FACTOID # 18: Alaska spends more money per capita on elementary and secondary education than any other state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Abu Dharr

Jundub ibn Junadah ibn Sakan (Arabic جُندب بن جَنادة), better known as Abu Dharr, Abu Dharr al-Ghafari, or Abu Tharr Al-Ghefari (Arabic أبو ذر الغفاري) was an early convert to Islam. When he converted, the prophet Muhammad gave him a new name, Abdullah. He belonged to the Banu Ghifari, the Ghifar tribe. No date of birth is known. He died in 652 CE, at al-Rabadha, in the desert near Medina. Islam (Arabic: ; ( (help· info)), submission (to the will of God)) is a monotheistic faith, considered one of the Abrahamic religions, and the worlds second-largest religion. ...


Abu Dharr is remembered for his strict piety and also his opposition to the caliph Uthman ibn Affan. He is venerated by Shi'a Muslims as one of the Four Companions, early Muslims who were followers of Ali ibn Abi Talib. Emir Caliph is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... Leave this page if youre under 18!! - Page contains huge lies and hardly has any facts > it will surely misguide you! Uthman ibn Affan (Arabic: عثمان بن عفان) (c. ... The Four Companions, also called the Four Pillars of the Sahaba is a Shia term that refers to the four Sahaba Shia belive stayed most loyal to Ali after the death of Muhammad: Miqdad Abu Dharr Salman al-Farsi Ammar ibn Yasir. ... Ali ibn Abu Talib (Arabic: ) (c. ...

Contents


Early life

Little is known of his life before his conversion to Islam. Abu Dharr is said to have been a serious young man, an ascetic and a monotheist even before he converted. He was also of lowly birth, since his tribe, the Ghifar, was small and poor. The Ghifar were a branch of the Kinanah, found to the west of Mecca and Medina (Watt, Muhammad at Medina, 1956, p. 81). Abu Dharr was apparently typical of the early converts to Islam, described by az-Zuhri as "young men and weak people" (cited in Watt, Muhammad at Mecca, 1953, p. 87). Monotheism (in Greek monon = single and Theos = God) is the belief in a single, universal, all-encompassing deity. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... This article is about the city of Medina in Saudi Arabia. ...


Popular accounts of Abu Dharr ([1], [2]) say that his tribe lived by pillaging caravans, but that he preferred to live a poor but honest life as a shepherd. Having heard that a new prophet had arisen in Mecca, Abu Dharr and his brother travelled to Mecca to find the prophet. The young seeker converted instantly and rushed out to declare his new faith in front of the Kaaba, which at that time was a pagan temple. He was beaten for his presumption. After this he returned to his tribe, where he made other converts for Islam, and then joined Muhammad after the Hijra, or migration to Medina in 622 CE. The Kaaba (Kaabah), (Arabic: الكعبة or Al Kaabah Al Musharafah : الكعبة المشرًّفة) also al-Bait ul Ateeq (Arabic: البيت العتيق ) and al-Bait ul Haram (Arabic: البيت الحرام ), is a building located inside the mosque known as Masjid al Haram in Mecca (Makkah). ... Hijra may refer to: Hijra (Hegira/Hijrah/Hejira) is an Arabic term referring to the migration of the Prophet Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in 622. ... This article is about the city of Medina in Saudi Arabia. ...


This seems to be a simplified account of stories reported in these hadiths from Muslim: [3], [4], [5].


According to the early Islamic historian Tabari, Abu Dharr claimed to have been the fourth or fifth convert to Islam. However, several other early Muslims made the same claim. While the exact order of conversion may never be established, no one doubts that he was an early convert. Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Jarir at-Tabari (Arabic الطبري, AD 838-AD 923), was an author from Persia. ...


After Muhammad's death

Shi'a Muslims believe that Abu Dharr was a strong supporter of Ali ibn Abi Talib in the political conflicts after Muhammad's death. However, his name is not mentioned as one of the prominent Shi'at Ali by early historians. Ali ibn Abu Talib (Arabic: ) (c. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ...


Abu Dharr is said to have served loyally in the Muslim armies and participated in the conquest of Jerusalem during the caliphate of Umar ibn Al-Khattab. For other uses of the name, see Umar (disambiguation). ...


According to the historian Wilferd Madelung, Abu Dharr fell into disfavor during the caliphate of Uthman ibn Affan. Uthman was appointing his relatives as governors and giving them money from the public treasury. Abu Dharr felt that this was a betrayal of the principles of Islam. Wilferd Madelung is the Laudian Professor of Arabic at the University of Oxford. ... Leave this page if youre under 18!! - Page contains huge lies and hardly has any facts > it will surely misguide you! Uthman ibn Affan (Arabic: عثمان بن عفان) (c. ...

Abu Dharr had begun his agitation in Medina after Uthman had given 500,000 dirhams to Marwan b. al-Hakam, 300,000 to al-Harith b. al-Hakam, and 100,000 to the Medinan Zayd b. Thabit from the khums of the booty seized in Ifriquiya in 27/647. He then quoted relevant Qur'anic passages threatening the horders (sic) of riches with hell-fire. Marwan complained to Uthman, who sent his servant Natil to warn Abu Dharr, but to no avail. Uthman displayed patience for some time until, in the presence of the caliph, Abu Dharr launched an angry verbal attack on Ka'b al-Ahbar, who had backed Uthman's free use of public money. Uthman now chided Abu Dharr and sent him to Damascus ... (Madelung, Succession to Muhammad, 1997, p. 84).

