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Encyclopedia > Academic publishing

Academic publishing describes the subfield of publishing which distributes academic research and scholarship. Most academic work is published in journal article, book or thesis form. Much, though not all, academic publishing relies on some form of peer review or editorial refereeing to qualify texts for publication. “Publisher” redirects here. ... Academia is a collective term for the scientific and cultural community engaged in higher education and research, taken as a whole. ... This article is about the concept. ... This article is about scholarship (noun) and scholarship as a form of financial aid. ... Scientific journals are one type of academic journal An academic journal is a regularly-published, peer-reviewed publication that publishes scholarship relating to an academic discipline. ... For other uses, see Book (disambiguation). ... This article is about the thesis in academia. ... Peer review (known as refereeing in some academic fields) is a scholarly process used in the publication of manuscripts and in the awarding of funding for research. ...


Most established academic disciplines have their own journals and other outlets for publication, though many academic journals are somewhat interdisciplinary, and publish work from several distinct fields or subfields. The kinds of publications that are accepted as contributions of knowledge or research vary greatly between fields, as do review and publication processes. This is a list of academic disciplines (and academic fields). ... Interdisciplinarity is the act of drawing from two or more academic disciplines and integrating their insights to work together in pursuit of a common goal. ...


Academic publishing is undergoing major changes, emerging from the transition from the print to the electronic format. Business models are different in the electronic environment. Since the early 1990s, licensing of electronic resources, particularly journals, has been very common. Currently, a major trend, particularly with respect to scholarly journals, is open access via the Internet. There are two main forms of open access: open access publishing, in which the articles or the whole journal is freely available from the time of publication; and self-archiving, where authors make a copy of their own work freely available on the web. Open access (OA) means immediate, free and unrestricted online access to digital scholarly material[1], primarily peer-reviewed research articles in scholarly journals. ... Open access publishing is the publication of material in such a way that it is available to all potential users without financial or other barrier. ... Self archiving is the practice in which authors deposit their own work into an electronic archive, usually with reference to an Open Access Eprint Archive (or Institutional Repository. ...


STM publishing is a frequently-used abbreviation for academic publications in science, technology, and medicine.

Contents

History

Among the earliest research journals was the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society in the 17th century. At that time, the act of publishing academic inquiry was controversial, and widely ridiculed. It was not at all unusual for a new discovery to be announced as an anagram, reserving priority for the discoverer, but indecipherable for anyone not in on the secret: both Isaac Newton and Leibniz used this approach. However, this method did not work well. Robert K. Merton, a sociologist, found that 92% of cases of simultaneous discovery in the 17th century ended in dispute. The number of disputes dropped to 72% in the 18th century, 59% by the latter half of the 19th century, and 33% by the first half of the 20th century. The decline in contested claims for priority in research discoveries can be credited to the increasing acceptance of the publication of papers in modern academic journals. Academic publishing describes a system of publishing that is necessary in order for academic scholars to review work and make it available for a wider audience. ... Cover of Cover the first volume of , published in 1665 The Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, or Phil. ... For the game, see Anagrams. ... Sir Isaac Newton FRS (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist. ... Gottfried Leibniz Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz (July 1, 1646 in Leipzig - November 14, 1716 in Hannover) was a German philosopher, scientist, mathematician, diplomat, librarian, and lawyer of Sorb descent. ... This article is about the sociologist. ...


The Royal Society was steadfast in its not yet popular belief that science could only move forward through a transparent and open exchange of ideas backed by experimental evidence. For other uses, see Royal Society (disambiguation). ...


Scholarly paper

In academic publishing, a paper is an academic work that is usually published in an academic journal. It contains original research results or reviews existing results. Such a paper, also called an article, will only be considered valid if it undergoes a process of peer review by one or more referees (who are academics in the same field) in order to check that the content of the paper is suitable for publication in the journal. A paper may undergo a series of reviews, edits and re-submissions before finally being accepted or rejected for publication. This process typically takes several months. Next there is often a delay of many months (or in some subjects, over a year) before publication, particularly for the most popular journals where the number of acceptable articles outnumbers the space for printing. Due to this, many academics offer a 'pre-print' copy of their paper for free download from their personal or institutional website. Scientific journals are one type of academic journal An academic journal is a regularly-published, peer-reviewed publication that publishes scholarship relating to an academic discipline. ... This article is about the concept. ... Peer review (known as refereeing in some academic fields) is a scholarly process used in the publication of manuscripts and in the awarding of funding for research. ... Look up publication in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Plato is credited with the inception of academia: the body of knowledge, its development and transmission across generations. ... A preprint is a draft of a scientific paper that has not yet been published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal. ... A website (alternatively, Web site or web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos or other digital assets that is hosted on one or several Web server(s), usually accessible via the Internet, cell phone or a LAN. A Web page is a document, typically written in HTML...


