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Encyclopedia > Acetylcholine
Acetylcholine
Systematic (IUPAC) name
2-acetoxy-N,N,N-trimethylethanaminium
Identifiers
CAS number 51-84-3
ATC code S01EB09
PubChem 187
DrugBank EXPT00412
Chemical data
Formula C7H16NO2 
Mol. mass 146.21 g/mol
SMILES eMolecules & PubChem
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability  ?
Metabolism  ?
Half life approximately 2 minutes
Excretion  ?
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat.

? Image File history File links Crest of Alcochete (Portugal) Author: Sérgio Horta The author has agreed to usage of his works under the GNU-FDL, as long as he is quoted as the source: Caro Senhor, Manuel Anastácio File links The following pages link to this file: Alcochete... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x942, 91 KB) Chemical structure of acetylcholine created with Accelrys Visualizer. ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System is used for the classification of drugs. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... PubChem is a database of chemical molecules. ... The DrugBank database available at the University of Alberta is a unique bioinformatics and cheminformatics resource that combines detailed drug (i. ... A chemical formula is an easy way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... The molecular mass (abbreviated Mr) of a substance, formerly also called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW, is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... The simplified molecular input line entry specification or SMILES is a specification for unambiguously describing the structure of chemical molecules using short ASCII strings. ... In pharmacology, bioavailability is used to describe the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs. ... Drug metabolism is the metabolism of drugs, their biochemical modification or degradation, usually through specialized enzymatic systems. ... The biological half-life of a substance is the time required for half of that substance to be removed from an organism by either a physical or a chemical process. ... The kidneys are important excretory organs in vertebrates. ... The pregnancy category of a pharmaceutical agent is an assessment of the risk of fetal injury due to the pharmaceutical, if it is used as directed by the mother during pregnancy. ...

Legal status

legal with license The regulation of therapeutic goods, that is drugs and therapeutic devices, varies by jurisdiction. ...

Routes  ?

The chemical compound acetylcholine (often abbreviated ACh) is a neurotransmitter in both the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and central nervous system (CNS) in many organisms including humans. Acetylcholine is one of many neurotransmitters in the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and the only neurotransmitter used in the somatic nervous system. It is also the neurotransmitter in all autonomic ganglia. In pharmacology and toxicology, a route of administration is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison or other substance is brought into contact with the body. ... A chemical compound is a substance consisting of two or more different elements chemically bonded together in a fixed proportion by mass. ... Chemical structure of D-aspartic acid, a common amino acid neurotransmitter. ... The peripheral nervous system (PNS) can be divided into the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system (ANS). ... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man) is the scientific name for the human species. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The somatic nervous system is that part of the peripheral nervous system associated with the voluntary control of body movements through the action of skeletal muscles, and also reception of external stimuli. ... Sympathetic nervous system innervation, showing the sympathetic chain ganglia An autonomic ganglion is a collection of neuron cell bodies within the autonomic nervous system. ...

Contents

Chemistry

Acetylcholine is an ester of acetic acid and choline with chemical formula CH3COOCH2CH2N+(CH3)3. This structure is reflected in the systematic name, 2-acetoxy-N,N,N-trimethylethanaminium. For other uses, see Ester (disambiguation). ... R-phrases , S-phrases , , , Flash point 43 °C Related Compounds Related carboxylic; acids Formic acid; Propionic acid; Butyric acid Related compounds acetamide; ethyl acetate; acetyl chloride; acetic anhydride; acetonitrile; acetaldehyde; ethanol; thioacetic acid; acetylcholine; acetylcholinesterase Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Choline is an organic compound, classified as an essential nutrient and usually grouped within the Vitamin B complex. ... A chemical formula is an easy way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... Acetyl is the radical of acetic acid. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... In chemistry, methylene is a divalent functional group CH2 derived formally from methane. ... In chemistry, methylene is a divalent functional group CH2 derived formally from methane. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... In chemistry a methyl-group is a hydrophobic Alkyl functional group which is derived from methane (CH4). ...


Function

Acetylcholine has functions both in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and in the central nervous system (CNS) as a neuromodulator. The peripheral nervous system (PNS) can be divided into the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system (ANS). ... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... A neuromodulator is a substance other than a neurotransmitter, released by a neuron at a synapse and conveying information to adjacent or distant neurons, either enhancing or damping their activities. ...


