FACTOID # 25: If you're tired of sitting in traffic on your way to work, move to North Dakota.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Academic art
Birth of Venus, Alexandre Cabanel, 1863
Birth of Venus, Alexandre Cabanel, 1863

Academic art is a style of painting and sculpture produced under the influence of European academies or universities. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x586, 78 KB)Alexandre Cabanel, The Birth of Venus (1863), oil on canvas, 130 x 225 cm. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x586, 78 KB)Alexandre Cabanel, The Birth of Venus (1863), oil on canvas, 130 x 225 cm. ... Alexandre Cabanel (September 28, 1823 - January 23, 1889) was a painter born in Montpellier, France. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... An Italian Futurist sculpture by Umberto Boccioni at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City (MoMA). ... Raphaels portrait of Plato, a detail of The School of Athens fresco An an institution for the study of (usually) higher learning. ...


Specifically, academic art is the art and artists influenced by the standards of the French Académie des beaux-arts, which practiced under the movements of Neoclassicism and Romanticism, and the art that followed these two movements in the attempt to synthesize both of their styles, and which is best reflected by the paintings of William-Adolphe Bouguereau, Thomas Couture, and Hans Makart. In this context it is often called "academism", "academicism", "art pompier", and "eclecticism", and sometimes linked with "historicism" and "syncretism". The Académie des beaux-arts (Academy of Fine Arts) is a French learned society. ... Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture. ... Romanticism was a secular and intellectual movement in the history of ideas that originated in late 18th century Western Europe. ... William-Adolphe Bouguereau (1825-1905), self-portrait (1886) Dusks, 1863 William Adolphe Bouguereau (November 30, 1825 - August 19, 1905) was a French academic painter. ... Thomas Couture (December 21, 1815 – March 30, 1879) was an influential French history painter and teacher. ... Hans Makart (May 28, 1840 - October 3, 1884) was a 19th century Austrian academic history painter, designer, and decorator; most well known for his influence on Gustav Klimt and other Austrian artists, but in his own era considered an important artist himself and was a celebrity figure in the high... Historicism is a term which applies to a number of theories of culture or historical development which place the greatest weight on two factors: that there is an organic succession of developments, that local conditions and peculiarities influence the results in a decisive way It can be contrasted with reductionist... Syncretism is the attempt to reconcile disparate, even opposing, beliefs and to meld practices of various schools of thought. ...


The art influenced by academies and universities in general is also called "academic art". In this context as new styles are embraced by academics, the new styles come to be considered academic, thus what was at one time a rebellion against academic art becomes academic art.

Contents


The academies in history

The first academy of art was founded in Florence in Italy in 1562 by Giorgio Vasari who called it the Accademia dell' Arte del Disegno. There students learned the "arti del disegno" (a term coined by Vasari) and included lectures on anatomy and geometry. Another academy, the Accademia di San Luca (named after the patron saint of painters, St. Luke), was founded about a decade later in Rome. Academia di San Luca served an educational function and was more concerned with art theory. than Florentine Accademia dell' Arte del Disegno. Founded 59 BC as Florentia Region Tuscany Mayor Leonardo Domenici (Democratici di Sinistra) Area  - City Proper  102 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 356,000 almost 500,000 3,453/km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Latitude Longitude 43°47 N 11°15 E www. ... Events Earliest English slave-trading expedition under John Hawkins. ... Giorgio Vasaris selfportrait Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Giorgio Vasari Giorgio Vasari (Arezzo, Tuscany July 3, 1511 - Florence, June 27, 1574) was an Italian painter and architect, mainly known for his famous biographies of Italian artists. ... The Accademia dell Arte del Disegno (Academy of Design) of Florence was the first academy of drawing in Europe. ... Anatomical drawing of the human muscles from the Encyclopédie. ... Table of Geometry, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... Accademia di San Luca, the painting academy of Rome, named for the Evangelist Saint Luke, reputed to have made a portrait of the Virgin Mary, who was patron of many painters guilds in the Low Countries and in Italy, was founded in 1593. ... Luke the Evangelist (Greek Λουκας Loukas) is said by tradition to be the author of both the Gospel of Luke and the Acts of the Apostles, the third and fifth books of the New Testament. ... City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the People of Rome) Founded 21 April 753 BC (mythical), early 1st millennium BC (archaeological) Region Latium Area  - City Proper  1285 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 2,553,873 almost 4,300,000 1. ... The Mona Lisa Although today the word art usually refers to the visual arts, the concept of what art is has continuously changed over centuries. ...


