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Encyclopedia > Abu Simbel
Nubian Monuments from Abu Simbel to Philae*
UNESCO World Heritage Site
State Party Flag of Egypt Egypt
Type Cultural
Criteria i, iii, vi
Reference 88
Region Arab States
Inscription History
Inscription 1979  (3rd Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
† Region as classified by UNESCO.

Abu Simbel (Arabic أبو سنبل or أبو سمبل) is an archaeological site comprising two massive rock temples in southern Egypt on the western bank of Lake Nasser about 290 km southwest of Aswan. It is part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site known as the "Nubian Monuments" [1], which run from Abu Simbel downriver to Philae (near Aswan). Philae (or Pilak or Paaleq [Egyptian: remote place or the end or the angle island]; [Arabic: Anas el Wagud]) is an island in the Nile River and the previous site of an Ancient Egyptian temple complex in southern Egypt. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3264 × 2448 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3264 × 2448 pixel, file size: 1. ... As of 2006, there are a total of 830 World Heritage Sites located in 138 State Parties. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Egypt. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Arab world. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... An archaeological site is a place (or group of physical sites) in which evidence of past activity is preserved (either prehistoric or historic or contemporary), and which has been investigated using the discipline of archaeology. ... Temple of Hephaestus, an Doric Greek temple in Athens with the original entrance facing east, 449 BC (western face depicted) For other uses, see Temple (disambiguation). ... View of Lake Nasser from Abu Simbel Map showing the location of Lake Nasser Lake Nasser (Arabic: Buhayrat Nasir) is a vast artificial lake in southern Egypt and northern Sudan. ... Egypt: Site of Aswan (bottom). ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Philae (or Pilak or Paaleq [Egyptian: remote place or the end or the angle island]; [Arabic: Anas el Wagud]) is an island in the Nile River and the previous site of an Ancient Egyptian temple complex in southern Egypt. ...


The twin temples were originally carved out of the mountainside during the reign of Pharaoh Ramesses II in the 13th century BC, as a lasting monument to himself and his queen Nefertari, to commemorate his alleged victory at the Battle of Kadesh, and to intimidate his Nubian neighbors. However, the complex was relocated in its entirety in the 1960s, on an artificial hill made from a domed structure, high above the Aswan dam reservoir. Pharaoh was the ancient Egyptian name for the office of kingship. ... Usermaatre-setepenre The Justice of Re is Powerful, Chosen of Re Nomen Ramesses (meryamun) Born of Re, (Beloved of Amun) Horus name [2] Kanakht Merymaa Golden Horus [2] Userrenput-aanehktu[1] Consort(s) Henutmire, Isetnofret, Nefertari Maathorneferure Issue Bintanath, Khaemweset, Merneptah, Amun-her-khepsef, Meritamen see also: List of children... A picture of Nefertari taken in her Abu Simbel temple. ... . This article or section seems to contain too many examples (or of a poor quality) for an encyclopedia entry. ... Nubia (not to be confused with Nuba a collective term used for the peoples who inhabit the Nuba Mountains, in Kordofan province, Sudan, Africa) is the region in the south of Egypt, along the Nile and in northern Sudan. ... A structure relocation is the process of moving a structure from one location to another. ... Map showing reservoir The hydroelectric power station of Aswan Dam Aswan is a city on the first cataract of the Nile in Egypt. ...


The relocation of the temples was necessary to avoid being submerged during the creation of Lake Nasser, the massive artificial water reservoir formed after the building of the Aswan dam on the Nile River. Abu Simbel remains one of Egypt's top tourist attractions. View of Lake Nasser from Abu Simbel Map showing the location of Lake Nasser Lake Nasser (Arabic: Buhayrat Nasir) is a vast artificial lake in southern Egypt and northern Sudan. ... Map showing reservoir The hydroelectric power station of Aswan Dam Aswan is a city on the first cataract of the Nile in Egypt. ... The Nile (Arabic: , transliteration: , Ancient Egyptian iteru, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing river in Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Contents

History

Construction

Construction of the temple complex started in approximately 1284 BC and lasted for circa 20 years, until 1264 BC. Known as the "Temple of Ramesses, beloved by Amun", it was one of six rock temples erected in Nubia during the long reign of Ramesses. Their purpose was to impress Egypt's southern neighbours, and also to reinforce the status of Egyptian religion in the region. Amun (also spelled Amon, Amoun, Amen, and rarely Imen, Greek Ἄμμων Ammon, and Ἅμμων Hammon, Egyptian Yamanu) was the name of a deity, in Egyptian mythology, who gradually rose to become one of the most important deities in Ancient Egypt, before fading into obscurity. ...


