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Encyclopedia > Aceh
Nanggröe Aceh Darussalam
Image:Aceh coa.png


Motto: Pancacita
(Five Goals)
Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ...

Locator map of Aceh
Capital Banda Aceh
Governor Irwandi Yusuf
Area 57,365.57 km² (22,149 sq mi)
Population 3,930,000  (2000)[1]
Density 68.5/km² (177.4/sq mi)
Ethnic groups Acehnese (70%), Gayo Lut (7%), Gayo Luwes (5%), Alas (4%), Singkil (3%), Javanese (3%), Simeulu (2%) [2]
Religion Islam (98.6%), Christianity (0.7%), Hinduism (0.08%), Buddhism (0.55%)
Languages Indonesian (official), Acehnese
Time zone WIB (UTC+7)
Web site www.nad.go.id
See also: Sultanate of Aceh

Aceh (pronounced [ʔaˈtɕɛh], generally Anglicized as IPA: /ˈɑːtʃeɪ/) is a special territory (daerah istimewa) of Indonesia, located on the northern tip of the island of Sumatra. Its full name is Nanggröe Aceh Darussalam. Past spellings of its name include Acheh, Atjeh and Achin. province of Indonesia File links The following pages link to this file: Aceh Wikipedia talk:WikiProject Maps/Archive1 Categories: GFDL images ... Each Provinces of Indonesia has its own capital, where local judicial, administrative and legislative duties are centred. ... Location of Banda Aceh Banda Aceh is the provincial capital and largest city of Aceh, Indonesia, located on the island of Sumatra at , with an elevation of 21 m. ... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... Irwandi Yusuf (born in Bireuen, Nanggröe Aceh Darussalam, August 2, 1960), is current Governor of Aceh between 2007-2012. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... The Acehnese (also Achinese) a people in Aceh in Indonesia. ... Gayo is a tribe living in the heights in Aceh Province, Indonesia. ... Gayo is a tribe living in the heights in Aceh Province, Indonesia. ... Javanese is a term used to describe a native of the Indonesian island of Java. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages)[1] is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ... Acehnese (also Achinese, Achehnese) or Aceh (formerly Atjeh) is a Malayo-Polynesian language spoken in Aceh, Sumatra, Indonesia. ... In Indonesia, the keeping of standard time is divided into three time zones: Indonesian Western Standard Time (Indonesian: Waktu Indonesia Barat/WIB) (UTC+7) WIB is observed in islands of Sumatra, Java, provinces of West Kalimantan and Central Kalimantan Indonesian Central Standard Time (Waktu Indonesia Tengah/WITA) (UTC+8) WITA... In Indonesia, the keeping of standard time is divided into three time zones: Indonesian Western Standard Time (Indonesian: Waktu Indonesia Barat/WIB) (UTC+7) WIB is observed in islands of Sumatra, Java, provinces of West Kalimantan and Central Kalimantan Indonesian Central Standard Time (Waktu Indonesia Tengah/WITA) (UTC+8) WITA... UTC+7 is used in: Laos Thailand Cambodia Vietnam External links Find cities currently in UTC+7 Category: ... Aceh was a sultanate in the region of what is today Aceh Province of Indonesia. ... The province (Indonesian: provinsi) is the highest tier of local government subnational entity in Indonesia. ... Sumatra (also spelled Sumatera) is the sixth largest island in the world (approximately 470,000 km²) and is the largest island entirely in Indonesia (two larger islands, Borneo and New Guinea, are partially in Indonesia). ...


It is thought to have been in Aceh where Islam was first established in Southeast Asia. In the early seventeenth century the Sultanate of Aceh was the most wealthy, powerful and cultivated state in the Malacca Straits region. Aceh has a history of political independence and fierce resistance to control by outsiders, including the former Dutch colonists and the Indonesian government. Aceh has substantial natural resources, including oil and gas - some estimates put Aceh gas reserves as being the largest in the world. Relative to most of Indonesia, it is a religiously conservative area. Islam is thought to have first been adopted by Indonesians sometime during the eleventh century, although Muslims had visited Indonesia early in the Muslim era. ... Aceh was a sultanate in the region of what is today Aceh Province of Indonesia. ... ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - creator of the process of refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... LPG might be an initialism or abbreviation for: Liquified petroleum gas Laboratoire de Planetologie, Grenoble, France Literary Press Group of Canada Landwirtschaftliche Produktionsgenossenschaft (German, obsolete/historical) Long period grating This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that... Religious is a term with both a technical definition and folk use. ... Ths article deals with conservatism as a political philosophy. ...


Aceh was the closest point of land to the epicenter of the massive 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, which triggered a tsunami that devastated much of the western coast of the region, including part of the capital of Banda Aceh. 167,736 Indonesians, the overwhelming majority in Aceh, were killed or missing and 500,000 made homeless.[3] This event helped trigger the peace agreement between the government of Indonesia and the Free Aceh Movement (GAM), mediated by former Finnish president Martti Ahtisaari, with the signing of a MoU on August 15, 2005. With the assistance of the European Union through the Aceh monitoring mission as of December 2005, the peace has held. For other uses, see Epicenter (disambiguation). ... The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, known by the scientific community as the Sumatra-Andaman earthquake,[1] was a great undersea earthquake that occurred at 00:58:53 UTC (07:58:53 local time) December 26, 2004 with an epicentre off the west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. ... For other uses, see Tsunami (disambiguation). ... Location of Banda Aceh Banda Aceh is the provincial capital and largest city of Aceh, Indonesia, located on the island of Sumatra at , with an elevation of 21 m. ... A peace treaty is an agreement between two hostile parties, usually countries or governments, that formally ends a war or armed conflict. ... ASNLF Flag The Free Aceh Movement (Indonesian: Gerakan Aceh Merdeka or simply GAM), also known as the Aceh Sumatra National Liberation Front (ASNLF), is an armed separatist group seeking independence for the Aceh region on Sumatra from Indonesia. ... Martti Oiva Kalevi Ahtisaari (IPA: ) (born June 23, 1937 Viipuri, Finland) is a former President of Finland (1994–2000) and a UN diplomat and mediator, noted for his international peace work. ... A memorandum of understanding (MOU) is a legal document describing a bilateral agreement between parties. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Civilian Peacekeeping Mission in Aceh, established by the European Union according to the Memorandum of Understanding between former Acehnese rebel movement GAM and the Government of Indonesia on 15 August 2005. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents

