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Encyclopedia > Acadia
l'Acadie
Acadia
Division of New France
1604 – 1713

Flag of Acadia Capital Quebec Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King See List of French monarchs Governor See list of Governors Legislature Sovereign Council of New France Historical era Ancien Régime in France  - Royal Control 1655  - Articles of Capitulation of Quebec 1759  - Articles of Capitulation of Montreal 1760  - Treaty... Events January 14 – Hampton Court conference with James I of England, the Anglican bishops and representatives of Puritans September 20 – Capture of Ostend by Spanish forces under Ambrosio Spinola after a three year siege. ... Year 1713 (MDCCXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Nova_Scotia. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit(Latin) One defends and the other conquers Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English, Canadian Gaelic Government - Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis - Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 11 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867... Image File history File links Pavillon_royal_de_France. ...


Flag Flag of Acadia The flag of Acadia was adopted on August 15, 1884, at the Acadian National Convention Miscouche (Prince Edward Island) by the Acadian people of Canada. ...

History
 - Established 1604
 - English conquest 1713
Acadia (1754)
Acadia (1754)

Acadia (in the French language l'Acadie) was the name given to a colonial territory in northeastern North America that included parts of eastern Quebec, the Maritime provinces, and modern-day New England, stretching as far south as Philadelphia. The actual specification by the French government for the territory refers to lands bordering the Atlantic coast, roughly between the 40th and 46th parallels. Later, the territory was divided into the British colonies which were to become Canadian provinces and American states. Events January 14 – Hampton Court conference with James I of England, the Anglican bishops and representatives of Puritans September 20 – Capture of Ostend by Spanish forces under Ambrosio Spinola after a three year siege. ... A map depicting the major changes in Western Europes borders as a result of the Treaties of Utrecht and Rastatt. ... Year 1713 (MDCCXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1180x825, 426 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Acadian Acadia ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1180x825, 426 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Acadian Acadia ... French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ... For the French colonial postage stamps, see French Colonies. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... , Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Official languages French Government - Lieutenant-Governor Pierre Duchesne - Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 75 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area  Ranked 2nd - Total 1,542,056 km² (595... This article is about the Canadian region. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... “Atlantic” redirects here. ... Canada consists of ten provinces and three territories. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of...

Contents

Early history

Early European colonists, who would later become known as Acadians, were French subjects primarily from the Pleumartin to Poitiers in the Vienne département of west-central France. The first French settlement was established by Pierre Dugua, Sieur de Monts, Governor of Acadia under the authority of King Henry IV, on Saint Croix Island in 1604. The following year, the settlement was moved across the Bay of Fundy to Port Royal after a difficult winter on the island and deaths due to scurvy. In 1608, many of the settlers followed Samuel de Champlain north to found New France at the site of modern day Quebec City. [citation needed] The Acadians (French: Acadiens) are the descendants of the 17th-century French colonists (and eventual Metis) who settled in Acadia (located on the northern portion of North Americas east coast). ... Location within France Poitiers (population 85,000) is a small city located in west central France. ... This article is about the French département. ... The départements (or departments) are administrative units of France, roughly analogous to British counties. ... Pierre Dugua, the Sieur de Monts, (c. ... Categories: Canadian history | Acadia | Canadian historical figures ... Henry IV of France, also Henry III of Navarre (13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), ruled as King of France from 1589 to 1610 and King of Navarre from 1572 to 1610. ... See also Saint Croix an island in the United States Virgin Islands Saint Croix Island, or Dochet Island as it is called today, is a small uninhabited island in Maine located at 45º 07 42 N latitude, 067º 08 02 W longitude, near the mouth of the Saint Croix River... The Bay of Fundy (French: ) is a bay located on the Atlantic coast of North America, on the northeast end of the Gulf of Maine between the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, with a small portion touching the U.S. state of Maine. ... Port Royal is a small rural community in the western part of the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. ... Scurvy (N.Lat. ... Statue symbolizing Samuel de Champlain in Ottawa. ... Capital Quebec Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King See List of French monarchs Governor See list of Governors Legislature Sovereign Council of New France Historical era Ancien Régime in France  - Royal Control 1655  - Articles of Capitulation of Quebec 1759  - Articles of Capitulation of Montreal 1760  - Treaty... Nickname: Motto: Don de Dieu feray valoir (I shall put Gods gift to good use; the Don de Dieu was Champlains ship) Coordinates: , Country Province Agglomeration Quebec City Statute of the city Capitale-Nationale Administrative Region Capitale-Nationale Founded 1608 by Samuel de Champlain Constitution date 1833 Government...