Rediscovery

With the passing of time, the temples became covered by sand. Already in the 6th century BC, the sand covered the statues of the main temple up to their knees. The temple was forgotten until 1813, when Swiss orientalist JL Burckhardt found the top frieze of the main temple. Burckhardt talked about his discovery with Italian explorer Giovanni Belzoni, who travelled to the site, but was unable to dig out an entry to the temple. Belzoni returned in 1817, this time succeeding in his attempt to enter the complex. He took everything valuable and portable with him. Tour guides at the site relate the legend that "Abu Simbel" was a young local boy who guided these early re-discoverers to the site of the buried temple which he had seen from time to time in the shifting sands. Eventually, they named the complex after him: Abu Simbel. Johann Ludwig Burckhardt Johann Ludwig (a. ... Frieze of the Tower of the Winds. ... Giovanni Battista Belzoni, from Narrative of the Operations and Recent Discoveries Within the Pyramids, Temples, Tombs and Excavations in Egypt and Nubia by Giovanni Battista Belzoni,London, 1820. ...


Relocation

In 1959 an international donations campaign to save the monuments of Nubia began: the southernmost relics of this ancient human civilization were under threat from the rising waters of the Nile that were about to result from the construction of the Aswan High Dam. The Taj Mahal, commissioned by the Muslim Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan, as a mausoleum for his wife, Arjumand Banu Begum. ... Nubia (not to be confused with Nuba a collective term used for the peoples who inhabit the Nuba Mountains, in Kordofan province, Sudan, Africa) is the region in the south of Egypt, along the Nile and in northern Sudan. ... Map of Egypt showing the location of Aswan and Lake Nasser. ...


The salvage of the Abu Simbel temples began in 1964, and cost some USD $40 million. Between 1964 and 1968, the entire site was cut into large blocks, dismantled and reassembled in a new location – 65 m higher and 200 m back from the river, in what many consider one of the greatest feats of archaeological engineering. Today, thousands of tourists visit the temples daily. Guarded convoys of buses and cars depart twice a day from Aswan, the nearest city. Many visitors also arrive by plane, at an airfield that was specially constructed for the temple complex. ISO 4217 Code USD User(s) the United States, the British Indian Ocean Territory,[1] the British Virgin Islands, East Timor, Ecuador, El Salvador, the Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Palau, Panama, Turks and Caicos Islands, and the insular areas of the United States Inflation 2. ...


Temples

The complex consists of two temples. The larger one is dedicated to Ra-Harakhty, Ptah and Amun, Egypt's three state deities of the time, and features four large statues of Ramesses II in the facade. The smaller temple is dedicated to the goddess Hathor, personified by Nefertari, Ramesses's most beloved wife (in total, the pharaoh had some 200 wives and concubines).[citation needed] For other uses, see Ra (disambiguation). ... Ptah also refers to the asteroid 5011 Ptah Ptah In Egyptian mythology, Ptah (also spelt Peteh) was the deification of the primordial mound in the Ennead cosmogony, which was more literally referred to as Ta-tenen (also spelt Tathenen), meaning risen land, or as Tanen, meaning submerged land. ... Amun (also spelled Amon, Amoun, Amen, and rarely Imen, Greek Ἄμμων Ammon, and Ἅμμων Hammon, Egyptian Yamanu) was the name of a deity, in Egyptian mythology, who gradually rose to become one of the most important deities in Ancient Egypt, before fading into obscurity. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A picture of Nefertari taken in her Abu Simbel temple. ...


The Greater Temple

Close-up of one of the colossal statues of Ramesses II, wearing the double crown of Lower and Upper Egypt.
Close-up of one of the colossal statues of Ramesses II, wearing the double crown of Lower and Upper Egypt.