Some journals, particularly newer ones, are now published in electronic form only. Paper journals are now generally made available in electronic form as well, both to individual subscribers, and to libraries. Almost always these electronic versions are available to subscribers immediately upon publication of the paper version, or even before; sometimes they are also made available to non-subscribers after an embargo of two to twenty-four months, in order to protect against loss of subscriptions. Journals having this delayed availability are generally called delayed open access journals. Alternative meanings: Library (computer science), Library (biology) Modern-style library In its traditional sense, a library is a collection of books and periodicals. ... In academic publishing, an embargo is a period during which access is not allowed to certain types of users. ... Delayed open access is a form of open access journal in which the free availability of the content is delayed for several month, with the immediate availability being limited to subscribers. ...


Peer review

Main article: Peer review Peer review (known as refereeing in some academic fields) is a scholarly process used in the publication of manuscripts and in the awarding of funding for research. ...


Peer review is a central concept for most academic publishing; other scholars in a field must find a work sufficiently high in quality for it to merit publication. The process also guards against plagiarism. Failures in peer review, while they are probably common, are sometimes scandalous (the Sokal Affair is arguably one example, though this controversy also involved many other issues). For other uses, see Plagiarism (disambiguation). ... The Sokal affair was a hoax by physicist Alan Sokal perpetrated on the editorial staff and readership of the postmodern cultural studies journal Social Text (published by Duke University). ...


Publishing process

The process of academic publishing is divided into two distinct phases. The process of peer review is organized by the journal editor and is complete when the content of the article, together with any associated images or figures, are accepted for publication. The peer review process is increasingly managed online, through the use of proprietary systems, or commercial software packages such as ScholarOne ManuscriptCentral, Aries Editorial Manager, and EJournalPress.


Once peer review has been completed, the original author(s) of the article will modify their submission in line with the reviewers' comments, and this is repeated until the editor is satisfied.


The production process, controlled by a production editor or publisher, then takes an article through copy editing, typesetting, inclusion in a specific issue of a journal, and then printing and online publication. Copy editing seeks to ensure that an article conforms to the journal's house style, that all of the referencing and labelling is correct, and that there are no spelling or grammatical errors. Typesetting deals with the appearance of the article — layouts, fonts, headings etc., both for print and online publication. Historically, these activities were all carried out in-house in a publisher, but increasingly are subject to outsourcing. The majority of typesetting is probably now done in India and China, and copy editing is frequently done by local freelancers, or by staff at the typesetters in India or China. Even printing and distribution are now tending to move overseas to lower-cost areas of the world, such as Singapore.[citation needed] Copy editing is the process of an editor making formatting changes and other improvements to text. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... A publishing companys or periodicals house style is the collection of conventions in its manual of style. ... Outsourcing is subcontracting a process, such as product design or manufacturing, to a third-party company. ...


In much of the 20th century, such articles were photographed for printing into proceedings and journals, and this stage were known as "camera ready" copy. With modern digital submission in formats such as PDF, this photographing step is no longer necessary, though the term is still sometimes used. Camera Ready is a common term used in the commercial printing industry meaning that a document is, from a technical standpoint, ready to go to press, or be printed. ... “PDF” redirects here. ...


The author will review and correct proofs at one or more stages in the production process. The proof correction cycle has historically been labour-intensive as handwritten comments by authors and editors are manually transcribed by a proof reader onto a clean version of the proof. In recent years, this process has been streamlined by the introduction of e-annotations in Microsoft Word, Adobe Acrobat, and other program, but it still remains a time-consuming and error-prone process. For other uses, see Author (disambiguation). ... Proofreading means reading a proof copy of a text in order to detect and correct any errors. ... Microsoft Word is Microsofts flagship word processing software. ... Adobe Acrobat is a family of application software by Adobe Systems. ...


Publishing by discipline

Sciences

Main article: Scientific literature Scientific literature is the totality of publications that report original empirical and theoretical work in the sciences and social sciences. ...


