydia, the seat of a conventus under the Roman Empire, and the metropolis of the province Lydia in later Roman and Byzantine times, was situated in the middle Hermus valley, at the foot of Mt. ... The Persian Immortals were a Persian elite Royal Guard regiment during the Persian Wars. ...


Darius revolutionized the economy by placing it on a silver and gold coinage system. Trade was extensive, and under the Achaemenids there was an efficient infrastructure that facilitated the exchange of commodities in the far reaches of the empire. As a result of this commercial activity, Persian words for typical items of trade became prevalent throughout the Middle East and eventually entered the English language; examples are bazaar, shawl, sash, turquoise, tiara, orange, lemon, melon, peach, spinach, and asparagus. Trade was one of the empire's main sources of revenue, along with agriculture and tribute. Other accomplishments of Darius' reign included codification of the data, a universal legal system upon which much of later Iranian law would be based, and construction of a new capital at Persepolis, where vassal states would offer their yearly tribute at the festival celebrating the spring equinox. Persian (known variously as: فارسی Fārsi or پارسی Pārsi, local name in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan, Tajik, a Central Asian dialect, or Dari, another local name in Tajikistan and Afghanistan) is a language spoken in Iran, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Bahrain, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Location of Persepolis Persepolis was an ancient capital of the Persian Achaemenid Empire, situated some 70 km northeast of Shiraz, not far from where the small river Pulwar flows into the Kur (Kyrus). ...


Social customs

 Relief of a Persian King Battling a Demon
Relief of a Persian King Battling a Demon
 A golden Rhyton, used for drinking
A golden Rhyton, used for drinking

The language in greatest use in the empire was Aramaic. Old Persian was the official language of the empire, but was used only for inscriptions and royal proclamations. Image File history File linksMetadata Abce. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Abce. ... Image File history File links Golden_Rhyton. ... Image File history File links Golden_Rhyton. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ...


Much of the information we have today on Persian society comes from the writings of the ancients, among whom is Herodotus. Among the many Persian customs, he notes that "they have no images of the gods, no temples nor altars, and consider the use of them a sign of folly. This comes, I think, from their not believing the gods to have the same nature with men, as the Greeks imagine." He claims the Persians offer sacrifice to: "the sun and moon, to the earth, to fire, to water, and to the winds. These are the only gods whose worship has come down to them from ancient times. At a later period they began the worship of Urania, which they borrowed from the Arabians and Assyrians. Mylitta is the name by which the Assyrians know this goddess, whom the Arabians call Alitta, and the Persians Mitra." Bust of Herodotus at Naples Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: , Herodotos) was a historian who lived in the 5th century BC (484 BC-ca. ...


On the means of sacrifice, he claims that: "they raise no altar, light no fire, pour no libations; there is no sound of the flute, no putting on of chaplets, no consecrated barley-cake; but the man who wishes to sacrifice brings his victim to a spot of ground which is pure from pollution, and there calls upon the name of the god to whom he intends to offer." He also mentions that the Persians would pray for the general welfare of the king and nation, rather than for their own personal benefit. Also, no prayer or offering can be made without a magus present.


Herodotus also mentions that the Persians were given to great birthday feasts, which would be followed by many desserts, a treat which they reproached the Greeks for omitting from their meals. Likewise, he claims that the Persians drank wine in large quantities and used it even for counsel, deliberating on important affairs when drunk, and deciding the next day, when sober, whether to act on the decision or set it aside.


