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Encyclopedia > Abwehr

The Abwehr was a German intelligence organization from 1921 to 1944. The term Abwehr (German for defence) was used as a concession to Allied demands that Germany's post-World War I intelligence activities be for "defensive" purposes only. After February 4, 1938, its name in title was Overseas Department/Office in Defence of the Armed Forces High Command ("Amt Ausland/Abwehr im Oberkommando der Wehrmacht" in German). Intelligence (abbreviated or ) is the process and the result of gathering information and analyzing it to answer questions or obtain advance warnings needed to plan for the future. ... 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1944 calendar). ... European military alliances in 1914. ... Combatants Allied Powers: British Empire France Italy Russia United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Commanders Ferdinand Foch Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Wilhelm II Paul... February 4 is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Despite its name implying counterespionage, the Abwehr was an intelligence gathering agency; and dealt exclusively with human intelligence (HUMINT), especially raw intelligence reports from field agents and other sources.[1] The Chief of the Abwehr reported directly to the German High Command. Intelligence summaries and intelligence dissemination were the prerogative of the Operations Branch, (as distinct from the Intelligence Branch), of the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht (OKW), and through it to the intelligence-evaluation sections of the Army, Navy, and Airforce ("Heer", "Kriegsmarine", and "Luftwaffe" respectively in German).[2] The Abwehr's Headquarters (HQ.) were located at 76/78 Tirpitzufer, Berlin, adjacent to the offices of the OKW.[3] Espionage operations intended to identify enemy spies. ... HUMINT, short for HUMan INTelligence, is an intelligence gathering discipline collecting information either by interviewing or tracking a subject of investigation, or by using a combination of black techniques to gain confessions or involuntary disclosure of information. ... The command flag for the Chief of the High Command of the German Armed Forces (1938 - 1941) The command flag for a Generalfeldmarschall as the Chief of the High Command of the German Armed Forces (1941 - 1945) The Oberkommando der Wehrmacht or OKW (Wehrmacht High Command, Armed Forces High Command... Berlin is the capital city and one of the sixteen states of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... The command flag for the Chief of the High Command of the German Armed Forces (1938 - 1941) The command flag for a Generalfeldmarschall as the Chief of the High Command of the German Armed Forces (1941 - 1945) The Oberkommando der Wehrmacht or OKW (Wehrmacht High Command, Armed Forces High Command...

Contents

The Abwehr before Canaris

The Abwehr was created in 1921 as part of the Ministry of Defence when Germany was allowed to form the Reichswehr, the military organization of the Weimar Republic. The first head was Major Friedrich Gempp, a former deputy to Col. Walther Nicolai, the head of German intelligence during World War I. At that time it was composed of only three officers and seven former officers plus a clerical staff. By the 1920s it was organized into three sections: The Reichswehr (help· info) (literally National Defense or Imperial Defense) formed the military organization of Germany from 1919 until 1935, when the government rebranded it as the Wehrmacht (Defence Force). ... The armed forces of a state are its government sponsored defense and fighting forces and organizations. ... Anthem: Das Lied der Deutschen The Länder of Germany during the Weimar Republic, with the Free State of Prussia (Freistaat Preußen) as the largest Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1919-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann  - 1933 Adolf Hitler... The 1920s was a decade sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ...

The Reichsmarine intelligence staff merged with the Abwehr in 1928. Mixed reconnaissance patrol of the Polish Home Army and the Soviet Red Army during Operation Tempest, 1944 Reconnaissance is the military term for the active gathering of information about an enemy, or other conditions, by physical observation. ... This article is about algorithms for encryption and decryption. ... Reichsmarine Jack The Reichsmarine was the name of the German Navy during the Weimar Republic. ... 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ...


In the 1930s, with the rise of the Nazi movement, the Ministry of Defence was reorganized; surprisingly, on June 7, 1932, a naval officer, Capt. Konrad Patzig, was named chief of the Abwehr, despite the fact that it was staffed largely by Army officers. But perhaps not surprisingly, due to the small size of the organization and its limited importance at that time, it was unsuitable for a more ambitious Army officer. Another possible factor was that naval officers had more foreign experience than their Army counterparts and understood more of foreign affairs. However, all three services eventually developed their own intelligence staff. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... June 7 is the 158th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (159th in leap years), with 207 days remaining. ... 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will take you to a full 1932 calendar). ...