In the PNS, acetylcholine activates muscles, and is a major neurotransmitter in the autonomic nervous system.


In the CNS, acetylcholine and the associated neurons form a neurotransmitter system, the cholinergic system, which tends to cause excitatory actions. Neurotransmitter systems are systems of neurons in the brain expressing certain types of neurotransmitters, and thus form distinct systems. ...


In PNS

In the peripheral nervous system, acetylcholine activates muscles, and is a major neurotransmitter in the autonomic nervous system. . When acetylcholine binds to acetylcholine receptors on skeletal muscle fibers, it opens ligand gated sodium channels in the cell membrane. Sodium ions then enter the muscle cell, stimulating muscle contraction. Acetylcholine, while inducing contraction of skeletal muscles, instead induces decreased contraction in cardiac muscle fibers. This distinction is attributed to differences in receptor structure between skeletal and cardiac fibers. The peripheral nervous system (PNS) can be divided into the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system (ANS). ... An acetylcholine receptor (abbreviated AChR) is an integral membrane protein that responds to the binding of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. ... A top-down view of skeletal muscle Skeletal muscle is a type of striated muscle, usually attached to the skeleton. ... The cell membrane (also called the plasma membrane, plasmalemma or phospholipid bilayer) is a selectively permeable lipid bilayer found in all cells. ... Cardiac muscle is a type of involuntary striated muscle found within the heart. ...


In the autonomic nervous system, acetylcholine is released in the following sites: This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...

  • all pre- and post-ganglionic parasympathetic neurons
  • all preganglionic sympathetic neurons
    • preganglionic sympathetic fibers to suprarenal medulla, the modified sympathetic ganglion; on stimulation by acetylcholine, the suprarenal medulla releases epinephrine and norepinephrine
  • some postganglionic sympathetic fibers

Autonomic nervous system innervation, showing the sympathetic and parasympathetic (craniosacral) systems, in red and blue, respectively The parasympathetic nervous system is one of three divisions of the autonomic nervous system. ... The Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS) is a branch of the autonomic nervous system. ... Adrenaline redirects here. ... Norepinephrine (INN)(abbr. ... In humans, there are four kinds of sudoriferous or sweat glands which differ greatly in both the composition of the sweat and its purpose. ...

In CNS

In the central nervous system, ACh has a variety of effects as a neuromodulator, e.g., for plasticity and excitability. Other effects are arousal and reward. A neuromodulator is a substance other than a neurotransmitter, released by a neuron at a synapse and conveying information to adjacent or distant neurons, either enhancing or damping their activities. ... A reward is something that an animal will work to obtain, for example, food. ...


Structure

Acetylcholine and the associated neurons form a neurotransmitter system, the cholinergic system. It originates mainly in pontomesencephalotegmental complex, basal optic nucleus of Meynert and medial septal nucleus, and projects axons to vast areas of the brain: Neurotransmitter systems are systems of neurons in the brain expressing certain types of neurotransmitters, and thus form distinct systems. ... In the lateral part of the tuber cinereum is a nucleus of nerve cells, the basal optic nucleus of Meynert. ... The septal nuclei are structures in the middle anteroventral cerebrum that are composed of medium-size neurons grouped into medial, lateral, and posterior groups. ...

The brain stem is the stalk of the brain below the cerebral hemispheres. ... In the lateral part of the tuber cinereum is a nucleus of nerve cells, the basal optic nucleus of Meynert. ... The neocortex (Latin for new bark or new rind) is a part of the brain of mammals. ... The septal nuclei are structures in the middle anteroventral cerebrum that are composed of medium-size neurons grouped into medial, lateral, and posterior groups. ... For other uses, see Hippocampus (disambiguation). ... The neocortex (Latin for new bark or new rind) is a part of the brain of mammals. ...

Plasticity

ACh is involved with synaptic plasticity, specifically in learning and short-term memory. In neuroscience, synaptic plasticity is the ability of the connection, or synapse, between two neurons to change in strength. ... Learning is the acquisition and development of memories and behaviors, including skills, knowledge, understanding, values, and wisdom. ... For other uses, see Memory (disambiguation). ...


