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Encyclopedia > Abrahamic religions
map showing the prevalence of "Abrahamic" (purple) and "Dharmic" (yellow) religions in each country.
map showing the prevalence of "Abrahamic" (purple) and "Dharmic" (yellow) religions in each country.

In the study of comparative religion, an Abrahamic religion is any of those religions deriving from a common ancient Semitic tradition and traced by their adherents to Abraham ("Father/Leader of many" Hebrew אַבְרָהָם Arabic ابراهيم), a patriarch whose life is narrated in the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament, and as a prophet in the Qur'an and also called a prophet in Genesis 20:7. This forms a large group of largely monotheistic religions, generally held to include Judaism, Christianity, Islam, and the Bahá'í Faith, and comprises over half of the world's religious adherents. Many of these adherents will reject this grouping of their faiths on the grounds that they contain inherently and fundamentally incompatible ideas concerning Abraham and concerning God. Image File history File links Abraham_Dharma. ... Image File history File links Abraham_Dharma. ... A dharmic religion is a religion which recognizes the concept of dharma. ... Comparative religion is a field of religious studies that analyzes interpretive differences of common themes and ideas among the worlds religions. ... Semitic is a linguistic term referring to a subdivision of largely Middle Eastern Afro-Asiatic languages, the Semitic languages, as well as their speakers corresponding cultures, and ethnicities. ... Tomb of Abraham Abraham (ca. ... The Patriarchs, known as the Avot in Hebrew, are Abraham, his son Isaac and his grandson Jacob. ... 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum This article discusses usage of the term Hebrew Bible. For the article on the Hebrew Bible itself, see Tanakh. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh, but not Old Testament, because it does not recognize the concept of a New Testament. ... The Quran identifies a number of men as Prophets of Islam (Arabic: nabee نبي ; pl. ... The , (Arabic: recitation, also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and Al-Quran, Turkish Kuran), is the central religious text of Islam. ... This article describes the Jewish religion; for a consideration of ethnic, historic, and cultural aspects of the Jewish identity refer to the article Jew. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as recounted in the Gospels. ... For other uses, including people named Islam, see Islam (disambiguation). ... Seat of the Universal House of Justice, governing body of the Baháís in Haifa, Israel The Baháí Faith is a religion founded by Baháulláh in 19th century Persia. ...


According to the Jewish tradition, Abraham was the first post-flood person to reject idolatry through rational analysis (Shem and Eber carried on the Tradition from Noah), hence he symbolically appears as a fundamental figure for monotheistic religion. In that sense, Abrahamic religion could be simply called monotheistic religion, but not all monotheistic religions are Abrahamic. In Islam he is considered as the first monotheist in a world where monotheism was lost (Abraham being a phophet in a line of phophets starting with Adam) and is often referred to as Ibrahim al-Hanif or Abraham the Monotheist. The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... Tomb of Abraham Abraham (ca. ... Noah or Nóach (Rest, Standard Hebrew נוֹחַ Nóaḥ, Tiberian Hebrew נֹחַ Nōªḥ; Arabic نوح Nūḥ) is a character from the Book of Genesis who builds an ark to save his family and the worlds animals from the Deluge, the universal flood. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Monotheism (in Greek monon = single and Theos = God) is the belief in a single, universal, all-encompassing deity. ... ĦanÄ«f (Arabic حنيف, plural ħunafā حنفاء) is an Islamic Arabic term that is now commonly believed to refer to people who rejected the idolatry during the (pre-Islamic) time of Jāhiliyya or Ignorance. The translation of ħanÄ«f is pre-Islamic monotheist (other than a Christian or a Jew), referring...


The term, desert monotheism, is sometimes used for a similar purpose of comparison in historical contexts, but not for modern faiths. It should be noted however, that Amenhotep IV or Akhenaten, born in 1353 BCE, is the earliest verifiable historical advocate or prophet of monotheism. Today, around 3.7 billion people are followers of Abrahamic religions. Monotheism (in Greek μόνος = single and θεός = God) is the belief in the existence of one God, or in the oneness of God. ... nomen or birth name Bust of Pharaoh Akhenaten. ...