Because of Abwehr-sponsored reconnaissance flights across the border with Poland, Patzig soon had confrontations with Heinrich Himmler, head of the SS. Army leaders feared that the flights would endanger the secret plans for an attack on Poland. Patzig was fired in January 1935 as a result, and was sent to command the new pocket battleship Admiral Graf Spee; he later became Chief of Naval Personnel. His replacement was another Reichsmarine captain, Wilhelm Canaris. // Reichsführer-SS (RF-SS) (Reich Leader of the SS) in the NSDAP (1929-1945) Reichs- und Preussischer Minister des Innern (Reich & Prussian Minister of the Interior) of Germany (August 1943-1945) Chef der Deutschen Polizei (ChdDtP) (Chief of German police) (June 1936-1945) (Chief of Army Equipment and Commander... The double-Sig Rune SS insignia. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Pocket battleship is an English language term for a class of warships built by German Reichsmarine in accordance with restrictions imposed by the Treaty of Versailles. ... Admiral Graf Spee was a Deutschland class heavy cruiser which served with the Kriegsmarine of Germany during World War II. Originally classified as an armored ship (Panzerschiff), she was later reclassified as a heavy cruiser, and was referred to as a pocket battleship by the British. ... Wilhelm Canaris Wilhelm Franz Canaris (January 1, 1887 – April 9, 1945) was a German admiral and head of the Abwehr, the German military intelligence service, from 1935 to 1944. ...


The Abwehr under Canaris

Before the War

Before he took over the Abwehr on 1 January, 1935, the soon-to-be Admiral Canaris was warned by Patzig of attempts by Himmler and Reinhard Heydrich to take over all German intelligence organs. Canaris, a master of backroom dealings which were so much a part of life, thought he knew how to deal with them. But even while he tried to maintain an at-least cordial relationship with them, the antagonism between the Abwehr and the SS did not stop with Canaris at the helm. Image File history File links Wilhelm Canaris. ... Image File history File links Wilhelm Canaris. ... Wilhelm Canaris Wilhelm Franz Canaris (January 1, 1887 – April 9, 1945) was a German admiral and head of the Abwehr, the German military intelligence service, from 1935 to 1944. ... Reinhard Heydrich as SS-Gruppenführer. ...


It came to a head in 1937 when Adolf Hitler decided to help Josef Stalin in the latter's purge against the Soviet military. Hitler ordered that the German Army staff should be kept in the dark about Stalin's intentions, for fear that they would warn their Soviet counterparts. Accordingly, special SS teams, accompanied by burglary experts from the criminal police, broke into the secret files of the General Staff and the Abwehr and removed documents related to German-Soviet collaboration. To conceal the thefts, fires were started at the break-ins, which included Abwehr headquarters. 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Hitler redirects here. ... (Russian, in full: Ио́сиф Виссарио́нович Ста́лин [Iosif Vissarionovich Stalin]; December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953) was the leader of the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s to his death in 1953 and General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1922-1953... The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (in Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya), the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ...


1938 reorganisation

Canaris reorganized the agency in 1938, with the Abwehr being subdivided into three main sections: 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ...

  • The Central Division, (also called Department Z - "Abteilung Z" or "die Zentrale" in German), acted as the controlling brain for the other two sections, as well as handling personnel and financial matters, including the payment of agents. Throughout Canaris's tenure it was headed by Generalmajor Hans Oster.
  • The Foreign Branch, ("Amtsgruppe Ausland" in German) (later known as Foreign Intelligence Group) was the second subdivision of the Abwehr and had several functions:
  1. liaison with the OKW and the general staffs of the services,
  2. coordination with the German Foreign Ministry on military matters, and
  3. evaluation of captured documents and evaluation of foreign press and radio broadcasts. This liaison with the OKW meant that the Foreign Branch was the appropriate channel to request Abwehr support for a particular mission.
  • Abwehr I. II. & III. constituted the third division and was labeled "counter-intelligence branches" but in reality focused on intelligence gathering. It was subdivided into the following areas and responsibilities:
  • I. Foreign Intelligence Collection (further subdivided by letter eg. I-Ht)
G - false documents, photos, inks, passports, chemicals
H West - army west (Anglo-American Army intelligence)
H Ost - army east (Soviet Army intelligence)
Ht - technical army intelligence
i - communications- design of wireless sets, wireless operators
L - air intelligence
M - naval intelligence
T/lw - technical air intelligence
Wi - economic intelligence
Attached to Abwehr I. was Gruppe I-T for technical intelligence.
  • II. Sabotage - tasked with directing covert contact / exploitation of discontented minority groups in foreign countries for intelligence purposes.
Attached to Abwehr II. was Brandenburg Regiment, an offshoot of Gruppe II-T (Technical Intelligence), and unconnected to any other branch outside of Abwehr II. Gruppe II-T.[4]
  • III. Counter-intelligence division- responsible for counter-intelligence operations in German industry, planting false information, penetration of foreign intelligence services and investigating acts of sabotage on German soil. Attached to Abwehr III. were:
IIIC - Civilian Authority bureau
IIIC-2 - Espionage cases bureau
IIID - Disinformation bureau
IIIF - Counter espionage agents bureau
IIIN - Postal bureau

