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Encyclopedia > Absinthe
A reservoir glass filled with a naturally-colored verte, next to an absinthe spoon.
A reservoir glass filled with a naturally-colored verte, next to an absinthe spoon.

Absinthe is a distilled, highly alcoholic (45%-90% ABV), anise-flavored spirit derived from herbs, including the flowers and leaves of the herb Artemisia absinthium, also called "wormwood". Absinthe is typically of a natural green color but is also produced in both clear and artificially colored styles. It is often called "the Green Fairy". Image File history File links Absinthe-glass. ... Image File history File links Absinthe-glass. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Laboratory distillation set-up: 1: Heat source 2: Still pot 3: Still head 4: Thermometer/Boiling point temperature 5: Condenser 6: Cooling water in 7: Cooling water out 8: Distillate/receiving flask 9: Vacuum/gas inlet 10: Still receiver 11: Heat control 12: Stirrer speed control 13: Stirrer/heat plate... Alcohol by volume (ABV) is an indication of how much alcohol (expressed as a percentage) is included in an alcoholic beverage. ... This article is about the Pimpinella species, but the name anise is frequently applied to Fennel. ... A distilled beverage is a consumable liquid containing ethyl alcohol (ethanol) purified by distillation from a fermented substance such as fruit, vegetables, or grain. ... For other uses, see Herb (disambiguation). ... Binomial name L. <3Artemisia absinthium (Absinthium, Absinthe Wormwood, Wormwood or Grand Wormwood) is a species of wormwood, native to temperate regions of Europe, Asia and northern Africa. ... Look up Wormwood in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Although it is sometimes mistakenly called a liqueur, absinthe is not bottled with added sugar and is therefore classified as a liquor.[1] Absinthe is unusual among spirits in that it is bottled at a high proof but is normally diluted with water when it is drunk. Bottles of strawberry liqueur A liqueur is a sweet alcoholic beverage, often flavoured with fruits, herbs, spices, flowers, seeds, roots, plants, barks, and sometimes cream. ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely-traded commodity. ... A distilled beverage is a consumable liquid containing ethyl alcohol (ethanol) purified by distillation from a fermented substance such as fruit, vegetables, or grain. ... Alcoholic proof is a measure of how much ethanol is in an alcoholic beverage, and is approximately twice the percentage of alcohol by volume (ABV, the unit that is commonly used at present). ...


Absinthe originated in Switzerland. However, it is better known for its popularity as an alcoholic drink in late 19th- and early 20th-century France, particularly among Parisian artists and writers. Due in part to its association with bohemian culture, absinthe was opposed by social conservatives and prohibitionists. Charles Baudelaire, Paul Verlaine, Arthur Rimbaud, Vincent van Gogh, Oscar Wilde, and Aleister Crowley were all notorious "bad men" of that day who were (or were thought to be) devotees of the Green Fairy. Booze redirects here. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... For other uses, see Bohemian (disambiguation). ... Social conservatism is a belief in traditional morality and social mores and the desire to preserve these in present day society, often through civil law or regulation. ... Prohibition agents destroying barrels of alcohol. ... “Baudelaire” redirects here. ... Paul Verlaine Paul-Marie Verlaine (IPA: ; March 30, 1844–January 8, 1896) was a French poet associated with the Symbolist movement. ... Rimbaud redirects here. ... van Gogh redirects here. ... Oscar Fingal OFlahertie Wills Wilde (October 16, 1854 – November 30, 1900) was an Irish playwright, novelist, poet, and author of short stories. ... Aleister Crowley, born Edward Alexander Crowley (pronounced ), (12 October 1875 – 1 December 1947), was a British occultist, writer, mountaineer, poet, and yogi. ...


Absinthe was portrayed as a dangerously addictive psychoactive drug.[2] The chemical thujone, present in small quantities, was blamed for its alleged harmful effects. By 1915, absinthe had been banned in the United States and in most European countries except the United Kingdom, Spain, Portugal, and the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Although absinthe was vilified, no evidence has shown it to be any more dangerous than ordinary liquor. Its psychoactive properties, apart from those of alcohol, had been much exaggerated.[2] This article is about the concept of addiction. ... The general group of pharmacological agents commonly known as hallucinogens can be divided into three broad categories: psychedelics, dissociatives, and deliriants. ... Thujone is a ketone and a monoterpene that exists in two stereoisomeric forms: (+)-3-thujone or α-thujone and (-)-3-thujone or β-thujone. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ...


A revival of absinthe began in the 1990s, when countries in the European Union began to reauthorize its manufacture and sale. As of February 2008, nearly 200 brands of absinthe were being produced in a dozen countries, most notably France, Switzerland, Spain, and the Czech Republic.[3]

Contents

Etymology, spelling, pronunciation

Look up absinthe in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

The French word absinthe can refer either to the alcoholic beverage or, less commonly, to the actual wormwood plant (grande absinthe being Artemisia absinthium, and petite absinthe being Artemisia pontica). The Latin name artemisia comes from Artemis, the ancient Greek goddess of forests and hills. Absinthe is derived from the Latin absinthium, which in turn is a stylization of the Greek αψίνθιον (apsínthion), for wormwood. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Binomial name L. <3Artemisia absinthium (Absinthium, Absinthe Wormwood, Wormwood or Grand Wormwood) is a species of wormwood, native to temperate regions of Europe, Asia and northern Africa. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Artemis (disambiguation). ...


Some claim that the word means "undrinkable" in Greek, but it may instead be linked to the Persian root spand or aspand, or the variant esfand, which meant Peganum harmala, also called Syrian Rue though it is not an actual variety of rue, another famously bitter herb. Farsi redirects here. ... Binomial name L. Harmal seed capsules Harmal (Peganum harmala) is a plant of the family Nitrariaceae, native from the eastern Mediterranean region east to India. ... Look up rue in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


That Artemisia absinthium was commonly burned as a protective offering may suggest that its origins lie in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European root *spend, meaning "to perform a ritual" or "make an offering." Whether the word was a borrowing from Persian into Greek, or from a common ancestor of both, is unclear.[4] The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, spoken by the Proto-Indo-Europeans. ...


Variant spellings of absinthe are absinth, absynthe, and absenta. For its English pronunciation, see IPA: /ˈæbˌsinθ/; for the French, see IPA[apˈsɛ̃ːt].


Absinth (without the final e) is a spelling variant that is used by central European distillers. It is the usual name for absinthe produced in the Czech Republic and in Germany, and has become associated with Bohemian style absinthes.[5]


The ritual (preparation)

Main article: Absinthiana
Preparing absinthe the traditional way. Note, no burning.
Preparing absinthe the traditional way. Note, no burning.

Traditionally, absinthe is poured into a glass over which a specially designed slotted spoon is placed. A sugar cube is then deposited in the bowl of the spoon. Ice-cold water is poured or dripped over the sugar until the drink is diluted to a ratio between 3:1 and 5:1. During this process, the components that are not soluble in water, mainly those from anise, fennel, and star anise, come out of solution and cloud the drink. The resulting milky opalescence is called the louche (Fr. "opaque" or "shady", IPA [luʃ]). The addition of water is important, causing the herbs to "blossom" and bringing out many of the flavors originally overpowered by the anise. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File links Preparing_absinthe. ... Image File history File links Preparing_absinthe. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Magnified view of refined sugar crystals. ... This article is about the Pimpinella species, but the name anise is frequently applied to Fennel. ... Binomial name Foeniculum vulgare Mill. ... Binomial name Hook. ... OPAL is also the name of one of the four detectors of the Large Electron-Positron Collider. ...


Originally a waiter would serve a dose of absinthe, ice water in a carafe, and sugar separately, and the drinker would prepare it to their preference[6]. With increased popularity, the absinthe fountain, a large jar of ice water on a base with spigots, came into use. It allowed a number of drinks to be prepared at once, and with a hands-free drip, patrons were able to socialize while louching a glass. A decanter is a vessel used for holding the results of decantation, in which liquid from another vessel is poured into the decanter in order to separate a small volume of liquid containing sediment (such as wine) from a larger volume of clear liquid (i. ... The term Spigot can refer to: Spigot ( object ) - a small wooden plug Tristan A. Farnon - cartoonist Tristan A. Farnon Spigot Algorithms - a type of algorithm The AT-4 Spigot - a man-portable ATGM manufactured in the former Soviet Union and not to be confused with the M136 AT4 in service...


Although many bars served absinthe in standard glasses, a number of glasses were specifically made for absinthe. These had a dose line, bulge, or bubble in the lower portion denoting how much absinthe should be poured in. One "dose" of absinthe is around 1 ounce (30 ml), and most glasses used this as the standard, with some drinkers using as much as 1 1/2 ounces (45 ml).


In addition to being drunk with water poured over sugar, absinthe was a common cocktail ingredient in both the United Kingdom and the United States,[7] and continues to be a popular ingredient today. One of the most famous of these is Ernest Hemingway’s "Death in the Afternoon" cocktail, a concoction he contributed to a 1935 collection of celebrity recipes. His directions are as follows: "Pour one jigger absinthe into a Champagne glass. Add iced Champagne until it attains the proper opalescent milkiness. Drink three to five of these slowly."[8] Look up jigger in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Production

Anise, one of the three main herbs used in production of absinthe
Anise, one of the three main herbs used in production of absinthe
Grande Wormwood, one of the three main herbs used in production of absinthe
Grande Wormwood, one of the three main herbs used in production of absinthe
Fennel, one of the three main herbs used in production of absinthe
Fennel, one of the three main herbs used in production of absinthe

Currently, most countries do not have a legal definition of absinthe (unlike Scotch whisky, cognac), brandy, gin, or virtually any other distilled spirit. Manufacturers can label a product 'absinthe' or 'absinth', without regard to any legal definition or minimum standards. Image File history File links Koehler1887-PimpinellaAnisum. ... Image File history File links Koehler1887-PimpinellaAnisum. ... Image File history File links Koeh-164. ... Image File history File links Koeh-164. ... Image File history File links Koeh-148. ... Image File history File links Koeh-148. ... Scotch whisky is whisky made in Scotland. ... Cognac (IPA: [k*njæk] where * is ɒ, oʊ, ɑ:, or ɔ:), named after the city in France, is a kind of brandy, which must be produced in the region around the town of Cognac and aged in oak barrels in order to be called cognac. A related drink produced...