Contents


Introduction

In the Hebrew Bible and the Qur'an, Abraham is described as a patriarch blessed by God (the Jewish people called him "Father Abraham"), and promised great things. Jews and Christians consider him father of the people of Israel through his son Isaac; Muslims regard him as the father of the Arabs through his son Ishmael. In Christian belief, Abraham is a model of faith, and his intention to obey God by offering up Isaac is seen as a foreshadowing of God's offering of his son, Jesus. In Islam, Abraham obeyed God by offering up Ishmael and is considered to be one of the most important prophets sent by God. 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum This article discusses usage of the term Hebrew Bible. For the article on the Hebrew Bible itself, see Tanakh. ... The , (Arabic: recitation, also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and Al-Quran, Turkish Kuran), is the central religious text of Islam. ... A promise is a transaction between two persons whereby the first person undertakes in the future to render some service or gift to the second person or devotes something valuable now and here to his use. ... An Israelite is a member of the Twelve Tribes of Israel, descended from the twelve sons of the Biblical patriarch Jacob who was renamed Israel by God in the book of Genesis, 32:28 The Israelites were a group of Hebrews, as described in the Bible. ... It has been suggested that Ishaq be merged into this article or section. ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب ) are an ethnic group found throughout the Middle East and North Africa. ... Ishmael (יִשְׁמָעֵאל God hears or obeys, Standard Hebrew , Tiberian Hebrew , Arabic إسماعيل Ismāīl) is Abrahams eldest son, born by his wifes handmaiden Hagar. ... Jesus (8-2 BC/BCE — 29-36 AD/CE),[1] also known as Jesus of Nazareth, is the central figure of Christianity. ...


Overview

All the Abrahamic religions are derived to some extent from Judaism as practiced in ancient kingdoms of Israel and Judah prior to the Babylonian Exile, at the beginning of the 1st millennium BCE. Many believe that Judaism in Biblical Israel was renovated and reformed to some extent in the 6th century BCE by Ezra and other priests returning to Israel from the exile. Samaritanism separated from Judaism in the next few centuries. This article describes the Jewish religion; for a consideration of ethnic, historic, and cultural aspects of the Jewish identity refer to the article Jew. ... Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  · Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)  · Beta Israel Jewish populations Germany  · France  · Latin America Britain  · Famous Jews by country Jewish languages Hebrew: (Biblical / Modern... (Redirected from 1st millennium BCE) (2nd millennium BC – 1st millennium BC – 1st millennium AD – other millennia) Events The Iron Age began in Western Egypt declined as a major power The Tanakh was written Buddhism was founded Cyrus the Great conquered Babylon and created the Persian Empire (6th century BC) Sparta... (7th century BC - 6th century BCE - 5th century BCE - other centuries) (600s BCE - 590s BCE - 580s BCE - 570s BCE - 560s BCE - 550s BCE - 540s BCE - 530s BCE - 520s BCE - 510s BCE - 500s BCE - other decades) (2nd millennium BCE - 1st millennium BCE - 1st millennium) The 5th and 6th centuries BCE were... For other uses, see Ezra (disambiguation). ... Main article: Samaritan It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Samaritan. ... This article describes the Jewish religion; for a consideration of ethnic, historic, and cultural aspects of the Jewish identity refer to the article Jew. ...


Christianity originated in Judea, at the end of the 1st century, as a radically reformed branch of Judaism; it spread to ancient Greece and Rome, and from there to most of Europe, Asia, the Americas, and many other parts of the world. Over the centuries, Christianity split into many separate churches and denominations. A major split in the 5th century separated various Oriental Churches from the Catholic church centered in Rome. Other major splits were the East-West Schism in the 11th century, separating the Roman Catholic Church from the Eastern Orthodox Churches; and the Protestant Reformation of the 16th century, that gave birth to hundreds of independent Protestant denominations. Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as recounted in the Gospels. ... Judea or Judaea (יהודה Praise, Standard Hebrew , Tiberian Hebrew ) (Greek: Ιουδαία) is a term used for the mountainous southern part of the historic Land of Israel (Hebrew: ארץ ישראל Eretz Yisrael), an area now divided between Israel and the West Bank, and, in a few geographical definitions of Judea, Jordan. ... The 1st century was that century which lasted from 1 to 100 according the Gregorian calendar. ... This article describes the Jewish religion; for a consideration of ethnic, historic, and cultural aspects of the Jewish identity refer to the article Jew. ... The Roman Forum was the central area around which ancient Rome developed. ... World map showing Europe Political map Europe is one of the seven continents of Earth which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiographic one, leading to various perspectives about Europes borders. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... World map showing the Americas America or the Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 - 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... The term Oriental Orthodoxy refers to the communion of Eastern Christian Churches that recognize only the first three ecumenical councils — the First Council of Nicaea, the First Council of Constantinople and the Council of Ephesus — and rejected the dogmatic definitions of the Council of Chalcedon. ... City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the People of Rome) Founded 21 April 753 BC (mythical), early 1st millennium BC (archaeological) Region Latium Area  - City Proper  1285 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 2,553,873 almost 4,300,000 1. ... Great Schism redirects here. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement in the 16th century to reform the Catholic Church in Western Europe. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ...