Abwehr liaisons were also established with the Army, Navy and Luftwaffe High Commands, and these liaisons would pass on specific intelligence requests to the operational sections of the Abwehr. Hans Oster (August 9, 1887 – April 9, 1945) was a career officer in the Wehrmacht and a dedicated opponent of Adolf Hitler and Nazism. ... Sabotage is a deliberate action aimed at weakening an enemy through subversion, obstruction, disruption, and/or destruction. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Brandenburger Regiment. ... Counter Intelligence A uk label started and owned by John Machielsen. ...


Ast / Abwehrstelle

Under the structure outlined above, Abwehr placed a local station in each military district in Germany, ("Wehrkreis"), called 'Abwehrstelle' or 'Ast'. Following the German Table of Organisation and Equipment[5] model of Abwehr headquarters, each Ast was usually subdivided into sections for

espionage ( I ),
sabotage ( II ), and
counter-intelligence ( III ).

Typically each Ast would be commanded by a senior Army or Naval officer and would be answerable to Abwehr HQ. in Berlin. Operations carried out by each Ast would be in tandem with the overall strategic plan formulated by Admiral Canaris. Canaris in turn would receive instructions on what intelligence gathering should take priority from the OKW or, increasingly after 1941, the Führer Adolf Hitler, directly. In practise however, each Ast was given considerable latitude in mission planning & execution- a facet of the organisation which ultimately damaged its intelligence gathering capability.   (Fuehrer when an umlaut is not used) is a proper noun meaning leader or guide in the German language. ... Hitler redirects here. ...


Each local Ast could recruit potential agents for missions and the Abwehr also employed freelance recruiters to groom and vet potential agents. In most cases, the agents who formed the Abwehr were recruited civilians, not officers/soldiers from the military. The recruitment emphasis seems to have been very much on quantity not quality. The poor quality of recruits often lead to the failure of Abwehr missions.

  • Abwehr I was commanded by Colonel Hans Pieckenbrock. Abwehr II was commanded by Colonel Erwin von Lahousen and Abwehr III was commanded by Colonel Egbert Bentivegni.

Abwehr operational structure in Neutral countries

In neutral countries the Abwehr frequently disguised its organisation by attaching its personnel to the German Embassy or to trade missions. Such postings were referred to as "War Organisations" ("Kriegsorganisationen" or "KO's" in German). In neutral but friendly Spain for example, the Abwehr had both an Ast and a KO, whilst Ireland had neither. In friendly countries of interest, occupied countries, or in Germany itself, the intelligence service would normally organise "Abwehr sub-stations" ("Abwehrleitstellen" in German or "Alsts" in German), or "Abwehr adjoining posts" ("Abwehrnebenstellen"' in German' ). The "Alsts" would fall under the jurisdiction of the geographically appropriate Ast, which in turn would be supervised by the Central division in Berlin.


Canaris and Die Schwarze Kapelle

During his reorganisaton, Canaris took care to surround himself with a hand-picked staff, notably his second-in-command, Hans Oster and Erwin von Lahousen, Section II Chief. All but one were not members of the Nazi party. The exception was Rudolf Bamler, who was appointed as chief of Section III by Canaris to gain the trust of Himmler. Canaris did make sure to keep Bamler on a short leash however, and restricted his access to operational information. Canaris had good reason to do this because unknown to the High Command and Hitler, during his reorganisation Canaris had peppered the chief operational and administrative staff of the Abwehr with men more loyal to him than to the Nazi Government. While outwardly Canaris appeared to be the model of intelligence-gathering efficiency, evidence exists that he secretly opposed, and actively worked against the wishes of his Commander in Chief. Canaris, Oster and the Chiefs of Abwehr sections I.,II., and III. were all heavily involved in what the Security Police Sicherheitsdienst were to later dub "The Black Orchestra" ("Die Schwarze Kapelle" in German), a plot to overthrow the Nazi regime from the inside.[6] Canaris's operational decisions, his choice of appointments and their decisions, and crucially for the Third Reich- the input each plotter had into Abwehr operations, are all tainted by these secret dealings. General Erwin Lahousen testifying against Hermann Göring and 21 other Nazi defendants at the Nuremberg war crimes trial in 1946. ... Sicherheitsdienst (SD) sleeve insignia. ... The Schwarze Kapelle (Black Orchestra) was a group of conspirators within the German military who plotted to overthrow Adolf Hitler. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...