Today the majority of Absinthe brands on the market utilize one of two processes: distillation or cold mixing. In the few countries that have a legal definition of absinthe, distillation is the only permitted process. Below is a description of the distillation process as it relates to authentic absinthe.[9]



The three main herbs used to produce absinthe are grande wormwood, green anise, and florence fennel, which are often called "the holy trinity."[10] Many other herbs may be used as well, such as petite wormwood (Artemisia pontica or Roman wormwood), hyssop, melissa, star anise, angelica root, Sweet Flag, dittany leaves, coriander, veronica, juniper, nutmeg, and various mountain herbs. Binomial name L. <3Artemisia absinthium (Absinthium, Absinthe Wormwood, Wormwood or Grand Wormwood) is a species of wormwood, native to temperate regions of Europe, Asia and northern Africa. ... Species See text Hyssop (Hyssopus) is a genus of about 10-12 species of herbaceous or semi-woody plants in the family Lamiaceae, native from the Mediterranean east to central Asia. ... Binomial name Melissa officinalis Linnaeus Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis), not to be confused with bee balm, Monarda species, is a perennial herb in the mint family Lamiaceae, native to southern Europe and the Mediterranean region. ... Species About 50 species; see text For other uses, see Angelica (disambiguation). ... Binomial name L. Calamus or Common Sweet Flag (Acorus calamus) is a plant from the Acoraceae family, Acorus genues. ... Dittany can refer to two different plants with similar medical properties: DITTANY (White) Dictamnus albus Dittany of Crete Origanum dictamnus L. ... For other uses, see Coriander (disambiguation). ... Species See text. ... Species Junipers are coniferous plants in the genus Juniperus of the cypress family Cupressaceae. ... For other uses, see Nutmeg (disambiguation). ...


The simple maceration of wormwood in alcohol (as called for in absinthe kits) without distillation produces an extremely bitter drink because of the presence of the water-soluble absinthin, one of the most bitter substances known to man. Authentic recipes call for distillation after a primary maceration and before the optional secondary coloring maceration. The distillation of absinthe first produces a colorless distillate that leaves the alembic at around 72 percent alcohol by volume (144 proof). Cabernet Sauvignon must interacting with the skins during fermentation to add color, tannins and flavor to the wine. ... Laboratory distillation set-up: 1: Heat source 2: Still pot 3: Still head 4: Thermometer/Boiling point temperature 5: Condenser 6: Cooling water in 7: Cooling water out 8: Distillate/receiving flask 9: Vacuum/gas inlet 10: Still receiver 11: Heat control 12: Stirrer speed control 13: Stirrer/heat plate... An alembic is an alchemical still consisting of two retorts connected by a tube. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ...


The distillate can be bottled clear, to produce a Blanche or la Bleue absinthe, or it can be colored using artificial or natural coloring. Traditional absinthes take their green color from chlorophyll, which is present in some of the herbal ingredients during the secondary maceration. This is done by steeping petite wormwood, hyssop, and melissa (among other herbs) in the liquid. Chlorophyll from these herbs is extracted giving the drink its famous green color. This process also provides the herbal complexity that is typical of high quality absinthe. This type of absinthe is known as a verte. After the coloring process, the resulting product is reduced with water to the desired percentage of alcohol. Historically, most absinthes contain between 60 and 75 percent alcohol by volume (120 to 150 proof). It is said to improve materially with storage, and many pre-ban distilleries aged their absinthe in neutral barrels before bottling. Chlorophyll is a green pigment found in most plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. ... Maceration (from Latin maceratus, past participle of macerare, to soften) may refer to: extreme leanness usually caused by starvation or disease a solution prepared by soaking plant material in vegetable oil or water the steeping of grape skins and solids in must, where alcohol acts as a solvent to extract... Steeping may mean: Soaking in liquid until saturated with a soluble ingredient, as in, for example, the steeping of tea. ... Species See text. ... Chlorophyll is a green pigment found in most plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. ...


NOTE: Modern absinthe is often produced using the cold mix system. The beverage is manufactured by mixing flavoring essences, and artificial coloring in high-proof alcohol, and is similar to a flavored vodka or "absinthe schnapps".


NOTE: Absinthe can also be naturally colored red using hibiscus flowers. This is called a rouge or rose absinthe. As of now, only one historical rouge brand has been discovered[11].


Absinthe kits

[Note: Absinthe kits should not be confused with hausgemacht absinthe.] A reservoir glass filled with a naturally-colored verte, next to an absinthe spoon. ...


Numerous recipes for homemade "absinthe" are available on the Internet. Many of these center around mixing a kit that contains store-bought herbs or wormwood extract with high-proof liquor such as vodka or Everclear. However, it is simply not possible to make proper absinthe without distillation. Vodka bottling machine, Shatskaya Vodka Shatsk, Russia Vodka (Polish: wódka, Russian: водка) is one of the worlds most popular distilled beverages. ... Everclear is a brand of grain alcohol (ethanol), available at concentrations of 95% alcohol (190 proof) and 75. ...


Besides being unpleasant to drink[12] and not authentic absinthe, these homemade concoctions contain uncontrolled amounts of thujone and may be poisonous—especially if they contain wormwood extract.[13] Many such recipes call for the use of a large amount of wormwood extract (essence of wormwood) with the intent of increasing alleged psychoactive effects. Consuming essence of wormwood is very dangerous. It can cause kidney failure and death from excessive thujone, which in large quantities is a convulsive neurotoxin. Thujone is also a powerful heart stimulant; it is present in authentic absinthe only in extremely small amounts. Hallucinogenic drug - drugs that can alter sensory perceptions. ... Renal failure or kidney failure is a situation in which the kidneys fail to function adequately. ... This article is about epileptic seizures. ... A neurotoxin is a toxin that acts specifically on nerve cells – neurons – usually by interacting with membrane proteins such as ion channels. ...


Essence of wormwood should never be drunk.


Styles

The Absinthe Drinker by Viktor Oliva (1861-1928)
The Absinthe Drinker by Viktor Oliva (1861-1928)

Most alcoholic beverages have regulations governing their classification and labeling. Modern absinthe is not governed in this way and classification is difficult and, by nature, inaccurate. Historically, there were five grades of absinthe: ordinaire, demi-fine, fine, supérieure and Suisse (which does not denote origin), in order of increasing alcoholic strength and quality. A supérieure and Suisse would always be naturally colored and distilled. Ordinaire and demi-fine could be artificially colored and made from oil extracts. These terms are no longer used as an industry standard, but some brands today still use the Suisse designation on their labels. Many contemporary absinthe critics use two classifications to denote quality: distilled and mixed. Within these two process-based classifications there are substantial variations in quality due to variations in the raw materials used, and they should not be viewed as complete measures of quality. Image File history File links OLIVA.jpg‎ Summary All rights belong to CTV and Canadian Idol. ... Image File history File links OLIVA.jpg‎ Summary All rights belong to CTV and Canadian Idol. ... Absinthe Drinker by Viktor Oliva Viktor Oliva (April 24, 1861-April 5, 1928) was a Czech painter and illustrator. ...


Blanche/la Bleue

Blanche absinthe (also referred to as la Bleue in Switzerland) is bottled directly following distillation and is unaltered. It is a clear liquid which contains the distilled oils of the herbs used in its production. The name la Bleue was originally a term used for bootleg Swiss absinthe, but has become a popular term for Swiss absinthe in general.


Verte

Verte ("green" in French) absinthe begins as a blanche. The distillate is altered by the 'coloring step' whereby a new mixture of herbs remains in contact with the clear distillate. This process greatly alters the color and flavor, imparting an emerald green hue and a heavier, more intense flavor. This type of absinthe was most commonly consumed in the 19th century and is what is generally thought of as absinthe.[citation needed]


Artificially colored green absinthe is also called "verte" although it lacks the herbal characteristic from the natural coloring step.


Absenta

Absenta ("absinthe" in Spanish) is a regional variation and typically differs slightly from its French cousin. Absentas typically are sweeter in flavor due to their use of Alicante anise[14], and contain a characteristic citrus flavor[15].


Hausgemacht absinthe

Hausgemacht (German for home-made, often abbreviated as HG) is a type of absinthe that is home-distilled by hobbyists. It is often called clandestine absinthe. It should not be confused with the Clandestine brand, nor should it be confused with absinthe kits.


Produced mainly in small quantities for personal use and not for sale, hausgemacht absinthe enables experienced distillers to personally select the herbs and to fine-tune each batch. Clandestine production increased after absinthe was banned, when small producers went underground, most notably in Switzerland.