History

The beginnings of Islam in Southeast Asia

See also: The spread of Islam in Indonesia (1200 to 1600)

Evidence concerning the initial coming and subsequent establishment of Islam is thin and inconclusive, however, it is thought that it was through the Aceh region. When Venetian traveller Marco Polo passed by Sumatra on his way home from China in 1292 he found that Perlak was a Muslim town while nearby 'Basma(n)' and 'Samara' were not. 'Basma(n)' and 'Samara' are often said to be Pasai and Samudra (present-day Syamtalira) but evidence is inconclusive. The gravestone of Sultan Malik as-Salih, the first Muslim ruler of Samudra, has been found and is dated AH 696 (AD 1297). This is the earliest clear evidence of a Muslim dynasty in the Indonesia-Malay area and more gravestones from the thirteenth century show that this region continued under Muslim rule. Ibn Batutah, a Moroccan traveller, passing through on his way to China in 1345 and 1346, found that the ruler of Samudra was a follower of the Shafi’i school of Islam.[4] Islam is thought to have first been adopted by Indonesians sometime during the eleventh century, although Muslims had visited Indonesia early in the Muslim era. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... Marco Polo (September 15, 1254[1] – January 9, 1324 at earliest but no later than June 1325[2]) was a Venetian trader and explorer who gained fame for his worldwide travels, recorded in the book Il Milione (The Million or The Travels of Marco Polo). ... Prelog on the map of Croatia Prelog (Hungarian: ) is a town in northern Croatia, located about 15 km east of ÄŒakovec in MeÄ‘imurje county, at , alt. ... Basma or West Bartaa (Arabic:بسم)is an Israeli-Arab local council located on the Green Line adjacent to the Palestinian town of Bartaa located in the Seam Zone. ... Map of Pasai. ... Samudra is a Sanskrit term for ocean. ... Ibn Battuta (1304–1377). ...


The Portuguese apothecary Tome Pires reported in his early sixteenth century book Suma Oriental that most of the kings of Sumatra from Aceh through to Palembang were Muslim. At Pasai, in what is now the North Aceh Regency, there was a thriving international port. Pires attributed the establishment of Islam in Pasai to the 'cunning' of the Muslim merchants. The ruler of Pasai, however, had not been able to convert the people of the people of the interior.[5] Tomé Pires (1465? – 1540?) was an apothecary from Lisbon who spent 1512 to 1515 in Malacca immediately after the Portuguese conquest at a time when Europeans were only first arriving in South East Asia. ... Location of Palembang Palembang is a city in the south of the Indonesian island of Sumatra. ... Map of Pasai. ... North Aceh Regency (Indonesian: Kabupaten Aceh Utara) is a regency in Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam, Indonesia. ...


Sultanate of Aceh

Main article: Sultanate of Aceh

The Sultanate of Aceh was established initially as a small Islamic kingdom in what is today Banda Aceh during the 15th century AD. During its golden era, its territory and political influence expanded as far as Satun in southern Thailand, Johor in Malay Peninsula, and Siak in what is today Riau province. As was the case with most non-Javan pre-colonial states, Acehnese power expanded outward by sea rather than focus inland. As it expanded down the Sumatran coast, it was not another Sumatran state, but Johor and Portuguese Malacca on the other side of the Straits of Malacca that were to become its main competitors. It was this seaborne trade focus that saw Aceh rely on rice imports from north Java rather than develop self sufficiency in rice production.[6] Aceh was a sultanate in the region of what is today Aceh Province of Indonesia. ... Aceh was a sultanate in the region of what is today Aceh Province of Indonesia. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Location of Banda Aceh Banda Aceh is the provincial capital and largest city of Aceh, Indonesia, located on the island of Sumatra at , with an elevation of 21 m. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... State motto: Kepada Allah Berserah State anthem: Lagu Bangsa Johor Capital Johor Bahru Royal capital Pasir Pelangi1 Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Sultan Sultan Iskandar  - Menteri Besar Abdul Ghani Othman History    - Johor Sultanate 14th century   - British control 1914   - Japanese occupation 1942   - Accession into Federation of Malaya 1948  Area  - Total 19,984... The Malay Peninsula (Malay: Semenanjung Tanah Melayu) is a major peninsula located in Southeast Asia. ... Map of Indonesia showing Riau province Riau is a province of Indonesia, located in the center of Sumatra island along the Strait of Malacca. ... State motto: Kepada Allah Berserah State anthem: Lagu Bangsa Johor Capital Johor Bahru Royal capital Pasir Pelangi1 Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Sultan Sultan Iskandar  - Menteri Besar Abdul Ghani Othman History    - Johor Sultanate 14th century   - British control 1914   - Japanese occupation 1942   - Accession into Federation of Malaya 1948  Area  - Total 19,984... Portuguese Malacca Capital Malacca Town Language(s) Portuguese, Malay Political structure Colony King  - 1511-1521 Manuel I  - 1640-1641 John IV Captains-major  - 1512-1514 Ruí de Brito Patalim (first)  - 1638-1641 Manuel de Sousa Coutinho (last) Captains-general  - 1616-1635 António Pinto da Fonseca (first)  - 1637-1641 Lu... The Straits of Malacca is a narrow stretch of water between Peninsular Malaysia (West Malaysia) and the Indonesian island of Sumatra. ...