The Abwehr During World War II

Under Canaris the Abwehr expanded and proved relatively efficient during the early years of the war. Its most notable success was Operation Nordpol, which was an operation against the Dutch underground network, which at the time was supported by the British Special Operations Executive. In March 1941, the Germans forced a captured SOE radio operator to transmit messages to Britain in a code that the Germans had obtained. Even though the operator gave every indication that he was compromised, the receiver in Britain did not notice this. Thus the Germans had been able to penetrate the Dutch operation and maintained this state of affairs for two years, capturing agents that were sent and sending false intelligence and sabotage reports until the British caught on. An enormous deception operation by the Germans in World War Two. ... The Special Operations Executive (SOE), sometimes referred to as the Baker Street Irregulars after Sherlock Holmess fictional group of spies, was a World War II organization initiated by Winston Churchill and Hugh Dalton in July 1940 as a mechanism for conducting warfare by means other than direct military engagement. ... This article is about the year. ... Sabotage is a deliberate action aimed at weakening an enemy through subversion, obstruction, disruption, and/or destruction. ...


But it was ineffective overall for several reasons. Much of its intelligence was deemed politically unacceptable to the German leadership. Moreover, it was in direct competition/conflict with SS intelligence activities under Reinhard Heydrich and Walter Schellenberg. The animosity between the SS and Abwehr did not stop there. Many of the Abwehr's operatives — including Canaris himself — were in fact anti-Nazi and were involved in many assassination attempts against Hitler, including the most serious one on July 20, 1944. Canaris even employed Jews in the Abwehr and used the agency to help a small number of Jews to escape from Germany into Switzerland. But perhaps the biggest reason was that Canaris himself sought to undermine the Nazi cause. Correctly: Walther Schellenberg, full name Walther Friedrich Schellenberg (January 16, 1910 - March 31, 1952) was a German Nazi and second-in-command of the Gestapo. ... Claus von Stauffenberg The July 20 Plot was a failed coup détat and attempt to assassinate Adolf Hitler. ...


Despite the Abwehr's many intelligence coups, its effectiveness was more than negated by agents who — with Canaris's blessing — aided the Allies in whatever covert means were necessary. He personally gave false information which discouraged Hitler from invading Switzerland. He also persuaded Francisco Franco not to allow German forces to pass through Spain to invade Gibraltar. He even provided intelligence to the Allies on German intentions as well. Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde Salgado Pardo (4 December 1892 – 20 November or possibly 19 November[1] 1975), abbreviated “Francisco Franco y Bahamonde” and commonly known as “Generalísimo Francisco Franco” (pron. ...


The SS continually undermined the Abwehr by putting several Abwehr officers under investigation, believing them (correctly) to be involved in anti-Hitler plots. The SS also accused Canaris of being defeatist in his intelligence assessments, especially on the Russian campaign. One such briefing reportedly resulting in Hitler seizing Canaris by the lapels, and demanding to know whether the intelligence chief was insinuating that Germany would lose the war.

  • Abwehrstelle Ostland
    • Abwehrnebenstelle Reval
      • Abwehrkommando 166 M
      • "Oran"
      • Referat Luft
      • Referat Marine

View of Oran Oran (population 700,000) (Arabic: , Wahran) is a city in northwest Algeria, situated on the Mediterranean Sea coast. ...

The Frau Solf Tea Party and the End of the Abwehr

Main article: Frau Solf Tea Party
Main article: Erich Vermehren

The incident which eventually resulted in the dissolution of the Abwehr came to be known as the "Frau Solf Tea Party", which took place on September 10, 1943. The Frau Solf Tea Party (September 10, 1943) , as it came to be known in Nazi circles, was a gathering of anti-Nazi intellectuals which ultimately resulted in the demise of the Abwehr in February the following year. ... Erich Vermehren (December 23, 1919 - April 28, 2005) was a German agent of the Abwehr whose well-publicized defection to the British in early 1944 directly led to the abolishment of the Abwehr. ... The Frau Solf Tea Party (September 10, 1943) , as it came to be known in Nazi circles, was a gathering of anti-Nazi intellectuals which ultimately resulted in the demise of the Abwehr in February the following year. ... September 10 is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years). ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ...