On their methods of greeting, he asserts that equals kissed on the lips, persons of some difference in rank kissed on the cheek, and the lowest ranks would prostrate on the ground to the upper ranks. It is known that men of high rank practiced polygamy, and were reputed to have a number of wives and a greater number of concubines. On their same-sex relations, high ranked men kept favorites, such as Bagoas (courtier) who was one of Darius III's favorites and who later became Alexander's eromenos. Persian pederasty and its origins was debated even in ancient times. Herodotus claimed they had learned it from the Greeks: "...and [the Persians'] luxurious practices are of all kinds, and all borrowed: the Greeks taught them pederasty." (Histories;I.135, tr. A.D. Godley) However, Plutarch asserts that the Persians used eunuch boys "the Greek way" long before contact between the cultures. (De Malig. Herod. xiii.ll) The term polygamy (literally many marriages in late Greek) is used in related ways in social anthropology and sociobiology. ... Bagoas (in Old Persian Bagoi) was a eunuch in the Persian Empire in the 4th Century BCE. He was reportedly the lover of Alexander the Great. ... Darius III or Codomannus (c. ... Alexander the Great (in Greek , transliterated Megas Alexandros) (July 356 BC – June 11, 323 BC), King of Macedon (336–323 BC), is considered one of the most successful military commanders in world history, conquering most of the world known to the ancient Greeks before his death. ... Pederastic courtship scene. ... The term pederasty embraces a wide range of erotic relations between adult males and adolescent boys. ... Plutarch Mestrius Plutarchus (c. ...


Also from Herodotus we learn that the Persians had a very high regard for truth, teaching the respect of truth to their children and despising nothing so much as a lie. On the education of the children, we learn that from the age of five until twenty they were taught to ride, shoot the bow, and speak the truth. Until the age of five children spent all their time among the women and never met the father, so that, should they die in infancy, he would not sorrow over their loss. (Herodotus, The History, passim)


Contributions

An important Achaemenid artifact is the Cyrus Cylinder, a declaration issued by Cyrus the Great, son of the founder of the dynasty. Cyrus fought the Babylonians, eventually taking over and giving the Jews the freedom to practice their religion. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Cyrus Cylinder The Cyrus Cylinder is an artifact of the Persian Empire, consisting of a declaration inscribed in Babylonian cuneiform on a clay barrel. ... Cyrus Cylinder The Cyrus Cylinder is an artifact of the Persian Empire, consisting of a declaration inscribed in Babylonian cuneiform on a clay barrel. ...


Certain elements of Achaemenid religion show strong connections with Zoroastrianism, specifically in the use of fire altars and veneration of Ahura Mazda. In other ways, the Achaemenids departed from Zoroastrian traditions, as in their burial practices. Persians at the time were noted for their dedication to clear lines of right and wrong, and for their apparent honesty. Zoroastrianism (Persian: آيين زرتشت , Aeen-e Zartosht) was once the state religion of Sassanid Persia, and played an important role during the preceding Achaemenid and Parthian eras. ...


Cyrus' political behaviour was also attributed to his being shrewd - appearing as the "saviour" of a nation virtually guaranteed their allegiance and well-disposed behaviour. It was the general policy of the Achaemenids to continue the Assyrian and Babylonian policy of transferring large populations between areas, in effect mixing disparate groups together and diluting any nationalism they may otherwise have had - intended as a calming measure, and resulting in the Achaemenid era (ca. 650-330 BC) being known as a relatively peaceful period in Middle Eastern history.


Art

Achaemenid Silver Ibex; Susa; Iran; circa 450 BC
Achaemenid Silver Ibex; Susa; Iran; circa 450 BC
Achaemenid silver spoon with handle shaped in form of a duck's neck. Excavated in Pasargad. National Museum of Iran.
Achaemenid silver spoon with handle shaped in form of a duck's neck. Excavated in Pasargad. National Museum of Iran.
Winged sphinx from the palace of Darius the Great at Susa.
Winged sphinx from the palace of Darius the Great at Susa.

