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Encyclopedia > Acetylene
Acetylene
IUPAC name Ethyne
Identifiers
CAS number 74-86-2
SMILES C#C
Properties
Molecular formula C2H2
Molar mass 26.0373 g/mol
Density 1.09670 kg/m³ gas
Melting point

-84 °C Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x238, 11 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Acetylene ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x742, 99 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Acetylene Hydrocarbon ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... The simplified molecular input line entry specification or SMILES is a specification for unambiguously describing the structure of chemical molecules using short ASCII strings. ... A chemical formula is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... Molar mass is the mass of one mole of a chemical element or chemical compound. ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ...

Boiling point

-80.8 °C Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ...

Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)

Infobox disclaimer and references

Acetylene (systematic name: ethyne) is a hydrocarbon belonging to the group of alkynes. It is considered to be the simplest of all alkynes as it consists of two hydrogen atoms and two carbon atoms. Acetylene is an unsaturated organic compound because its four atoms are triple bonded through a covalent bond. The plimsoll symbol as used in shipping In chemistry, the standard state of a material is its state at 1 bar (100 kilopascals exactly). ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... Oil refineries are key to obtaining hydrocarbons; crude oil is processed through several stages to form desirable hydrocarbons, used in fuel and other commercial products. ... The structural formula of 2-butyne, a simple alkyne-containing molecule Alkynes are hydrocarbons that have at least one triple bond between two carbon atoms, with the formula CnH2n-2. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... Properties For alternative meanings see atom (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... In chemistry, saturation has four different meanings: In physical chemistry, saturation is the point at which a solution of a substance can dissolve no more of that substance and additional amounts of that substance will appear as a precipitate. ... Benzene is the simplest of the arenes, a family of organic compounds An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon and hydrogen; therefore, carbides, carbonates, carbon oxides and elementary carbon are not organic (see below for more on the definition controversy... “Covalent” redirects here. ...


The carbon-carbon triple bond leaves the carbon atoms with two sp hybrid orbitals for sigma bonding, placing all four atoms in the same straight line, with CCH bond angles of 180°.


Acetylene was discovered in 1836 by Edmund Davy who identified it as a "new carburet of hydrogen." It was rediscovered in 1860 by French chemist Marcellin Berthelot, who coined the name "acetylene." The Nobel Laureate Gustaf Dalén was blinded by an acetylene explosion. Edmund Davy (1785 - 5 Nov 1857) was a professor of Chemistry at the Royal Cork Institution from 1813 and professor of chemistry at the Royal Dublin Society from 1826. ... Marcellin Berthelot Marcellin (or Marcelin) Pierre Eugène Berthelot (October 25, 1827 - March 18, 1907) was a French chemist and politician. ... Nils Gustaf Dalén (November 30, 1869 – December 9, 1937) was a Swedish Nobel Laureate and industrialist, the founder of AGA, the company and inventor of the AGA cooker and the Dalén light. ...

Contents

Preparation

The principal raw materials for acetylene manufacture are calcium carbonate (limestone) and coal. The calcium carbonate is first converted into calcium oxide and the coal into coke, then the two are reacted with each other to form calcium carbide and carbon monoxide: Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound, with the chemical formula CaCO3. ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... Coal Coal (IPA: ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... Coke Coke is a solid carbonaceous material derived from destructive distillation of low-ash, low-sulfur bituminous coal. ... Calcium carbide is a chemical compound with the chemical formula CaC2. ... Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. ...

CaO + 3C → CaC2 + CO

Calcium carbide (or calcium acetylide) and water are then reacted by any of several methods to produce acetylene and calcium hydroxide. This reaction was discovered by Friedrich Wohler in 1862. Calcium carbide. ... A metal acetylide is an alkyne that has had a proton (hydrogen) removed from the terminal end by a metal such as sodium or an organolithium. ... It has been suggested that Portlandite be merged into this article or section. ... Friedrich Wöhler Friedrich Wöhler (July 31, 1800 - September 23, 1882) was a German chemist, best-known for his synthesis of urea, but also the first to isolate several of the elements. ...