Frau Johanna (or Hanna) Solf, the widow of Dr. Wilhelm Solf, a former Colonial Minister under Kaiser Wilhelm II and ex-Ambassador to Japan, had long been involved in the anti-Nazi intellectual movement in Berlin. At a tea party hosted by her, a new member was included in the circle, an attractive young Swiss doctor named Reckse. It turned out that Dr. Reckse was an agent of the Gestapo, to which he reported on the tea party and turned over several incriminating documents. Wilhelm Solf was a German Governor of Samoa in the early 20th century. ... Wilhelm II of Prussia and Germany, Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert von Hohenzollern (January 27, 1859 - June 4, 1941) was the last German Emperor (Kaiser) and the last King (König) of Prussia from 1888 - 1918. ... An ambassador, rarely embassador, is a diplomatic official accredited to a foreign sovereign or government, or to an international organization, to serve as the official representative of his or her own country. ... The Deaths Head emblem similar to skull and crossbones, often used as the insignia of the Gestapo The   (contraction of Geheime Staatspolizei; Secret State Police) was the official secret police of Nazi Germany. ...


The Solf circle was tipped off and had to flee for their lives, but they were all rounded up on January 12, 1944. Eventually everyone who was involved in the Solf Circle except Frau Solf and her daughter, the Countess Lagi Gräfin von Ballestrem, were executed. January 12 is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1944 calendar). ...


One of those executed was Otto Kiep, an official in the Foreign Office, who had friends in the Abwehr, among whom were Erich Vermehren and his wife, the former Countess Elizabeth von Plettenberg, who were stationed as agents in Istanbul. Both were summoned to Berlin by the Gestapo in connection with the Kiep case. Fearing for their lives, they contacted the British and defected. Erich Vermehren (December 23, 1919 - April 28, 2005) was a German agent of the Abwehr whose well-publicized defection to the British in early 1944 directly led to the abolishment of the Abwehr. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: Konstandinúpoli, historically known in English as Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and economic center. ...


It was mistakenly believed in Berlin that the Vermehrens absconded with the Abwehr's secret codes and turned them over to the British. That proved to be the last straw for Hitler. Despite the efforts of the Abwehr to shift the blame to the SS or even to the Foreign Ministry, Hitler had had enough of Canaris and he told Himmler so twice. He summoned the chief of the Abwehr for a final interview and accused him of allowing the Abwehr to "fall into bits". Canaris quietly agreed that it was "not surprising", as Germany was already losing the war. // Reichsführer-SS (RF-SS) (Reich Leader of the SS) in the NSDAP (1929-1945) Reichs- und Preussischer Minister des Innern (Reich & Prussian Minister of the Interior) of Germany (August 1943-1945) Chef der Deutschen Polizei (ChdDtP) (Chief of German police) (June 1936-1945) (Chief of Army Equipment and Commander...


Hitler fired Canaris on the spot, and on February 18, 1944, Hitler signed a decree that abolished the Abwehr. Its functions were taken over by the RSHA. This action deprived the armed forces (and the anti-Nazi conspirators) of an intelligence service of its own and strengthened Himmler's control over the generals. February 18 is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1944 calendar). ... Reinhard Heydrich - the first director of RSHA The RSHA, or Reichssicherheitshauptamt (Reich Security Main Office), was a subordinate organization of the SS created by Heinrich Himmler on September 22, 1939, through the merger of the Sicherheitsdienst (SD, or Security Agency), the Gestapo (Secret State Police) and the Kriminalpolizei (Criminal Police). ...


Canaris, by this time a vice admiral, was cashiered and given the empty position of chief of the Office of Commercial and Economic Warfare. He was arrested on July 23, 1944 in the aftermath of the July 20 Plot against Hitler and executed shortly before the end of the war, along with Oster his deputy. The functions of the Abwehr were then totally absorbed by the Sicherheitsdienst, a sub-office of the Schutzstaffel (SS) security command, the RSHA. Vice Admiral is a naval rank of three star level, equivalent to Lieutenant General in seniority. ... July 23 is the 204th day (205th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 161 days remaining. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1944 calendar). ... Claus von Stauffenberg The July 20 Plot was a failed coup détat and attempt to assassinate Adolf Hitler. ... Sicherheitsdienst (SD) sleeve insignia. ... The double-Sig Rune SS insignia. ... Reinhard Heydrich - the first director of RSHA The RSHA, or Reichssicherheitshauptamt (Reich Security Main Office), was a subordinate organization of the SS created by Heinrich Himmler on September 22, 1939, through the merger of the Sicherheitsdienst (SD, or Security Agency), the Gestapo (Secret State Police) and the Kriminalpolizei (Criminal Police). ...