In the tomb of Ratu Acheh, a tombstone dated 1380, engraved with the wording, "Gusta barubasa empu Kedah Pasai Ma", meaning the families who embraced Islam governs Kedah and Pasai. This is so because Acheh is part of the Main Kingdom of Raja Siam (Müsli) Beruas Melayu Tua Gangga, Negara Kedah Pasai Ma Empire whom appointed Sultans from its siblings to rule its territory and waters. Rulers of this Empire is known as Shyah Alam Yang Maha Mulia, descendants from the Persians and Siamese Muslim Empire.[7][8]


Because of the Portuguese occupation of Malacca in 1511, many Islamic traders passing Malacca straits shift their trade to Banda Aceh and increases wealth of Acehnese rulers. During the reign of Sultan Iskandar Muda in 17th century, Aceh influence extended to most of Sumatra and Malay Peninsula. Aceh allied itself with the Ottoman Empire and the Dutch East India Company in their struggle against the Portuguese and the Johor Sultanate. Aceh military power waned gradually thereafter, and Aceh was separated from its territory of Kedah and Pinang on the Malay Peninsula to the British, and Pariaman in Sumatra to the Dutch in 18th century.[9] This article is about the state in Malaysia. ... Iskandar Muda (1583?[1] - December 27, 1636[2]) was the twelfth sultan of Aceh, under whom the sultanate achieved its greatest territorial extent, and was the strongest power and wealthiest state in the western Indonesian archipelago and the Strait of Malacca. ... Sumatra (also spelled Sumatera) is the sixth largest island in the world (approximately 470,000 km²) and is the largest island entirely in Indonesia (two larger islands, Borneo and New Guinea, are partially in Indonesia). ... The Malay Peninsula (Malay: Semenanjung Tanah Melayu) is a major peninsula located in Southeast Asia. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... This article is about the trading company. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... State anthem: Allah Selamatkan Sultan Mahkota Capital Alor Star Royal capital Anak Bukit Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Sultan Tuanku Abdul Halim  - Menteri Besar Mahdzir Khalid History    - British control 1909   - Japanese occupation 1942   - Accession into Federation of Malaya 1948  Area  - Total 9,426 km² Population  - 2003 estimate 1,778,188  - Density... Binomial name Areca catechu Linnaeus Areca nut, or pinang, more commonly known as betel nut, is the seed of the betel palm or Areca catechu, a species of palm tree which grows throughout the Pacific, Asia, and parts of east Africa. ... Pariaman is a city in West Sumatra, Indonesia. ...


By the early nineteenth century, however, Aceh had become an increasingly influential power due to its strategic location for controlling regional trade. In the 1820s it was the producer of over half the world's supply of black pepper. The pepper trade produced new wealth for the sultanate, but also for the rulers of many smaller nearby ports that had been under Aceh's control, but were now able to assert more independence. These changes initially threatened Aceh's integrity, but a new sultan Tuanku Ibrahim, who controlled the kingdom from 1838 to 1870, aggressively, and successfully, reasserted power over nearby ports.[10] 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Binomial name L. Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. ... | Jöns Jakob Berzelius, discoverer of protein 1838 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Under the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824 the British ceded their colonial possessions on Sumatra to the Dutch. In the treaty, the British described Aceh as one of their possessions, although they had no actual control over the sultanate. Initially, under the agreement the Dutch agreed to respect Aceh's independence. In 1871, however, the British dropped previous opposition to a Dutch invasion of Aceh, possibly to prevent France or the United States from gaining a foothold in the region. Although neither the Dutch nor the British knew the specifics, there had been rumors since the 1850s that Aceh had been in communication with rulers of France and of the Ottoman Empire.[10] The Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824, also known as the Treaty of London (one of several), was a treaty signed between the United Kingdom and the United Kingdom of the Netherlands in London on March 17, 1824. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... For the game, see: 1850 (board game) 1850 (MDCCCL) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Ottoman redirects here. ...


The Aceh War

The Dutch colonial government declared war on Aceh on 26 March 1873; the apparent immediate trigger for their invasion was discussions between representatives of Aceh and the U.S. in Singapore during early 1873.[10] An expedition under Major General Köhler was sent out in 1874, which was able to occupy most of the coastal areas. It was the intention of the Dutch to attack and take the Sultan's palace, which would also lead to the occupation of the entire country. The Sultan requested and possibly received military aid from Italy and the United Kingdom in Singapore: in any case the Aceh army was rapidly modernized, and Aceh soldiers managed to kill Köhler (a monument of this achievement has been built inside Grand Mosque of Banda Aceh). Köhler made some grave tactical errors and the reputation of the Dutch was severely harmed. President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs a declaration of war against the Empire of Japan on December 8, 1941, one day after the attack on Pearl Harbor. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


A second expedition led by General Van Swieten managed to capture the kraton (sultan's palace): the Sultan had however been warned, and had escaped capture. Intermittent guerrilla warfare continued in the region for ten years, with many victims on both sides. Around 1880 the Dutch strategy changed, and rather than continuing the war, they now concentrated on defending areas they already controlled, which were mostly limited to the capital city (modern Banda Aceh), and the harbour town of Ulee Lheue. On 13 October 1880 the colonial government declared the war as over, but continued spending heavily to maintain control over the areas it occupied. Kraton is one of the two most common names of Javanese palaces (the other being Istana, identical to Malay). ... The quintessential medieval European palace: Palais de la Cité, in Paris, the royal palace of France. ... Guerilla may refer to Guerrilla warfare. ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Location of Banda Aceh Banda Aceh is the provincial capital and largest city of Aceh, Indonesia, located on the island of Sumatra at , with an elevation of 21 m. ... A harbor (or harbour) or haven is a place where ships may shelter from the weather or are stored. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


War began again in 1883, when the British ship Nisero was stranded in Aceh, in an area where the Dutch had little influence. A local leader asked for ransom from both the Dutch and the British, and under British pressure the Dutch were forced to attempt to liberate the sailors. After a failed Dutch attempt to rescue the hostages, where the local leader Teuku Umar was asked for help but he refused, the Dutch together with the British invaded the territory. The Sultan gave up the hostages, and received a large amount in cash in exchange. Year 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The term ransom refers to the practice of holding a prisoner to extort money or property extorted to secure their release, or to the sum of money involved. ... For other uses, see Hostage (disambiguation). ... Teuku Umar (Meulaboh, 1854 - Meulaboh, on February 11, 1899) is a Gelar Pahlawan Nasional Indonesia (National Hero of Indonesia). ...