Although the Swiss had produced both vertes and blanches before the ban, clear absinthe (known as La Bleue) became more popular after the ban because it is easier to hide. Although the ban has been lifted, many clandestine distillers have not made themselves legal. Authorities believe that high taxes on alcohol and the mystique of being underground have given them a reason not to. [16] Those hausgemacht distillers who have become legal often place the word clandestine on their labels.


Bohemian-style absinth

Main article: Bohemian-style absinth

Bohemian-style absinth (also called Czech-style absinthe, anise-free absinthe, or just "absinth" (without the "e")) is best described as a wormwood bitters. It is produced mainly in the Czech Republic,[17] from which it gets its designations as "Bohemian" or "Czech," although not all absinthe from the Czech Republic is Bohemian-style. It contains little or none of the anise, fennel, and other herbs that are found in traditional absinthe.


Typical Bohemian-style absinth has two similarities with its traditional counterpart, in that it contains wormwood and has a high alcohol content.


Storage

Absinthe that is artificially colored or clear is relatively stable and can be bottled in a clear container. If naturally colored absinthe is exposed to light, the chlorophyll breaks down, changing the color from emerald green to yellow green to brown. Pre-ban and vintage absinthes are often of a distinct amber color as a result of this process. Though this color is considered a mark of maturity in vintage absinthes, it is regarded as undesirable in contemporary absinthe. Due to this fragility, naturally colored absinthe is typically bottled in dark UV resistant wine bottles.


Absinthe should be stored in a cool, room temperature, dry place away from light and heat. They should also be kept out of the refrigerator and freezer as anethole can crystallize inside the bottle, creating a 'scum' in the bottle which may or may not dissolve back into solution as the bottle warms. Properly stored absinthes not only maintain their quality, but many improve in aroma, flavor, and complexity with aging. For other uses, see Room temperature (disambiguation). ...


History

Privat-Livemont’s 1896 poster
Privat-Livemont’s 1896 poster

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... [[1]] Privat Livemont was an artist born in Schaerbeck, Brussels, Belgium. ...

Origin

The precise origin of absinthe is unclear. The medical use of wormwood dates back to ancient Egypt and is mentioned in the Ebers Papyrus, circa 1550 BC. Wormwood extracts and wine-soaked wormwood leaves were used as remedies by the ancient Greeks. Moreover, there is evidence of the existence of a wormwood-flavored wine, absinthites oinos, in ancient Greece.[18] The pyramids are the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt. ... Ebers medical papyrus giving the treatment of cancer. ... The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ...


The first clear evidence of absinthe in the modern sense of a distilled spirit containing green anise and fennel, however, dates to the 18th century. According to legend, absinthe began as an all-purpose patent remedy created by Dr. Pierre Ordinaire, a French doctor living in Couvet, Switzerland, around 1792 (the exact date varies by account). Ordinaire’s recipe was passed on to the Henriod sisters of Couvet, who sold absinthe as a medicinal elixir. By other accounts, the Henriod sisters may have been making the elixir before Ordinaire’s arrival. In either case, a certain Major Dubied acquired the formula from the sisters and in 1797, with his son Marcellin and son-in-law Henry-Louis Pernod, opened the first absinthe distillery, Dubied Père et Fils, in Couvet. In 1805 they built a second distillery in Pontarlier, France, under the new company name Maison Pernod Fils.[19] Pernod Fils remained one of the most popular brand of absinthe up until the ban of the drink in France in 1915. Look up remedy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Couvet is a municipality in the district of Val-de-Travers, in the canton of Neuchâtel, Switzerland. ... In medicine, a tincture is an alcoholic extract (e. ... Pontarlier is a commune of northeastern France, sous-préfecture of the Doubs département. ...


Rapid growth in French consumption

A vintage Pernod Fils absinthe advertisement

Absinthe’s popularity grew steadily through the 1840s, when absinthe was given to French troops as a malaria treatment [2]. When the troops returned home, they brought their taste for absinthe with them, and it became popular at bars and bistros. A vintage Pernod Fils ad. ... A vintage Pernod Fils ad. ... A vintage Pernod Fils ad. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... Singles bar redirects here. ... This article is about the type of restaurant. ...


By the 1860s absinthe had become so popular that in most cafés and cabarets, 5 p.m. signaled l’heure verte ("the green hour"). (In 1921, following the 1915 production ban, perfumier Guerlaine began producing "L'Heure Bleue," perhaps a reference to the underground consumption of les blanches). It was favored by all social classes, from the wealthy bourgeoisie to poor Bohemian artists. By the 1880s, the onset of mass production caused the price of absinthe to drop significantly, the market expanded, and this, combined with the wine shortage in France during the 1880s and 1890s, caused absinthe to soon become the drink of choice in France. By 1910 the French were consuming 36 million litres of absinthe per year, more than they drank wine.[20] The Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) regulations in the United States, first enacted by Congress in 1975, exist to regulate and improve the average fuel economy of cars and light trucks (trucks, vans and sport utility vehicles) sold in the US. Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) is the sales weighted... Cabaret is a form of entertainment featuring comedy, song, dance, and theatre, distinguished mainly by the performance venue — a restaurant or nightclub with a stage for performances and the audience sitting around the tables (often dining or drinking) watching the performance. ... Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. ... Bourgeois redirects here. ... The term Bohemian describes artists, writers, and disenchanted people of all sorts who wished to live non-traditional lifestyles. ... Grape Phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae, family Phylloxeridae, superfamily Aphidoidea) is a serious pest of commercial grapevines worldwide, originally native to eastern North America. ... The liter (spelled liter in American English and litre in Commonwealth English) is a unit of volume. ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ...


International Consumption

Outside of France, absinthe has been consumed in several other places including most notably Catalonia in Spain, as well as New Orleans and the Czech Republic. This article is about the Spanish Autonomous Community. ... New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ...


Absinthe was never banned in Spain, and its production and consumption has never ceased. During the early 20th century it gained a temporary spike in popularity corresponding with the French influenced Art Nouveau and Modernism aesthetic movements.[21].


New Orleans also has a historical connection to absinthe consumption. It boasts a prominent land mark called The Old Absinthe house, located on Bourbon Street. Originally called The Absinthe Room, it was opened in 1874 by a Catalan bar tender named Cayetano Ferrer who brought his taste for the European beverage with him to America. The building was frequented by many famous people including Franklin Roosevelt, Frank Sinatra, Mark Twain, Oscar Wilde, and Aleister Crowley[22][23]. Catalan can refer to: Catalan people Catalan language An inhabitant of Catalonia A Catalan speaker, whether or not from Catalonia proper (see Catalan Countries). ... Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), 32nd President of the United States, the longest-serving holder of the office and the only man to be elected President more than twice, was one of the central figures of 20th century history. ... Sinatra redirects here. ... Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910),[1] better known by the pen name Mark Twain, was an American humanist,[2] humorist, satirist, lecturer and writer. ... Oscar Fingal OFlahertie Wills Wilde (October 16, 1854 – November 30, 1900) was an Irish playwright, novelist, poet, and author of short stories. ... Aleister Crowley, born Edward Alexander Crowley (pronounced ), (12 October 1875 – 1 December 1947), was a British occultist, writer, mountaineer, poet, and yogi. ...


Absinthe has been consumed in the Czech Republic (then part of Austria-Hungary) since at least 1888, notably by Czech artists, some of whom had an affinity for Paris, frequenting Prague’s famous Cafe Slavia.[24] Its wider appeal in Bohemia itself is uncertain, though it was sold in and around Prague. There is evidence that at least one local liquor distillery in Bohemia was making absinthe at the turn of the 20th century.[25] Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... For other uses, see Bohemia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ...


Ban

Spurred by the temperance movement and wine makers' associations, absinthe was publicly associated with violent crimes and social disorder. A cartoon from Australia ca. ...

Albert Maignan’s "Green Muse" (1895): A poet succumbs to the green fairy.

A critic said that: Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Absinthe makes you crazy and criminal, provokes epilepsy and tuberculosis, and has killed thousands of French people. It makes a ferocious beast of man, a martyr of woman, and a degenerate of the infant, it disorganizes and ruins the family and menaces the future of the country.[26]

Edgar Degas’ 1876 painting L’Absinthe ("Absinthe") (now at the Musée d’Orsay) epitomized the popular view of absinthe 'addicts' as sodden and benumbed. Although he mentioned it only once by name, Émile Zola described their serious intoxication in his novel L’Assommoir: Degas redirects here. ... LAbsinthe—also known as The Absinthe Drinker or Glass of Absinthe—is a painting by Edgar Degas. ... , The Musée dOrsay is a museum in Paris, France, on the left bank of the Seine, housed in the former railway station, the Gare dOrsay. ... Émile Zola (IPA: ) (2 April 1840 – 29 September 1902) was an influential French writer, the most important example of the literary school of naturalism, and a major figure in the political liberalization of France and in the exoneration of the falsely accused and convicted Army officer Alfred Dreyfus. ... LAssommoir (1877) is the seventh novel in Emile Zolas twenty-volume series Les Rougon-Macquart. ...

Boche had known a joiner who had stripped himself stark naked in the rue Saint-Martin and died doing the polka—he was an absinthe-drinker.[27]

In 1905 it was reported that Jean Lanfray murdered his family and attempted to kill himself after drinking absinthe. The fact that he was an alcoholic who had drunk considerably after the two glasses of absinthe in the morning was overlooked, and the murders were blamed solely on absinthe.[28] The Lanfray murders were the last straw, and a petition to ban absinthe in Switzerland was signed by over 82,000 people. Jean Lanfray (b. ...