Islam originated in the 7th century, in the Arabian cities of Mecca and Medina. Although not a dissident branch of either Judaism or Christianity, it explicitly claimed to be a continuation and replacement for them, and echoed many of their principles. According to the Muslim belief, the Qur'an was the final word of God and its message was that of all the prophets. As an example of the similarities between the faiths, Muslims believe in a version of the story of Genesis and in the lineal descent of the Arabs from Abraham through Ishmael, who was conceived through Abraham's servant Hagar. For other uses, including people named Islam, see Islam (disambiguation). ... The 7th century is the period from 601 - 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... Mecca or Makkah (in full: Makkah al-Mukarramah; Arabic: ‎) is the capital city of Saudi Arabias Makkah province, in the historic Hijaz region. ... Medina (Arabic: ‎ or المدينة ; also transliterated into English as Madinah) is a city in the Hejaz region of western Saudi Arabia. ... This article describes the Jewish religion; for a consideration of ethnic, historic, and cultural aspects of the Jewish identity refer to the article Jew. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as recounted in the Gospels. ... Genesis (Greek: Γένεσις, having the meanings of birth, creation, cause, beginning, source and origin), also called The First Book of Moses, is the first book of Torah (five books of Moses), and is the first book of the Tanakh, part of the Hebrew Bible; it is also the first book of... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب ) are an ethnic group found throughout the Middle East and North Africa. ... Ishmael (יִשְׁמָעֵאל God hears or obeys, Standard Hebrew , Tiberian Hebrew , Arabic إسماعيل Ismāīl) is Abrahams eldest son, born by his wifes handmaiden Hagar. ... Hagar (Arabic هاجر; Hajar; Hebrew הָגָר Stranger, Standard Hebrew Hagar, Tiberian Hebrew Hāḡār) is an Egyptian-born servant of Sarah, wife of Abraham in the Book of Genesis and in the Torah. ...