The Great Temple at Abu Simbel, which took about twenty years to build was completed around year 24 of the reign of Ramesses the Great (which corresponds to 1265 BC). It was dedicated to the gods Amun Ra, Ra Harakhti, and Ptah, as well as to the deified Ramesses himself.[1] It is generally considered the grandest and most beautiful of the temples commissioned during the reign of Ramesses II, and one of the most beautiful in Egypt. Image File history File links RamsesIIEgypt. ... Image File history File links RamsesIIEgypt. ... Map of Upper and Lower Egypt Ancient Egypt was divided into two kingdoms, known as Upper and Lower Egypt. ... Amun (also spelt Amon, Amoun, Amen, and rarely Imenand, and spelt in Greek as Ammon, and Hammon) was the name of a deity, in Egyptian mythology, who gradually rose to become one of the most important, before disappearing back into the shadows. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Ptah also refers to the asteroid 5011 Ptah Ptah In Egyptian mythology, Ptah (also spelt Peteh) was the deification of the primordial mound in the Ennead cosmogony, which was more literally referred to as Ta-tenen (also spelt Tathenen), meaning risen land, or as Tanen, meaning submerged land. ...


Four colossal 20 meter statues of the pharaoh with the double crown of Upper and Lower Egypt decorate the facade of the temple which is 35 meters wide and is topped by a frieze with 22 baboons, worshippers of the sun and flank the entrance.[2] The colossal statues were sculptured directly from the rock in which the temple was located before it was moved. All statues represent Ramesses II, seated on a throne and wearing the double crown of Upper and Lower Egypt. The statue to the left of the entrance was damaged in an earthquake, leaving only the lower part of the statue still intact. The head and torso can still be seen at the statue's feet. The Pschent was the name of the double crown in Ancient Egypt, combining the Red Crown of Lower Egypt and the White Crown of Upper Egypt. ... Map of Lower and Upper Egypt Ancient Egypt was divided into two kingdoms, known as Upper and Lower Egypt. ...


Next to the legs of the colossi, there are other statues no higher than the knees of the pharaoh.[1] These depict Nefertari, Ramesses's chief wife and queen mother Mut-Tuy, his first two sons Amun-her-khepeshef, Ramesses, and his first six daughters Bintanath, Baketmut, Nefertari, Meritamen, Nebettawy and Isetnofret. A picture of Nefertari taken in her Abu Simbel temple. ... Queen Tuya was the wife of Seti I of Egypt and mother of Ramesses II. References Grajetkzi, Wolfram (2005) Ancient Egyptian Queens – a hieroglyphic dictionary Categories: | | | ... Amun-her-khepeshef or Amun-her-wenemef (13th century BCE) was the firstborn son of Pharaoh Ramesses the Great and Queen Nefertari. ... Ramesses B was the second oldest son of Pharaoh Ramesses II and Queen Isetnofret A and is listed as number two in the list of procession of Ramesses sons. ... Bintanath (or Bentanath) was the firstborn daughter and Great Royal Wife of the Egyptian Pharaoh, Ramesses II. She was born possibly when her father was still a co-regent with his father, Sethi I. Her mother was Isetnofret, one of the two most prominent wives of Ramesses. ... Meritamen (also spelled Meritamun, Merytamen, Meryt-Amen; Ancient Egyptian: Beloved of Amun) was a daughter and later Great Royal Wife of Pharaoh Ramesses the Great. ... Nebettawy (“Lady of the Two Lands”) was an Ancient Egyptian princess and queen, the fifth daughter and one of the eight Great Royal Wives of Pharaoh Ramesses II. Nebettawy may have been the daughter of Ramesses most beloved wife, Nefertari, but this is by no means certain. ... Isetnofret (or Isis-nofret) (Ancient Egyptian: the beautiful Isis) was one of the Great Royal Wives of Pharaoh Ramesses II and was the mother of his heir, Merneptah. ...