In 1906 Belgium and Brazil banned the sale and redistribution of absinthe, although they were not the first. Absinthe was banned as early as 1898 in the colony of the Congo Free State.[29] In Switzerland, the prohibition of absinthe was even written into the constitution in 1907, following a popular initiative. The Netherlands banned absinthe in 1909, followed by the United States in 1912 and France in 1915. Capital Boma Government Monarchy Ruler and owner Leopold II of Belgium Historical era New Imperialism  - Established 1885  - Annexation by Belgium 15 November, 1908 The Congo Free State was a corporate state privately controlled by Leopold II, King of the Belgians through a dummy non-governmental organization, the Association Internationale Africaine. ... In political science, the initiative (also known as popular or citizens initiative) provides a means by which a petition signed by a certain minimum number of registered voters can force a public vote on a proposed statute, constitutional amendment, charter amendment, or ordinance. ... Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain...


The prohibition of absinthe in France led to the growing popularity of pastis and ouzo, anise-flavored liqueurs that do not use wormwood. The Pernod distillery moved their absinthe production to Catalonia, Spain,[30] where absinthe was still legal[31] but slow sales in the 1960s eventually caused them to close down - even though a few microdistilleries continued to exist in the area.[32] A glass of diluted pastis French pastis Pastis is an anise-flavored liqueur and apéritif from France, typically containing 40-45% alcohol by volume, although there exist alcohol-free varieties. ... A small souvenir bottle of ouzo Ouzo (ούζο) is a Greek anise-flavored liqueur that is widely consumed in Greece. ... This article is about the Spanish Autonomous Community. ...


In Switzerland, the ban drove absinthe underground. Evidence suggests small home clandestine distillers have been producing absinthe after the ban, focusing on Les Blanches or Les Bleues as it was easier to disguise a clear product as non-absinthe.


Many countries never banned absinthe, notably Britain, where absinthe had not been as popular as in mainland Europe. Continental Europe, also referred to as mainland Europe or simply the Continent, is the continent of Europe, explicitly excluding European islands and, at times, peninsulas. ...


Modern revival

Modern absinthe. Left Vertes, right blanches, with a prepared glass in front of each.
Modern absinthe. Left Vertes, right blanches, with a prepared glass in front of each.

In the 1990s an importer, BBH Spirits, realized that there was no UK law prohibiting the sale of absinthe, as it had never been banned there and started importing Hill’s Absinth from the Czech Republic which helped begin a modern resurgence in absinthe’s popularity. Absinthe had also never been banned in Spain or Portugal, where it continued to be made. These absinthes—Czech, Spanish, and Portuguese brands—date mostly from the 1990s, are generally of Bohemian style, and are considered by many absinthe connoisseurs to be of inferior quality. [33] George Rowley George Rowley (born 1964) is a British entrepreneur who is credited with starting the absinthe revival in the popular market. ...


France never repealed its 1915 ban on absinthe, but in 1988 a law was passed stating that only beverages that do not comply with European Union regulations with respect to thujone content, or that call themselves 'absinthe' explicitly, fall under the old ban. This has resulted in the re-emergence of French absinthes, now labeled liqueur à base de plantes d’absinthe or liqueur aux extraits d’absinthe ('wormwood-based liqueur' or 'liqueur with wormwood extract'). Many absinthes marketed openly in other countries are re-labeled to meet these legal guidelines for sale in France. Interestingly, as the 1915 law regulates only the sale of absinthe in France but not its production, many manufacturers also produce variants destined for export which are plainly labeled 'absinthe'. La Fée Absinthe, released in 2000, was the first brand of absinthe distilled and bottled in France since the 1915 ban, initially for export from France, but now one of roughly fifty French-produced absinthes available in France. La Fée Absinthe is one of the best-known brands of absinthe, known as a highly alcoholic, anise-flavoured, distilled liquor containing the herb wormwood (Artemisia absinthium), green in colour, turning to cloudy, opalescent white when mixed with water. ...


Absinthe has never been illegal to import or manufacture in Australia. Importation requires a permit under the Customs (Prohibited Imports) Regulation 1956 due to a restriction on importing any product containing "oil of wormwood".[34] In 2000 there was an amendment by Foods Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) as part of a new consolidation of the Food Code across Australia and New Zealand to make all wormwood species prohibited herbs for food purposes under Food Standard 1.4.4. Prohibited and Restricted Plants and Fungi but this was inconsistent with other parts of the pre-existing Food Code.[35][36] The proposed amendment was withdrawn in 2002 during the transition between the two Codes, thereby continuing to allow absinthe manufacture and importation through the existing permit-based system. These events were erroneously reported by the media as Australia having reclassified it from a prohibited product to a restricted product.[37] There is now an Australian-produced brand of absinthe called Moulin Rooz.

Collection of absinthe spoons. These specialized spoons are used to hold the sugar cube over which ice-cold water is poured to dilute the absinthe. Note the slot on the handle that allows the spoon to rest securely on the rim of the glass.
Collection of absinthe spoons. These specialized spoons are used to hold the sugar cube over which ice-cold water is poured to dilute the absinthe. Note the slot on the handle that allows the spoon to rest securely on the rim of the glass.

In the Netherlands, this law was successfully challenged by the Amsterdam wine seller Menno Boorsma in July 2004, making absinthe legal once again. Belgium, as part of an effort to simplify its laws, removed its absinthe law on 1 January 2005, citing (as did the Dutch judge) European food regulations as sufficient to render the law unnecessary (and indeed, in conflict with the spirit of the Single European Market). Image File history File links Absinthe_spoons. ... Image File history File links Absinthe_spoons. ... For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This can refer to two things: European Economic Community (EC), the single market of the European Union European Economic Area, a wider single market between the EC and some other european states. ...


In Switzerland, the constitutional ban on absinthe was repealed in 2000 during an overhaul of the national constitution, although the prohibition was written into ordinary law instead. Later that law was repealed, so from March 1, 2005, absinthe is again legal in its country of origin. Absinthe is now not only sold in Switzerland, but is once again distilled in its Val-de-Travers birthplace, with Kübler and La Clandestine Absinthe among the first new brands to reemerge. Val-de-Travers The Val-de-Travers is a district in the canton of Neuchâtel, in Switzerland. ... Kubler Absinthe Superieure is a well-known brand of absinthe, distilled in the Val-de-Travers region of Switzerland, also known as the birthplace of absinthe. ... La Clandestine Absinthe is one of the best-known brands of absinthe, known as a highly alcoholic, anise-flavored, distilled liquor containing the herb wormwood (Artemisia absinthium), transparent in color, turning to cloudy, opalescent white when mixed with water. ...


It is once again legal to produce and sell absinthe in every country where alcohol is legal. In 2007, two brands of absinthe (Lucid and Kübler) began to be sold in the United States. Also in 2007, St. George Absinthe Verte, produced by St. George Spirits of Alameda, California, became the first brand of American-made absinthe to be legally produced in the United States since the enactment of the ban. [38][39] Lucid is an absinthe available for sale in the United States. ... Nickname: Location in the state of California and Alameda County Coordinates: , Country State County Alameda Government  - Mayor Beverly Johnson (D) Area  - Total 23. ...


Cultural impact

L’Absinthe, by Edgar Degas.
L’Absinthe, by Edgar Degas.

The legacy of absinthe as a mysterious, addictive, and mind-altering drink continues to this day. Absinthe has been seen or featured in fine art, movies, video, music and literature. The modern absinthe revival has had an effect on its portrayal. It is often shown as an unnaturally glowing green liquid which is set on fire before drinking, even though traditionally neither is true. In addition, it is most commonly known in the media for over-the-top hallucinations. The legacy of absinthe as a mysterious, addictive, and mind-altering drink continues to this day. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (793x1101, 139 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Absinthe LAbsinthe Absinthe in popular culture ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (793x1101, 139 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Absinthe LAbsinthe Absinthe in popular culture ... L’Absinthe - also known as The Absinthe Drinker or Glass of Absinthe, is a painting by Edgar Degas. ...


Historical

Numerous artists and writers living in France in the late 19th- and early 20th-century were noted absinthe drinkers who featured absinthe in their work. These included Vincent van Gogh, Édouard Manet, Amedeo Modigliani, Arthur Rimbaud, Guy de Maupassant, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, and Paul Verlaine. Later artists and writers drew from this cultural well, including Pablo Picasso, August Strindberg, Oscar Wilde, and Ernest Hemingway. Aleister Crowley was also known to be a habitual absinthe drinker. Emile Cohl, an early pioneer in the art of animation, presented the effects of the drink in 1919 with the short film, hasher's delirium. van Gogh redirects here. ... Manet redirects here. ... Amedeo Clemente Modigliani (July 12, 1884 – January 24, 1920) was an Italian artist, practicing both painting and sculpture, who pursued his career for the most part in France. ... Rimbaud redirects here. ... Henri René Albert Guy de Maupassant (pronounced ) (5 August 1850 – 6 July 1893) was a popular 19th-century French writer. ... Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (IPA ) (November 24, 1864 – September 9, 1901) was a French painter, printmaker, draftsman, and illustrator, whose immersion in the decadent and theatrical life of fin de siècle Paris yielded an oeuvre of provocative images of modern life. ... Paul Verlaine Paul-Marie Verlaine (IPA: ; March 30, 1844–January 8, 1896) was a French poet associated with the Symbolist movement. ... Picasso redirects here. ...   (January 22, 1849 â€“ May 14, 1912) was a Swedish writer, playwright, and painter. ... Oscar Fingal OFlahertie Wills Wilde (October 16, 1854 – November 30, 1900) was an Irish playwright, novelist, poet, and author of short stories. ... Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 — July 2, 1961) was an American novelist, short-story writer, and journalist. ... Aleister Crowley, born Edward Alexander Crowley (pronounced ), (12 October 1875 – 1 December 1947), was a British occultist, writer, mountaineer, poet, and yogi. ... Émile Cohl (January 4, 1857 - January 20, 1938), born Émile Eugène Jean Louis Courtet, was a French caricaturist of the largely-forgotten Incoherent movement, cartoonist, and animator, called The Father of the Animated Cartoon and The Oldest Parisian. The Courtet family has been traced back to the 10th century...