Academia di San Luca later served as the model for the Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture founded in France in 1648, and which later became the Académie des beaux-arts. The French Académie very probably adopted the term "arti del disegno" which it translated into "beaux arts", from which is derived the English term "fine arts". The Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture was founded in an effort to distinguish artists "who were gentlemen practicing a liberal art" from craftsmen, who were engaged in manual labor. This emphasis on the intellectual component of artmaking had a considerable impact on the subjects and styles of academic art. The Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture (Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture), Paris, was founded in 1648, modelled on Italian examples, such as the Accademia di San Luca in Rome. ... // Events January 17 - Englands Long Parliament passes the Vote of No Address, breaking off negotiations with King Charles I and thereby setting the scene for the second phase of the English Civil War. ... The Académie des beaux-arts (Academy of Fine Arts) is a French learned society. ... Fine art is a term used to refer to fields traditionally considered to be artistic. ...


After the Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture was reorganized in 1661 by Louis XIV whose aim was to control all the artistic activity in France, a controversy occurred among the members that dominated artistic attitudes for the rest of the century. This "battle of styles" was a conflict over whether Peter Paul Rubens or Nicolas Poussin was a suitable model to follow. Followers of Poussin, called "poussinistes", argued that line (disegno) should dominate art, because of its appeal to the intellect, while followers or Rubens, called "rubenistes", argued that color (colore) should dominate art, because of its appeal to emotion. Events January 6 - The fifth monarchy men unsuccessfully attempt to seize control of London. ... Louis XIV (Louis-Dieudonné) (September 5, 1638 – September 1, 1715), reigned as King of France and of Navarre from May 14, 1643 until his death at the age of 77. ... Rubens and Isabella Brant in the Honeysuckle Bower Alte Pinakothek Pieter Pauwel (Peter Paul) Rubens (June 28, 1577 – May 30, 1640) was the most popular and prolific Flemish and European painter of the 17th century. ... Les Bergers d’Arcadie, set in Ancient Greece. ...


The debate was revived in the early 19th century, under the movements of Neoclassicism typified by the artwork of Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres, and Romanticism typified by the artwork of Eugène Delacroix. Debates also occurred over whether it was better to learn art by looking at nature, or to learn by looking at the artistic masters of the past. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture. ... Self-portrait at age 24, 1804 Musée Condé. Napoleon on his Imperial throne, 1806, Musée de lArmée. ... Romanticism was a secular and intellectual movement in the history of ideas that originated in late 18th century Western Europe. ... Eugène Delacroix (portrait by Nadar) Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix (April 26, 1798 — August 13, 1863) was the most important of the French Romantic painters. ...


Academies using the French model formed throughout Europe, and imitated the teachings and styles of the French Académie. In England, this was the Royal Academy. Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location (dark green) within the United Kingdom (light green), with the Republic of Ireland (blue) to its west Languages English Capital London Largest city London Area – Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population –mid-2004... This article refers to an art institution in London. ...