Most scientific research is initially published in scientific journals and considered to be a primary source; see that article for details. Technical reports, for minor research results and engineering and design work (including computer software) round out the primary literature. Secondary sources in the sciences include articles in review journals (which provide a synthesis of research articles on a topic to highlight advances and new lines of research), and books for large projects, broad arguments, or compilations of articles. Tertiary sources might include encyclopedias and similar works intended for broad public consumption. A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... This article is about the concept. ... Nature, Science and PNAS In academic publishing, a scientific journal is a periodical publication intended to further the progress of science, usually by reporting new research. ... In historical scholarship, a primary source is a document, or other source of information that was created at or near the time being studied, by an authoritative source, usually one with direct personal knowledge of the events being described. ... A technical report (also: scientific report) is a document that describes the progress or results of technical or scientific research, or the state of a technical or scientific research problem. ... In library and information science, historiography and some other areas of scholarship, a secondary source is a document or recording that relates or discusses information originally presented elsewhere. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Book (disambiguation). ... Where a primary source presents material from a first-hand witness to a phenomenon, and a secondary source provides commentary, analysis and criticism of primary sources, a tertiary source is a selection and compilation of primary and secondary sources. ... Cyclopedia redirects here. ...


A partial exception to scientific publication practices is in many fields of applied science, particularly that of U.S. computer science research.A equally prestigious site of publication within U.S. computer science are some academic conferences[citation needed]. Reasons for this departure include a large number of such conferences, the quick pace of research progress due to Moore's Law, and computer science professional society support for the distribution and archiving of conference proceedings.[1] Computer science, or computing science, is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. ... Medicament assisted rehabilitation conference in Oslo An academic conference is a conference for researchers (not always academics) to present and discuss their work. ... Gordon Moores original graph from 1965 Growth of transistor counts for Intel processors (dots) and Moores Law (upper line=18 months; lower line=24 months) For the observation regarding information retrieval, see Mooers Law. ... A professional society, like a trade association, is usually comprised of professionals who share a common bond or purpose because they work in same industry or share a common job function. ... Proceedings are the collection of academic papers that are published in the context of a conference. ...


Social sciences

Publishing in the social sciences is very different in different fields. Some fields, like economics, may have very "hard" or highly quantitative standards for publication, much like the natural sciences. Others, like anthropology or sociology, emphasize field work and reporting on first-hand observation as well as quantitative work. Some social science fields, such as public health or demographics, have significant shared interests with professions like law and medicine, and scholars in these fields often also publish in professional magazines. The social sciences are groups of academic disciplines that study the human aspects of the world. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... For the scientific journal named Science, see Science (journal). ... This is about the social science. ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge [1]) is the systematic and scientific study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social action, and culture[2]. Areas studied in sociology can range from the analysis of brief contacts between anonymous... Field work is a general descriptive term for the collection of raw data in the natural and social sciences, such as archaeology, biology, ecology, environmental science, geology,geography geophysics, paleontology, anthropology, linguistics, and sociology. ... Public health is the study and practice of addressing threats to the health of a community. ... Demographics refers to selected population characteristics as used in government, marketing or opinion research, or the demographic profiles used in such research. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... A trade journal is a periodical, magazine or publication printed with the intention of target marketing to a specific industry or type of trade/business. ...


Humanities

Publishing in the humanities is in principle similar to publishing elsewhere in the academy; a range of journals, from general to extremely specialized, are available, and university presses print many new humanities books every year. For other uses, see Humanities (disambiguation). ... A university press is an academic, nonprofit publishing house that is typically affiliated with a large research university. ...


Scholarly publishing requirements in the humanities (as well as some social sciences) are currently a subject of significant controversy within the academy. The following describes the situation in the United States. In many fields, such as literature and history, several published articles are typically required for a first tenure-track job, and a published or forthcoming book is now often required before tenure. Some critics complain that this de facto system has emerged without thought to its consequences; they claim that the predictable result is the publication of much shoddy work, as well as unreasonable demands on the already limited research time of young scholars. To make matters worse, the circulation of many humanities journals in the 1990s declined to almost untenable levels, as many libraries cancelled subscriptions, leaving fewer and fewer peer-reviewed outlets for publication; and many humanities professors' first books sell only a few hundred copies, which often does not pay for the cost of their printing. Some scholars have called for a publication subvention of a few thousand dollars to be associated with each graduate student fellowship or new tenure-track hire, in order to alleviate the financial pressure on journals. For other uses, see Humanities (disambiguation). ... The social sciences are a group of academic disciplines that study human aspects of the world. ... For other uses, see Academy (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Literature (disambiguation). ... This article is about the study of the past in human terms. ... Tenure commonly refers to academic tenure systems, in which professors (at the university level)—and in some jurisdictions schoolteachers (at primary or secondary school levels)—are granted the right not to be fired without cause after an initial probationary period. ... Look up tenure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In academic publishing, a publication subvention is guaranteed funding towards a partial subsidy of a scholars publication in book form. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... Tenure commonly refers to academic tenure systems, in which professors (at the university level)—and in some jurisdictions schoolteachers (at primary or secondary school levels)—are granted the right not to be fired without cause after an initial probationary period. ...