The French took control of the Abenaki First Nations territory. In 1654, King Louis XIV of France appointed aristocrat Nicholas Denys as Governor of Acadia and granted him the confiscated lands and the right to all its minerals. British colonists captured Acadia in the course of King William's War (1690-97), but Britain returned it to France at the peace settlement. It was recaptured in the course of Queen Anne's War (1702-13), and its conquest was confirmed in the Treaty of Utrecht (1713). The Abenaki (also Wabanuok or Wabanaki) are a tribe of Native Americans/First Nations belonging to the Algonquian peoples of northeastern North America. ... First Nations is a Canadian term of ethnicity which refers to the aboriginal peoples located in what is now Canada, and their descendants who are neither Inuit nor Métis. ... “Louis XIV” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... The first of the French and Indian Wars, King Williams War (1689–1697) , was the North American theater of the War of the Grand Alliance (1688–1697) fought principally in Europe between the armies of France under Louis XIV and those of a coalition of European powers including England. ... Queen Annes War (1702–1713) was the second in a series of four French and Indian Wars fought between France and Great Britain in North America for control of the continent and was the counterpart of War of the Spanish Succession in Europe. ... The Treaties of Utrecht (April 11, 1713) were signed in Utrecht, a city of the United Provinces. ...


On June 23 that year, the French residents of Acadia were given one year to declare allegiance to Britain or leave Nova Scotia.[citation needed] In the meantime, the French signalled their preparedness for future hostilities by beginning the construction of Fortress Louisbourg on Isle Royale, now Cape Breton Island. The British grew increasingly alarmed by the prospect of disloyalty in wartime of the Acadians now under their rule. is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit(Latin) One defends and the other conquers Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English, Canadian Gaelic Government - Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis - Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 11 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867... Fortress Louisbourg (in French, Forteresse de Louisbourg) is a Canadian National Historic Site and the location of a partial reconstruction of an 18th century French fortress at Louisbourg, Nova Scotia. ... For other uses, see Cape Breton. ...


The Great Upheaval

Main article: Great Upheaval

In the summer of 1755, the British attacked Fort Beausejour and burned Acadian homes at the outbreak of the French and Indian War between Britain and France (the North American theater of the Seven Years' War), accusing Acadians of disloyalty (for not having taken the oath) and guerrilla action. Those who still refused to swear loyalty to the British crown then suffered what is referred to as the Great Upheaval when, over the next three years, some 6,000-7,000 Acadians were expelled from Nova Scotia to France or the lower British American colonies. Others fled deeper into Nova Scotia and other parts of the colony of Canada. The Quebec town of L'Acadie (now a sector of Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu) was founded by expelled Acadians.[1] The Great Upheaval (le Grand Dérangement), also known as the Great Expulsion, The Deportation or the Acadian Expulsion, was the forced population transfer of the Acadian population from Nova Scotia between 1755 and 1763, ordered by British governor Charles Lawrence and the Nova Scotia Council. ... Fort Beauséjour is a Canadian national historic site in Aulac, New Brunswick. ... Combatants France First Nations allies: Algonquin Lenape Wyandot Ojibwa Ottawa Shawnee Great Britain American Colonies Iroquois Confederacy Strength 3,900 regulars 7,900 militia 2,200 natives (1759) 50,000 regulars and militia (1759) Casualties 3,000 killed, wounded or captured 10,040 killed, wounded or captured The French and... Combatants Kingdom of Prussia Kingdom of Great Britain and its American Colonies Electorate of Hanover Iroquois Confederacy Kingdom of Portugal Electorate of Brunswick Electorate of Hesse-Kassel Philippines Archduchy of Austria Kingdom of France Empire of Russia Kingdom of Sweden Kingdom of Spain Electorate of Saxony Kingdom of Naples and... Guerilla may refer to Guerrilla warfare. ... The Great Upheaval (le Grand Dérangement), also known as the Great Expulsion, The Deportation or the Acadian Expulsion, was the forced population transfer of the Acadian population from Nova Scotia between 1755 and 1763, ordered by British governor Charles Lawrence and the Nova Scotia Council. ... Betsy Ross purportedly sewed the first American flag with 13 stars and 13 stripes representing each of the 13 colonies. ... Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu is a city in Quebec, Canada about 50 km southeast of Montreal. ...