The Dutch Minister of Warfare Weitzel now again declared open war on Aceh, and warfare continued, with little success, as before. The Dutch now also tried to enlist local leaders: the aforementioned Umar was bought with cash, opium, and weapons. Umar received the title panglima prang besar (upper warlord of the government). This article is about the drug. ... A warlord is a person with power who has de facto military control of a subnational area due to armed forces loyal to the warlord and not to a central authority. ...

An Aceh fort after capture by the Dutch in a 1901 photograph
An Aceh fort after capture by the Dutch in a 1901 photograph

Umar called himself rather Teuku Djohan Pahlawan (Johan the heroic). On 1 January 1894 Umar even received Dutch aid to build an army. However, two years later Umar attacked the Dutch with his new army, rather than aiding the Dutch in subjugating inner Aceh. This is recorded in Dutch history as "Het verraad van Teukoe Oemar" (the treason of Teuku Umar). Photo from a captured fort in Aceh, 1904 This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Photo from a captured fort in Aceh, 1904 This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Treason (disambiguation) or Traitor (disambiguation). ...


In 1892 and 1893 Aceh remained independent, despite the Dutch efforts. Major J.B. van Heutsz, a colonial military leader, then wrote a series of articles on Aceh. He was supported by Dr Snouck Hurgronje of the University of Leiden, then the leading Dutch expert on Islam. Hurgronje managed to get the confidence of many Aceh leaders and gathered valuable intelligence for the Dutch government. His works remained an official secret for many years. In Hurgronje's analysis of Acehnese society, he minimised the role of the Sultan and argued that attention should be paid to the hereditary chiefs, the Ulee Balang, who he felt could be trusted as local administrators. However, he argued, Aceh's religious leaders, the ulema, could not be trusted or persuaded to cooperate, and must be destroyed. Year 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... J.B. (Joannes Benedictus) van Heutsz (1851-1924), was appointed governor general of the Dutch East Indies in 1904. ... Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje (1857-1936) was a Dutch scholar of Oriental cultures and languages and Advisor on Native Affairs to the colonial government of the Netherlands East Indies. ... Leiden University in the city of Leiden, is the oldest university in the Netherlands. ... Intelligence (abbreviated or ) is the process and the result of gathering information and analyzing it to answer questions or obtain advance warnings needed to plan for the future. ... Ulema (, transliteration: , singular: , transliteration: , scholar) (The people of Islamic Knowledge) refers to the educated class of Muslim legal scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. ...


This advice was followed: in 1898 Van Heutsz was proclaimed governor of Aceh, and with his lieutenant, later Dutch Prime Minister Hendrikus Colijn, would finally conquer most of Aceh. They followed Hurgronje's suggestions, finding cooperative uleebelang that would support them in the countryside. Van Heutsz charged Colonel Van Daalen with breaking remaining resistance. Van Daalen destroyed several villages, killing at least 2,900 Acehnese, among which were 1,150 women and children. Dutch losses numbered just 26, and Van Daalen was promoted. Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... The prime minister of the Netherlands is the head of the cabinet, and, as such, coordinates the policy of the government. ... Hendrikus (Hendrik) Colijn (22 June 1869 – 18 September 1944) was a successful Dutch soldier, businessman and politician. ...


By 1904 most of Aceh was under Dutch control, and had an indigenous government that cooperated with the colonial state. Estimated total casualties on the Aceh side range from 50,000 to 100,000 dead, and over a million wounded. 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ...


In the Netherlands at the time, van Heutsz was considered a hero, named the 'Pacificator of Aceh' and was promoted to become governor-general of the entire Dutch Indies in 1904. A still-existent statue of him was erected in central Amsterdam. The Dutch East Indies, or Netherlands East Indies, (Dutch: Nederlands Indië) was the name of the colonies set up by the Dutch East India Company, which came under administration of the Netherlands during the 19th century (see Indonesia). ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ...


Colonial influence in the remote highland areas of Aceh was never substantial, however, and limited guerrilla resistance remained. Led mostly by the religious ulema, intermittent fighting continued until about 1910, and parts of the province were still not pacified when the Dutch Indies became independent Indonesia following the end of the Japanese occupation of Indonesia. Location Geography Area Ranked 1st  - Total 30,659 km²  - % Water  ? Admin HQ Inverness ISO 3166-2 GB-HLD ONS code 00QT Demographics Population Ranked 7th  - Total (2005) 213,590  - Density 8 / km² Politics The Highland Council http://www. ... Guerilla may refer to Guerrilla warfare. ... Ulema (, transliteration: , singular: , transliteration: , scholar) (The people of Islamic Knowledge) refers to the educated class of Muslim legal scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Japanese Occupation

During World War II, Japanese troops occupied Aceh. Religious ulema party gained ascendancy to replace district warlords (uleebalang) party formerly collaborating with the Dutch. Concrete bunkers still line the northern-most beaches.


Indonesian Independence

After World War II, civil war erupted in 1945 between district warlords party, supporting the return of Dutch government and religious ulema party, supporting newly proclaimed Indonesia State. The latter party won, and the area remained free during Indonesian War of Independence. The Dutch military itself never attempt to invade Aceh. The civil war put the religious ulema party leader, Daud Bereueh, as Military Governor of Aceh.[11][12] Military Governor of Aceh (1945-1953) and leader of Darul Islam rebellion in the province (1953-1963). ...