Distribution and business aspects for Open access journals

The rival to this subscription model is the open access journal model. (This is also known as "author-pays" or "paid on behalf of the author." ) where a publication charge is paid by the author, his university, or the agency which provides his research grant. The online distribution of individual articles and academic journals then takes place without charge to readers and libraries. Committing to the open access community means dispensing with the financial, technical, and legal barriers that have been designed to limit access to academic materials to paying customers. The Public Library of Science and BioMed Central are prominent and successful examples of this model. Open access (OA) means immediate, free and unrestricted online access to digital scholarly material[1], primarily peer-reviewed research articles in scholarly journals. ... Research funding is a term generally covering any funding for scientific research, in the areas of both hard science and technology, and social science. ... The Public Library of Science (PLoS) is a nonprofit open access scientific publishing project aimed at creating a library of open access journals and other scientific literature under an open content license. ... BioMed Central (BMC) is a UK-based scientific publisher specializing in open access publication. ...


Corporate interests often criticize the principle of open access on quality grounds, as the desire to obtain publishing fees would cause the journal to relax the standard of peer review. It is often criticized on financial grounds as well, because the necessary publication fees have proven to be higher than originally estimated. Open access advocates generally reply that because open access is as much based on peer reviewing as traditional publishing, the quality should be the same (recognizing that both traditional and open access journals have a range of quality). It has been argued that good science done by academic institutions who cannot afford to pay for open access might not get published at all, but most open access journals permit the waiver of the fee for financial hardship or authors in underdeveloped countries. By October 2006, it has become clear that open access journals are feasible in at least some situations, and some can be financially viable without outside funding. It remains unclear whether this is applicable to all--or even most-- journals.  High human development Medium human development Low human development Unavailable (colour-blind compliant map)   Developing countries not listed as least developed countries or as newly industrialized countries, in their respective articles. ...


A variant of this model, Hybrid open access publishing has developed since 2004. In this system, those articles that have a fee paid are made available open access immediately; the others are either made available after a delay, or remain available only by subscription. During 2004, many of the traditional publishers (including Blackwell Publishing , Oxford University Press, Springer Science+Business Media and Wharton School Publishing) introduced such models, and the move is continuing to spread. Proponents of open access suggest that such moves by corporate publishers illustrate that open access, or a mix of open access and traditional publishing can be financially viable, and evidence to that effect is emerging. It remains unclear whether this is practical in fields outside the sciences, where there is much less availability of outside funding. In 2006, several funding agencies, including the Wellcome Trust in the UK and several divisions of the Research Councils UK (UKRC) announced the availability of extra funding to their grantees for such publication fees. A newly popular variation on open access journals is the Hybrid Open Access Journal. ... Blackwell Publishing was formed in 2001 from two Oxford-based academic publishing companies, Blackwell Science and Blackwell Publishers and is the worlds leading society publisher, partnering with 665 academic and professional societies. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... Springer Science+Business Media or Springer (IPA: ) is a worldwide publishing company based in Germany which focuses on academic journals and books in the fields of science, technology, mathematics, and medicine. ... Wharton School Publishing (known colloquially as WSP) is a publishing house, a division of Wharton School and Pearson Education. ... The Wellcome Trusts Gibbs Building on Euston Road The Wellcome Trust is a United Kingdom-based charity established in 1936 to administer the fortune of the American-born pharmaceutical magnate Sir Henry Wellcome. ... The Research Councils of the UK are government agencies responsible for particular areas of science and technology. ...


Wiki models of academic publishing

Academic Publishing Wiki service offered at Wikia introduces wiki model into academic publishing that has a chance to make specialized knowledge generation really more transparent, just as Wikipedia revolutionized how we think about general knowledge, and just as Wikia Search have a chance to revolutionize how we think about search. Wikia (no official pronunciation[2]; originally Wikicities) is a selective wiki hosting service (or wiki farm) operated by Wikia, Inc. ... Wikipedia (IPA: , or ( ) is a multilingual, web-based, free content encyclopedia project, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization. ... Wikia (no official pronunciation[2]; originally Wikicities) is a selective wiki hosting service (or wiki farm) operated by Wikia, Inc. ...