Absinthe has long held a place in European student culture.


Modern

The mystery and illicit quality surrounding the popular view of absinthe has played into modern music, movies, television shows and literature. These depictions vary in their authenticity, often applying dramatic license to depict the drink as everything from aphrodisiac to poison. Artistic licence or license (US), also known as dramatic license/licence, is a colloquial term used to denote the liberties an artist may take in the name of art — for example, if an artist decided it was more artistically correct to portray St. ... This article is about agents which increase sexual desire. ... For other uses, see Poison (disambiguation). ...


Effects of absinthe

Edouard Manet, The Absinthe Drinker
Edouard Manet, The Absinthe Drinker

Absinthe has long been believed to be hallucinogenic. This belief got a contemporary boost in the 1970s when a scientific paper mistakenly reported thujone was related to THC, the active chemical in marijuana, which has hallucinogenic properties.[40] Martin Paul Smith incorrectly argued that absinthe had narcotic effects due to the fermentation process in early 2008.[41] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 346 × 598 pixelsFull resolution (1576 × 2726 pixel, file size: 397 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 346 × 598 pixelsFull resolution (1576 × 2726 pixel, file size: 397 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Édouard Manet (portrait by Nadar) Édouard Manet (January 23, 1832 - April 30, 1883) was a noted French painter. ... Hallucinogenic drugs or hallucinogens are drugs that can alter sensory perceptions, elicit alternate states of consciousness, or cause hallucinations. ... THC redirects here. ... A Cannabis sativa plant The drug cannabis, also called marijuana, is produced from parts of the cannabis plant, primarily the cured flowers and gathered trichomes of the female plant. ...


Ten years after his 19th century experiments with wormwood oil, the French Dr. Magnan studied 250 cases of alcoholism and claimed that those who drank absinthe were worse off than those drinking ordinary alcohol, and that they experienced rapid-onset hallucinations.[42]


Such accounts by absinthe opponents were embraced by its most famous users, many of whom were bohemian artists or writers[43]. In one of the best known accounts of absinthe drinking, Oscar Wilde described the feeling of having tulips on his legs after leaving a bar.[44] Two famous painters who helped popularize the notion that absinthe had powerful psychoactive properties were Toulouse Lautrec and Vincent van Gogh (who suffered from mental instability throughout his life). The term Bohemian describes artists, writers, and disenchanted people of all sorts who wished to live non-traditional lifestyles. ... Oscar Fingal OFlahertie Wills Wilde (October 16, 1854 – November 30, 1900) was an Irish playwright, novelist, poet, and author of short stories. ... Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (November 24, 1864 - September 9, 1901) was a French painter. ... van Gogh redirects here. ...


Today it is known that absinthe does not cause hallucinations, especially ones similar to those described in 19th century studies. Thujone, the supposed active chemical in absinthe, is a GABA antagonist and, while it can produce muscle spasms in large doses, there is no evidence that it causes hallucinations. It has been speculated that reports of hallucinogenic effects of absinthe may have been due to poisonous chemicals being added to cheaper versions of the drink in the 19th century, to give it a more vivid colour.[45] Gaba may refer to: Gabâ or gabaa (Philippines), the concept of negative karma of the Cebuano people GABA, the gamma-amino-butyric acid neurotransmitter GABA receptor, in biology, receptors with GABA as their endogenous ligand Gaba 1 to 1, an English conversational school in Japan Marianne Gaba, a US model...


However, the debate over whether absinthe produces effects on the human mind additional to those of alcohol has not been conclusively resolved. The effects of absinthe have been described by some artists as mind opening. The most commonly reported experience is a 'clear-headed' feeling of inebriation — a form of 'lucid drunkenness'. Some modern specialists, such as chemist, historian and absinthe distiller Ted Breaux, claim that alleged secondary effects of absinthe may be caused by the fact that some of the herbal compounds in the drink act as stimulants, while others act as sedatives, creating an overall lucid effect of awakening.[46] A stimulant is a drug which increases the activity of the sympathetic nervous system and produces a sense of euphoria or awakeness. ... A sedative is a drug that depresses the central nervous system (CNS), which causes calmness, relaxation, reduction of anxiety, sleepiness, slowed breathing, slurred speech, staggering gait, poor judgment, and slow, uncertain reflexes. ...


Long term effects of low absinthe consumption in humans remain unknown, although it is known that the herbs contained in absinthe have both painkilling and antiparasitic properties. Anesthesia (AE), also anaesthesia (BE), is the process of blocking the perception of pain and other sensations. ... Antiparasitics are a class of medications which are indicated for the treatment of infection by parasites such as nematodes, cestodes, trematodes, infectious protozoa, and amoebas. ...


Controversy

It was once thought that excessive absinthe drinking had worse effects than those associated with overindulgence in other forms of alcohol, a belief that led to diagnoses of the disease of 'absinthism'. One of the first vilifications of absinthe was an 1864 experiment in which a certain Dr. Magnan exposed a guinea pig to large doses of pure wormwood vapor and another to alcohol vapors. The guinea pig exposed to wormwood experienced convulsive seizures, while the animal exposed to alcohol did not. Dr. Magnan would later blame the chemical thujone, contained in wormwood, for these effects.[47] For other uses, see Guinea pig (disambiguation). ...


Past reports estimated thujone levels in absinthe as high — up to 260 mg per kg of absinthe.[48] More recent studies have shown that very little of the thujone present in wormwood actually makes it into a properly distilled absinthe, even when using historical recipes and methods. Most proper absinthes, both vintage and modern, are within the current EU limits.[49][50][51][52]


Tests on mice show an LD50 of around 45 mg thujone per kg of body weight,[53] much higher than what is contained in absinthe and the high amount of alcohol would kill a person many times over before the thujone became a danger.[53] Although direct effects on humans are unknown, many have consumed thujone in higher amounts than present in absinthe through non-controversial sources like sage oil, which can be up to 50% thujone.[54] An LD50 test being administered In toxicology, the LD50 or colloquially semilethal dose of a particular substance is a measure of how much constitutes a lethal dose. ... Binomial name L. Painting from Koehlers Medicinal Plants (1887) Common sage (Salvia officinalis) is a small evergreen subshrub, with woody stems, grayish leaves, and blue to purplish flowers native to southern Europe and the Mediterranean region. ...


A study in the Journal of Studies on Alcohol[55] concluded that a high concentration of thujone in alcohol has negative effects on attention performance. It slowed down reaction time, and caused subjects to concentrate their attention in the central field of vision. Medium doses did not produce an effect noticeably different from plain alcohol. The high dose of thujone used in the study was larger than what can currently be obtained, even in 'high thujone' absinthe that cannot be sold legally in the European Union. While the effects of this high dose were statistically significant in a double blind test, the test subjects themselves could still not reliably identify which samples were the ones containing thujone. As most people describe the effects of absinthe as a more lucid and aware drunk, this suggests that thujone is not the cause of any of absinthe’s alleged secondary effects. Reaction time (RT) is the elapsed time between the presentation of a sensory stimulus and the subsequent behavioral response. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In statistics, a result is called statistically significant if it is unlikely to have occurred by chance. ...


Regulations

Currently, most countries do not have a legal definition of absinthe (unlike Scotch whisky or cognac). Manufacturers can label a product 'absinthe' or 'absinth', whether or not it matches the traditional definition. Due to many countries never banning absinthe, not every country has regulations specifically governing it. Scotch whisky is whisky made in Scotland. ... Cognac (IPA: [k*njæk] where * is ɒ, oʊ, ɑ:, or ɔ:), named after the city in France, is a kind of brandy, which must be produced in the region around the town of Cognac and aged in oak barrels in order to be called cognac. A related drink produced...


Australia

Bitters can contain a maximum 35 mg/kg thujone, other alcoholic beverages can contain a maximum 10 mg/kg[56] of thujone. In Australia, import and sales require a special permit although absinthe is readily available in many bottle shops. It is unresolved as to whether or not absinthe is permitted in luggage in non-commercial quantities for personal use. While the legislation would appear to be clear, it is sold by duty-free retailers at 'Arrivals' at Australian international airports such as Kingsford Smith. bitter An antique (probably 1880s) bitters bottle from Germany that sold for $1240. ... A liquor store is a type of convenience store which specializes in the sale of alcoholic beverages, especially in regions (e. ...


Canada

In Canada, liquor laws are under the jurisdiction of the provincial governments. British Columbia has no limits on thujone content; Alberta, Ontario and Nova Scotia allow 10 mg/kg thujone; and all other provinces do not allow the sale of absinthe containing thujone (although, in Saskatchewan, one can purchase any liquor, with a minimum of one case, usually 12 bottles x 750 ml or 8 x 1L). Individual liquor boards must approve each product before it may be sold, and currently only Hill’s Absinth, Czech Absinth s.r.o., Elie-Arnaud Denoix, Pernod, Absente, Versinthe and, in limited release, La Fée Absinthe are approved. Like any alcohol, absinthe can only be imported by the proper government agencies and imports by individuals to a private address are prohibited. Liquor laws is a term that refers to any legislation dealing with the abolishment, restriction, or regulation of the sale, consumption, and manufacture of alcoholic beverages. ... Motto: Splendor sine occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Steven Point Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 36 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th Total 944... For other uses, see Alberta (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Motto: Munit Hae et Altera Vincit (Latin: One defends and the other conquers) Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Largest metro Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English (de facto), French Government Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 11 Senate... For other uses, see Saskatchewan (disambiguation). ...