After 1764, many exiled Acadians finally settled in Louisiana, which had been transferred by France to Spain before the end of the French and Indian War. The name Acadian was corrupted to Cajun, which was first used as a pejorative term until its later mainstream acceptance. Britain allowed some Acadians to return to Nova Scotia, but these were forced to settle in small groups, and were not permitted to reside in their former settlements such as Grand-Pré, Port Royal and Beaubassin. This article is about the U.S. State. ... Cajuns are an ethnic group mainly living in Louisiana, consisting of the descendants of Acadian exiles and peoples of other ethnicities with whom the Acadians eventually intermarried on the semitropical frontier. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Grand Pre, Nova Scotia. ... Website: http://www. ... The Tantramar Marshes are on the southern part of the Isthmus of Chignecto, which joins Nova_Scotia to New_Brunswick and the Canadian mainland. ...


Origin of the name

Acadian communities in 2006
Acadian communities in 2006

The origin of the name Acadia is credited to the explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano (1480–1527), who, on his sixteenth century map applied the Greek term "Arcadie", meaning the proverbial land of plenty, to the entire Atlantic coast north of Virginia. Another theory is that Acadia is derived from the Mi'kmaq term for " fertile place", pronounced "akadi" (still found in place names like Tracadie and Shubenacadie) and the Malecite term "quoddy", also meaning a "fertile place". Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1180x824, 429 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Acadian Acadia ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1180x824, 429 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Acadian Acadia ... Giovanni da Verrazzano (c. ... Arcady (band) redirect Arcadia ... There are several places with this name. ... Shubenacadie is a community located in central Nova Scotia, Canada. ...


The Dictionary of Canadian Biography says "'Arcadia,' the name Giovanni gave to Maryland or Virginia 'on account of the beauty of the trees,' made its first cartographical appearance in the 1548 Gastaldo map and is the only name to survive in Canadian usage. It has a curious history. In the 17th century Champlain fixed its present orthography, with the 'r' omitted, and Ganong has shown its gradual progress northwards, in a succession of maps, to its resting place in the Atlantic Provinces." William Francis Ganong, M.A., Ph. ...


Cultural references

The nineteenth century poem Evangeline by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow is a romanticized account of the deportation and its aftermath, telling the story of Evangeline, a (fictional) Acadian woman who never gives up the search for her lover. Statue of Evangeline - heroine of the Acadian deportation - Saint Martinville, Louisiana Evangeline, A Tale of Acadie is a poem by the American poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. ... Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (February 27, 1807 – March 24, 1882) was an American poet whose works include Paul Reveres Ride, A Psalm of Life, The Song of Hiawatha and Evangeline. He also wrote the first American translation of Dante Alighieris Divine Comedy and was one of the five members...


The song "Acadian Driftwood" by The Band is a dramatized story of the Great Upheaval. For other uses, see Band. ...


Contemporary Acadia

The comtemporary Acadian flag
The comtemporary Acadian flag

Today, Acadia has been used to refer to regions of Atlantic Canada with French roots, language, and culture. In the abstract, Acadia refers to the existence of a French culture on Canada’s east coast. Image File history File links Flag_of_Acadia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Acadia. ... The four Canadian Atlantic provinces. ...


In 1994, Acadians and Cajuns held the first Acadian World Congress in Moncton, New Brunswick. Subsequent world congresses were held in 1999 and 2004. Cajuns are an ethnic group consisting essentially of the descendants of Acadians who came from Nova Scotia to Louisiana as a result of their refusal to swear allegiance to the British Crown. ... The Acadian World Congress, or Le Congrès Mondial Acadien, is a festival of Acadian and Cajun culture and history, held every five years. ... For other uses, see Moncton (disambiguation). ...


The anthem of contemporary Acadia is Ave Maris Stella, and it is represented by the flag adopted at Miscouche, Prince Edward Island in 1884. A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogising the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognised either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Ave Maris Stella (Hail Star of the Sea) is a plainsong hymn to the Virgin Mary. ... Flag of Acadia The flag of Acadia was adopted on August 15, 1884, at the Acadian National Convention Miscouche (Prince Edward Island) by the Acadian people of Canada. ... St. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ...