Development of the academic style

Since the onset of the poussiniste-rubiniste debate many artists worked between the two styles. In the 19th century, in the revived form of the debate, the attention and the aims of the art world became to synthesize the line of Neoclassicism with the color of Romanticism. One artist after another was claimed by critics to have achieved the synthesis, among them Théodore Chassériau, Ary Scheffer, Francesco Hayez, Alexandre-Gabriel Decamps, and Thomas Couture. William-Adolphe Bouguereau, a later academic artist, commented that the trick to being a good painter is seeing "color and line as the same thing." Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture. ... Romanticism was a secular and intellectual movement in the history of ideas that originated in late 18th century Western Europe. ... Théodore Chassériau (1819-1856), French painter, was born in Santo Domingo. ... Ary Scheffer (February 10, 1795 _ June 15, 1858), French painter of Dutch extraction, was born at Dordrecht. ... The Kiss by Francesco Hayez Francesco Hayez (1791-1882) was the leading homosexual artist of Romanticism in mid-19th-century Milan, renowned for his great historical paintings, political allegories and exceptionally fine portraits External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Francesco Hayez More information Categories: ‪Artist stubs‬ | ‪1791 births... The Turkish Patrol (1831) Alexandre-Gabriel Decamps (March 3, 1803–August 22, 1860) was a French painter. ... Thomas Couture (December 21, 1815 – March 30, 1879) was an influential French history painter and teacher. ... William-Adolphe Bouguereau (1825-1905), self-portrait (1886) Dusks, 1863 William Adolphe Bouguereau (November 30, 1825 - August 19, 1905) was a French academic painter. ...


Thomas Couture promoted the same idea in a book he authored on art method — arguing that whenever one said a painting had better color or better line it was nonsense, because whenever color appeared brilliant it depended on line to convey it, and vice versa; and that color was really a way to talk about the "value" of form.


Another development during this period included adopting historical styles in order to show the era in history that the painting depicted, called historicism. This is best seen in the work of Baron Henrik Leys, a later influence on James Tissot. It's also seen in the development of the Neo-Grec style. Historicism is also meant to refer to the belief and practice associated with academic art that one should incorporate and conciliate the innovations of different traditions of art from the past. Historicism is a term which applies to a number of theories of culture or historical development which place the greatest weight on two factors: that there is an organic succession of developments, that local conditions and peculiarities influence the results in a decisive way It can be contrasted with reductionist... James Joseph Jacques Tissot (October 15, 1836 – August 8, 1902) was a French painter. ... Neo-Grec is a term usually used to refer to a particular manifestation of the Neoclassical style in the decorative arts, painting, and architecture of France, during the Second Empire of Napoleon III, lasting approximately between 1848 and 1865. ...

The art world also grew to give increasing focus on allegory in art. Both theories of the importance of line and color asserted that through these elements an artist exerted control over the medium to create psychological effects, in which themes, emotions, and ideas can be represented. As artists attempted to synthesize these theories in practice, the attention on the artwork as an allegorical or figurative vehicle was emphasized. It was held that the representations in paintings and sculpture should evoke Platonic forms, or ideals, where behind ordinary depictions one would glimpse something abstract, some eternal truth. Hence, Keats' famous musing "Beauty is truth, truth beauty". The paintings were desired to be an "idée", a full and complete idea. Bouguereau is known to have said that he wouldn't paint "a war", but would paint "War". Many paintings by academic artists are simple nature-allegories with titles like Dawn, Dusk, Seeing, and Tasting, where these ideas are personified by a single nude figure, composed in such a way as to bring out the essence of the idea. Dusk (Bouguereau) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Dusk (Bouguereau) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... William-Adolphe Bouguereau (1825-1905), self-portrait (1886) Dusks, 1863 William Adolphe Bouguereau (November 30, 1825 - August 19, 1905) was a French academic painter. ... An allegory (from Greek αλλος, allos, other, and αγορευειν, agoreuein, to speak in public) is a figurative mode of representation conveying a meaning other than and in addition to the literal. ... According to Platonic realism, universals exist in a realm (often so called) that is separate from space and time; one might say that universals have a sort of ghostly or heavenly mode of existence, but, at least in more modern versions of Platonism, such a description is probably more misleading... John Keats John Keats (October 31, 1795 – February 23, 1821) was one of the principal poets of the English Romantic movement. ... Le Printemps, 1866 Adolphe William Bouguereau (November 30, 1825 - August 19, 1905) was a French academic painter. ...