Origins

The origins of Judaism and the ancestral Abrahamic religion are still obscure. The only source generally agreed by all to be canonical that bears on that question is the Genesis book of the Hebrew Bible, which according to Rabbinic tradition was written by God and received by Moses after the Exodus from Egypt, sometime in the 2nd millennium BC. (Other movements -- such as Reform Judaism or Secular Humanism -- believe perhaps Moses and certainly others wrote the Bible over a period of time themselves.) According to Genesis, the principles of Judaism were revealed gradually to a line of patriarchs from Adam to Jacob (also called Israel); however the religion was only established when Moses received the Commandments on Mount Sinai, and with the institution of priesthood and temple services. This article describes the Jewish religion; for a consideration of ethnic, historic, and cultural aspects of the Jewish identity refer to the article Jew. ... 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum This article discusses usage of the term Hebrew Bible. For the article on the Hebrew Bible itself, see Tanakh. ... God denotes the deity believed by monotheists to be the sole creator and ruler of the universe. ... Moses or Móshe (מֹשֶׁה, Standard Hebrew, Tiberian Hebrew Mōšeh, Arabic موسى Mūsa, Geez ሙሴ Musse) is a legendary Hebrew liberator, leader, lawgiver, prophet, and historian, and also one of the greatest figures in Jewish history. ... Exodus is the second book of the Torah (the Pentateuch) and also the Tanakh (the Hebrew Bible), and the Christian Old Testament. ... (3rd millennium BC – 2nd millennium BC – 1st millennium BC – other millennia) // Events To grasp the spirit of the 2nd millennium BC, we must divide it in two parts, for there is a period of change around its middle so important that it creates two separate sub-millennia. First half (2000... Reform Judaism can refer to (1) the largest denomination of Judaism in America and its sibling movements in other countries, (2) a branch of Judaism in the United Kingdom, and (3) the historical predecessor of the American movement that originated in 19th Century Germany. ... Secular humanism is a humanist philosophy that upholds reason, ethics, and justice and specifically rejects rituals and ceremonies as a means to affirm their life stance. ... This article describes the Jewish religion; for a consideration of ethnic, historic, and cultural aspects of the Jewish identity refer to the article Jew. ... See Patriarchs (Bible) for details about Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob of the Book of Genesis in the Hebrew Bible. ... Michelangelos Creation of Adam, from the Sistine Chapel. ... It has been suggested that Yaqub be merged into this article or section. ... Moses or Móshe (מֹשֶׁה, Standard Hebrew, Tiberian Hebrew Mōšeh, Arabic موسى Mūsa, Geez ሙሴ Musse) is a legendary Hebrew liberator, leader, lawgiver, prophet, and historian, and also one of the greatest figures in Jewish history. ... The Ten Commandments on a monument on the grounds of the Texas State Capitol This 1768 parchment (612x502 mm) by Jekuthiel Sofer emulated 1675 decalogue at the Esnoga synagogue of Amsterdam The Ten Commandments, or Decalogue, are a list of religious and moral imperatives which, according to religious tradition, were... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Archaeologists so far have found no direct evidence to support or refute the Genesis story on the origins of Judaism; in fact, there are no surviving texts of the Hebrew Bible older than the Dead Sea Scrolls (2nd century BC or later). However, archaeology has shown that peoples speaking various Semitic languages and with similar polytheistic religions were living in Canaan and surrounding areas by the 3rd millennium BC. Some of their gods (such as Baal) are mentioned in the Bible, and the supreme god of the Semitic pantheon, El, is believed by some scholars to be the God of the Biblical patriarchs. There exist a number of inscriptions that some scholars believe to confirm the Biblical record, such as the Tel Dan Stele. 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum This article discusses usage of the term Hebrew Bible. For the article on the Hebrew Bible itself, see Tanakh. ... Fragments of the scrolls on display at the Archeological Museum, Amman The Dead Sea scrolls comprise roughly 825-870 documents, including texts from the Hebrew Bible, discovered between 1947 and 1956 in eleven caves in and around the Wadi Qumran (near the ruins of the ancient settlement of Khirbet Qumran... (3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) // Events 175 BCE - Antiochus IV Epiphanes, took possession of the Syrian throne, at the murder of his brother Seleucus IV Philopator, which rightly belonged to his nephew Demetrius I Soter. ... 14th century BC diplomatic letter in Akkadian, found in Tell Amarna. ... For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ... (4th millennium BC – 3rd millennium BC – 2nd millennium BC – other millennia) // Events The 3rd millennium BC represents the beginning of factual history, since it is the first time we do have real names to name and detailed stories to tell. ... Baal () is a Semitic title and honorific meaning lord that is used for various gods, spirits and demons particularly of the Levant. ... Ēl (אל) is a northwest Semitic word and name translated into English as either god or God or left untranslated as El, depending on the context. ... The Tel Dan Stele The Tel Dan Stele, found at Tel Dan in Israel in 1993/1994, is a fragment (in three sections) of an Aramaic inscription on basalt, which appears to be from a stele erected for Ben-Hadad of the Aramaean nation, an enemy of the kingdom of...


One school of thought has argued, however, that monotheism in fact began with Akhenaten, the heretical pharaoh of Egypt in the fourteenth century B.C. Akhenaten's innovations, however, were completely eradicated in Egypt after his death, leaving no resonance except for their possible survival in the neighboring Israelite monarchy, which began its rule under Egyptian cultural hegemony. nomen or birth name Bust of Pharaoh Akhenaten. ... Hegemony (pronounced or ) (greek:ηγεμονία) is the dominance of one group over other groups, with or without the threat of force, to the extent that, for instance, the dominant party can dictate the terms of trade to its advantage; more broadly, cultural perspectives become skewed to favor the dominant group. ...