However, Abu Dharr was just as forthright in Damascus, where he criticized the luxurious life and free spending of Muawiyah, Uthman's nephew and the governor of Syria. He was sent back to Medina, and finally, when he would not cease criticizing misuse of the public treasury, he was exiled to al-Rabadha, in the desert near Medina, where he died. Damascus by night, pictured from Jabal Qasioun; the green spots are minarets Damascus (Arabic officially دمشق Dimashq, colloquially ash-Sham الشام) is the capital city of Syria. ... Muˤāwiyya I, or Muˤāwiyya ibn Abī-Sufyān (Arabic: ). (602 - May 6, 680) was the fifth Muslim Caliph and founder of the Umayyad Dynasty of Islamic caliphs. ...


Madelung recounts that Ali ibn Abi Talib felt that Uthman was wrong to punish Abu Dharr, who had been one of the first converts and a favorite of Muhammad. Ali showed his sympathy by accompanying Abu Dharr to the edge of town, thus sending him into his exile with good wishes and respect. Uthman had ordered that no one was to do this; Ali defied the caliph to show kindness to Abu Dharr. Ali ibn Abu Talib (Arabic: ) (c. ...


Shi'a stories about Abu Dharr say that he died of the lingering effects of beatings he had received at the hands of Uthman's soldiers, or, that he died of starvation in the desert. There is a tradition that Muhammad predicted this sad end, saying, "May Allah have mercy upon Abu Dharr! Lonely will he live, lonely will he die and lonely will he be resurrected."


Final years

When Muawiya found out that Abu-Dahr had been exiled to Rabza he sent Abu-Dahr's wife and family there too. Rabza was a desert land where no food could grow and they soon became weak. His son Dharr became ill and died. His wife too died of eating poisonous grass. After the death of his wife, he became even more lonely. Hunger and weakness took over and he died. As the Prophet had said, a group of passing Iraqis including Malike Ashtar gave him ghusl and kafan and buried Abu-Dahr. He died on the 8th of Dhulhijjah 32 A.H. at the age of 85 years. Marriage is a relationship that plays a key role in the definition of many families. ... A family of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso in 1997 A family is a domestic group of people, or a number of domestic groups, typically affiliated by birth or marriage, or by comparable legal relationships including domestic partnership, adoption, surname and in some cases ownership (as was the case in the Roman... The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (also called Hijri calendar, Arabic التقويم الهجري) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate Islamic holy days. ...


Sunni view of Abu Dharr

Many hadith, oral traditions, are traced to Abu Dharr. He is respected as an early convert, an observant Muslim, and a man who was honest and direct to a fault. He was, according to the Sunni tradition, a rough, unlettered Beduin who held no high office, but who served the Muslim community, the Ummah, with everything he had to give. Umma (Arabic: ) is an Arabic word meaning community or nation. ...


Shi'a view of Abu Dharr

For Shi'a, Abu Dharr's fame is synonymous with his loyalty to Ali. He is considered one of the Four Companions, early Muslims whose loyalty to Ali never wavered. Shi'a believe that he added the phrase "I witness that Ali is the appointed one by God" to the call to prayer (adhan), during Muhammad's lifetime and with his approval. Abu Dharr is said to have died as a result of his persecution, and thus is regarded as a martyr to the Shi'a cause. Because of his support for Ali, Shi'a accept hadith (oral traditions) traced to Abu Dharr. For other uses, see Ali (disambiguation). ... The Four Companions, also called the Four Pillars of the Sahaba is a Shia term that refers to the four Sahaba Shia belive stayed most loyal to Ali after the death of Muhammad: Miqdad Abu Dharr Salman al-Farsi Ammar ibn Yasir. ... Adhan ([]) is the Islamic call to prayer, recited by the muezzin. ... Hadith (Arabic: , Arabic pl. ...


Lebanese Shia believe that Abu Dharr was the first to preach Shi'a Islam in Syria and Lebanon. There are two shrines dedicated to Abu Dharr in Lebanon: one in Sarafand near Sidon, and another in Meiss Al-Jabal in southern Lebanon. Sarepta (modern Sarafand, Lebanon) was a Phoenician city on the Mediterranean coast between Sidon and Tyre. ... Sidon, Zidon or Saida, (Arabic صيدا Ṣaydā is the third-largest city in Lebanon. ...


See also

In the Islamic religion, the Sahaba (or Asahaaba,الصحابه; both forms are plural--the singular is Sahaabi, which is Arabic for friend, or companion) are the companions of the Prophet Muhammad. ... It has been suggested that Abu-Dahr be merged into this article or section. ...

References

  • Madelung, Wilferd -- Succession to Muhammad, Cambridge University Press, 1997
  • Watt, Montgomery -- Muhammad at Mecca, Oxford University Press, 1953
  • Watt, Montgomery -- Muhammad at Medina, Oxford University Press, 1956

External links

Shi'a links

  • Abu Dhar al-Ghifari
  • And Once Again Abu-Dhar by Dr. Ali Shariati

  Results from FactBites:
 
Abu Dharr - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1158 words)
Abu Dharr is said to have served loyally in the Muslim armies and participated in the conquest of Jerusalem during the caliphate of Umar ibn Al-Khattab.
Abu Dharr felt that this was a betrayal of the principles of Islam.
Abu Dharr is said to have died as a result of his persecution, and thus is regarded as a martyr to the Shi'a cause.
Abu Dharr Al-Ghifari (1594 words)
Abu Dharr heard of the terrible violence they were meting out to the followers of the Prophet but this was what he expected.
Abu Dharr spent the night with him and in the morning took his water pouch and his bag containing provisions and returned to the Mosque.
Abu Dharr did not sleep a wink the rest of that night because of his intense longing to see the Prophet and listen to the words of revelation.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m