Achaemenid art, like Achaemenid religion, was a blend of many elements. Just as the Achaemenids were tolerant in matters of local government and custom, as long as Persians controlled the general policy and administration of the empire, so also were they tolerant in art so long as the finished and total effect was Persian. At Pasargadae, the capital of Cyrus the Great and Cambyses in Fars, the Persian homeland, and at Persepolis, the neighbouring city founded by Darius the Great and used by all of his successors, one can trace to a foreign origin almost all of the several details in the construction and embellishment of the architecture and the sculptured reliefs; but the conception, planning, and overall finished product are distinctly Persian and could not have been created by any of the foreign groups who supplied the king of kings with artistic talent. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Species Capra ibex Capra nubiana Capra pyrenaica Capra sibiria Capra walie See also Ibex (vehicle) ifor the specialist off-road vehicle, and the Ibex Valley. ... For other uses of the name Susa please see this page. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Achaemenid_spoon. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Achaemenid_spoon. ... Tomb of Cyrus II Pasargadae was a city in ancient Persia, and is today an archeological site. ... Entrance of the National Museum of Iran, the vault is built in the style of Persias Sassanid vaults The National Museum of Iran (in Persian: موزه ایران باستان Muze-ye Irân-e Bâstân) is an archeological and historical museum located in Tehran. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x877, 105 KB) Description: Winged sphinx from the palace of Darius the Great at Susa. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x877, 105 KB) Description: Winged sphinx from the palace of Darius the Great at Susa. ... The Great Sphinx of Giza, with the Pyramid of Khafre in the background. ... Seal of Darius I, showing the king hunting on his chariot, and the symbol of Ahuramazda Darius the Great (Pers. ... For other uses of the name Susa please see this page. ... Tomb of Cyrus II Reconstruction of the Tomb of Cyrus II Pasargadae was a city in ancient Persia, and is today an archeological site. ... Cyrus the Great Cyrus II of Persia, also known as Cyrus the Great or Cyrus the Elder, (ca. ... Cambyses (or Cambese) is the Greek version of the name of several monarchs of Achaemenid line of ancient Persia. ... // Introduction Fars is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Location of Persepolis Persepolis was an ancient capital of the Persian Achaemenid Empire, situated some 70 km northeast of Shiraz, not far from where the small river Pulwar flows into the Kur (Kyrus). ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ...


Cyrus may have been the leader of Persian tribes not yet so sophisticated nor so civilized as the Babylonians or Egyptians, but when he chose to build Pasargadae, he had a long artistic tradition behind him that was probably already distinctly Iranian and that was in many ways the equal of any. Two examples suffice: the tradition of the columned hall in architecture and fine gold work. The former can now be seen as belonging to an architectural tradition on the Iranian Plateau that extended back through the Median period to at least the beginning of the 1st millennium BC. The rich Achaemenid gold work, which inscriptions suggest may have been a specialty of the Medes, was in the tradition of the delicate metalwork found in Iron Age II times at Hasanlu and still earlier at Marlik.


This Achaemenid artistic style is evident in the iconography of Persepolis, which celebrates the king and the office of the monarch. In its carefully proportioned and well-organized ground plan, rich architectural ornament, and magnificent decorative reliefs, Persepolis, primarily the creation of Darius and Xerxes, is one of the great artistic legacies of the ancient world.


In its art and architecture, Persepolis reflected Darius' perception of himself as the leader of a conglomerate people to whom he had given a new and single identity. The Achaemenid art and architecture found there is at once distinctive and highly eclectic. The Achaemenids took the art forms and the cultural and religious traditions of many of the ancient Middle Eastern peoples and combined them into a single form.


In describing the construction of his palace at Susa, Darius says,

The cedar timber from there (a mountain by name Lebanon) was brought, the yaka timber was brought from Gandara and from Carmania. The gold was brought from Sardis and from Bactria . . . the precious stone lapis-lazuli and carnelian . . . was brought from Sogdiana. The turquoise from Chorasmia, the silver and ebony from Egypt, the ornamentation from Ionia, the ivory from Ethiopia and from Sind and from Arachosia. The stone-cutters who wrought the stone, those were Ionians and Sardians. The goldsmiths were Medes and Egyptians. The men who wrought the wood, those were Sardians and Egyptians. The men who wrought the baked brick, those were Babylonians. The men who adorned the wall, those were Medes and Egyptians.