Islamic Rebellion

After the transfer of authority from Dutch Government to Indonesian State in 1949, Aceh was amalgamated with nearby province of North Sumatra, leading to resentment from many Acehnese due to many ethnic-differences between themselves and the mostly Christian Batak people who dominate North Sumatra. This Resentment resulted in a rebellion in 1953, under the banner of Islamic State ((Darul Islam), led by Daud Bereueh. Putting down the rebellion took years to complete. In 1959 the Indonesian government yielded in part and gave Aceh a "special territory" (daerah istimewa) status, giving it a greater degree of autonomy from the central government in Jakarta than most other regions of Indonesia have. For example, the regional government is empowered to construct a legal system independent of the national government. In 2003, a form of sharia, or Islamic law, was formally introduced in Aceh. [1]. In 1963, Daud Bereueh signed a peace agreement, marking the end of Islamic Rebellion. For other uses, see Batak (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about Islamic religious law. ...


Free Aceh Movement

During 1970s, under agreement with Indonesian central government, American oil and gas companies began exploitation of Aceh natural resources. Alleged unequal distribution of profit between central government and native people of Aceh induced Hasan di Tiro, former ambassador of Darul Islam,[11] to call for Independent Aceh. He proclaimed Aceh Independence in 1976. Hasan di Tiro (Born 4 September 1930) is the founder of the Free Aceh Movement (GAM), an organisation which has been seeking the independence of Aceh from Indonesia since the 1970s. ...


The movement had a small number of followers initially, and Hasan di Tiro himself had to live in exile in Sweden. Meanwhile, the province followed Suharto's policy of economic development and industrialization. During late 80s several security incidents prompted the Indonesian central government to take repressive measures and to send troops to Aceh. Human rights abuse was rampant for the next decade, resulting in many grievances on the part of the Acehnese toward the Indonesian central government. Suharto GCB (born June 8, 1921) is a former Indonesian military and political leader. ...


During late 90s, chaos in Java and an ineffective central government gave an advantage to Free Aceh Movement and resulted in the second phase of the rebellion, this time with large support from the Acehnese people. This support was demonstrated during the 2000 plebiscite in Banda Aceh which was attended by nearly half million people (of four million population of the province). Indonesian central government responded in 2001 by broadening Aceh's autonomy by giving its government the right to apply sharia law more broadly and the right to receive direct foreign investment. This was again accompanied by repressive measures, however and in 2003 Military Emergency Condition was proclaimed in the Province. The war was still going on when the Tsunami Disaster of 2004 struck the province. A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ...


Tsunami disaster

The aftermath of tsunami in Aceh
The aftermath of tsunami in Aceh

The western coastal areas of Aceh, including the cities of Banda Aceh, Calang, and Meulaboh, were among the areas hardest-hit by the tsunami resulting from the Indian Ocean earthquake on December 26, 2004. While estimates vary, approximately 230,000 people were killed by the earthquake and tsunami in Aceh, and about 500,000 were left homeless. The tragedy of the tsunami was further compounded on March 26th when a second off-shore earthquake measuring 8.7 on the Richter scale struck the sea bed between the islands of Simeulue Island in Aceh and Nias in North Sumatra. This second quake killed a further 905 people on Nias and Simeulue, displaced tens of thousands more and caused the tsunami response to be expanded to include Nias. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1400x1000, 299 KB)Caption: 050102-N-9593M-040 Indian Ocean (Jan. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1400x1000, 299 KB)Caption: 050102-N-9593M-040 Indian Ocean (Jan. ... Location of Banda Aceh Banda Aceh is the provincial capital and largest city of Aceh, Indonesia, located on the island of Sumatra at , with an elevation of 21 m. ... Categories: Indonesia geography stubs | Cities in Indonesia ... For other uses, see Tsunami (disambiguation). ... The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, known by the scientific community as the Sumatra-Andaman earthquake,[1] was a great undersea earthquake that occurred at 00:58:53 UTC (07:58:53 local time) December 26, 2004 with an epicentre off the west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Topography of Simeulue Simeulue Regency is a regency in the Aceh province of Indonesia. ... Nias (Indonesian: Pulau Nias, Nias language: Tanö Niha) is an island off the western coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. ...


The population of Aceh before the December, 2004 tsunami was 4,271,000 (2004). The population as of 15 September 2005 was 4,031,589, almost 2% of the Indonesian population.


As of February 2006, more than a year after the tsunami, a large number of people are still living in barrack-style temporary living centers (TLC) or tents. Reconstruction is visible everywhere, but due to the sheer scale of the disaster, logistical issues, and the lack of funding, progress is slow. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Reconstruction (disambiguation). ...


The ramifications of the tsunami went beyond the immediate impact the lives and infrastructure of the Acehnese living on the coast. Since the disaster, the Acehnese rebel movement GAM, which had been fighting for independence against the Indonesian authorities for 29 years, has signed a peace deal (August 15th 2005). The perception that the tsunami was punishment for insufficient piety in this proudly Muslim province is partly behind the increased emphasis on the importance of religion post-tsunami. This has been most obvious in the increased implementation of Syariah law, including the introduction of the controversial 'WH' or Syariah police. As homes are being built and people's basic needs are met, the people are also looking to improve the quality of education, increase tourism, and develop responsible, sustainable industry. Well-qualified educators are in high demand in Aceh. This article is about Islamic religious law. ...