The entrance itself is crowned by a bas-relief representing two images of the king worshiping the falcon-headed Ra Harakhti, whose statue stands in a large niche.[1] This god is holding the hieroglyph user in his right hand and a feather while Ma'at, the goddess of truth and justice) in on his left; this is nothing less than a gigantic cryptogram for Ramesses II's throne name, User-Maat-Re. The facade is topped by a row of 22 baboons, their arms raised in the air, supposedly worshipping the rising sun. Another notable feature of the facade is a stele which records the marriage of Ramesses with a daughter of king Hattusili III, which sealed the peace between Egypt and the Hittites. Falcons eat humans. ... The goddess Maat Maat, reconstructed to have been pronounced as * (Muh-aht),[1] was the Ancient Egyptian concept of order—law, morality, and justice[2] which was deified as a goddess. ... The Fivefold Titulary of an Egyptian Pharaoh is the standard naming convention taken by the kings of Ancient Egypt. ... For other uses, see Baboon (disambiguation). ... Stele is also a concept in plant biology. ... Hattusili III was a king of the Hittite empire (New kingdom) 1265 BC–1235 BC. He was the commander of Hittite forces in 1274 BC that defeated an Egyptian campign into Syria in the famous Battle of Kadesh. ... Hittites is the conventional English-language term for an ancient people who spoke an Indo-European language and established a kingdom centered in Hattusa (the modern village of Boğazköy in todayss north-central Turkey), through most of the second millennium BC. The Hittite kingdom, which at...

The collapsed colossus of the Great Temple supposedly fell during an earthquake shortly after its construction, when moving the temple the decided to leave it as the face is missing.
The collapsed colossus of the Great Temple supposedly fell during an earthquake shortly after its construction, when moving the temple the decided to leave it as the face is missing.
One of the eight pillars in the main hall of the temple, showing Ramesses II as Osiris.
One of the eight pillars in the main hall of the temple, showing Ramesses II as Osiris.

The inner part of the temple has the same triangular layout that most ancient Egyptian temples follow, with rooms decreasing in size from the entrance to the sanctuary. The temple is complex in structure and quite unusual because of its many side chambers. The hypostyle hall (sometimes also called pronaos) is 18 meters long and 16,7 meters wide and is supported by eight huge Osirid pillars depicting the deified Ramesses linked to the god Osiris, the god of the Underworld, to indicate the everlasting nature of the pharaoh. The colossal statues along the left-hand wall bear the white crown of Upper Egypt, while those on the opposite side are wearing the double crown of Upper and Lower Egypt(pschent).[1] The bas-reliefs on the walls of the pronaos depict battle scenes in the military campaigns the ruler waged. Much of the sculpture is given to the Battle of Kadesh, on the Orontes river in present-day Syria, in which the Egyptian king fought against the Hittites.[2] The most famous relief shows the king on his chariot shooting arrows against his fleeing enemies, who are being taken prisoner.[2] Other scenes show Egyptian victories in Libya and Nubia.[1] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3264 × 2448 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3264 × 2448 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (828x1280, 355 KB) A statue of Ramesses II in the main corridor of his temple in Abu Simbel, Egypt Photo: Przemyslaw Blueshade Idzkiewicz. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (828x1280, 355 KB) A statue of Ramesses II in the main corridor of his temple in Abu Simbel, Egypt Photo: Przemyslaw Blueshade Idzkiewicz. ... For other uses, see Osiris (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Osiris (disambiguation). ... Map of Upper and Lower Egypt Ancient Egypt was divided into two kingdoms, known as Upper and Lower Egypt. ... Map of Lower and Upper Egypt Lower Egypt is the northern-most section of Egypt. ... . This article or section seems to contain too many examples (or of a poor quality) for an encyclopedia entry. ... Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people from Kaneš who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite...