This was an imperial art on a scale the world had not seen before. Materials and artists were drawn from all the lands ruled by the Great King, and thus tastes, styles, and motifs became mixed together in an eclectic art and architecture that in itself mirrored the empire and the Persians' understanding of how that empire ought to function. Yet the whole was entirely Persian. Buddhas First Sermon at Sarnath, Kushan Period, ca. ... Kerman is a province rich in historical sites and monuments. ... Arachosia is the ancient name of an area that corresponds to the southern part of today s Afghanistan, around the city of Kandahar. ... The Medes(ancient Kurdistan) were an Iranian people, who lived in the north, western, and northwestern portions of present-day Iran, and roughly the areas of present day Tehran, Hamedan, Azarbaijan, north of Esfahan, Zanjan, and Kurdistan. ...


So also with the small arts where the Persians excelled: fine metal tableware, jewelry, seal cutting, weaponry and its decoration, and pottery. It has been suggested that the Persians called upon the subject peoples for artists because they were themselves crude barbarians with little taste, and needed quickly to create an imperial art to match their sudden rise to political power. Yet excavations at sites from the protohistoric period show this not to have been the case.


Achaemenid rulers

Dynasties of Pharaohs
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Predynastic Egypt
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Middle Kingdom
11th (All Egypt)
12th 13th 14th
Second Intermediate Period
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New Kingdom
18th 19th 20th
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Late Period
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† The epigraphic evidence for these rulers cannot be confirmed and are often considered to have been invented by Darius I. Pharaoh (Arabic فرعون ) (Hebrew פַּרְעֹה ); is a title used to refer to the kings (of godly status) in ancient Egypt. ... Ancient Egypt was an African civilization located along the upper Nile, reaching from the Nile Delta in the north to as far south as Jebel Barkal at the Fourth Cataract of the Nile at the time of its greatest extension (15th century BC). ... The Predynastic Period of Egypt (prior to 3100 BC) is the period that culminates in the rise of the Old Kingdom and the first of the thirty dynasties based on royal residences, by which Egyptologists divide the history of pharaonic civilization using a schedule laid out first by Manethos... The Protodynastic Period of Egypt refers to the period of time at the very end of the Predynastic Period. ... The Early Dynastic Period of Egypt is taken to include the First and Second Dynasties, lasting from 2920 BC, following the Protodynastic Period of Egypt, until 2575 BC, or the beginning of the Old Kingdom. ... The First and second Dynasties of Ancient Egypt are often combined under the group title of the Early Dynastic Period of Egypt. ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Second Dynasty. ... The Old Kingdom is the name commonly given to that period in the 3rd millennium BC when Egypt attained its first continuous peak of civilization complexity and achievement - this was the first of three so-called Kingdom periods, which mark the high points of civilization in the Nile Valley (the... History of Egypt Third Dynasty While Manetho names one Necherophes, and the Turin King List names Nebka, as the first pharaoh of the Third dynasty of Egypt, some contemporary Egyptologists believe Djoser was the first king of this dynasty, pointing out that the order in which some predecessors of Khufu... The Fourth dynasty of Egypt was the second of the four dynasties considered forming the Old Kingdom. ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Fifth Dynasty. ... The Sixth Dynasty of Egypt is considered by many authorities as the last dynasty of the Old Kingdom of Ancient Egypt, although The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt (ed. ... The First Intermediate Period is the name conventionally given by Egyptologists to that period in Ancient Egyptian history between the end of the Old Kingdom and the advent of the Middle Kingdom. ... This article has recently been written with incorrect information that actually corresponds with the Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt ... The last shadowy pharaohs of the Old Kingdom period, probably having a very limited nominal authority in and around the capital of Memphis, Egypt, the real power now in the hands of the nobility (nomarchs). ... The Ninth Dynasty was founded at Hereklepolis by Meryibra, and the Tenth Dynasty continued there. ... Categories: Articles to be expanded ... Manethos statement that the Eleventh dynasty consisted of 16 kings who reigned 43 years is contradicted by contemporary inscriptions and the evidence of the Turin King List, whose combined testimony proves that it consisted of seven kings who ruled about 160 years. ... Thebes [Θηβαι ThÄ“bai] is the Greek designation of ancient Egyptian niwt (The) City and niwt-rst (The) Southern City. It is located about 800 km south of the Mediterranean, on the east bank of the Nile (25. ... The Middle Kingdom is a period in the history of ancient Egypt stretching from the establishment of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Fourteenth Dynasty, roughly between 1991 BC and 1648 BC. The Eleventh Dynasty The Middle Kingdom has been usually dated to the time when Pharaoh Mentuhotep... Manethos statement that the Eleventh dynasty consisted of 16 kings who reigned 43 years is contradicted by contemporary inscriptions and the evidence of the Turin King List, whose combined testimony proves that it consisted of seven kings who ruled about 160 years. ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Twelfth Dynasty. ... Unlike as explained as being chaos and disorder by later texts, the Thriteenth dynasty wasnt as bad as once thought. ... Categories: Articles to be expanded ... The Second Intermediate Period marks a period when Ancient Egypt once again fell into disarray between the end of the Middle Kingdom, and the start of the New Kingdom. ... The Fifteenth dynasty of Egypt was the first Hyksos dynasty, ruling from Itjtawy, without control of the entire land. ... Categories: Articles to be expanded ... Categories: Articles to be expanded ... The New Kingdom is the period in Egyptian history between the 16th century BCE and the 11th century BCE, covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of Egypt. ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Eighteenth Dynasty. ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Nineteenth Dynasty. ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Twentieth Dynasty. ... The Third Intermediate Period refers to the time in Ancient Egypt from the death of Pharaoh Rameses XI in 1070 BC to the foundation of the Twenty-Sixth Dynasty by Psamtik I, following the expulsion of the Nubian rulers of the Twenty-Fifth Dynasty. ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Twenty-First Dynasty. ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Twenty-Second Dynasty. ... These rulers are known in the History of Egypt, as the Twenty-Third Dynasty. ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Twenty-Fourth Dynasty. ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Twenty-Fifth Dynasty. ... ôľĎÚ The Late Period of Egypt refers to the last flowering of native Egyptian rulers after the Third Intermediate Period, and before the Persian conquests. ... The Twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt was the last native dynasty to rule Egypt before the Persian conquest, and had its capital was Sais. ... The Twenty-eighth dynasty of Egypt had one ruler, Amyrtaeus, who was a descendant of the Saite kings of the Twenty-sixth dynasty, and led a successful revolt against the Persians on the death of Darius II. No monuments of his reign have been found, and little is known of... Nefaarud I, or Nepherites, founded the Twenty-ninth dynasty of Egypt (according to an account preserved in a papyrus in the Brooklyn Museum) by defeating Amyrtaeus in open battle, and later putting him to death at Memphis. ... The Thirtieth dynasty of Egypt followed Nectanebo Is deposition of Nefaarud II, the son of Hakor. ... The conquests of Alexander the Great brought Egypt within the orbit of the Greek world for almost 900 years. ... The conquests of Alexander the Great brought Egypt within the orbit of the Greek world for almost 900 years. ... The conquests of Alexander the Great brought Egypt within the orbit of the Greek world for almost 900 years. ... The conquests of Alexander the Great brought Egypt within the orbit of the Greek world for almost 900 years. ... This article concerns Achaemenes, founder of the first Persian dynasty. ... Teispes (675-640 BC) was the son of Achaemenes and a King of Persia. ... Cyrus I was King of Anshan from c. ... Ariaramnes (Old Persian Ariyâramna, Peace of the Aryans) was an uncle of Cyrus the Great, probably a great-uncle and the king of Persia. ... Cambyses I the Elder (c. ... Arsames (Old Persian Aršâma) was the son of Ariaramnes and co-ruler with Cambyses I. His name in the Greek sources is . ... Cyrus the Great Cyrus II of Persia, also known as Cyrus the Great or Cyrus the Elder, (ca. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 600s BC - 590s BC - 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC Events and Trends Carthage conquers Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica 559 BC - King Cambyses I of Anshan dies... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC Events and Trends 538 BC - Babylon occupied by Jews transported to Babylon are allowed to return to... Cambyses II (Persian Kambujiya), was the name borne by the son of Cyrus the Great. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC Events 529 BC - Cambyses II succeeds his father Cyrus as ruler of Persia. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC Events 529 BC - Cambyses II succeeds his father Cyrus as ruler of Persia. ... Smerdis was a Persian king of infamous memory. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC Events 529 BC - Cambyses II succeeds his father Cyrus as ruler of Persia. ... Darius I of Persia Darius the Great (ca. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC Events 529 BC - Cambyses II succeeds his father Cyrus as ruler of Persia. ... Centuries: 6th century BCE - 5th century BCE - 4th century BCE Decades: 530s BCE 520s BCE 510s BCE 500s BCE 490s BCE - 480s BCE - 470s BCE 460s BCE 450s BCE 420s BCE 430s BCE Years: 491 BCE 490 BCE 489 BCE 488 BCE 487 BCE - 486 BCE - 485 BCE 484 BCE... Xerxes famous Greek scene in punishing the Sea. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC Years: 490 BC 489 BC 488 BC 487 BC 486 BC - 485 BC - 484 BC - 483 BC... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 510s BC 500s BC 490s BC 480s BC 470s BC - 460s BC - 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC Years: 470 BC 469 BC 468 BC 467 BC 466 BC - 465 BC - 464 BC 463 BC... Artaxerxes I was king of the Persian Empire from 464 BC to 424 BC. He belonged to the Achaemenid dynasty and was the successor of Xerxes I. His surname Longimanus is attributed to, according to Plutarch, his right hand being longer than his left. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 510s BC 500s BC 490s BC 480s BC 470s BC - 460s BC - 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC Years: 470 BC 469 BC 468 BC 467 BC 466 BC - 465 BC - 464 BC 463 BC... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC - 420s BC - 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC Years: 429 BC 428 BC 427 BC 426 BC 425 BC - 424 BC - 423 BC 422 BC... Xerxes II was a Persian king and the son and successor of Artaxerxes I. After a reign of forty-five days, he was assassinated in 424 BC by his brother Sogdianus, who in turn was murdered by Darius II. He is an obscure historical figure known primarily from the writings... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC - 420s BC - 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC Years: 429 BC 428 BC 427 BC 426 BC 425 BC - 424 BC - 423 BC 422 BC... Sogdianus , king of Persia (424 - 423 BC). ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC - 420s BC - 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC Years: 429 BC 428 BC 427 BC 426 BC 425 BC - 424 BC - 423 BC 422 BC... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC - 420s BC - 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC Years: 428 BC 427 BC 426 BC 425 BC 424 BC - 423 BC - 422 BC 421 BC... Darius II, originally called Ochus and often surnamed Nothus (from Greek νοθος, meaning bastard), was emperor of Persia from 423 BC to 404 BC. Artaxerxes I, who died shortly after December 24, 424 BC, was followed by his son Xerxes II. After a month and a half Xerxes was murdered by... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC - 420s BC - 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC Years: 428 BC 427 BC 426 BC 425 BC 424 BC - 423 BC - 422 BC 421 BC... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC - 400s BC - 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC Years: 410 BC 409 BC 408 BC 407 BC 406 BC - 405 BC - 404 BC 403 BC... Artaxerxes II Memnon (c. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC - 400s BC - 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC Years: 409 BC 408 BC 407 BC 406 BC 405 BC - 404 BC - 403 BC 402 BC... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 364 BC 363 BC 362 BC 361 BC 360 BC 359 BC 358 BC 357 BC 356... Xenophon (In Greek , c. ... Artaxerxes III ruled Persia from 358 BC to 338 BC. He was the son of Artaxerxes II and was succeeded by Arses of Persia (also known as Artaxerxes IV). ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC - 350s BC - 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 363 BC 362 BC 361 BC 360 BC 359 BC 358 BC 357 BC 356 BC 355... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC - 330s BC - 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 343 BC 342 BC 341 BC 340 BC 339 BC - 338 BC - 337 BC 336 BC 335... Artaxerxes IV Bumcheeks, King of Persia between 338 BC and 336 BC. He was the youngest son of King Artaxerxes III and was not expected to succeed to the throne of Persia. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC - 330s BC - 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 343 BC 342 BC 341 BC 340 BC 339 BC - 338 BC - 337 BC 336 BC 335... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC - 330s BC - 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 341 BC 340 BC 339 BC 338 BC 337 BC - 336 BC - 335 BC 334 BC 333... Darius III (near middle) battling Alexander the Great (far left) Darius III or Codomannus (c. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC - 330s BC - 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 341 BC 340 BC 339 BC 338 BC 337 BC - 336 BC - 335 BC 334 BC 333... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC - 330s BC - 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 335 BC 334 BC 333 BC 332 BC 331 BC - 330 BC - 329 BC 328 BC 327... Seal of Darius I, showing the king hunting on his chariot, and the symbol of Ahuramazda Darius the Great (Pers. ...