General References

  • Jonathan Culler and Kevin Lamb. Just being difficult? : academic writing in the public arena Stanford, Calif. : Stanford University Press, 2003. ISBN 0804747091
  • William Germano. Getting It Published: A Guide for Scholars and Anyone Else Serious About Serious Books. ISBN 0-226-28844-7.
  • Wellington, J. J. Getting published : a guide for lecturers and researcherLondon ; New York : RoutledgeFalmer, 2003. ISBN 0415298474
  • John A. Goldsmith et al. "Teaching and Research" in The Chicago Guide to Your Academic Career. ISBN 0-226-30151-6.
  • Cary Nelson and Stephen Watt. "Scholarly Books" and "Peer Review" in Academic Keywords: A Devil's Dictionary for Higher Education. ISBN 0-415-92203-8.
  • Carol Tenopir and Donald King. "Towards Electronic Journals: Realities for Librarians and Publishers. SLA, 2000. ISBN 0-87111-507-7.
  • Björk, B-C. (2007) "A model of scientific communication as a global distributed information system" Information Research, 12(2) paper 307. [Available at http://InformationR.net/ir/12-2/paper307.html or http://www.sciencemodel.net/]

See also

Authorship of articles, books and other original works is a primary basis on which many academics are evaluated for employment, promotion, and tenure. ... Medicament assisted rehabilitation conference in Oslo An academic conference is a conference for researchers (not always academics) to present and discuss their work. ... An acknowledgment index keeps track of which articles in scientific journals acknowledge which persons or organizations. ... A citation index is an index of citations between publications, allowing the user to easily establish which later documents cite which earlier documents. ... The Impact factor, often abbreviated IF, is a measure of the citations to science and social science journals. ... JSTOR®, begun in 1995, is an online system for archiving academic journals. ... A law review is a scholarly journal focusing on legal issues, normally published by an organization of students at a law school or through a bar association. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... The following is a partial list of scientific journals. ... This page contains a partial list of representative major databases and search engines useful in an academic setting for finding and accessing articles in academic journals, or in repositories, archives, or other collections of scientific and other articles. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Embargo (academic publishing). ... Open access (OA) means immediate, free and unrestricted online access to digital scholarly material[1], primarily peer-reviewed research articles in scholarly journals. ... Open access publishing is the publication of material in such a way that it is available to all potential users without financial or other barrier. ... Peer review (known as refereeing in some academic fields) is a scholarly process used in the publication of manuscripts and in the awarding of funding for research. ... Proceedings are the collection of academic papers that are published in the context of a conference. ... Scholarly method - or as it is more commonly called, scholarship - is the body of principles and practices used by scholars to make their claims about the world as valid and trustworthy as possible, and to make them known to the scholarly public. ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... Scientific literature is the totality of publications that report original empirical and theoretical work in the sciences and social sciences. ... In academia, a survey article is a paper that is a work of synthesis, published through the usual channels (a learned journal or collective volume, such as conference proceedings or collection of essays). ...

External links

Reported crisis in scholarly publishing
The London Review of Books (or LRB) is a twice-monthly British literary magazine. ... Eric Schulman is an American astronomer and science humorist. ... The Annals of Improbable Research (AIR) is a monthly magazine devoted to scientific humour, in the form of a satirical take on the standard academic journal. ... New Scientist is a weekly international science magazine covering recent developments in science and technology for a general English-speaking audience. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, Fifth Edition The Modern Language Association of America (MLA) is the principal professional association in the United States for scholars of literature and literary criticism. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
The Chronicle: 6/17/2005: Survival Strategies for Academic Publishing (4124 words)
To understand the problems of academic publishers today, we have to see that their current predicament is the outcome of a long process of development that stretches back to the 1970s and before.
Publishers listened carefully to the gatekeepers because they needed their adoptions to survive, but they didn't pay much attention to students because they assumed that students would buy what they were told to buy.
They depend on the presses to publish their work, to maintain the vitality of their disciplines, and to lubricate the processes of recruitment, tenure, and promotion; and yet they generally know precious little about the forces driving presses to act in ways that are sometimes at odds with the aims and priorities of academics.
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