Acetylcholine has been shown to enhance the amplitude of synaptic potentials following long-term potentiation in many regions, including the dentate gyrus, CA1, piriform cortex, and neocortex. This effect most likely occurs either through enhancing currents through NMDA receptors or indirectly by suppressing adaptation. The suppression of adaptation has been shown in brain slices of regions CA1, cingulate cortex, and piriform cortex, as well as in vivo in cat somatosensory and motor cortex by decreasing the conductance of voltage-dependent M currents and Ca2+-dependent K+ currents. Long-term potentiation (LTP) is the persistent increase in synaptic strength following high-frequency stimulation of a chemical synapse. ... The dentate gyrus is part of the hippocampal formation. ... Daigram of hippocampal regions. ... In anatomy of animals, the piriform cortex, or pyriform cortex is a region in the brain. ... The neocortex (Latin for new bark or new rind) is a part of the brain of mammals. ... NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartic acid) is an amino acid derivative acting as a specific agonist at the NMDA receptor, and therefore mimics the action of the neurotransmitter glutamate on that receptor. ... Neural adaptation or sensory adaptation is a change over time in the responsiveness of the sensory system to a constant stimulus. ... The cingulate cortex is a part of the brain situated in the medial aspect of the cortex. ... In vivo (Latin for (with)in the living). ... The lateral postcentral gyrus is a prominent structure in the parietal lobe of the human brain and an important landmark. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ...


Excitability

Acetylcholine also has other effects on excitability of neurons. Its presence causes a slow depolarization by blocking a tonically-active K+ current, which increases neuronal excitability. It appears to be a paradox, however, that ACh increases spiking activity in inhibitory interneurons while decreasing strength of synaptic transmission from those cells. This decrease in synaptic transmission also occurs selectively at some excitatory cells: For instance, it has an effect on intrinsic and associational fibers in layer Ib of piriform cortex, but has no effect on afferent fibers in layer Ia. Similar laminar selectivity has been shown in dentate gyrus and region CA1 of the hippocampus. One theory to explain this paradox interprets acetylcholine neuromodulation in the neocortex as modulating the estimate of expected uncertainty, acting counter to norepinephrine (NE) signals for unexpected uncertainty. Both would then decrease synaptic transition strength, but ACh would then be needed to counter the effects of NE in learning, a signal understood to be 'noisy'. In biology, depolarization is the event a cell undergoes when its membrane potential grows more positive with respect to the extracellular solution. ... Norepinephrine (INN)(abbr. ...


Synthesis and Degradation

Acetylcholine is synthesized in certain neurons by the enzyme choline acetyltransferase from the compounds choline and acetyl-CoA. This article is about cells in the nervous system. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... Choline acetyltransferase (EC 2. ... Choline is an organic compound, classified as an essential nutrient and usually grouped within the Vitamin B complex. ... Categories: Biochemistry stubs | Thiols ...


The enzyme acetylcholinesterase converts acetylcholine into the inactive metabolites choline and acetate. This enzyme is abundant in the synaptic cleft, and its role in rapidly clearing free acetylcholine from the synapse is essential for proper muscle function. In biochemistry, cholinesterase is a term which refers to one of the two enzymes (EC 3. ... Metabolites are the intermediates and products of metabolism. ... Choline is an organic compound, classified as an essential nutrient and usually grouped within the Vitamin B complex. ... For other uses, see Acetate (disambiguation). ...


Receptors

There are two main classes of acetylcholine receptor (AChR), nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR). They are named for the ligands used to activate the receptors. An acetylcholine receptor (abbreviated AChR) is an integral membrane protein that responds to the binding of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. ... Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, or nAChRs, are ionotropic receptors that form ion channels in cells plasma membranes. ... Amanita muscaria from which muscarine was isolated Acetylcholine - natural agonist of muscarinic and nicotinic receptors. ... In chemistry, a ligand is an atom, ion or functional group that is bonded to one or more central atoms or ions, usually metals generally through co-ordinate covalent bond. ...


Myasthenia gravis

The disease myasthenia gravis, characterized by muscle weakness and fatigue, occurs when the body inappropriately produces antibodies against acetylcholine receptors, and thus inhibits proper acetylcholine signal transmission. Over time, the motor end plate is destroyed. Drugs that competitively inhibit acetylcholinesterase (e.g., neostigmine or physostigmine) are effective in treating this disorder. They allow endogenously-released acetylcholine more time to interact with its respective receptor before being inactivated by acetylcholinesterase in the gap junction. Myasthenia gravis (sometimes abbreviated MG; from the Greek myastheneia, lit. ... Each antibody binds to a specific antigen; an interaction similar to a lock and key. ...