The trend in art was also towards greater idealism, which is contrary to realism, in that the figures depicted were made simpler and more abstract - idealized - in order to be able to represent the ideals they stood in for. This would involve both generalizing forms seen in nature, and subordinating them to the unity and theme of the artwork. Idealism is an approach to philosophical enquiry which asserts that direct and immediate knowledge can only be had of ideas or mental pictures. ... Realism in art and literature is the depiction of subjects as they appear, without embellishment or interpretation. ...


Because history and mythology were considered as plays or dialectics of ideas, a fertile ground for important allegory, using themes from these subjects was considered the most serious form of painting. A hierarchy of genres, originally created in the 17th century, was valued, where history painting - classical, religious, mythological, literary, and allegorical subjects - was placed at the top, next genre painting, then portraiture, still-life, and landscape. History painting was also known as the "grande genre". Paintings of Hans Makart are often larger than life historical dramas, and he combined this with a historicism in decoration to dominate the style of 19th century Vienna culture. Paul Delaroche is a typifying example of French history painting. In classical philosophy, dialectic (Greek: διαλεκτική) is an exchange of propositions (theses) and counter-propositions (antitheses) resulting in a synthesis of the opposing assertions, or at least a qualitative transformation in the direction of the dialogue. ... A hierarchy of genres is any formalization which ranks different types of genres in an art-form in terms of their value. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Categories: Art stubs | Painting ... Genre painting, also called genre scene or petit genre, attempts to depict aspects of everyday life, via portraits of ordinary people engaged in common activities. ... It has been suggested that Portrait painting be merged into this article or section. ... A still life is a work of art depicting a collection of usually inanimate objects, typically natural -- (flowers, game, sea shells, et cetera) -- or man-made domestic items -- (drinking glasses, foodstuffs, pipes, books, et cetera). ... The Harvesters, by Pieter Brueghel the Elder, 1565: Peace and agriculture in a pre-Romantic ideal landscape, without sublime terrors Landscape near Bologna, by Frans Koppelaar, 2001: Realistic landscape painted after nature Landscape art depicts scenery such as mountains, valleys, trees, rivers and forests. ... Hans Makart (May 28, 1840 - October 3, 1884) was a 19th century Austrian academic history painter, designer, and decorator; most well known for his influence on Gustav Klimt and other Austrian artists, but in his own era considered an important artist himself and was a celebrity figure in the high... Historicism is a term which applies to a number of theories of culture or historical development which place the greatest weight on two factors: that there is an organic succession of developments, that local conditions and peculiarities influence the results in a decisive way It can be contrasted with reductionist... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Vienna (German: Wien ; Bosnian, Croatian, and Serbian: Beč, Czech: Vídeň, Hungarian: Bécs, Romanian: Viena, Romani: Bech or Vidnya, Russian: Вена, Slovak: Viedeň, Slovenian: Dunaj) is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ... Hippolyte Delaroche, commonly known as Paul (July 17, 1797 - November 4, 1856), French painter, was born in Paris. ...


All of these trends were influenced by the theories of the philosopher Hegel, who held that history was a dialectic of competing ideas, which eventually resolved in synthesis. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Towards the end of the 19th century, academic art had saturated European society. Exhibitions were held often, and the most popular exhibition was the Paris Salon and beginning in 1903, the Salon d'Automne. These salons were sensational events that attracted crowds of visitors, both native and foreign. As much a social affair as an artistic one, 50,000 people might visit on a single Sunday, and as many as 500,000 could see the exhibition during its two-month run. Thousands of pictures were displayed, hung from just below eye level all the way up to the ceiling in a manner now known as "Salon style." A successful showing at the salon was a seal of approval for an artist, making his work saleable to the growing ranks of private collectors. Bouguereau, Alexandre Cabanel and Jean-Léon Gérôme were leading figures of this art world. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Honoré Daumier satirized the bourgeoises scandalized by the Salons Venuses, 1864 The Paris Salon (French: Salon de Paris) is the official art exhibition of the Académie des beaux-arts in Paris, France. ... First Salon dAutomne Catalog In 1903, the first Salon dAutomne (Fall Salon) was organized as a reaction to the conservative policies of the official Paris Salon. ... A salon is a gathering of stimulating people of quality under the roof of an inspiring hostess or host, partly to amuse one another and partly to refine their taste and increase their knowledge through conversation and readings, often consciously following Horaces definition of the aims of poetry, to... William-Adolphe Bouguereau (1825-1905), self-portrait (1886) Dusks, 1863 William Adolphe Bouguereau (November 30, 1825 - August 19, 1905) was a French academic painter. ... Alexandre Cabanel (September 28, 1823 - January 23, 1889) was a painter born in Montpellier, France. ... Jean-Léon Gérôme (May 11, 1824 - 1904) was a French painter and sculptor who produced many works in a historical, Orientalist style. ...