Production is also regulated by the provincial government. Recently, Okanagan Spirits in British Columbia was allowed to distill a traditional style of absinthe that closely resembles absinthes from France and Switzerland.


Okanagan Spirits, a distillery based in Vernon BC, has produced Taboo, which has been approved for sale in BC, Alberta and Ontario and is even available on the shelves of BC’s provincially-run liquor stores. This is Canada’s only authentic absinthe, made using a traditional recipe.

European Union

The European Union permits a maximum thujone level of 10 mg/kg in alcoholic beverages with more than 25% ABV, and 35 mg/kg in alcohol labeled as bitters.[57] Member countries regulate absinthe production within this framework. Sale of absinthe is permitted in all EU countries unless they further regulate it. // The flag of the Council of Europe and the European Union. ...

The end of the Green Fairy (1910): Critical poster by Albert Gantner illustrating the absinthe ban in Switzerland.
The end of the Green Fairy (1910): Critical poster by Albert Gantner illustrating the absinthe ban in Switzerland.

Download high resolution version (1424x2222, 618 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1424x2222, 618 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...

France

In addition to EU standards, products explicitly called 'absinthe' cannot be sold in France, although they can be produced for export. Absinthe is now commonly labeled as spiritueux à base de plantes d’absinthe ('wormwood-based spirits'). France also regulates fenchone, a chemical in the herb fennel, to 5 mg/l.[58] This makes many brands of Swiss absinthe illegal without reformulation. Fenchone is a natural organic compound classified as a monoterpene and a ketone. ...


Switzerland

In Switzerland the sale and production of absinthe was prohibited from 1910 to 2005, but the ban was lifted on March 1, 2005. To be legally made or sold in Switzerland, absinthe must be distilled and either uncolored or naturally colored.

United States

US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations allow Artemisia species in foods or beverages, but those that contain Artemisia species, white cedar, oak moss, tansy or yarrow must be thujone free.[59] Other herbs that contain thujone have no restrictions. For example, sage and sage oil (which can be almost 50% thujone)[54] are on the FDA’s list of substances generally recognized as safe.[60] FDA redirects here. ... Binomial name Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach. ... Sage oil is the essential oil made from the culinary herb sage, Salvia officinalis. ... Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) is a United States of America Food and Drug Administration (FDA) designation that a chemical or substance added to food is considered safe by experts, and so is exempted from the usual Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) food additive tolerance requirements. ...


The prevailing consensus of interpretation of United States law and regulations among American absinthe connoisseurs is that it is probably legal to purchase such a product for personal use in the US. It is prohibited to sell items meant for human consumption which contain thujone derived from Artemisia species. (This derives from a FDA regulation, as opposed to a DEA regulation.) According to U.S. Customs and Border Protection literature, the importation of absinthe is no longer listed as "prohibited" but now subject to FDA and Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB) approval like other distilled spirits.[61] Absinthe can be and occasionally is seized by United States Customs if it appears to be for human consumption and can be seized inside the US with a warrant.[62][63] The United States Constitution, the supreme law of the United States The United States Reports, the official reporter of the Supreme Court of the United States The law of the United States was originally largely derived from the common law of the system of English law, which was in force... The DEAs enforcement activities may take agents anywhere from distant countries to suburban U.S. homes. ... U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), an agency of the United States Department of Homeland Security, is charged with regulating and facilitating international trade, collecting import duties, and enforcing U.S. trade laws. ... The Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau, shortened to Tax and Trade Bureau or TTB, is a part of the United States Department of the Treasury. ...


A faux-absinthe liquor called Absente, made with southern wormwood (Artemisia abrotanum) instead of grande wormwood (Artemisia absinthium), is sold legally in the United States and does not contain grande wormwood. This was the first US approval referring to "absinthe" on the front label; the front label says "Absinthe Refined" but the TTB classified the product as liqueur. A box of absente produced in France. ... Binomial name Artemisia abrotanum L. Southernwood, southern wormwood, or lemon plant, is a flowering plant, Artemisia abrotanum. ... Binomial name Artemisia absinthium L. Artemisia absinthium by Koehler 1887 Artemisia absinthium or Absinth Wormwood, is a wormwood. ...


In 2007, TTB relaxed the US absinthe ban, and approved several brands for sale.[64] These brands must pass TTB testing, which is performed by the Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry method[65] and TTB considers a product to be thujone-free if the FDA’s test measures less than 10ppm (equal to 10mg/kg) thujone.[66] A US distillery also began producing and selling absinthe, the first US company to do so since 1912. [67] Example of a GC-MS Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) is a method that combines the features of gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry to identify different substances within a test sample. ...


Vanuatu

The Absinthe (Prohibition) Act 1915, passed in the New Hebrides, has never been repealed, and is included in the 1988 Vanuatu consolidated legislation, and contains the following all-encompassing restriction: The manufacture, importation, circulation and sale wholesale or by retail of absinthe or similar liquors in Vanuatu shall be prohibited.[68] Absinthe is now legal. The New Hebrides are an island group in the South Pacific that now form the nation of Vanuatu. ...


References

  • Adams, Jad. "Hideous Absinthe: A History of the Devil in a Bottle." Tauris Parke Paperbacks: 2008. ISBN 1-84511-684-4.