Nicotinic

Nicotinic AChRs are ionotropic receptors permeable to sodium, potassium, and chloride ions. They are stimulated by nicotine and acetylcholine. They are of two main types, muscle type and neuronal type. The former can be selectively blocked by curare and the latter by hexamethonium. The main location of nicotinic AChRs is on muscle end plates, autonomic ganglia (both sympathetic and parasympathetic), and in the CNS.[1] Ligand-gated ion channel is a broad term that refers to any ion channel that is gated (i. ... For sodium in the diet, see Salt. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... The chloride ion is formed when the element chlorine picks up one electron to form an anion (negatively-charged ion) Cl−. The salts of hydrochloric acid HCl contain chloride ions and can also be called chlorides. ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... Strychnos toxifera by Koehler 1887 This page is about the plant toxins. ... Hexamethonium is an nAch receptor antagonist (it blocks transmission at nicotinic Acetylcholine receptors by preventing them from binding to the site). ... For other uses of Muscle, see Muscle (disambiguation). ...


Muscarinic

Muscarinic receptors are metabotropic, and affect neurons over a longer time frame. They are stimulated by muscarine and acetylcholine, and blocked by atropine. Muscarinic receptors are found in both the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system, in heart, lungs, upper GI tract and sweat glands. Extracts from the plant Deadly nightshade included this compound (atropine), and the blocking of the muscarinic AChRs increases pupil size as used for attractiveness in many European cultures in the past. Now, ACh is sometimes used during cataract surgery to produce rapid constriction of the pupil. It must be administered intraocularly because corneal cholinesterase metabolizes topically-administered ACh before it can diffuse into the eye. It is sold by the trade name Miochol-E (CIBA Vision). Similar drugs are used to induce mydriasis (dilation of the pupil) in cardiopulmonary resuscitation and many other situations. Metabotropic receptor is a transmembrane receptor, which starts some intracellular biochemical cascade after its activation by an agonistic ligand. ... Muscarine, L-(+)-muscarine, or muscarin is a natural product found in certain mushrooms, particularly in Inocybe and Clitocybe species, such as the deadly C. dealbata. ... Atropine is a tropane alkaloid extracted from the deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna) and other plants of the family Solanaceae. ... Binomial name L. Deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), also known as belladonna or dwale, is a well-known perennial herbaceous plant, with leaves and berries that are highly toxic and hallucinogenic. ... Human eye cross-sectional view, showing position of human lens. ... The cornea is the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber, providing most of an eyes optical power [1]. Together with the lens, the cornea refracts light and, as a result, helps the eye to focus. ... Acetylcholinesterase In biochemistry, cholinesterase is a term which refers to one of the two enzymes: Acetylcholinesterase (EC 3. ... Mydriasis is an excessive dilation of the pupil due to disease or drugs. ... CPR redirects here. ...


Drugs Acting on the ACh System

Blocking, hindering or mimicking the action of acetylcholine has many uses in medicine. Drugs acting on the acetylcholine system are either agonists to the receptors, stimulating the system, or antagonists, inhibiting it.


ACh Receptor Agonists

Acetylcholine receptor agonists can either have an effect directly on the receptors or exert their effects indirectly, e.g., by affecting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which degrades the receptor ligand. In biochemistry, cholinesterase is a term which refers to one of the two enzymes (EC 3. ...


Associated disorders

ACh Receptor Agonists are used to treat myasthenia gravis and Alzheimer's disease. Myasthenia gravis (sometimes abbreviated MG; from the Greek myastheneia, lit. ...


Alzheimer's disease

Since a shortage of acetylcholine in the brain has been associated with Alzheimer's disease, some drugs that inhibit acetylcholinesterase are used in the treatment of that disease. A recent study has shown that THC is one such drug, effective at reducing the formation of characteristic neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid beta plaques[2]. For other uses, see Brain (disambiguation). ... The acronym THC has several possible meanings: Teens Hate Chains, a Japanese singing group Tetrahydrocannabinol, the main active ingredient in Cannabis Tetrahydrocurcuminoids, extracted from Turmeric as an active ingredient in cosmetics Texas Historical Commission Therapeutic Humane Cannabis Act Thermohaline circulation The History Channel Terminal Handling Charges This page concerning a... Neurofibrillary tangles are pathological protein aggregates found within neurons in cases of Alzheimers disease. ... Amyloid beta (Aβ or Abeta) is a peptide of 39–43 amino acids that is the main constituent of amyloid plaques in the brains of Alzheimers disease patients. ...