CaC2 + 2H2O → Ca(OH)2 + C2H2

Calcium carbide synthesis requires an extremely high temperature, ~2000 degrees Celsius, so the reaction is performed in an electric arc furnace. This reaction was an important part of the late-1800s revolution in chemistry enabled by the massive hydroelectric power project at Niagara Falls. An electric arc furnace is a system that heats charged material by means of an electric arc. ... Hydroelectric dam diagram The waters of Llyn Stwlan, the upper reservoir of the Ffestiniog Pumped-Storage Scheme in north Wales, can just be glimpsed on the right. ... For other uses, see Niagara Falls (disambiguation). ...


Acetylene can also be manufactured by the partial combustion of methane with oxygen, or by the cracking of hydrocarbons. This article is about the chemical reaction combustion. ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula CH4. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... Factory of Shukhov cracking process, Baku, USSR, 1934 In petroleum geology and chemistry, cracking is the process whereby complex organic molecules such as kerogens or heavy hydrocarbons are broken down into simpler molecules (e. ... Oil refineries are key to obtaining hydrocarbons; crude oil is processed through several stages to form desirable hydrocarbons, used in fuel and other commercial products. ...


Berthelot was able to prepare acetylene from methyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol, ethylene, or ether, when he passed any one of these as a gas or vapour through a red-hot tube. Berthelot also found acetylene was formed by sparking electricity through mixed cyanogen and hydrogen gases. He was also able to form acetylene directly by combining pure hydrogen with carbon using electrical discharge of a carbon arc. Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol or wood alcohol, is a chemical compound with chemical formula CH3OH. It is the simplest alcohol, and is a light, volatile, colourless, flammable, poisonous liquid that is used as an antifreeze, solvent, fuel, and as a denaturant for ethyl alcohol. ... Ethyl alcohol, also known as ethanol or grain alcohol, is a flammable, colorless chemical compound, one of the alcohols that is most often found in alcoholic beverages. ... Ethylene (or IUPAC name ethene) is the chemical compound with the formula C2H4. ... Ether is the general name for a class of chemical compounds which contain an ether group — an oxygen atom connected to two (substituted) alkyl or aryl groups — of general formula R – O–R.[1] A typical example is the solvent and anesthetic diethyl ether, commonly referred to simply as ether... Cyanogen is a chemical compound (CN)2. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ...


Reactions

  • Above 400 °C (673 K), which is quite low for a hydrocarbon, the pyrolysis of acetylene will start. The main products are the dimer vinylacetylene (C4H4) and benzene. At temperatures above 900 °C (1173 K), the main product will be soot.
  • Using acetylene, Berthelot was the first to show that an aliphatic compound could form an aromatic compound when he heated acetylene in a glass tube to produce benzene with some toluene. Berthelot oxidized acetylene to yield acetic acid and oxalic acid. He found acetylene could be reduced to form ethylene and ethane.
  • Polymerization of acetylene with Ziegler-Natta catalysts produces polyacetylene films. Polyacetylene, a chain of carbon molecules with alternating single and double bonds, was the first organic semiconductor to be discovered; reaction with iodine produces an extremely conductive material.
  • In the Kucherov reaction (invented in 1881 by the Russian chemist Mikhail Kucherov) [1] acetylene is hydrated to acetaldehyde with a mercury salt such as mercury(II) bromide. Before the advent of the Wacker process this reaction was conducted on an industrial scale [2].