During the reign of academic art, the paintings of the Rococo era, previously held in low favor, were revived to popularity, and themes often used in Rococo art such as Eros and Psyche were popular again. The academic art world also idolized Raphael, for the ideality of his work, in fact preferring him over Michelangelo. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In Greek mythology, Eros was the god responsible for lust, love, and sex; he was also worshipped as a fertility deity. ... The Abduction of Psyche by William Bouguereau The tale of Cupid and Psyche first appeared as a digressionary story told by an old woman in Lucius Apuleius novel, The Golden Ass, written in the second century AD. Apuleius probably used an earlier folk-tale as the basis for his story... This page is about the artist. ... Chalk portrait of Michelangelo by Daniele da Volterra Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni (March 6, 1475 – February 18, 1564), commonly known as Michelangelo, was an Italian Renaissance sculptor, painter, architect and poet. ...


Academic art not only held influence in Europe and the United States, but also extended its influence to non-Western countries. This was especially true for Latin American nations, which, because their revolutions were modeled on the French Revolution, sought to emulate French culture. An example of a Latin American academic artist is Angel Zarraga of Mexico. World map showing Europe Political map Europe is one of the seven continents of Earth which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiographic one, leading to various perspectives about Europes borders. ... Liberty Leading the People, a painting by Delacroix commemorating the July Revolution of 1830 but which has come to be generally accepted as symbolic of French popular uprisings against the monarchy in general and the French Revolution in particular. ...


Academic training

Enlarge
'Students painting "from the live" at the École. Photographed late 1800s.

Young artists spent years in rigorous training. In France, only students who passed an exam and carried a letter of reference from a noted professor of art were accepted at the academy's school, the École des Beaux-Arts. Drawings and paintings of the nude, called "académies", were the basic building blocks of academic art and the procedure for learning to make them was clearly defined. First, students copied prints after classical sculptures, becoming familiar with the principles of contour, light, and shade. The copy was believed crucial to the academic education; from copying works of past artists one would assimilate their methods of art making. To advance to the next step, and every successive one, students presented drawings for evaluation. Image File history File links École_des_beaux-arts_(from_the_live). ... Image File history File links École_des_beaux-arts_(from_the_live). ... École des Beaux-Arts (IPA ) refers to several art schools in France. ...

Demosthenes at the Seashore, a Royal Academy prize winning drawing, 1888.
Enlarge
Demosthenes at the Seashore, a Royal Academy prize winning drawing, 1888.

If approved, they would then draw from plaster casts of famous classical sculptures. Only after acquiring these skills were artists permitted entrance to classes in which a live model posed. Interestingly, painting was not actually taught at the École des Beaux-Arts until after 1863. To learn to paint with a brush, the student first had to demonstrate proficiency in drawing, which was considered the foundation of academic painting. Only then could the pupil join the studio of an academician and learn how to paint. Throughout the entire process, competitions with a predetermined subject and a specific allotted period of time measured each students' progress. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (493x668, 67 KB) Summary silver prize winning drawing, Royal Academy 1888, Demosthenes at the Sea Shore by A Bernard Sykes Scanned from The Builder, 1888 Licensing The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (493x668, 67 KB) Summary silver prize winning drawing, Royal Academy 1888, Demosthenes at the Sea Shore by A Bernard Sykes Scanned from The Builder, 1888 Licensing The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain... 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar). ...