While parts of Banda Aceh, the capital, were unscathed, the areas closest to the water, especially the areas of Kampung Jawa and Meuraxa, were completely destroyed. Most of the rest of the western coast was severely damaged, and many towns completely disappeared. Other towns on Aceh's west coast hit by the disaster include Leupung, Lamno, Patek, Calang, Teunom, and the island of Simeulue. Affected or destroyed towns on the region's north & east coast include Pidie Regency, Samalanga, and Lhokseumawe. Location of Banda Aceh Banda Aceh is the provincial capital and largest city of Aceh, Indonesia, located on the island of Sumatra at , with an elevation of 21 m. ... Leupung -- also spelled Leupueng, is a town in the district (Kabupaten/Kota) of Aceh Besar, close to the city of Banda Aceh, the capital of the special territory of Aceh, Indonesia, on the island of Sumatra. ... Antoni Patek Antoni Norbert Patek (Franch:Antoine Norbert de Patek) (1811-1877) Polish-Swiss pioneer in watchmaking and a creator of Patek Philippe & Co. ... Categories: Indonesia geography stubs ... Teunom, a town in the Aceh Barat (West Aceh) district of the special territory (daerah istimewa) of Aceh on the island of Sumatra in Indonesia, with a population of about 12,000, was reported to have vanished completely leaving only scattered shards of concrete as a result of the tsunami... Sumatra; Simeulue is near the left edge in the upper half Simeulue is an island in the Indian Ocean, 150 km off the west coast of Sumatra. ... Pidie Regency is bordered with Malacca Strait in the north, Aceh Besar in the west, Bireuen Regency in the east, and Aceh Jaya Regency in the south. ... City in north coast of Aceh, part of Bireun district. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


The area is slowly being rebuilt after the disaster. The government initially proposed the creation of a two-kilometer buffer zone along low-lying coastal areas, within which permanent construction is not permitted. This proposal was unpopular among some local inhabitants and proved impractical in most situations, especially fishing families that are dependent on living near to the sea. A kilometer (Commonwealth spelling: kilometre), symbol: km is a unit of length in the metric system equal to 1,000 metres (from the Greek words χίλια (khilia) = thousand and μέτρο (metro) = count/measure). ... Buffer Zone is one of the neighborhoods of North Nazimabad Town in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. ... Fishing is the activity of hunting for fish by hooking, trapping, or gathering. ... This article is about the body of water. ...


Indonesian government has built special agency for Aceh reconstruction, called Badan Rehabilitasi dan Rekonstruksi (BRR/Agency of Rehabilitation and Reconstruction) headed by Kuntoro Mangkusubroto, former Indonesian Minister. This agency has ministry level of authority and incorporating officials, professionals and community leaders from all background.


Most of the reconstruction work is being performed by local people using a mix of traditional methods and partial prefabricated structures, with funding coming from many international organizations and individuals, governments, and the people themselves. For other uses, see Reconstruction (disambiguation). ...


The peace agreement and first local elections

The 2004 tsunami helped trigger a peace agreement between the GAM and the Indonesian government [2] (PDF format). It drew a lot of international attention to the conflict, wiped out many supplies, and killed many personnel from both sides. Earlier efforts had failed, but for a number of reasons, including the tsunami, peace prevailed in 2005 after 29 years of war. Post-Suharto Indonesia and the liberal-democratic reform period, as well as changes in the Indonesian military, helped create an environment more favorable to peace talks. The roles of newly elected President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono and Vice President Jusuf Kalla were highly significant. At the same time, the GAM leadership was undergoing changes, and the Indonesian military had arguably inflicted so much damage on the rebel movement that it had no choice but to negotiate with the central government. [3] The peace talks were facilitated by a Finland-based NGO, the Crisis Management Initiative, and led by former Finnish President Martti Ahtisaari. The resulting peace agreement [4] (PDF format) was signed on August 15, 2005. Under the agreement, Aceh would receive special autonomy and government troops would be withdrawn from the province in exchange for GAM's disarmament. As part of the agreement, the European Union dispatched 300 monitors. Their mission expired on December 15, 2006, following local elections. Look up gam in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Suharto GCB (born June 8, 1921) is a former Indonesian military and political leader. ... General (ret. ... Jusuf Kalla Jusuf Kalla (born Watampone, South Sulawesi; May 15, 1942) is the current Vice President of Indonesia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Crisis Management Initiative (CMI) is an independent, non-governmental organisation responding to challenges in sustainable security. ... Martti Oiva Kalevi Ahtisaari (IPA: ) (born June 23, 1937 Viipuri, Finland) is a former President of Finland (1994–2000) and a UN diplomat and mediator, noted for his international peace work. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Civilian Peacekeeping Mission in Aceh, established by the European Union according to the Memorandum of Understanding between former Acehnese rebel movement GAM and the Government of Indonesia on 15 August 2005. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Aceh has been granted broader autonomy through Aceh Government Legislation covering special rights agreed upon in 2002 as well as the right of the Acehnese to establish local political parties to represent their interests. Human rights advocates protested that previous human rights violations in the province needed to be addressed, however. [5]


During elections for the provincial governor held in December 2006, the former GAM and national parties participated. The election was won by Irwandi Yusuf, whose base of support consists largely of ex-GAM members. Irwandi Yusuf (born in Bireuen, Nanggröe Aceh Darussalam, August 2, 1960), is current Governor of Aceh between 2007-2012. ...


Administration

Within the country, Aceh is governed not as a province but as a special territory (daerah istimewa), an administrative designation intended to give the area increased autonomy from the central government in Jakarta. Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta), is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. ...


Administratively, the province is subdivided into 18 regencies (kabupaten) and 5 cities (kota). The capital and the largest city is Banda Aceh, located on the coast near the northern tip of Sumatra. Some local areas are pushing to create new autonomous areas, usually with the stated goal of enhancing local control over politics and development. A regency (kabupaten) is a political subdivision of a province in Indonesia. ... Location of Banda Aceh Banda Aceh is the provincial capital and largest city of Aceh, Indonesia, located on the island of Sumatra at , with an elevation of 21 m. ...