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Notes

  1. ^ 'Traite de la Fabrication de Liqueurs et de la Distillation des Alcools' Duplais (1882 3rd Ed, Pg 249)
  2. ^ a b Absinthism: a fictitious 19th century syndrome with present impact Retrieved 20 November 2006.
  3. ^ The Absinthe Buyer’s Guide: Modern & Vintage Absinthe Reference: Archives
  4. ^ Absinthe etymology Retrieved 30 March 2006
  5. ^ Absinth Short explanation of the adoption of the absinth spelling by Bohemian producers. Retrieved 22 Jan 2008.
  6. ^ Professors of Absinthe Historic account of preparation at a bar. Retrieved 22 Jan 2008
  7. ^ List of 104 cocktails including absinthe from the 1930 Savoy Cocktail Book. The Real Absinthe Blog. Retrieved 11 June 2007.
  8. ^ Trying to clear Absinthe’s reputation - New York Times
  9. ^ [1]
  10. ^ Chu, Louisa. "Crazy for absinthe", Chicago Tribune online, 2008-03-12. 
  11. ^ Original Vintage Absinthe Posters at The Virtual Absinthe Museum: Tamagno, Privat-Livemont
  12. ^ About absinthe kits
  13. ^ Evolution in Action! Gumbo Pages. Dangers of drinking wormwood extract. Retrieved 26 August 2007
  14. ^ Fine Spirits Corner - by Peter Verte
  15. ^ The Absinthe Buyer's Guide: Modern & Vintage Absinthe Reference: Spain Archives
  16. ^ Absinthe bootleggers refuse to go straight. Swiss info. Retrieved 11 May 2006.
  17. ^ "Worthy of their name", The Prague Post, 2006-04-26. Retrieved on 2007-05-20. 
  18. ^ Apsinthitês oinos: Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon
  19. ^ Absinthe FAQ III
  20. ^ Oxygénée’s History & FAQ III. "In 1874, France consumed 700,000 litres of absinthe, but by 1910 the figure had exploded to 36,000,000 litres…." http://www.oxygenee.com/absinthe-faq/faq3.html.
  21. ^ Verte, Peter. The Fine Spirits Corner. Absinthe Buyers Guide. Retrieved on 2008-04-11.
  22. ^ The Virtual Absinthe Museum: Absinthe in America - New Orleans
  23. ^ Rue Bourbon ~ Home to four great New Orleans establishments
  24. ^ Cafe Slavia
  25. ^ 'Oliva Absinth’s History of Absinthe page' Retrieved 16 March 2007
  26. ^ Conrad III, Barnaby; (1988). Absinthe History in a Bottle. Chronicle books. ISBN 0-8118-1650-8 Pg. 116
  27. ^ page 411 of the 1970 Penguin Classics English edition
  28. ^ Conrad III, Barnaby; (1988). Absinthe History in a Bottle. Chronicle books. ISBN 0-8118-1650-8 Pg. 1–4
  29. ^ Fans of absinthe party like it’s 1899 International Herald Tribune. Retrieved 19 January 2007
  30. ^ Bacardi Invests More Than $250 Million in Dewar’s Scotch Whiskey - Avenue Vine
  31. ^ The Absinthe Buyer’s Guide - La Fée Verte
  32. ^ Absinthe Buyer’s Guide: The Fine Spirits Corner
  33. ^ Absinthe at la Fée Verte: FAQ
  34. ^ Schedule 8 Commonwealth of Australia Customs (Prohibited Imports) Regulations 1956 Schedule 8. Retrieved 29 December 2006
  35. ^ Australian Food Standards PDF Food Standards Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code Proposal P254. Retrieved 1 January 2007
  36. ^ Prohibited and Restricted Plants and Fungi Food Standards Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code Standard 1.4.4. Retrieved 29 December 2006
  37. ^ Just add water Sydney Morning Herald 22 October 2003. Retrieved 12 May 2006
  38. ^ Stacy Finz, "Alameda distiller helps make absinthe legitimate again", San Francisco Chronicle, December 5, 2007
  39. ^ Pete Wells, "A Liquor of Legend Makes a Comeback", New York Times, December 5, 2007
  40. ^ Conrad III, Barnaby; (1988). Absinthe History in a Bottle. Chronicle books. ISBN 0-8118-1650-8 Pg. 152
  41. ^ Padosch, Stephan A.; Dirk W. Lachenmeier and Lars U Kröner (2006-05-10). "Absinthism: a fictitious 19th century syndrome with present impact". Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy 1. Biomed Central. doi:10.1186/1747-597X-1-14. 
  42. ^ The Lancet 1874, ON THE COMPARATIVE ACTION OF ALCOHOL AND ABSINTHE By Dr. Magnan Retrieved 29 November 2006
  43. ^ Salleh, A. Absinthes's Mytique Cops a Blow, ABC Science, May1, 2008.
  44. ^ Baker, Phil; (2001). The Book of Absinthe: A Cultural History". Grove Press books. ISBN 0-8021-3993-0 Pg. 32
  45. ^ Ian Hutton, page 63, "Common adulterants were cupric acetate (to provide the valued green colour)"
  46. ^ The Mystery of the Green Menace - Wired Magazine (see page 3 of article)
  47. ^ Conrad III, Barnaby; (1988). Absinthe History in a Bottle. Chronicle books. ISBN 0-8118-1650-8 Pg. 101
  48. ^ Ian Hutton, page 62, "quoted by Arnold"..."Arnold WN (1989) Absinthe: Scientific American 260(6):112-117"
  49. ^ Ian Hutton, pages 62-63
  50. ^ Joachim Emmert; Günter Sartor, Frank Sporer and Joachim Gummersbach (2004). Determination of α-/β-Thujone and Related Terpenes in Absinthe using Solid Phase Extraction and Gas Chromatography (in English) (PDF). Deutsche Lebensmittel-Rundschau 9 (100): 352–356. Germany: Gabriele Lauser, Ingrid Steiner. “Tab. 1 Concentrations of thujone and anethole in different absinthe samples” 
  51. ^ Determination of a/β Thujone and Related Terpenes in Absinthe using Solid Phase Extraction and Gas Chromatography. Retrieved 5 March 2006.
  52. ^ Chemical Composition of Vintage Preban Absinthe with Special Reference to Thujone, Fenchone, Pinocamphone, Methanol, Copper, and Antimony Concentrations Dirk W. Lachenmeier, David Nathan-Maister, Theodore A. Breaux, Eva-Maria Sohnius, Kerstin Schoeberl, and Thomas Kuballa (2008). Retrieved 18 APR 2008.
  53. ^ a b Thujone Gamma-Aminobutyric acid type A receptor modulation and metabolic detoxification. Hold K., Sirisoma N., Ikeda T., Narahashi T. and Casida J. (2000). Retrieved 22 May 2006.
  54. ^ a b Essential oils from Dalmatian Sage. J. Agric. Food Chem April 29, 1999. Retrieved 12 May 2006.
  55. ^ Absinthe: Attention Performance and Mood under the Influence of Thujone Journal of Studies on Alcohol, DETTLING, A. et al. Retrieved 21 May 2006.
  56. ^ Standard 1.4.1 Contaminants and Natural Toxicants. Food Standards Australia New Zealand. Retrieved 25 May 2006.
  57. ^ Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Food on Thujone, European Commission. SCF/CS/FLAV/flavor/23 ADD2 Final 6 February 2003.
  58. ^ Décret n°88-1024 du 2 novembre 1988. Retrieved 5 March 2006.
  59. ^ Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21, Chapter I, Part 172, Section 172.510 - Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption. US Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 14 June 2008.
  60. ^ Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21, Chapter 1, Part 182 - Substances Generally Recognized as Safe. US Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 14 June 2008.
  61. ^ Prohibited and Restricted Items. US Customs and Border Protection. Retrieved 14 June, 2008.
  62. ^ US CODE: Title 19,1595. Searches and seizures. Retrieved 12 May 2006.
  63. ^ Fée Verte Essential Absinthe FAQ. "14. So will I get arrested for possession of absinthe in the U.S.?" Retrieved 12 May 2006.
  64. ^ Absinthe, a Collection of TTB Label Approvals, Lehrman Beverage Law. Retrieved 15 April 2008.
  65. ^ Alcohol Tax and Trade Bureau. "Screening of Distilled Spirits for Thujone by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry" Retrieved 23 October 2007.
  66. ^ Alcohol Tax and Trade Bureau Industry Circular Number 2007-5. Retrieved 23 October 2007.
  67. ^ Alameda distiller helps make absinthe legitimate again. San Francisco Chronicle (2007-12-05). Retrieved on 2008-04-14.
  68. ^ Absinthe (Prohibition) Act 4, Laws of the Republic of Vanuatu Revised Edition 1988
  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

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External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Absinthe
  • The Pernod Catalogue of 1896
  • The Virtual Absinthe Museum — An online museum of absinthe history, lore, art and antiques.
  • La Fée Verte — An online user forum and absinthe guide with user reviews and a reference library of absinthe-related articles.
  • Absinthe.com.au — An Australian-based absinthe information, culture and review site featuring research on the history of absinthe in Australia.
  • Wormwood Symposium — An absinthe testing blog with guide of on-topic articles.
  • The Wormwood Society — An independent organization supporting changes to the U.S. laws and regulations concerning absinthe. Provides articles, a forum and legal information.
  • Artemisia absinthium references from the Biodiversity Heritage Library
  • Artemisia pontica references from the Biodiversity Heritage Library
  • Rothstein, Edward. "Absinthe Returns in a Glass Half Full of Mystique and Misery", New York Times November 12, 2007 accessed November 12, 2007
  • Absinthe.se — A collection of absinthe reviews and information.
  • Thujone.info - A data bank of peer-reviewed articles on thujone, absinthe, and absinthism, with independent thujone ratings of some commercial brands.
  • "A Liquor of Legend Makes a Comeback", New York Times, December 5, 2007 - accessed December 5, 2007.
  • absintheology.com

Articles

  • Arnaud Van De Casteele "L'absinthe" in Andrieu et Boëtsch Le dictionnaire du Corps, Paris, éditions CNRS, 2008.
  • Arnaud Van De Casteele "L'absinthe, le suc de la montagne" in Boëtsch et Hubert L'Alimentation en montagne, Gap, éditions des Hautes-Alpes, 2007.
  • Absinthe's History - June 1989 Scientific American article about the history of Absinthe.
  • Absinthe’s second coming — An April 2001 article in Cigar Aficionado about the first absinthe commercially produced in France since the 1915 ban.
  • Swiss face sobering future after legalizing absinthe — A March 2005 Reuters article about the legalization of absinthe in Switzerland.
  • The Mystery of the Green Menace — A November 2005 WIRED Magazine article about a New Orleans man who has researched the chemical content of Absinthe and now distills it in France.
  • The Return of the Green Faerie — A wine and spirit journal article about the history, ritual, and artistic cult of Absinthe.
  • Turner, Jack "Green Gold: The return of absinthe". The New Yorker (March 13 2006):38–44.
  • Absinthe - Demystifying the Storied Drink — An April 2006 Associated Press/asap Flash interactive, multimedia piece about absinthe.
  • Barely Legal: American Absinthe Passes the Taste Test — Wired magazine article reviews Lucid.
  • Absinthism: A fictitious 19th century syndrome with present impact Padosch, S.A., Lachenmeier, D.W., and Kroener, L.U. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy 2006, 1:14.
  • [3] - MacLean’s Article December 17th 2007
  • Chemical Composition of Vintage Preban Absinthe with Special Reference to Thujone, Fenchone, Pinocamphone, Methanol, Copper, and Antimony Concentrations Dirk W. Lachenmeier, David Nathan-Maister, Theodore A. Breaux, Eva-Maria Sohnius, Kerstin Schoeberl, and Thomas Kuballa. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (2008).