Simple sketch of pyrolysis chemistry Pyrolysis usually means the chemical decomposition of organic materials by heating in the absence of oxygen or any other reagents, except possibly steam. ... Sucrose, or common table sugar, is composed of glucose and fructose. ... Vinylacetylene or butenyne, C4H4, is a highly unsaturated hydrocarbon. ... For benzine, see petroleum ether. ... Soot, also called lampblack, Pigment Black 7, carbon black or black carbon, is a dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, usually composed mainly of amorphous carbon, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke—especially from the combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in the... Marcellin Berthelot Marcellin (or Marcelin) Pierre Eugène Berthelot (October 25, 1827 - March 18, 1907) was a French chemist and politician. ... In chemistry, non-aromatic and non-cyclic (acyclic) organic compounds are called aliphatic. ... In chemistry, an aromatic molecule is one in which electrons are free to cycle around circular arrangements of atoms, which are alternately singly and doubly bonded to one another. ... For benzine, see petroleum ether. ... Toluene, also known as methylbenzene or phenylmethane is a clear, water-insoluble liquid with the typical smell of paint thinners, redolent of the sweet smell of the related compound benzene. ... Acetic acid, also known as ethanoic acid, is an organic chemical compound with the formula CH3COOH best recognized for giving vinegar its sour taste and pungent smell. ... Oxalic acid (IUPAC name: ethanedioic acid, formula C2H2O4) is a dicarboxylic acid with structure (HOOC)-(COOH). ... Ethylene (or IUPAC name ethene) is the chemical compound with the formula C2H4. ... This article is about a chemical compound. ... An example of alkene polymerisation, in which each Styrene monomer units double bond reforms as a single bond with another styrene monomer and forms polystyrene. ... A Ziegler-Natta catalyst is a reagent used in the production of unbranched, stereoregular vinyl polymers. ... Polyacetylene (PA) is conducting polymer of the rigid-rod polymer host family. ... Semiconductors are compounds whose electrical conductivity is midway between that of typical metals and that of insulating compounds. ... For the record label, see Iodine Recordings. ... In organic chemistry, a hydration reaction is a chemical reaction in which a hydroxyl group (OH-) and a hydrogen cation (an acidic proton) are added to the two carbon atoms bonded together in the carbon-carbon double bond which makes up an alkene functional group. ... R-phrases , , S-phrases , , , Flash point −39 °C Autoignition temperature 185 °C RTECS number AB1925000 Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... General Name, Symbol, Number mercury, Hg, 80 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 6, d Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight 200. ...

Reppe chemistry

Walter Reppe discovered that acetylene can react at high pressures with heavy metal catalysts to give industrially significant chemicals: Walter Reppe (b. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Catalysis. ...

This article does not cite any references or sources. ... R-phrases , , , , . S-phrases , , , , , , , , . Flash point −17. ... R-phrases , S-phrases , , , , Flash point non-flammable Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Structure of a carboxylic acid The 3D structure of the carboxyl group A space-filling model of the carboxyl group Carboxylic acids are organic acids characterized by the presence of a carboxyl group, which has the formula -C(=O)OH, usually written -COOH or -CO2H. [1] Carboxylic acids are Bronsted... Chemical structure of the vinyl functional group. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (876x593, 15 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Acetylene Walter Reppe ...

An aldehyde is either a functional group consisting of a terminal carbonyl group, or a compound containing a terminal carbonyl group. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1203x519, 13 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Acetylene Walter Reppe ...


This is industrially used to produce 1,4-butynediol from formaldehyde and acetylene: 1,4-Butynediol is an organic compound that is an alkyne and a diol. ... The chemical compound formaldehyde (also known as methanal) is a gas with a pungent smell. ...

HCCH + CH2O → CH2(OH)CCCH2OH

Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. ... Acrylic acid or prop-2-enoic acid is a chemical compound with the formula C3H4O2 and structure (which is sometimes abbreviated as CH2=CHCOOH). ... Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) or poly (methyl 2-methylpropenoate) is the synthetic polymer of methyl methacrylate. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1116x217, 6 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Acetylene Walter Reppe ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1116x216, 7 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Acetylene Walter Reppe ...

For benzine, see petroleum ether. ... 1,3,5,7-Cyclooctatetrene (COT) is an unsaturated derivative of cyclooctane, with the formula C8H8. ... Image File history File links Reppe-chemistry-benzene. ... Image File history File links Reppe-chemistry-cyclooctatetraene. ...


Uses

Approximately 80 percent of the acetylene produced annually in the United States is used in chemical synthesis. The remaining 20 percent is used primarily for oxyacetylene gas welding and cutting due to the high temperature of the flame; combustion of acetylene with oxygen produces a flame of over 3300 °C (6000 °F), releasing 11.8 kJ/g. Oxyacetylene is the hottest burning common fuel gas.[3]. Cyanogen, a more exotic gas, produces a flame of over 4525°C (8180°F) when it burns in oxygen.[4] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Oxy-fuel welding and cutting. ... Oxy-Fuel Welding is a welding process commonly called Oxy-Acetylene Welding, since acetylene is the predominant choice for a fuel, or often simply Gas welding. ... The word blowtorch can mean:- A cutting torch used for cutting metal. ... A kilojoule (abbreviation: kJ) is a unit of energy equal to 1000 joules. ... Cyanogen is a chemical compound (CN)2. ...