Name Capital Est. Statute Area (km²)
Aceh Besar Regency Jantho 1956 UU 24/1956
West Aceh Regency Meulaboh 1956 UU 24/1956 2,927.95
Southwest Aceh Regency Blangpidie 2002 UU 4/2002 1,490.60
Aceh Jaya Regency Calang 2002 UU 4/2002 3,812.99
South Aceh Regency Tapaktuan 1956 UU 24/1956 4,946
Aceh Singkil Regency Singkil 1999 UU 14/1999 2,185
Aceh Tamiang Regency Karang Baru 2002 UU 4/2002 1,956.72
Central Aceh Regency Takengon 1956 UU 24/1956 4,318.39
Southeast Aceh Regency Kutacane 1974 UU 7/1974 4,231.41
East Aceh Regency Langsa 1956 UU 24/1956 6,286.01
North Aceh Regency Lhokseumawe 1956 UU 24/1956 3,477.92
Bener Meriah Regency Simpang Tiga Redelong 2003 UU 41/2003 1,454.09
Bireuen Regency Bireuen 1999 UU 48/1999 1,901.21
Gayo Lues Regency Blangkejeren 2002 UU 4/2002 5,719.58
Nagan Raya Regency Suka Makmue 2002 UU 4/2002 3,363.72
Pidie Regency Sigli 1956 UU 24/1956 3,086.95
Pidie Jaya Regency Meureudu 2007 UU 7/2007 1,073.6
Simeulue Regency Sinabang 1999 UU 48/1999 2,125.12
Banda Aceh * 1956 UU 24/1956
Langsa ** 2001 UU 3/2001 262.41
Lhokseumawe ** 2001 UU 2/2001 181.06
Sabang **
Subulussalam ** 2007 UU 8/2007 1,391

Notes: Aceh Besar Regency is a regency (kabupaten) of Aceh province, Indonesia. ... Jantho is a small city in Aceh province of Indonesia. ... West Aceh Regency is a regency (Indonesian: kabupaten) in the Aceh province of Indonesia. ... Categories: Indonesia geography stubs | Cities in Indonesia ... Southwest Aceh Regency is a regency (Indonesian: kabupaten) in the Aceh province of Indonesia. ... Blangpidie or Blang Pidie is a town in the Aceh province of Indonesia and it is the capital of Southwest Aceh Regency. ... Aceh Jaya is a regency (kabupaten) of Aceh, Indonesia. ... Categories: Indonesia geography stubs ... South Aceh Regency is a regency (Indonesian: kabupaten) in the Aceh province of Indonesia. ... Tapaktuan, a town in the special territory (daerah istimewa) of Aceh on the island of Sumatra in Indonesia, south of the town Meulaboh, that was very near the epicenter of the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake that is reported to have suffered heavily. ... Aceh Singkil Regency is a regency (Indonesian: kabupaten) in the Aceh province of Indonesia. ... Singkil is a town in Aceh province of Indonesia and it is the seat (capital) of Aceh Singkil Regency. ... Aceh Tamiang Regency is a regency (Indonesian: kabupaten) in the Aceh province of Indonesia. ... Karang Baru is a town in Aceh province of Indonesia and it is the seat (capital) of Aceh Tamiang Regency. ... Central Aceh (Indonesian: Aceh Tengah) is a regency in Aceh, Indonesia. ... Takengon is a town in Aceh province of Indonesia and it is the seat (capital) of Central Aceh Regency. ... Southeast Aceh Regency is a regency (Indonesian: kabupaten) in the Aceh province of Indonesia. ... Kutacane is a town in Aceh province of Indonesia and it is the seat (capital) of Southeast Aceh Regency. ... East Aceh Regency (Indonesian: Kabupaten Aceh Timur) ia a regency in eastern Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam. ... Langsa is a city in Aceh, Indonesia. ... North Aceh Regency (Indonesian: Kabupaten Aceh Utara) is a regency in Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam, Indonesia. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Bener Meriah Regency (Indonesian: Kabupaten Bener Meriah) is a regency in Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam province, Indonesia. ... Simpang Tiga Redelong is a town in Aceh province and since 18 December 2003 it has been the seat (capital) of Bener Meriah Regency. ... Bireuen Regency, is a regency of Aceh, Indonesia. ... Located on the Indonesian island of Sumatra, Bireuen is 105 miles east of the local capital, Banda Aceh. ... Gayo Lues Regency is a regency in the Aceh province of Indonesia, with an area of 5710 square kilometers. ... Blang Kejeren is a town in Aceh province of Indonesia and it is the seat (capital) of Gayo Lues Regency. ... Nagan Raya Regency is a regency (Indonesian: kabupaten) in the Aceh province of Indonesia. ... Suka Makmue is a town in Aceh province of Indonesia and it is the seat (capital) of Nagan Raya Regency. ... Pidie Regency is bordered with Malacca Strait in the north, Aceh Besar in the west, Bireuen Regency in the east, and Aceh Jaya Regency in the south. ... Sigli is a town in Aceh province of Indonesia and it is the seat (capital) of Pidie Regency. ... Pidie Jaya Regency is a regency (Indonesian: kabupaten) in the Aceh province of Indonesia. ... Meureudu or Keude Meureudu is a town in Aceh province of Indonesia and it is the seat (capital) of Pidie Jaya Regency. ... Topography of Simeulue Simeulue Regency is a regency in the Aceh province of Indonesia. ... Sinabang is a town on the Simeulue island off the western coast of Sumatra island. ... Location of Banda Aceh Banda Aceh is the provincial capital and largest city of Aceh, Indonesia, located on the island of Sumatra at , with an elevation of 21 m. ... Langsa is a city in Aceh, Indonesia. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Subulussalam is a city in Aceh province of Indonesia. ...

  1. (*) is a city and also the provincial capital and (**) is a city.
  2. UU is an abbreviation from Undang-Undang (the Indonesia statute of law).

Law of Indonesia is based on a civil law system, intermixed with customary law and the Roman Dutch law. ...