Direct Acting

Categories: Medicine stubs | Choline esters ... Clinical Info Chemistry and pharmacokinetics Carbachol is a choline ester and a positively charged quaternary ammonium compound. ... Cevimeline is a parasympathomimetic and muscarinic agonist, with particular effect on M1 receptors. ... Pilocarpine is a muscarinic alkaloid obtained from the leaves of tropical American shrubs from the genus Pilocarpus. ... This article is about the chemical compound. ...

Cholinesterase inhibitors

Most indirect acting ACh receptor agonists work by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. The resulting accumulation of acetylcholine causes continuous stimulation of the muscles, glands, and central nervous system. In biochemistry, cholinesterase is a term which refers to one of the two enzymes (EC 3. ...


They are examples of enzyme inhibitors, and increase the action of acetylcholine by delaying its degradation; some have been used as nerve agents (Sarin and VX nerve gas) or pesticides (organophosphates and the carbamates). In clinical use, they are administered to reverse the action of muscle relaxants, to treat myasthenia gravis, and to treat symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (rivastigmine, which increases cholinergic activity in the brain). HIV protease in a complex with the protease inhibitor ritonavir. ... This article is about the chemical. ... For other uses, see Sarin (disambiguation). ... VX (O-ethyl-S-[2(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothiolate) is an extremely toxic substance whose sole application is as a nerve agent. ... A pesticide is a substance or mixture of substances used for preventing, controlling, or lessening the damage caused by a pest. ... An organophosphate (sometimes abbreviated OP) is the general name for esters of phosphoric acid and is one of the organophosphorus compounds. ... The Carbamate functional group is formed when a carbon dioxide molecule reacts with the amino terminus of a peptide chain or an amino group of an amino acid, adding a COO- group to it and releasing a proton (H+ ion). ... A muscle relaxant is a drug which decreases the tone of a muscle. ... Myasthenia gravis (sometimes abbreviated MG; from the Greek myastheneia, lit. ... Exelon (rivastigmine tartrate) is a pharmaceutical product developed and marketed by Novartis for the treatment of Alzheimers disease. ...


Reversible

The following substances reversibly inhibit the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (which breaks down acetylcholine), thereby increasing acetylcholine levels. In biochemistry, cholinesterase is a term which refers to one of the two enzymes (EC 3. ...

Donepezil, marketed under the trade name Aricept® (Eisai), is a centrally acting reversible acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor. ... Galantamine (trade name Razadyne®) is a medication used in the treatment of Alzheimers disease. ... Exelon (rivastigmine tartrate) is a pharmaceutical product developed and marketed by Novartis for the treatment of Alzheimers disease. ... Chemical structure of tacrine Tacrine is a parasympathomimetic and a centrally acting cholinesterase inhibitor (anticholinesterase). ... The acronym THC has several possible meanings: Teens Hate Chains, a Japanese singing group Tetrahydrocannabinol, the main active ingredient in Cannabis Tetrahydrocurcuminoids, extracted from Turmeric as an active ingredient in cosmetics Texas Historical Commission Therapeutic Humane Cannabis Act Thermohaline circulation The History Channel Terminal Handling Charges This page concerning a... Sources Brenner, G. M. (2000). ... A cholinergic crisis is an over-stimulation at a neuromuscular junction due to an excess of acetylcholine, as of a result of the inactivity (perhaps even inhibition) of the AChE enzyme, which normally breaks down acetylcholine. ... Neostigmine is a parasympathomimetic, specifically, a reversible cholinesterase inhibitor. ... Myasthenia gravis (sometimes abbreviated MG; from the Greek myastheneia, lit. ... Physostigmine is a parasympathomimetic, specifically, an irreversible cholinesterase inhibitor obtained from the Calabar bean. ... An anticholinergic agent is a member of a class of pharmaceutical compounds which serve to reduce the effects mediated by acetylcholine in the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. ... Pyridostigmine is a parasympathomimetic and a reversible cholinesterase inhibitor. ... Myasthenia gravis (sometimes abbreviated MG; from the Greek myastheneia, lit. ... Carbamates are a group of organic compounds sharing a common functional group with the general structure -NH(CO)O-. More precisely the carbamate group is considered an amide group with an alkoxy or hydroxy functional group next to the carbonyl group. ... Insecticide application by crop spraying An insecticide is a pesticide whose purpose is to kill or to prevent the multiplication of insects. ... Aldicarb is a carbamate insecticide with structural formula: 2-methyl-2-(methylthio)propionaldehyde O-methylcarbamoyloxime. ... Huperzine A, is a naturally occurring sesquiterpene alkaloid found in the extracts of the firmoss Huperzia serrata. ...