Acetylene is also used in the acetylene ('carbide') lamp, once used by miners (not to be confused with the Davy lamp), on vintage cars, and still sometimes used by cavers. In this context, the acetylene is generated by dripping water from the upper chamber of the lamp onto calcium carbide (CaC2) pellets in the base of the lamp. Lit carbide lamp A French manufactured Carbide of Calcium lamp on a bicycle Carbide of Calcium lamp in a coal mine Carbide lamps also known as Acetylene Gas lamps are simple lamps that produce and burn acetylene gas (C2H2) which is created by the reaction of calcium carbide (CaC2) with... Davy lamp The Davy lamp is a candle containing safety lamp devised in 1815 by Humphry Davy. ... “Car” and “Cars” redirect here. ... sport of exploring caves. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Calcium carbide is a chemical compound with the chemical formula CaC2. ...


In former times a few towns used acetylene for lighting, including Tata in Hungary where it was installed on 24 July 1897, and North Petherton, England in 1898. Tata is a town in north-western Hungary, Komárom-Esztergom county. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... North Petherton is a small town in Somerset, England, situated on the edge of the eastern foothills of the Quantocks, and close to the edge of the Somerset Levels. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


In modern times acetylene is sometimes used for carburization (that is, hardening) of steel when the object is too large to fit into a furnace.[3] Carburization (often referred to as carburizing) is the name of the process by which carbon is introduced into a metal. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ...


Acetylene has been proposed as a carbon feedstock for molecular manufacturing using nanotechnology. Since it does not occur naturally, using acetylene could limit out-of-control self-replication. Molecular engineering is any means of manufacturing molecules. ...


Acetylene is used to volatilize carbon in radiocarbon dating. The carbonaceous material in the archeological sample reacted in a small specialized research furnace with lithium metal to form lithium carbide (also known as lithium acetylide). The carbide can then be reacted with water, as usual, to form acetylene gas to be fed into mass spectrometer to sort out the isotopic ratio of carbon 14 to carbon 12. Radiocarbon dating is a radiometric dating method that uses the naturally occurring isotope carbon-14 (14C) to determine the age of carbonaceous materials up to about 60,000 years. ... This article is about the chemical element named Lithium. ... Lithium carbide, Li2C2, often known as dilithium acetylide, is a chemical compound of lithium and carbon. ... Mass spectrometry is a technique for separating ions by their mass-to-charge (m/z) ratios. ...


The Future


The use of acetylene is expected to continue a gradual increase in the future as new applications are developed. One new application is the conversion of acetylene to ethylene for use in making a variety of polyethylene plastics. In the past, a small amount of acetylene had been generated and wasted as part of the steam cracking process used to make ethylene. A new catalyst developed by Phillips Petroleum allows most of this acetylene to be converted into ethylene for increased yields at a reduced overall cost.[5]


Safety and handling

Compression

Due to the carbon-to-carbon triple bond, acetylene gas is fundamentally unstable, and will decompose in an exothermic reaction if compressed to any great extent. Acetylene can explode with extreme violence if the pressure of the gas exceeds about 100 kPa (≈14.5 psi) as a gas or when in liquid or solid form, so it is shipped and stored dissolved in acetone or dimethylformamide (DMF), contained in a metal cylinder with porous filling (Agamassan), which renders it safe to transport and use. Instability in systems is generally characterized by some of the outputs or internal states growing without bounds. ... Chemical decomposition or analysis is the fragmentation of a chemical compound into elements or smaller compounds. ... In thermodynamics, the word exothermic describes a process or reaction that releases energy in the form of heat. ... For other uses, see Chemical reaction (disambiguation). ... A gas compressor is a mechanical device that increases the pressure of a gas by reducing its volume. ... The chemical compound acetone (also known as propanone, dimethyl ketone, 2-propanone, propan-2-one and β-ketopropane) is the simplest representative of the ketones. ... Dimethylformamide (DMF, N,N-dimethylformamide) is a clear liquid, miscible with water and majority of organic solvents. ... Agamassan (aga) is a substrate used to safely absorb acetylene and thus allow the transport, storage and commercial explotation of an otherwise unstable gas. ...