See also

The following is a comprehensive list of all Persian Empires and their rulers: // Early realms in Iran Elamite Kingdom, 3000–660 BC The Elamites were a people located in Susa, in what is now Khuzestan province. ... Pharaoh (Arabic فرعون ) (Hebrew פַּרְעֹה ); is a title used to refer to the kings (of godly status) in ancient Egypt. ... The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Empire (Persian: Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia (Iran) during the era of the third Persian Empire from 226 until 651. ...

References

  • The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies at SOAS (CASI at SOAS)
  • Stronach, David "Darius at Pasargadae: A Neglected Source for the History of Early Persia," Topoi

Further reading

  • Ancient Persia Josef Wiesehofer
  • Forgotten Empire: The World of Ancient Persia J. E Curtis and N. Tallis
  • From Cyrus to Alexander: A History of the Persian Empire Pierre Briant
  • The Greco-Persian Wars Peter Green
  • The Greek and Persian Wars 499-386 BC Philip De Souza
  • The Heritage of Persia Richard N. Frye
  • History of the Persian Empire A.T. Olmstead
  • The Persian Empire Lindsay Allen
  • The Persian Empire J.M. Cook
  • Persian Fire: The First World Empire and the Battle for the West Tom Holland
  • Pictorial History of Iran: Ancient Persia Before Islam 15000 B.C.-625 A.D. Amini Sam
  • Timelife Persians: Masters of the Empire (Lost Civilizations)

External links

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Achaemenid dynasty

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Achaemenid dynasty - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2778 words)
Cyrus II is considered to be the first king of the Achaemenid dynasty to be properly called so, as his predecessors were subservient to Media.
An important Achaemenid artifact is the Cyrus Cylinder, a declaration issued by Cyrus the Great, son of the founder of the dynasty.
This Achaemenid artistic style is evident in the iconography of Persepolis, which celebrates the king and the office of the monarch.
Achaemenid dynasty - definition of Achaemenid dynasty in Encyclopedia (667 words)
The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I.
At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of today's Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Pakistan, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon, Armenia, Central Asia, Caucasia and the Asian portion of Turkey.
The founder of this dynasty was supposedly King Achaemenes of Anshan (Hakhamanish).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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