Ethnic and Cultural groups

Banda Aceh's Grand Mosque
Banda Aceh's Grand Mosque

Aceh is a diverse region occupied by several ethnic and language groups. The major ethnic groups are the Acehnese (who are distributed throughout Aceh), Gayo (in central and eastern part), Alas (in southeastern), Tamiang (in Aceh Tamiang), Aneuk Jamee (concentrated in southern and southwestern), Kluet (in South Aceh), and Simeulue (on Simeulue Island). There is also a significant population of Chinese, who are influential in the business and financial communities. Banda Acehs Grand Mosque was built around 12th century. ... Banda Acehs Grand Mosque was built around 12th century. ... The Acehnese (also Achinese) a people in Aceh in Indonesia. ... Sumatra; Simeulue is near the left edge in the upper half Simeulue is an island in the Indian Ocean, 150 km off the west coast of Sumatra. ...


Aceh is also the center of Shi'a Islam in the country. Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ...


The Acehnese language is widely spoken within the Acehnese population. This is a member of the Aceh-Chamic group of languages, whose other representatives are mostly found in Vietnam and Cambodia, and is also closely related to the Malay group of languages. Achenese has many words borrowed from Malay and Arabic and traditionally was written using Arabic script. Acehnese is also used as local language in Langkat and Asahan (North Sumatra), and Kedah (Malaysia), and once dominated Penang. Alas and Kluet are closely related languages within the Batak group. The Jamee language originated from Minang language in West Sumatra, with just a few variation and differences. Acehnese (also Achinese, Achehnese) or Aceh (formerly Atjeh) is a Malayo-Polynesian language spoken in Aceh, Sumatra, Indonesia. ... Not to be confused with the Malayalam language, spoken in India. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Jawi may refer to: Jawi peoplevery good Jawi language (Australian Aboriginal) Jawi script (Arabic based for writing Malay) Category: ... Map of North Sumatra province within Indonesia North Sumatra (Indonesian: Sumatera Utara) is one of the provinces of Indonesia. ... For other uses, see Batak (disambiguation). ... Languages Minangkabau, Indonesian and Malay. ... Motto: Tuah Sakato. ...


Aceh was once a meeting point for people from many nations, and among the present day Acehnese can be found some individuals of Arab, Turkish,and Indian descent. Before the tsunami, the region of Meureuhom Daya (Lamno) used to have an unusually high number of people with fair complexions, blue eyes and blond hair, and local traditions attributed to Turkish or Portuguese ancestry. [13] For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ...


Notes

  1. ^ INDONESIA: Population and Administrative Divisions. The Permanent Committee on Geographical Names (2003).
  2. ^ (2003) Indonesia's Population: Ethnicity and Religion in a Changing Political Landscape. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. 
  3. ^ http://www.tsunamispecialenvoy.org/country/humantoll.asp
  4. ^ Ricklefs (1991), page 4
  5. ^ Ricklefs (1991), page 7
  6. ^ Ricklefs (1991), page 17
  7. ^ *Maryam Salim, The Laws of Kedah of 812AD, Dewan Bahasa & Pustaka, Kuala Lumpur, 2005
  8. ^ Haji Ibrahim Ismail, A Brief History of Kedah,Page 19, Universiti Utara Malaysia, 1987
  9. ^ *D. G. E. Hall, A History of South-east Asia. London: Macmillan, 1955.
  10. ^ a b c Ricklefs, M.C. (2001) A history of modern Indonesia since c.1200. Stanford: Stanford University Press. p185-188.
  11. ^ a b *M Nur El-Ibrahimy, Peranan Teungku M. Daud Bereueh dalam Pergolakan di Aceh2001.
  12. ^ *A.H. Nasution, Seputar Perang Kemerdekaan Indonesia, Jilid II,1977
  13. ^ zaman.com; ari.nus.edu.sg; ari.nus.edu.sg; turkishtime.org

See also

  • The Black Road

The Black Road is a 2005 documentary by William Nessen. ...

External links

Indonesia Portal
  • Official website (Indonesian)
  • The Acheh Times
  • The Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam portal
  • Aceh.net
  • Siegel, James T. 2000. The rope of God. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-08682-0
    • A classic ethnographic and historical study of Aceh, and Islam in the region. Originally published in 1969
    • For other ethnographic accounts in English see
      • Bowen, J. R. (1991). Sumatran politics and poetics : Gayo history, 1900-1989. New Haven, Yale University Press.
      • Bowen, J. R. (2003). Islam, Law, and Equality in Indonesia Cambridge University Press
      • Iwabuchi, A. (1994). The people of the Alas Valley : a study of an ethnic group of Northern Sumatra. Oxford, England ; New York, Clarendon Press.
      • McCarthy, J. F. (2006). The Fourth Circle. A Political Ecology of Sumatra's Rainforest Frontier, Stanford University Press.
  • Aceh sample language at Language Museum
  • Aceh Institute
  • Serambi Online (Indonesian)
  • Media Center Aceh (Indonesian)
  • AcehTV - Aceh Local Television

Coordinates: 5°33′N, 95°19′E Image File history File links Portal. ... Ethnography ( ethnos = people and graphein = writing) is the genre of writing that presents varying degrees of qualitative and quantitative descriptions of human social phenomena, based on fieldwork. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Aceh - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2532 words)
Aceh (IPA pronunciation: [ʔaˈtɕɛh], pronounced approximately Ah-Cèh, but with [e], not [ei] at the end) is a special territory (daerah istimewa) of Indonesia, located on the northern tip of the island of Sumatra.
Aceh was the closest point of land to the epicenter of the massive 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, which triggered a tsunami that devastated much of the western coast of the region, including part of the capital of Banda Aceh.
The western coastal areas of Aceh, including the cities of Banda Aceh, Calang, and Meulaboh, were among the areas hardest-hit by the tsunami resulting from the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake on December 26, 2004.
INDONESIA TOURISM : WELCOME TO ACEH (404 words)
Aceh has a fascinating history which over the centuries has shaped and transformed the region into what it is today.
Aceh's dominance in trade and politics in northern parts of Sumatra and in the entire region had begun and would last until it reached its zenith between 1610 and 1640.
Aceh's decline began with the death of Sultan Iskandar Thani in 1641, and as a result the British and Dutch both began vying for domination of the area.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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