The most famous art competition for students was the Prix de Rome. The winner of the Prix de Rome was awarded a fellowship to study at the Académie française's school at the Villa Medici in Rome for up to five years. To compete, an artist had to be of French nationality, male, under 30 years of age, and single. He had to have met the entrance requirements of the École and have the support of a well-known art teacher. The competition was grueling, involving several stages before the final one, in which 10 competitors were sequestered in studios for 72 days to paint their final history paintings. The winner was essentially assured a successful professional career. The Prix de Rome was a scholarship for art students. ... The French Academy in Rome (French: Académie de France à Rome) is an Academy located in the Villa Medici, within the Villa Borghese, in Rome, Italy. ... City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the People of Rome) Founded 21 April 753 BC (mythical), early 1st millennium BC (archaeological) Region Latium Area  - City Proper  1285 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 2,553,873 almost 4,300,000 1. ...


As noted, a successful showing at the Salon was a seal of approval for an artist. The ultimate achievement for the professional artist was election to membership in the Académie française and the right to be known as an academician. Artists petitioned the hanging committee for optimal placement "on the line," or at eye level. After the exhibition opened, artists complained if their works were "skyed," or hung too high.


Criticism and legacy

Academic art was first criticised for its use of idealism, by Realist artists such as Gustave Courbet, as being based on clichés and representing fantasies and tales of ancient myth while real social concerns were being ignored. Another criticism of Realists was the "false surface" of paintings — the objects depicted looked smooth, slick, and idealized — showing no real texture. The Realist Theodule Augustin Ribot worked against this by experimenting with rough, unfinished textures in his paintings. Realism in art and literature is the depiction of subjects as they appear, without embellishment or interpretation. ... Gustave Courbet (portrait by Nadar). ...

This Year Venuses Again... Always Venuses!. Honoré Daumier, No. 2 from series in Le Charivati, 1864.

Impressionists, who were associated with loose brushstrokes, likewise criticized the smooth finish of academic art. Actually, such loose brushstrokes were also part of the academic process. When artists started planning a painting, they would first make drawings and then oil sketches of their subject. These oil sketches, known as "esquisses", were painted freely and looked similar to the canvases of the Impressionists, many of whom were trained in the academic tradition. Only after the oil sketch did the artist produce the final painting with the trademark academic "fini". Academic artists tried to hide the brush stroke, as to bring attention to the subject of the art, instead of the means of creating it. The Impressionists generally did not create a smooth finish, preferring instead loose brushstrokes that captured the play of light and attested to the artists' presence. Impressionists and other artists championed the idea of plein air painting, where the painter would work from life outside, rather than doing dry academic exercises confined to a studio. This Year Venuses Again. ... This Year Venuses Again. ... Honoré Daumier (portrait by Nadar) Honoré Daumier (1808 – 1879) was a French caricaturist and painter. ... See also Impressionist (entertainment): A girl with a watering can by Renoir, 1876 Impressionism was a 19th century art movement, which began as a private association of Paris-based artists who exhibited publicly in 1874. ... Plein air is French for outdoors or outside, open air and is a term applied to painting outside, transfer to a picture of all riches of changes of the color caused by influence of a sunlight and the surrounding atmosphere. ...


Realists and Impressionists also defied the placement of still-life and landscape at the bottom of the hierarchy of genres. It is important to note that most Realists and Impressionists and others among the early avant-garde who rebelled against academism were originally students in academic ateliers. Claude Monet, Gustave Courbet, Édouard Manet, and even Henri Matisse were students under academic artists. Art studio A studio is an artists workroom. ... Claude Monet. ... Gustave Courbet (portrait by Nadar). ... Édouard Manet (portrait by Nadar). ... Photo of Henri Matisse taken by Carl Van Vechten, 1933. ...