There are strict regulations on the shipment of dangerous gas cylinders throughout the world. The use of dissolved acetylene is decreasing rapidly, due to favourable flameless welding processes. Industrial compressed gas cylinders used for oxy-fuel welding and cutting of steel. ... Welding is a fabrication process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing coalescence. ...


Toxic effects

Inhaling acetylene may cause dizziness, headache and nausea.[6] It may also contain toxic impurities: the Compressed Gas Association Commodity Specification for acetylene has established a grading system for identifying and quantifying phosphine, arsine, and hydrogen sulfide content in commercial grades of acetylene in order to limit exposure to these impurities. The sulfur, phosphorus and arsenic are carryovers from the synthesis ingredient coke, an impure form of carbon and different, organic impurities would be expected from the thermal cracking of hydrocarbons source. This article is about the chemical. ... Arsine, the simplest compound of arsenic, is AsH3. ... Hydrogen sulfide (hydrogen sulphide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula H2S. This colorless, toxic and flammable gas is responsible for the foul odor of rotten eggs and flatulence. ...


While the impurities in acetylene can be toxic and even fatal, pure acetylene is of a very low toxicity (not counting the "narcotic" effects). Up to 80% percent, (v/v) acetylene has been administered to surgical patients as a general anaesthetic. The trade name for acetylene was "narcylene." It was used a fair amount experimentally in Germany in their impoverished 1920's, perhaps on several thousand patients. Medically, acetylene was considered to be nearly as safe as nitrous oxide and with a slightly higher potency, allowing for the use of higher percentages of oxygen in the blend; it is about 50% more potent. However, the use of acetylene and oxygen mixtures was dropped after several gas explosions inside patients' lungs. The energy of these explosions would be expected to exceed any of the flammable inhalation anesthetics due to the instability of the triple bond (cyclopropane would be nearly as bad). It was suggested that such an internal thorax explosion could not occur with air mixtures (without purified oxygen). A general anaesthetic drug is an anaesthetic (or anesthetic AE) drug that brings about a reversible loss of consciousness. ... For other uses, see Nitrous oxide (disambiguation). ...


Acetylene has been infrequently abused in a manner akin to nitrous oxide abuse up through modern times, according to the literature. Such abuse can result in the death of the abuser due to toxicity of the above mentioned impurities phosphine, arsine, and hydrogen sulfide. Since the gas is charged (absorbed) into tanks soaked with acetone over a solid matrix, some acetone comes out with the gas, further contributing to the poisonings. The driver for this abusive behavior is better understood with the view of acetylene's anesthetic properties and addictive behaviors. This article is about the chemical. ... Arsine, the simplest compound of arsenic, is AsH3. ... Hydrogen sulfide (hydrogen sulphide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula H2S. This colorless, toxic and flammable gas is responsible for the foul odor of rotten eggs and flatulence. ...


Impurities in acetylene are easily detectable by smell. Pure acetylene is a colorless and odorless gas. The characteristic garlic-like odor of technical grade acetylene is attributable to contamination by impurities. Impurities which may be present include: divinyl sulfide, ammonia, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphine, arsine, methane, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide, vinyl acetylene, divinyl acetylene, diacetylene, propadiene, hexadiene, butadienyl acetylene, and methyl acetylene. Binomial name L. Allium sativum L., commonly known as garlic, is a species in the onion family Alliaceae. ... For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... This article is about the chemical. ... Arsine, the simplest compound of arsenic, is AsH3. ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula CH4. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. ... Hydrogen sulfide (hydrogen sulphide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula H2S. This colorless, toxic and flammable gas is responsible for the foul odor of rotten eggs and flatulence. ... Chemical structure of vinylacetylene Skeletal structure of vinylacetylene Space-filling model of vinylacetylene Vinylacetylene or butenyne, C4H4, is a highly unsaturated hydrocarbon. ... Diacetylene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon with chemical formula HCCCCH. Categories: Stub ... Methylacetylene (propyne) is an alkyne with the chemical formula CH3C≡CH. It is a component of MAPP gas, which is commonly used in gas welding. ...


Fire hazard

Mixtures with air containing between 3% and 82% acetylene are explosive on ignition. The minimum ignition temperature is 335 °C.[6] The majority of acetylene's chemical energy is what is not contained in the carbon-carbon triple bond; that is, it is greater than that of three carbon-carbon bonds spread out, but is disallowed therefrom because of the spaces between its mate carbon and all other carbons likewise shielded in charge.