Scientific American is a popular-science magazine, published (first weekly and later monthly) since August 28, 1845, making it the oldest continuously published magazine in the United States. ... Cigar Aficionado is an American magazine that is dedicated to the world of cigars. ... Wired is a full-color monthly American magazine and on-line periodical published in San Francisco, California since March 1993. ... For other uses, see New Yorker. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Booze redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... An American-produced bottle of ginjō-shu sake. ... The relationship between alcohol consumption and health has been the subject of formal scientific research since at least 1926, when Dr. Raymond Pearl published his book, Alcohol and Longevity, in which he reported his finding that drinking alcohol in moderation was associated with greater longevity than either abstaining or drinking... Alcohol advertising is the promotion of alcoholic beverages by alcohol producers through a variety of media. ... Image:Frans Hals 002 . ... This article is about beer. ... A distilled beverage is a consumable liquid containing ethyl alcohol (ethanol) purified by distillation from a fermented substance such as fruit, vegetables, or grain. ... Winemakers often use carboys like these to ferment smaller quantities of wine Winemaking, or vinification, is the process of wine production, from the selection of grapes to the bottling of finished wine. ... Bottles of cachaça, a Brazilian alcoholic beverage. ... For other uses, see Beer (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... Cider in a pint glass Cider (or cyder) is an alcoholic beverage made primarily from the juices of specially grown varieties of apples. ... Rice wine refers to alcoholic beverages made from rice. ... Chicha served with pipeño Chicha is a Spanish word for any variety of fermented beverage. ... Shaoxing jiu, a famous huangjiu Huangjiu (黄酒; pinyin: huáng jiǔ, lit. ... In the West, Kumis has been touted for its health benefits, as in this 1877 book also naming it Milk Champagne. Kumis (also spelled kumiss, koumiss, kymys; called airag in Mongolian cuisine) is a fermented milk drink traditionally made from the milk of horses. ... A glass of mint kvass. ... Mead Mead is a fermented alcoholic beverage made of honey, water, and yeast. ... Pulque, or octli, is an alcoholic beverage made from the fermented juice of the maguey, and is a traditional native beverage of Mesoamerica. ... Finlandia Sahti, Finnish sahti label Sahti is a traditional beer from Finland made from a variety of grains, malted and unmalted, including barley, rye, wheat, and oats; sometimes bread made from these grains is fermented instead of malt itself. ... Main article: Chinese wine Gouqi jiu(zh:枸杞酒) is one kind of fruit alcoholic beverage made from Gouqi. ... A distilled beverage is a consumable liquid containing ethyl alcohol (ethanol) purified by distillation from a fermented substance such as fruit, vegetables, or grain. ... A cheap commercial bottle of Mexican Mezcal bought in Cancun. ... For other uses, see Tequila (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Applejack. ... A bottle of calvados Pays DAuge Calvados is an apple brandy from the French région of Lower Normandy. ... Irish Whiskeys For the novel of the same name, see Irish Whiskey (novel). ... Whisky production in Japan began around 1870, but the first commercial production was in 1923, when the countrys first distillery—Yamazaki—opened. ... Scotch whisky is whisky made in Scotland. ... An Indian liquor made from either coconut or the juice of the cashew apple. ... Arrack refers to strong spirits distilled mainly in South and South East Asia from fermented fruits, grains, sugarcane, or the sap of coconuts or other palm trees. ... 1956 Armagnac Armagnac (IPA [aʁmaɲak]), the region of France, has given its name to its distinctive kind of brandy or eau de vie, made of the same grapes as Cognac and undergoing the same aging in oak barrels, but with column still distillation (Cognac is distilled in pot... For other uses, see Brandy (disambiguation). ... Cognac in a tulip glass Cognac (pronounced ), named after the town of Cognac in France, is a brandy produced in the region surrounding the town. ... For other uses, see Pisco (disambiguation). ... Bourbon bottle, 19th century Oak casks in ricks used store and age bourbon. ... Corn whiskey is an American whiskey made from a mash made up of at least 80 percent maize, or corn. ... Tennessee whiskey is a type of American whiskey. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Ţuică (in Romanian , sometimes spelled tuica, tzuika, tsuika, tsuica, or tzuica), is a traditional Romanian alcoholic beverage, usually made from plums. ... A glass of grappa Grappa is a fragrant grape-based pomace brandy of between 30% and 80% alcohol by volume (60 to 160 proof), of Italian origin. ... Pomace brandy is a liquor distilled from pomace wine. ... Orujo is a liquor obtained from the distillation of the pomace of the grape. ... Tsikoudia or raki is a grape-based spirit from the island of Crete (Greece), made from the distillation of pomace, i. ... Tsipouro (Greek: Τσίπουρο) is a distilled alcoholic beverage, more precisely a pomace brandy, from Greece and in particular Thessaly, Epirus, Macedonia, and the island of Crete, where the same spirit with a stronger aroma is known as tsikoudia. ... Zivania (also Zivana) (Greek: Ζιβανία) is a traditional Greek-Cypriot distillate produced in the island of Cyprus from pomace (or marcs), the residue of grapes that were pressed during the winemaking process (including the stems and seeds) mixed with high-quality dry wines produced from the local grape varieties of Cyprus. ... Awamori (泡盛) is an alcoholic beverage indigenous to and unique to Okinawa, Japan. ... Rice baijiu (Chinese: 米白酒; pinyin: mǐbáijiǔ), also known as rice fragrance baijiu (米香型白酒), is a variety of distilled beverage popular in China. ... Soju is a distilled beverage native to Korea and traditionally made from rice. ... Rye whiskey describes two types of whiskies, theoretically distilled from rye. ... Baijiu (Chinese: 白酒; pinyin: ) or Shaojiu is potent Chinese alcohol. ... Kaoliang jiu (literally sorghum liquor; often called simply kaoliang) is a strong distilled liquor, made from fermented sorghum (which is called gaoliang in Chinese). ... Aguardiente is the Spanish generic name for alcoholic drinks between 29 and 45 percent alcohol, meaning fiery water, or, literally burning water [1] (as it burns the throat of the drinker). ... Cachaça Java, from Salinas-MG, Brazil Cachaça (IPA: ) is the most popular distilled alcoholic beverage in Brazil. ... This page is about the drink, for the locality, go to Guaro Guaro is the name of a kind of liquor in many places in Central America. ... Caribbean rum, circa 1941 Rum is a distilled beverage made from sugarcane by-products such as molasses and sugarcane juice by a process of fermentation and distillation. ... Seco Herrerano is considered the national alcoholic beverage of Panama. ... Canadian whisky is whisky made in Canada; by law it must be aged there at least three years in a barrel. ... Snaps is a small shot of a strong alcoholic beverage taken during the course of a meal, very much like the German schnapps. ... Shōchū ) is a distilled alcoholic beverage popular in Japan. ... Vodka bottling machine, Shatskaya Vodka Shatsk, Russia Vodka (Polish: wódka, Russian: водка) is one of the worlds most popular distilled beverages. ... For other uses, see Whisky (disambiguation). ... Kirschwasser, German for cherry water, (pronounced ), often known simply as Kirsch (German for cherry), is a clear brandy made from double distillation of the fermented juice of a small black cherry. ... A bottle of apricot Hungarian Pálinka. ... A traditional bottle of slivovitz, plum rakia Croatian Sljivovica and Slovenian Slivovka, two different names for the same drink, a plum rakia Rakia or Rakija (Bulgarian: , Croatian and Bosnian (rakija), Albanian: , Macedonian and Serbian: , Slovenian: , Romanian: ) is hard liquor similar to brandy, made by distillation of fermented fruits, popular throughout... Schnapps is a type of distilled beverage. ... Bottles of strawberry liqueur A liqueur is a sweet alcoholic beverage, often flavoured with fruits, herbs, spices, flowers, seeds, roots, plants, barks, and sometimes cream. ... The Amaretto Disaronno square bottle The term amaretto refers to a sweet liqueur made from a basic infusion of the stones of drupe fruits, such as peaches, as well as a related almond biscotto. ... Arak Rayan, from Syria. ... A small souvenir bottle of ouzo Ouzo (ούζο) is a Greek anise-flavored liqueur that is widely consumed in Greece. ... Rakı becomes cloudy white when mixed with water. ... A glass of diluted pastis French pastis Pastis is an anise-flavored liqueur and apéritif from France, typically containing 40-45% alcohol by volume, although there exist alcohol-free varieties. ... Sambuca is an Italian aniseed-flavored, usually colorless liqueur. ... Malibu Rum is a rum made in Barbados with natural coconut extract. ... A 500 ml plastic bottle of Brennivín featuring its distinctive black label. ... A bottle and glass of Linie brand akvavit. ... Bärenjäger is a honey-flavoured liqueur based on vodka, made by Teucke & König in Germany. ... Polish Krupnik Krupnik, or Krupnikas as it is known in Lithuanian, is a traditional sweet vodka, similar to a liqueur, based on grain spirit and honey, popular in Poland and Lithuania. ... This article is about the beverage. ... Jenever (also known as genever or jeniever), is the juniper-flavored and strongly alcoholic traditional liquor of the Netherlands and Flanders, from which gin has evolved. ... Limoncello [limontlːo] is a lemon liqueur produced in the south of Italy, mainly in the region around the Gulf of Naples and the coast of Amalfi and Islands of Ischia and Capri, but also in Sicily, Sardinia and the Maltese island of Gozo. ... Schnapps is a type of distilled beverage. ... In scuba diving, the word cocktail also means a hazard with diving with some rebreathers: it means a caustic solution resulting from water reaching and dissolving the absorbent. ... The shot glass containing Midori was dropped into a shandy, making a fairly potent beer cocktail. ... Wikibooks Bartending has a page on the topic of Cocktails A cocktail is a style of mixed drink made predominantly with a distilled beverage, such as vodka, gin, whiskey, rum, or tequila, mixed with another drink other than water. ... Serving multiple flaming cocktails can be an impressive skill to learn. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... A wine cocktail is a mixed drink similar to a true cocktail. ... It has been suggested that glogg be merged into this article or section. ...



  Results from FactBites:
 
absinthe history: Absinthe Buyers Guide (1101 words)
Absinthe was the drink of choice among artist and writers in the mid to late19th century.
Absinthe was already growing in popularity and was a perfect alternative, being a distilled spirit, it was much stronger than wine and had a mysterious effect that heightened the senses.
Absinthe is most often described as having the flavor of liquorice, with a bitter after taste.
Absinthe - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4994 words)
Absinthe (also absinth) (IPA English: [ˈæbsɪnθ] IPA French: [ap.sɛ̃t]) is a distilled, highly alcoholic, anise-flavored spirit derived from herbs including the flowers and leaves of the medicinal plant Artemisia absinthium, also called wormwood.
Absinthe originated in Switzerland as an elixir, but is better known for its popularity in late 19th- and early 20th-century France, particularly among Parisian artists and writers whose romantic associations with the drink still linger in popular culture.
Absinthe's popularity grew steadily until the 1840s, when absinthe was given to French troops as a fever preventative.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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