Irreversible

Semi-permanently inhibit the enzyme acetylcholinesterase.

Victims of sarin gas commonly die of suffocation as they cannot relax their diaphragm. Categories: Medicine stubs | Anticholinesterases ... An organophosphate (sometimes abbreviated OP) is the general name for esters of phosphoric acid and is one of the organophosphorus compounds. ... Insecticide application by crop spraying An insecticide is a pesticide whose purpose is to kill or to prevent the multiplication of insects. ... Malathion is a organophosphate parasympathomimetic which binds irreversibly to cholinesterase. ... // Properties and uses Parathion, or diethyl parathion, is a very potent insecticide and acaricide. ... Chlorpyrifos Chlorpyrifos is a toxic crystalline organophosphate insecticide (C9H11Cl3NO3PS) that inhibits acetylcholinesterase and is used to control insect pests. ... Nerve agents (also known as nerve gases, though these chemicals are liquid at room temperature) are a class of phosphorus-containing organic chemicals (organophosphates) that inhibit the acetylcholinesterase enzyme in animals. ... Sarin, also known by its NATO designation of GB (O-Isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate) is an extremely toxic substance whose sole application is as a nerve agent. ... Sarin, also known by its NATO designation of GB (O-Isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate) is an extremely toxic substance whose sole application is as a nerve agent. ... For other types of diaphragm, see Diaphragm. ...


Reactivation of Acetylcholine Esterase

Structure of the molecule pralidoxime Pralidoxime belongs to a family of compounds, called oximes that bind to organophosphate inactivated acetylcholinesterase. ...

ACh Receptor Antagonists

Antimuscarinic Agents

Atropine is a tropane alkaloid extracted from the deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna) and other plants of the family Solanaceae. ... Ipratropium (as ipratropium bromide, trade name Atrovent) is an anticholinergic drug administered by inhalation for the treatment of obstructive lung diseases. ... Scopolamine, also known as hyoscine, is a tropane alkaloid drug obtained from plants of the family Solanaceae (nightshades), such as henbane or jimson weed (Datura species). ... Tiotropium (IPA: ) is a long-acting anticholinergic bronchodilator used in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). ...

Ganglionic Blockers

Mecamylamine is a nicotinic antagonist that is well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and crosses the blood-brain barrier. ... Hexamethonium is an nAch receptor antagonist (it blocks transmission at nicotinic Acetylcholine receptors by preventing them from binding to the site). ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... Trimethaphan is a drug that counteracts cholinergic transmission at the nicotinic receptors of the autonomic ganglia and therefore blocks both the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system. ...

Neuromuscular Blockers

Atracurium is a neuromuscular-blocking drug or muscle relaxant in the category non-depolarising neuromuscular blocking agents, used in anaesthesia to facilitate endotracheal intubation and to provide skeletal muscle relaxation during surgery or mechanical ventilation. ... Cisatracurium is a muscle relaxant in the quaternary ammonium compound family. ... Doxacurium chloride is a muscle relaxant in the quaternary ammonium compound family. ... Mivacurium is a bisbenzylisoquinolinium based neuromuscular blocker or muscle relaxant. ... Pancuronium bromide is a chemical compound, used in medicine with the brand name Pavulon® (Organon International). ... Rocuronium is a non-depolarizing (that is, it does not cause initial stimulation of muscles before weakening them) neuromuscular blocker used in modern anaesthesia, to aid and enable endotracheal intubation, which is often necessary to assist in the controlled ventilation of unconscious patients during surgery and sometimes in intensive care. ... Suxamethonium chloride (also known as succinylcholine, or scoline) is a white crystalline substance, it is odourless and highly soluble in water. ... Tubocurarine chloride is a competitive neuromuscular blocker, used to paralyse patients undergoing anaesthesia. ... Vecuronium bromide (trade name Norcuron) is a muscle relaxant in the category of non depolarising neuromuscular blocking agents. ...