In fiction

The later volumes in the bestselling French "Angelique" series of historical novels by the novelist duo Anne and Serge Golon take place in Seventeenth Century Acadia, depicting the adventures of an exile French noblewoman, her pirate husband and a group of Huguenots who establish a community there to escape perscution in France. Note that people of Huguenot extraction in Maritime Canada are considered distinct from Acadian descendants. Angelique (original Angélique) is series of 15 French historical adventure books by the novelist duo Anne and Serge Golon. ... Anne Golon (born 1921) is a French author, better known to English speaking readers as Sergeanne Golon. ... Serge Golon (1903 - 1972), born Vsevolod Sergeïvich Goloubinoff, a writer, husband of French author Anne Golon, in collaboration with who he wrote the Angelique-series. ... From the 16th to the 18th century the name Huguenot was applied to a member of the Protestant Reformed Church of France, historically known as the French Calvinists. ...


Best-selling author Kathy Reichs' 2007 novel Bones to Ashes [2] is partly set in Acadia, and includes historical and cultural information about the area. The given name of the character 'Évangéline Landry' is linked to Longfellow's poem of the same name. Kathleen Joan Kathy Reichs is native of Chicago and works as a forensic anthropologist, an academic, and bestselling writer of mystery novels. ...


See also

The Acadians (French: Acadiens) are the descendants of the 17th-century French colonists who settled in Acadia (located on the northern portion of North Americas east coast). ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Capital Quebec Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King See List of French monarchs Governor See list of Governors Legislature Sovereign Council of New France Historical era Ancien Régime in France  - Royal Control 1655  - Articles of Capitulation of Quebec 1759  - Articles of Capitulation of Montreal 1760  - Treaty... This is a list of members of the Acadian people, and people of Acadian origins. ... Categories: Canadian history | Acadia | Canadian historical figures ... A few acres of snow (in the original French, Quelques arpents de neige) is a quotation from Voltaire popularly understood to be a sneering evaluation of New Frances — and, by extension, Canadas — lack of mercantile value and strategic importance to France. ... Look up acadian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

References

  1. ^ http://www.ville.saint-jean-sur-richelieu.qc.ca/cgi-bin/index.cgi?page=y1_2
  2. ^ Reichs, Kathy (2007). Bones to Ashes. USA: Scribner. ISBN 0-7432-9437-8 / 978-0-7432-9437-9. 

Kathleen Joan Kathy Reichs is native of Chicago and works as a forensic anthropologist, an academic, and bestselling writer of mystery novels. ...

External links

  • Congres Mondial Acadien 2009
  • Acadian Ancestral Home by Lucie LeBlanc Consentino - A repository for Acadian history & genealogy
  • Acadia (Acadian Tourism Commission)
  • Visit l'Acadie of New Brunswick (Tourism New Brunswick.ca)
  • Step into a real Acadian time at the Village Historique Acadien
  • www.acadie1755.ca
  • National Society of Acadia (French Only)
  • The Acadian Renaissance — Illustrated Historical Essay
  • Standardbearers of Acadian Identity — Illustrated Historical Essay
  • Acadia from the Columbia Encyclopedia
  • Acadia in BluPete's History of Nova Scotia



The Columbia Encyclopedia is a one-volume encyclopedia produced by Columbia University Press and sold by the Gale Group. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Acadia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (779 words)
Acadia (in French Acadie) was the name given by the French to a colonial territory in northeastern North America that included parts of eastern Quebec, the Maritime provinces, and modern-day New England, stretching as far south as Philadelphia.
It was recaptured in the course of Queen Anne's War and its conquest confirmed in the Treaty of Utrecht of 1713.
The origin of the name Acadia is credited to the explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano (1480–1527), who had the Greek term "Arcadie", meaning land of plenty, written on the entire Atlantic coast north of Virginia on his sixteenth century map.
Acadia National Park, Maine | GORP (823 words)
Acadia's largest island, Mount Desert Island, encompasses a stunning range of geological diversity, including rocky Atlantic shoreline, lush forests of spruce and fir, dozens of lakes and ponds, and rugged granite hills boasting panoramic views of the ocean.
Acadia is an extraordinary corner of the country for outdoor lovers of every stripe, a place where the kids will never have time to be bored or wonder what they're missing back home on television.
Acadia is a world of fresh and salt water, mountains and beaches, forests and meadows, a relatively small place crawling with an amazing variety of wildlife.
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