As modern art and its avant-garde gained more power, academic art was further denigrated, and seen as sentimental, clichéd, conservative, non-innovative, bourgeois, and "styleless". The French referred derisively to the style of academic art as "art pompier" (pompier means fireman) alluding to the paintings of Jacques-Louis David (who was held in esteem by the academy) which often depicted soldiers wearing fireman-like helmets. The paintings were called "grande machines" which were said to have manufactured false emotion through contrivances and tricks. Modern art is a general term used for most of the artistic production from the late 19th century until approximately the 1970s. ... Bourgeois at the end of the thirteenth century. ... Self portrait of Jacques-Louis David (1794). ...


This denigration of academic art reached its peak through the writings of art critic Clement Greenberg who stated that all academic art is "kitsch". References to academic art were gradually removed from histories of art and textbooks by modernists, who justified doing this in the name of cultural revolution. For most of the 20th century, academic art was completely obscured, only brought up rarely, and when brought up, done so for the purpose of ridiculing it and the bourgeois society which supported it, laying a groundwork for the importance of modernism. Clement Greenberg (January 16, 1909 – May 7, 1994) was an influential American art critic who was closely associated with the institutionalization of abstract art in the United States. ... Example of kitsch Kitsch is a German term roughly meaning knock off that has been used to categorize art that is considered an inferior copy of an existing style. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... Bourgeois at the end of the thirteenth century. ...


Other artists, such as the Symbolist painters and some of the Surrealists, were kinder to the tradition. As painters who sought to bring imaginary vistas to life, these artists were more willing to learn from a strongly representational tradition. Once the tradition had come to be looked on as old-fashioned, the allegorical nudes and theatrically posed figures struck some viewers as bizarre and dreamlike. Symbolist painters were part of a 19th century movement in which art became infused with mysticism, and by the closely allied Symbolist movement in literature. ... Kay Sage. ... An allegory (from Greek αλλος, allos, other, and αγορευειν, agoreuein, to speak in public) is a figurative mode of representation conveying a meaning other than and in addition to the literal. ...


With the goals of Postmodernism in giving a fuller, more sociological and pluralistic account of history, academic art has been brought back into history books and discussion, though many postmodern art historians hold a bias against the "bourgeois" nature of the art. Still, the art is gaining a broader appreciation by the public at large, and whereas academic paintings once would only fetch measly hundreds of dollars in auctions, they're now commanding millions. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Bourgeois at the end of the thirteenth century. ...


Major artists

  • Austria
    • Hans Makart painter
    • Hans Canon painter
    • Viktor Tilgner sculptor
  • Spain
    • Mariano Fortuny y Marsal painter
  • Mexico
    • Angel Zarraga painter