Patriarchs

There are six notable figures in the Bible prior to Abraham: Adam and Eve, their two sons Cain and Abel, Enoch, and his great-grandson, Noah, who, according to the story, saved his own family and all animal life in Noah's Ark. It is uncertain whether any of them (assuming they existed) left any recorded moral code: some Christian churches maintain faith in ancient books like the Book of Enoch — and Genesis mentions the Noahide Laws given by God to the family of Noah. For the most part, these 'patriarchs' serve as good (or bad, in the case of Cain) role models of behavior, without a more specific indication of how one interprets their actions in any religion. Michelangelos Creation of Adam, from the Sistine Chapel. ... In stories common to the Abrahamic religions, Cain or Káyin (קַיִן / קָיִן spear Standard Hebrew Qáyin, Tiberian Hebrew Qáyin / Qāyin; Arabic قايين QāyÄ«n in the Arabic Bible; قابيل QābÄ«l in Islam) is the eldest son of Adam and Eve, and the first man born in creation... In the Book of Genesis, Abel (Hebrew הֶבֶל / הָבֶל, Standard Hebrew Hével / Hável, Tiberian Hebrew Héḇel / Hāḇel; Arabic هابيل HābÄ«l) was the second son of Adam. ... Enoch (חֲנוֹךְ Initiated; dedicated; disciplined, Standard Hebrew Ḥanoḫ, Tiberian Hebrew Ḥănôḵ) can refer to Two names in the Generations of Adam Enoch, one of the names in the Generations of Adam, described as an ancestor of Noah, who walked with God, and was... Noahs Ark, Französischer Meister (The French Master), Magyar Szépmüvészeti Múzeum, Budapest. ... A painting by the American Edward Hicks (1780–1849), showing the animals boarding Noahs Ark two by two. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Morality. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Genesis (Greek: Γένεσις, having the meanings of birth, creation, cause, beginning, source and origin), also called The First Book of Moses, is the first book of Torah (five books of Moses), and is the first book of the Tanakh, part of the Hebrew Bible; it is also the first book of... The Seven Noahide Laws (Hebrew: שבע מצוות בני × ×— Å baˤ miÅŸwōt bnÄ“-Noḥ), also called the Brit Noah (Covenant of Noah) or Law of the First Covenant, are the Jewish mitzvot (commandments) and halakhot (laws) that are morally binding on non-Jews. ...


In the Book of Genesis, Abraham is specifically instructed to leave the historical Mesopotamian city of Ur so that God will "make of you a great nation". Burton Visotzky, an ethicist, wrote Genesis of Ethics to explore the detailed implications of these adventures for a modern ethics. Genesis (Greek: Γένεσις, having the meanings of birth, creation, cause, beginning, source and origin) is the first book of the Torah (five books of Moses) and hence the first book of the Tanakh, part of the Hebrew Bible; it is also the first book of the Christian Old Testament. ... It has been suggested that History of Ancient Mesopotamia be merged into this article or section. ... Ur seen across the Royal tombs, with the Great Ziggurat in the background, January 17, 2004 Ur was an ancient city in southern Mesopotamia, located near the original mouth of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers on the Persian Gulf and close to Eridu. ... Burton Visotzky is an ethicist who studied under Lawrence Kohlberg. ... An ethicist is one whose judgement on ethics and ethical codes has come to be trusted by some community, and (importantly) is expressed in some way that makes it possible for others to mimic or approximate that judgement. ... Ethics (from Greek ἦθος meaning custom) is the branch of axiology, one of the four major branches of philosophy, which attempts to understand the nature of morality; to distinguish that which is right from that which is wrong. ...


According to the Bible, the patriarch Abraham (or Ibrahim, in Arabic) had eight sons by three wives: one (Ishmael) by his wife's servant Hagar, one (Isaac) by his wife Sarah, and six by another wife Keturah. Moses, Jesus, Muhammad, Bahá'u'lláh, and other prominent figures all claim to be descendants of Abraham through one of these sons. Tomb of Abraham Abraham (ca. ... Ibrahim (Arabic: ابراهيم), also known as Abraham, is very important in Islam, both in his own right as prophet and as the father of the prophet Ismail (Ishmael), his firstborn son, who is considered the Father of the Arabs. ... The Arabic language (Arabic: ‎ transliterated: ), or simply Arabic (Arabic: ‎ transliterated: ), is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... Ishmael (יִשְׁמָעֵאל God hears or obeys, Standard Hebrew , Tiberian Hebrew , Arabic إسماعيل Ismāīl) is Abrahams eldest son, born by his wifes handmaiden Hagar. ... Hagar (Arabic هاجر; Hajar; Hebrew הָגָר Stranger, Standard Hebrew Hagar, Tiberian Hebrew Hāḡār) is an Egyptian-born servant of Sarah, wife of Abraham in the Book of Genesis and in the Torah. ... It has been suggested that Ishaq be merged into this article or section. ... Sarah (שָׂרָה Princess, Standard Hebrew Sara, Tiberian Hebrew Śārāh, Arabic: سارة, Yiddish Shóre) is the wife of Abraham as described in the Hebrew Bible. ... In the Book of Genesis, Keturah or Ketura (קְטוּרָה Incense, Standard Hebrew Qətura, Tiberian Hebrew Qəṭûrāh) is the woman whom Abraham marries after the death of Sarah. ... Shrine of Baháulláh Baháulláh (ba-haa-ol-laa Arabic: ‎ Glory of God) (1817 - 1892), born Mírzá Husayn-`Alí (Persian: ‎ ), was the founder and prophet of the Baháí Faith. ...