Chiefs of the Abwehr

1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Major General Ferdinand von Bredow (b. ... 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will take you to a full 1932 calendar). ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Wilhelm Canaris Wilhelm Franz Canaris (January 1, 1887 – April 9, 1945) was a German admiral and head of the Abwehr, the German military intelligence service, from 1935 to 1944. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1944 calendar). ...

See also

Hans Oster (August 9, 1887 – April 9, 1945) was a career officer in the Wehrmacht and a dedicated opponent of Adolf Hitler and Nazism. ... General Erwin Lahousen testifying against Hermann Göring and 21 other Nazi defendants at the Nuremberg war crimes trial in 1946. ... Dietrich Bonhoeffer Dietrich Bonhoeffer (February 4, 1906 – April 9, 1945) was a German Lutheran pastor, theologian and participant in the German resistance movement against Nazism. ... Oskar Schindler (April 28, 1908 – October 9, 1974) was a Sudeten German industrialist who saved his Jewish workers from the Holocaust. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ HUMINT as opposed to SIGINT, ELINT, COMINT, and IMINT.
  2. ^ When Hitler replaced the Ministry of War with the OKW, the Abwehr became its intelligence agency, although with some degree of independence therefrom. OKW did not establish an Intelligence Branch in its Operations Staff until 1943, and when it did, it only consisted of three officers.
  3. ^ Despite the location of its HQ, in reality the power lay in the field via the "Abwehrstelle" or "Ast" of the Abwehr- see section titled 1938 reorganisation.
  4. ^ Sometimes referred to as the 'Brandenburgers' of 'Brandenburger Regiment', the Brandenburg Regiment was a special-duty force similar to the British Commandos. Formed as a Company on 15 October 1939 under Cpt. Theodor von Hippel, by early 1940 it had expanded to a battalion under Major Hubertus Kewisch. By October 1940 it was a Brigade, and by December 1942, a division.
  5. ^ TO&E being the exact listing of what was deemed necessary for any German military unit to be at full operational strength. One exception to this TO&E directive existed in Hamburg which had no permanent Abwehr II presence.
  6. ^ The Black Orchestra being distinct from "The Red Orchestra" ("Die Rote Kapelle" in German)- a largely communist organised plot to overthrow the Nazi Regime from the inside. See Penguin Dictionary of the Third Reich, London, 1997 for a listing of Abwehr officers involved in both.

SIGINT stands for SIGnals INTelligence, which is intelligence-gathering by interception of signals, whether by radio interception or other means. ... ELINT stands for ELectronic INTelligence, and refers to intelligence-gathering by use of electronic sensors. ... SIGINT stands for SIGnals INTelligence, which is intelligence-gathering by interception of signals, whether by radio interception or other means. ... IMINT, short for IMagery INTelligence, is an intelligence gathering discipline which collects information via satellite and aerial photography. ... This articles deals with the British ministry, see defence minister for other countries. ... Look up company in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Hauptmann (Captain) Theodor von Hippel, was the German army and intelligence officer responsible for the formation and training of the Brandenburgers commando unit. ... In military science a brigade is a military unit that is part of a division and includes regiments (where that level exists), or (in modern armies) is composed of several battalions (typically two to four) and directly attached supporting units. ... Die Rote Kapelle (the Red Orchestra) was the name given by the Gestapo to two Communist resistance rings in Nazi-occupied Europe during World War II. The Gestapo used the name Red Orchestra to refer to the Schulze-Boysen / Harnack group, an anti-Hitler resistance movement in Germany with international...

Further Information

  • German Espionage and Sabotage Against the USA in WW2 at ibiblio.org. Includes details on structure of Abwehr.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Britain.tv Wikipedia - Abwehr (2576 words)
The Abwehr was created in 1921 as part of the Ministry of Defence when Germany was allowed to form the Reichswehr, the military organization of the Weimar Republic.
Abwehr liaisons were also established with the Army, Navy and Luftwaffe High Commands, and these liaisons would pass on specific intelligence requests to the operational sections of the Abwehr.
Abwehr II was commanded by Colonel Erwin von Lahousen and Abwehr III was commanded by Colonel Egbert Bentivegni.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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