William-Adolphe Bouguereau (1825-1905), self-portrait (1886) Dusks, 1863 William Adolphe Bouguereau (November 30, 1825 - August 19, 1905) was a French academic painter. ... Thomas Couture (December 21, 1815 – March 30, 1879) was an influential French history painter and teacher. ... Alexandre Cabanel (September 28, 1823 - January 23, 1889) was a painter born in Montpellier, France. ... Jean-Léon Gérôme (May 11, 1824 - 1904) was a French painter and sculptor who produced many works in a historical, Orientalist style. ... Jean-Paul Laurens (Fourquevaux, (1838–Paris, 1921), was a French academic painter. ... Jean-Jacques Henner (March 5, 1829 - 1905), French painter, was born at Dornach (Alsace). ... The Turkish Patrol (1831) Alexandre-Gabriel Decamps (March 3, 1803–August 22, 1860) was a French painter. ... Hippolyte Delaroche, commonly known as Paul (July 17, 1797 - November 4, 1856), French painter, was born in Paris. ... The Torment of a Vestale, 1848, Oil Paul-Jacques-Aimé Baudry (November 7th 1828, La Roche-sur-Yon (Vende) - January 17th 1886, Paris) was a French painter. ... Louis-Ernest Barrias (April 13, 1841, Paris-February 4, 1905, Paris) was a French sculptor of the Beaux-Arts school. ... Falguières Victor of the Cockfight, book engraving c. ... Gloria Victis by Mercié Marius Jean Antonin Mercié (October 30, 1845 - December 13, 1916), French sculptor and painter, was born in Toulouse. ... Alfred-Pierre Joseph Agache (b. ... Charles Edward Boutibonne (1816-1897) was a French painter of the academic classicism school. ... Flaming June The mermaid, 1858 Frederic Leighton, 1st Baron Leighton (3 December 1830–25 January 1896) was an English painter and sculptor. ... Categories: Artist stubs | 1836 births | 1912 deaths | British painters | Dutch painters ... Albert Joseph Moore (1841-1893), English decorative painter, was born at York on the 4th of September 1841. ... George Frederic Watts, as depicted in a biography available from Project Gutenberg Hope painted in 1885 and given to the nation in 1897 George Frederic Watts (23 February 1817 - 1 July 1904; sometimes spelt George Frederick Watts) was a popular English Victorian painter and sculptor associated with the Symbolist movement. ... Alfred Stevens (January 28, 1818 - May 1, 1875), British sculptor, was born at Blandford in Dorset. ... Sir Alfred Gilbert (August 12, 1854 – November 4, 1934) was an English sculptor and goldsmith who enthusiastically experimented with metallurgical innovations. ... Persephone, by Dante Gabriel Rossetti. ... Hans Makart (May 28, 1840 - October 3, 1884) was a 19th century Austrian academic history painter, designer, and decorator; most well known for his influence on Gustav Klimt and other Austrian artists, but in his own era considered an important artist himself and was a celebrity figure in the high... Franz von Lenbach, Portrait of his daughter Marion Young shepherd, 1860 Franz von Lenbach (December 13, 1836 - May 6, 1904), German painter was born at Schrobenhausen, in Bavaria. ... Alfred Stevens (1828-1906) was a Belgian painter Alfred Stevens (1818-1875) was a British sculptor This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Václav Brožík (5 March 1851 – 15 April 1901) was the greatest Czech academic painter. ... Ary Scheffer (February 10, 1795 _ June 15, 1858), French painter of Dutch extraction, was born at Dordrecht. ... The Kiss by Francesco Hayez Francesco Hayez (1791-1882) was the leading homosexual artist of Romanticism in mid-19th-century Milan, renowned for his great historical paintings, political allegories and exceptionally fine portraits External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Francesco Hayez More information Categories: ‪Artist stubs‬ | ‪1791 births... A Pensive Moment Eugene de Blaas (July 24, 1843 – 1932) was an Italian painter in the school known as Academic Classicism. ... Categories: Stub | 1806 births | 1874 deaths | Swiss painters | Natives of Vaud ...

Books

  • Art and the Academy in the Nineteenth Century. (2000). Denis, Rafael Cordoso & Trodd, Colin (Eds). Rutgers University Press. ISBN 0813527953
  • L'Art-Pompier. (1998). Lécharny, Louis-Marie, Que sais-je?, Presses Universitaires de France. ISBN 2130493416
  • L'Art pompier: immagini, significati, presenze dell'altro Ottocento francese (1860-1890). (1997). Luderin, Pierpaolo, Pocket library of studies in art, Olschki. ISBN 8822245598

External links

Western art movements
Renaissance · Mannerism · Baroque · Rococo · Neoclassicism · Romanticism · Realism · Pre-Raphaelite · Academic · Impressionism · Post-Impressionism
20th century
Modernism · Cubism · Expressionism · Abstract expressionism · Abstract · Neue Künstlervereinigung München · Blauer Reiter · Die Brücke · Dada · Fauvism · Art Nouveau · Plakatstil · Bauhaus · De Stijl · Art Deco · Pop art · Futurism · Suprematism · Surrealism · Minimalism · Post-Modernism · Conceptual art

  Results from FactBites:
 
Academic art - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2480 words)
Academic art is a style of painting and sculpture produced under the influence of European academies or universities.
During the reign of academic art, the paintings of the Rococo era, previously held in low favor, were revived to popularity, and themes often used in Rococo art such as Eros and Psyche were popular again.
Academic art was first criticised for its use of idealism, by Realist artists such as Gustave Courbet, as being based on clichés and representing fantasies and tales of ancient myth while real social concerns were being ignored.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m