From the hypostyle hall, one enters the second pillared hall, which has four pillars decorated with beautiful scenes of offerings to the gods. There are depictions of Ramesses and Nefertari with the sacred boats of Amun and Ra-Harakhti. This hall gives access to a transverse vestibule in the middle of which is the entrance to the sanctuary. Here, on a black wall, are rock cut sculptures of four seated figures: Ra Harakhti, the deified king Ramesses, and the gods Amun Ra and Ptah. Ra Harakhti, Amun Ra and Ptah were the main divinities in that period and their cult centers were at Heliopolis, Thebes and Memphis respectively.[1] Amun (also spelt Amon, Amoun, Amen, and rarely Imenand, and spelt in Greek as Ammon, and Hammon) was the name of a deity, in Egyptian mythology, who gradually rose to become one of the most important, before disappearing back into the shadows. ... Ptah also refers to the asteroid 5011 Ptah Ptah In Egyptian mythology, Ptah (also spelt Peteh) was the deification of the primordial mound in the Ennead cosmogony, which was more literally referred to as Ta-tenen (also spelt Tathenen), meaning risen land, or as Tanen, meaning submerged land. ... Amun (also spelt Amon, Amoun, Amen, and rarely Imenand, and spelt in Greek as Ammon, and Hammon) was the name of a deity, in Egyptian mythology, who gradually rose to become one of the most important, before disappearing back into the shadows. ... Ptah also refers to the asteroid 5011 Ptah Ptah In Egyptian mythology, Ptah (also spelt Peteh) was the deification of the primordial mound in the Ennead cosmogony, which was more literally referred to as Ta-tenen (also spelt Tathenen), meaning risen land, or as Tanen, meaning submerged land. ... Heliopolis (Greek: or ), was one of the most ancient cities of Egypt, and capital of the 13th Lower Egyptian nome. ... Thebes Thebes (, Thēbai) is the Greek designation of the ancient Egyptian niwt (The) City and niwt-rst (The) Southern City. It is located about 800 km south of the Mediterranean, on the east bank of the river Nile (). Thebes was the capital of Waset, the fourth Upper Egyptian nome... For other uses, see Memphis. ...


The axis of the temple was positioned by the ancient Egyptian architects in such a way that twice a year, on October 20 and February 20, the rays of the sun would penetrate the sanctuary and illuminate the sculpture on the back wall, except for the statue of Ptah, the god connected with the Underworld, who always remained in the dark.[1][2] These dates are allegedly the king's birthday and coronation day respectively, but there is no evidence to support this, though it is quite logical to assume that these dates had some relation to a great event, such as the jubilee celebrating the thirtieth anniversary of the pharaoh's rule. In fact, according to calculations made on the basis of the heliacal rising of the star Sirius (Sothis) and inscriptions found by archaeologists, this date must have been October 22. This image of the king was enhanced and revitalized by the energy of the solar star, and the deified Ramesses Great could take his place next to Amun Ra and Ra Harakhti.[1] is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ptah also refers to the asteroid 5011 Ptah Ptah In Egyptian mythology, Ptah (also spelt Peteh) was the deification of the primordial mound in the Ennead cosmogony, which was more literally referred to as Ta-tenen (also spelt Tathenen), meaning risen land, or as Tanen, meaning submerged land. ... // In the study of mythology and religion, the underworld is a generic term approximately equivalent to the lay term afterlife, referring to any place to which newly dead souls go. ... Pharaoh was the ancient Egyptian name for the office of kingship. ... Sirius B redirects here. ... Amun (also spelt Amon, Amoun, Amen, and rarely Imenand, and spelt in Greek as Ammon, and Hammon) was the name of a deity, in Egyptian mythology, who gradually rose to become one of the most important, before disappearing back into the shadows. ...


Due to the displacement of the temple, it is widely believed that this event now occurs one day later than it did originally.


The Smaller Abu Simbel Temple

The temple of Hathor and Nefertari, also known as the Small Temple, was built about one hundred meters northeast of the temple of Ramesses II and was dedicated to the goddess Hathor and Ramesses II's chief consort, Nefertari. This was in fact the first time in ancient Egyptian history that a temple was dedicated to a queen.[1] The rock-cut facade is decorated with two groups of colossi that are separated by the large gateway. The statues, slightly more than ten meters high, are of the king and his queen. On the other side of the portal are two statues of the king, wearing the white crown of Upper Egypt (south colossus) and the double crown (north colossus); these are flanked by statues of the queen and the king. What is truly surprising is that for the only time in Egyptian art, the statues of the king and his consort are equal in size.[1] This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A picture of Nefertari taken in her Abu Simbel temple. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Hathor The history of Egypt is the longest continuous history, as a unified state, of any country in the world. ... The Hedjet Hedjet is the formal name for the White Crown of pharaonic Upper Egypt. ... Map of Upper and Lower Egypt Ancient Egypt was divided into two kingdoms, known as Upper and Lower Egypt. ... This article has been tagged since January 2007. ...