Jews see Abraham as the progenitor of the people of Israel, through his descendants Isaac and Jacob. Christians view Abraham as an important exemplar of faith, and a spiritual ancestor of Jesus &mdash a Jew considered the Son of God through whom God promised to bless all the families of the earth. In addition, Muslims refer to Christians and Jews, among others, as People of the Book ("the Book" symbolizes divine scripture, such as Tanakh and the New Testament). They see Abraham as one of the most important of the many prophets sent by God. Thus Abraham represents for some, a point of commonality whom they seek to emphasize by means of this terminology. It has been suggested that Ishaq be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that Yaqub be merged into this article or section. ... Jesus (8-2 BC/BCE — 29-36 AD/CE),[1] also known as Jesus of Nazareth, is the central figure of Christianity. ... Son of God is a biblical phrase from the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), and the New Testament. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Tanakh [תנ״ך] (also Tanach, IPA: or ) is an acronym that identifies the Hebrew Bible. ...


So, rather than being the sole "founding figure", Abraham is more correctly described as the first figure in Genesis who (a) is clearly not of direct divine origin, such as Adam and Eve are claimed to be; (b) is accepted by three major monotheistic faiths as playing some major role in the founding of their common civilization; and (c) is not claimed as the male genetic forebear of all humans on the Earth (as Noah is, in more literal interpretations). Genesis (Greek: Γένεσις, having the meanings of birth, creation, cause, beginning, source and origin), also called The First Book of Moses, is the first book of Torah (five books of Moses), and is the first book of the Tanakh, part of the Hebrew Bible; it is also the first book of... The word civilization (or civilisation) has a variety of meanings related to human society. ... Earth (often referred to as The Earth) is the third planet in the solar system in terms of distance from the Sun, and the fifth in order of size. ... Noahs Ark, Französischer Meister (The French Master), Magyar Szépmüvészeti Múzeum, Budapest. ...


Islam and Judaism also treat Adam and Noah as minor prophets, and recognize that there were possibly other prophets who are unknown today. For other uses, including people named Islam, see Islam (disambiguation). ... A prophet is a person who has directly encountered God, of whose intentions he can then speak. ...


The Supreme Deity

Judaism and Islam worship a Supreme Deity which they conceive strictly monotheistically as one being; Christianity agrees, but the Christian God is at the same time an indivisible Trinity, a view not shared by the other religions. It should be noted that some Christian denominations do not support the belief in the doctrine of the Trinity. Monotheism (in Greek μόνος = single and θεός = God) is the belief in the existence of one God, or in the oneness of God. ... For other uses, see Trinity (disambiguation). ...


Judaism

Main article: Judaism

Jewish theology is based on the Hebrew Bible, where the nature and commandments of the Jewish Supreme Being are revealed through the writings of Moses (the Torah, known in Christianity as the Pentateuch), and the writings of the prophets, psalmists and other ancient canonized scriptures, together with the Torah known as the Tanakh (known to Christians as the Old Testament). Additionally, it usually has a basis in its Oral Law, as recorded in the Mishnah and Talmud. This article describes the Jewish religion; for a consideration of ethnic, historic, and cultural aspects of the Jewish identity refer to the article Jew. ... 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum This article discusses usage of the term Hebrew Bible. For the article on the Hebrew Bible itself, see Tanakh. ... Moses or Móshe (מֹשֶׁה, Standard Hebrew, Tiberian Hebrew Mōšeh, Arabic موسى MÅ«sa, Geez ሙሴ Musse) is a legendary Hebrew liberator, leader, lawgiver, prophet, and historian, and also one of the greatest figures in Jewish history. ... Torah () is a Hebrew word meaning teaching, instruction, or law. It is the central and most important document of Judaism revered by Jews through the ages. ... Look up Pentateuch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A prophet is a person who has directly encountered God, of whose intentions he can then speak. ... Psalms (Tehilim תהילים, in Hebrew) is a book of the Hebrew Bible or Tanakh, and of the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... Tanakh [תנ״ך] (also Tanach, IPA: or ) is an acronym that identifies the Hebrew Bible. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh, but not Old Testament, because it does not recognize the concept of a New Testament. ... An oral law is a code of conduct in use in a given culture, religion or other regroupement, by which a body of rules of human behaviour is transmitted by oral tradition and effectively respected, or the single rule that is orally transmitted. ... The Mishnah (Hebrew משנה, repetition) is a major source of rabbinic Judaisms religious texts. ... The Talmud (תלמוד) is a record of rabbinic discussions of Jewish law, ethics, customs, and stories, which are authoritative in Jewish tradition. ...