Synthesis inhibitors

Organic mercurial compounds have a high affinity for sulfhydryl groups, which causes dysfunction of the enzyme choline acetyltransferase. This inhibition may lead to acetylcholine deficiency, and can have consequences on motor function. This article is about the element. ... Sulphydryl // In organic chemistry, a thiol is a compound that contains the functional group composed of a sulfur atom and a hydrogen atom (-SH). ...


Release inhibitors

Botulin acts by suppressing the release of acetylcholine; where the venom from a black widow spider has the reverse effect. Botulin toxin or botox is the toxic compound produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. ... Species Fabricius, 1775 Chamberlin & Ivie, 1935 Walckenaer, 1837 The black widow spider () is a spider notorious for its neurotoxic venom. ...


Other / Uncategorized / Unknown

  • surugatoxin

History

Acetylcholine (ACh) was first identified in 1914 by Henry Hallett Dale for its actions on heart tissue. It was confirmed as a neurotransmitter by Otto Loewi who initially gave it the name vagusstoff because it was released from the vagus nerve. Both received the 1936 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their work. Sir Henry Hallett Dale (June 9, 1875 - July 23, 1968) was an English scientist. ... Otto Loewi (June 3, 1873 – December 25, 1961) was a Austrian-German-American pharmacologist. ... Vagusstoff refers to the substance released by stimulation of the vagus nerve which causes a reduction in the heart rate. ... The vagus nerve (also called pneumogastric nerve or cranial nerve X) is the tenth of twelve paired cranial nerves, and is the only nerve that starts in the brainstem (within the medulla oblongata) and extends, through the jugular foramen, down below the head, to the abdomen. ... Emil Adolf von Behring was the first person to receive the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, for his work on the treatment of diphtheria. ...


Acetylcholine is the first neurotransmitter to be identified. Chemical structure of D-aspartic acid, a common amino acid neurotransmitter. ...


References

  1. ^ Katzung, B.G. (2003). Basic and Clinical Pharmacology (9th ed.). McGraw-Hill Medical. ISBN 0-07-141092-9
  2. ^ Eubanks LM, Rogers CJ, Beuscher AE 4th, Koob GF, Olson AJ, Dickerson TJ, Janda KD. "A molecular link between the active component of marijuana and Alzheimer's disease pathology." Molecular Pharmaceutics. 2006 Nov-Dec; 3(6):773-7. PMID 17140265
  • Brenner, G. M. and Stevens, C. W. (2006). Pharmacology (2nd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders Company (Elsevier). ISBN 1-4160-2984-2
  • Canadian Pharmacists Association (2000). Compendium of Pharmaceuticals and Specialties (25th ed.). Toronto, ON: Webcom. ISBN 0-919115-76-4
  • Carlson, NR (2001). Physiology of Behavior (7th ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon. ISBN 0-205-30840-6
  • Gershon, Michael D. (1998). The Second Brain. New York, NY: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-018252-0
  • Hasselmo, ME. "Neuromodulation and cortical function: Modeling the physiological basis of behavior." Behavioral Brain Research. 1995 Feb; 67(1):1-27. PMID 7748496
  • Yu, AJ & Dayan, P. "Uncertainty, neuromodulation, and attention." Neuron. 2005 May 19; 46(4):681-92. PMID 15944135

Peter Dayan is the director of the Gatsby Computational Neuroscience Unit at the University College London. ...

External links


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Acetylcholine - New World Encyclopedia (1835 words)
Acetylcholine, often abbreviated as ACh, is a small, organic molecule that is a derivative of choline and acetic acid and serves as an important neurotransmitter.
In the case of acetylcholine, it is active both at the synapses between neurons and in the stimulation of muscle cells at the neuromuscular junction.
Acetylcholine is synthesized in certain neurons by the enzyme choline acetyltransferase from the compounds choline and acetyl-CoA.
Acetylcholine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (991 words)
Acetylcholine (ACh) was first identified in 1914 by Henry Hallett Dale for its actions on heart tissue.
Acetylcholine is also used in the brain, where it tends to cause excitatory actions.
Acetylcholine is synthesized in certain neurons by the enzyme choline acetyltransferase from the compounds choline and acetyl-CoA.
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