Incompatibilities

“Bromo” redirects here. ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number mercury, Hg, 80 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 6, d Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight 200. ... This article is about the chemical element. ...

Other meanings

Sometimes the plural "acetylenes" may refer to the class of organic chemical compounds known as alkynes which contain the -C≡C- group. The structural formula of 2-butyne, a simple alkyne-containing molecule Alkynes are hydrocarbons that have at least one triple bond between two carbon atoms, with the formula CnH2n-2. ...


Natural occurrence

Acetylene is a moderately common chemical in the universe, often associated with the atmospheres of gas giants.[7] One curious discovery of acetylene is on Enceladus, a moon of Saturn. Natural acetylene is believed to form from either catalytic decomposition of long chain hydrocarbons or at temperatures ≥ 1,770 kelvin. Since such temperatures are highly unlikely on such a small distant body, this discovery is potentially suggestive of catalytic reactions within the moon, making it a promising site to search for prebiotic chemistry.[8][9] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Atmosphere Surface pressure: trace, significant spatial variability[8][9] Composition: 91% Water vapour 4% Nitrogen 3. ... This article is about the planet. ... In chemistry and biology, catalysis (in Greek meaning to annul) is the acceleration of the rate of a chemical reaction by means of a substance, called a catalyst, that is itself unchanged chemically by the overall reaction. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ...


References

  1. ^ Kutscheroff, M. Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chemie 1881, 1540–1542.
  2. ^ Hydration of Acetylene: A 125th Anniversary Dmitry A. Ponomarev and Sergey M. Shevchenko Journal of Chemical Education Vol. 84 No. 10 October 2007 1725
  3. ^ a b http://www.boc.com/products_and_services/by_product/acetylene/index.asp
  4. ^ Thomas, N. & Gaydon, A. G.; Brewer, L. (March 1952), "Cyanogen Flames and the Dissociation Energy of N2", The Journal of Chemical Physics 20 (3): 369-374, <http://scitation.aip.org/getabs/servlet/GetabsServlet?prog=normal&id=JCPSA6000020000003000369000001&idtype=cvips&gifs=yes>
  5. ^ Acetylene: How Products are Made
  6. ^ a b Muir, GD (ed.) 1971, Hazards in the Chemical Laboratory, The Royal Institute of Chemistry, London.
  7. ^ W. M. Keck Observatory (20 Dec 2005). Precursor to Proteins and DNA found in Stellar Disk. Press release.
  8. ^ Emily Lakdawalla (17 Mar 2006). LPSC: Wednesday afternoon: Cassini at Enceladus. The Planetary Society.
  9. ^ John Spencer and David Grinspoon (25 Jan 2007). "Planetary science: Inside Enceladus". Nature 445: 376-377. doi:10.1038/445376b. 

Journal of Chemical Education (JCE) is a monthly, subscription-only journal available in print and online. ... The W. M. Keck Observatory is home to two of the largest optical/near-infrared telescopes in the world, at the 4,145 meter (13,600 ft) summit of Mauna Kea in Hawaii. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... The Planetary Society is a large, publicly-supported, not-for-profit organization that has many research projects related to astronomy. ... Nature is a prominent scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Encyclopedia4U - Acetylene - Encyclopedia Article (329 words)
Acetylene is a colorless and extremely flammable gas at standard temperature and pressure with a garlic-like odor.
Acetylene can also be manufactured by a process employing the partial combustion of methane with oxygen and by the thermal or arc cracking of hydrocarbons.
Acetylene is also used in the acetylene lamp or carbide lamp, formerly found in mines and on cars (automobiles), and still sometimes used by cavers.
Acetylene - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1105 words)
Acetylene can also be manufactured by the partial combustion of methane with oxygen, or by the cracking of hydrocarbons.
Using acetylene, Berthelot was the first to show that an aliphatic compound could form an aromatic compound when he heated acetylene in a glass tube to produce benzene with some toluene.
Acetylene is also used in the acetylene ('carbide') lamp, once used by miners (not to be confused with the Davy lamp), on vintage cars, and still sometimes used by cavers.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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