This Supreme Being is referred to in the Hebrew Bible in several ways, such as Elohim, Adonai or by the four Hebrew letters "Y-H-V (or W) -H" (the tetragrammaton), which Jews do not pronounce as a word, but which Christians generally recognize as "YAHWEH". The Hebrew words Eloheynu (Our God) and HaShem (The Name), as well as the English names "Lord" and "God", are also used in modern day Judaism. The latter is sometimes written "G-d" in reference to the taboo against pronouncing the tetragrammaton. At the bottom of the hands, the two letters on each hand combine to form יהוה (YHWH), the name of God. ... The Tetragrammaton (Greek: τετραγράμματον; word with four letters) is the usual reference to the Hebrew name for God, which is spelled (in the Hebrew alphabet): (yodh) (heh) (vav) (heh) or (YHWH). ...


The word "Elohim" has the Hebrew plural ending "-īm", which some Biblical scholars have taken as support for the general notion that the ancient Hebrews were polytheists in the time of the patriarchs; however, as the word itself is used with singular verbs, this hypothesis is not accepted by most Jews. Jews point out other words in Hebrew that are used in the same manner according to the rule of Hebrew Grammar, and denotes respect, majesty and deliberation, similar to the royal plural in English and ancient Egyptian, and the use of the plural form "vous" for individuals of higher standing in modern French. Jewish Biblical scholars and historical commentary on the passage also suggest that Elohim in the plural form points to God in conjunction with the heavenly court, i.e. the angels. Hebrew (עִבְרִית, ‘Ivrit) is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family spoken by more than seven million people in Israel and Jewish communities around the world. ... The Annunciation - the Angel Gabriel announces to Mary that she will bear Jesus (El Greco, 1575) An angel is an ethereal being found in many religions, whose duties are to assist and serve God. ...


Christianity

Main article: Christianity

Christians believe that the God worshipped by the faithful Hebrew people of the pre-Christian era has always revealed himself as he did through Jesus Christ; but this was never obvious until the Word of the Lord, the revelation of God, became flesh and dwelt among us (see John 1). Also, despite the fact that the Angel of the Lord spoke to the Patriarchs, revealing God to them, it has always been only by the Spirit of God granting them understanding, that men have been able to perceive afterward that they had been visited by God himself. After Jesus was raised from the dead—according to Christian scriptures—this ancient Hebrew witness of how God reveals himself as Messiah came to be seen in a very different light. It was then that Jesus' followers began to speak widely of him as God himself (see John 20:28), although this had already been revealed to certain individuals during his Ministry, eg., the Samaritan woman in Shechem, and his closest apostles. Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as recounted in the Gospels. ...


This belief was gradually developed into the modern formulation of the Trinity, which is the doctrine that God is a single holy God (YHWH), but that there is a real threeness in God's single being that has always been evident but not understood. This mysterious threeness has been described as, for want of better terms, hypostases in the Greek language (subsistences), and as "persons" in English. In the traditional Christian conception, God the Father has only ever been revealed through his eternal Word (who was born as Jesus, of the Virgin Mary), and his Spirit (who after the resurrection was given to men, establishing the Christian church). For other uses, see Trinity (disambiguation). ... The Tetragrammaton in Phoenician (1100 BC to 300 CE), Aramaic (10th Century BC to 0) and modern Hebrew scripts. ... Greek (, IPA - Hellenic) is an Indo-European language with a documented history of 3,500 years, the longest in the Indo-European family if the Anatolian languages are excluded. ...