Traditionally, the statues of the queens stood next to those of the pharaoh, but were never taller than his knees. This exception to such a long standing rule bears witness to the special importance attached to Nefertari by Ramesses, who went to Abu Simbel with his beloved wife in the 24th year of his reign. As the Great temple of the king, there are small statues of princes and princesses next to their parents. In this case they are positioned symmetrically: on the south side (at left as you face the gateway) are, from left to right, princes Meryatum and Meryre, princesses Meritamen and Henuttawy, and princes Rahirwenemef and Amun-her-khepeshef, while on the north side the same figures are in reverse order. The plan of the Small Temple is a simplified version of that of the Great Temple. Pharaoh was the ancient Egyptian name for the office of kingship. ... Meryatum (“Beloved of Atum”) was an Ancient Egyptian prince and high priest, the son of Pharaoh Ramesses II and Nefertari. ... Meritamen (also spelled Meritamun, Merytamen, Meryt-Amen; Ancient Egyptian: Beloved of Amun) was a daughter and later Great Royal Wife of Pharaoh Ramesses the Great. ... Amun-her-khepeshef or Amun-her-wenemef (13th century BCE) was the firstborn son of Pharaoh Ramesses the Great and Queen Nefertari. ...

The gods Set (left) and Horus (right) adoring Ramesses in the small temple at Abu Simbel
The gods Set (left) and Horus (right) adoring Ramesses in the small temple at Abu Simbel

As the larger temple dedicated to the king, the hypostyle hall or pronaos is supported by six pillars; in this case, however, they are not Osirid pillars depicting the king, but are decorated with scenes with the queen playing the sinistrum (an instrument sacred to the goddess Hathor), together with the gods Horus, Khnum, Khonsu, and Thoth, and the goddesses Hathor, Isis, Maat, Mut of Asher, Satis and Taweret; in one scene Ramesses is presenting flowers or burning incense.[1] The capitals of the pillars bear the face of the goddess Hathor; this type of column is known as Hathoric. The bas-reliefs in the pillared hall illustrate the deification of the king, the destruction of his enemies in the north and south (in this scenes the king is accompanied by his wife), and the queen making offerings to the goddess Hathor and Mut.[2] The hypostyle hall is followed by a vestibule, access to which is given by three large doors. On the south and the north walls of this chamber there are two graceful and poetic bes-reliefs of the king and his consort presenting papyrus plants to Hathor, who is depicted as a cow on a boat sailing in a thicket of papyri. On the west wall, Ramesses II and Nefertari are depicted making offerings to god Horus and the divinities of the Cataracts - Satis, Anubis and Khnum. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1704x2272, 1741 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ramesses II Abu Simbel Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1704x2272, 1741 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ramesses II Abu Simbel Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... In mathematics, a set can be thought of as any collection of distinct objects considered as a whole. ... For other uses, see Horus (disambiguation). ... A pronaos is the inner area of the portico of an ancient Greek or Roman temple, situated between the colonnade or walls of the portico and the entrance to the cella or shrine. ... Look up pillar in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up deity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Horus (disambiguation). ... In Egyptian mythology, Chnum was the god of the Nile River delta, and the creator of human children, whom he makes from clay and places in their mothers uteruses. ... In Egyptian mythology, Chons (alternately Khensu, Khons, Khonsu or Khonshu) is a lunar deity, and a son of Amun and Mut. ... Thoth (Ramesseum, Luxor) Thoth (his Greek name derived from the Egyptian *, written by Egyptians as ) was considered one of the most important deities of the Egyptian pantheon, often depicted with the head of an ibis. ... Statue of Ceres, the Roman goddess of agriculture For the 1934 film, see, see The Goddess (1934 film). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Isis is a goddess in Egyptian mythology. ... This article concerns the military rank of Maat. ... In Egyptian mythology, Satis (also spelt Satjit, Sates, and Sati) was the deification of the floods of the Nile River, and originated in the region around Aswan, the southern edge of Egypt. ... Statue of Tawaret Tawaret (The Great One; also rendered as Taurt, Taueret, Ta-weret, Taweret, Thoeris, Opet, Apet, Rert, or Reret) was a popular deity in ancient Egyptian mythology. ... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... Incense is composed of aromatic organic materials. ... For other uses, see Monarch (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Mut (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Papyrus (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Horus (disambiguation). ... In Egyptian mythology, Satis (also spelt Satjit, Sates, and Sati) was the deification of the floods of the Nile River, and originated in the region around Aswan, the southern edge of Egypt. ... For other uses, see Anubis (disambiguation). ... In Egyptian mythology, Chnum was the god of the Nile River delta, and the creator of human children, whom he makes from clay and places in their mothers uteruses. ...


The rock cut sanctuary and the two side chambers are connected to the transverse vestibule and are aligned with the axis of the temple. The bas-reliefs on the side walls of the small sanctuary represent scenes of offerings to various gods made either by the pharaoh or the queen.[1] On the back wall, which lies to the west along the axis of the temple, there is a niche in which Hathor, as a divine cow, seems to be coming out of the mountain: the goddess is depicted as the Mistress of the temple dedicated to her and to queen Nefertari, who is intimately linked to the goddess.[1] Ajax prepares to violate the sanctuary of Athena by abducting Cassandra by force: red-figure vase, c. ... Chambers may refer to Chambers, Nebraska Chambers County, Alabama Chambers Dictionary of the English Language Chambers of parliament Chambers, a judges office where motions concerning procedure are heard. ... Sacrifice (from a Middle English verb meaning to make sacred, from Old French, from Latin sacrificium : sacer, sacred; sacred + facere, to make) is commonly known as the practice of offering food, or the lives of animals or people to the gods, as an act of propitiation or worship. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Pharaoh was the ancient Egyptian name for the office of kingship. ... Great Royal Wife (or ḥmt nswt wrt) is the term used to refer to the chief wife of an Egyptian pharaoh on the day of his coronation. ... Temple of Hephaestus, an Doric Greek temple in Athens with the original entrance facing east, 449 BC (western face depicted) For other uses, see Temple (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Mountain (disambiguation). ... Mistress is the feminine form of the word master. ... A picture of Nefertari taken in her Abu Simbel temple. ... Statue of Ceres, the Roman goddess of agriculture For the 1934 film, see, see The Goddess (1934 film). ...


Each temple has its own priest that represents the king in daily religious ceremonies. In theory, the Pharaoh should be the only celebrant in daily religious ceremonies performed in different temples throughout Egypt. In reality, the high priest also played that role. To reach that position, an extensive education in art and science was necessary, like the one pharaoh had. Reading, writing, engineering, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, space measurement, time calculations, were all part of this learning. The priests of Heliopolis, for example, became guardians of sacred knowledge and earned the reputation of wise men.


In Popular Culture

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Abu Simbel

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References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Alberto Siliotti, Egypt: temples, people, gods,1994
  2. ^ Cite error 8; No text given.

Coordinates: 22°20′13″N, 31°37′32″E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Abu Simbel - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1242 words)
Although both the Hittites and the Egyptians claimed victory in the Battle of Kadesh, Ramesses II is represented as victorious on the walls of the greater temple of Abu Simbel.
The greater Abu Simbel temple is generally considered the grandest and most beautiful of the temples commissioned during the reign of Ramesses II, and one of the most beautiful in Egypt.
Nubian Monuments from Abu Simbel to Philae
Abu Simbel (454 words)
Abu Simbel is a set of two temples near the border of Egypt with Sudan.
In early 2001, the author was surprised at the increased number of visitors at Abu Simbel at night and for sunrise.
During a visit to Abu Simbel during February 2002 by means of the re-opened highway, buses were required to proceed in a convoy with arrival at the site a little after sunrise and about 2.5 hours spent at the temples before the return journey to Aswan.
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