Trinitarian theology is developed from the Christian Bible (comprised by the Old and New Testaments). As it was further elaborated by the early Church fathers, it was later codified by the Ecumenical councils at Nicaea and Chalcedon. Another famous formulation is called the Athanasian Creed. Some Trinitarian churches, however, do not accept the Chalcedon council at all, in part because it claimed to have excommunicated them. These are known as 'non-Chalcedonian', or Oriental Orthodox Churches. The Gutenberg Bible owned by the United States Library of Congress The Bible (Hebrew: תנ״ך tanakh, Greek: η Βίβλος hē biblos, the book) (sometimes The Holy Bible, The Book, Work of God, The Word of God, The Word, The Good Book, Scripture, or The Scriptures), is the name used by Jews and Christians... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh, but not Old Testament, because it does not recognize the concept of a New Testament. ... John 21:1 Jesus Appears to His Disciples--Alessandro Mantovani: the Vatican, Rome. ... In Christianity, an ecumenical council or general council is a meeting of the bishops of the whole church convened to discuss and settle matters of Church doctrine and practice. ... The First Council of Nicaea, convoked by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in 325, was the first ecumenical[1] conference of bishops of the Christian Church. ... The Council of Chalcedon was an ecumenical council that took place from October 8–November 1, 451 at Chalcedon, a city of Bithynia in Asia Minor. ... The Athanasian Creed (Quicunque vult) is a statement of Christian doctrine traditionally ascribed to St. ... The term Oriental Orthodoxy refers to the churches of Eastern Christian traditions that keeps the faith of only the first three ecumenical councils of the undivided Church - the councils of Nicea, Constantinople and Ephesus. ...


This "trinitarian monotheism" has been rejected by several Christian denominations and Christian-based religions, such as Arianism and Unitarianism. Strict unitarian Christians believe that God the Father is the only divine being, but the others believe that Jesus is a created deity. Nontrinitarianism or (the Roman Catholic term) Antitrinitarianism, is the doctrine that rejects the Trinitarian doctrine that God subsists as three distinct persons in the single substance of the Holy Trinity. ... This article is about theological views like those of Arius. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Unitarian Christianity Historic Unitarianism believed in the oneness of God as opposed to Christian doctrine of the Trinity (Father, Son, and Holy Spirit) established at the Council of Nicaea in 325 CE. Historic Unitarians believed in the moral authority, but not the...


Islam

Main article: Islam

Allah is the standard Arabic translation for the word "God." Islamic tradition also describes the 99 Names of God. See also: Islamic concept of God For other uses, including people named Islam, see Islam (disambiguation). ... Allah is both the Arabic and Aramaic term for God in Abrahamic religions, and is the main term for God in Islam. ... The 99 Names of God, also known as The 99 attributes of Allah (Arabic: ‎ transliterated: ), according to Islamic tradition, are the names of God revealed to man in The Quran; even though His names (as adjectives, word constructs, or otherwise) exceed ninety-nine in The Quran. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Tawhid. ...


Muslims believe that the Jewish God is the same as Allah and that Jesus is a divinely inspired prophet, but not God. Thus, both the Torah and the Gospels are believed to be based upon divine relevation, but Muslims believe them to have been corrupted (both accidentally through errors in transmission and intentionally by Jews and Christians over the years). Muslims revere the Qur'an as the final uncorrupted word of God brought through the last prophet, Muhammad, and Islam is viewed as a final correction of Judaism and Christianity. A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Turkish: Müslüman, Persian and Urdu: مسلمان) is an adherent of Islam. ... Torah () is a Hebrew word meaning teaching, instruction, or law. It is the central and most important document of Judaism revered by Jews through the ages. ... For the genre of Christian-themed music, see gospel music. ... The , (Arabic: recitation, also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and Al-Quran, Turkish Kuran), is the central religious text of Islam. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, including people named Islam, see Islam (disambiguation). ...


Bahá'í Faith

Main article: Bahá'í Faith

The belief in the Oneness of God is central to the Bahá'í Faith. God is one being, and has created all the creatures and forces in the universe. He is omnipotent and omniscient. In order to educate humanity God sends his Messengers, the most recent of whom was Bahá'u'lláh. These Messengers reveal the nature and will of God in their teachings and through sacred texts, which include the Torah, the Christian Bible, the Qur'an, the Kitáb-i-Aqdas and the Book of Certitude. The older texts are held to contain allegories that should be interpreted in view of the most recent (and most perfect) revelations. However the Supreme Deity is too great to be fully understood by humans. Seat of the Universal House of Justice, governing body of the Baháís in Haifa, Israel The Baháí Faith is a religion founded by Baháulláh in 19th century Persia. ... Shrine of Baháulláh Baháulláh (ba-haa-ol-laa Arabic: ‎ Glory of God) (1817 - 1892), born Mírzá Husayn-`Alí (Persian: ‎ ), was the founder and prophet of the Baháí Faith. ... The Kitáb-i-Aqdas is the central book of the Baháí Faith, written by Baháulláh, the founder of the religion. ... The Kitáb-i-Íqán (Lit. ...


Religious scriptures

All these religions rely on a body of scriptures, some of which are considered to be the word of God — hence sacred and unquestionable — and some which are the work of religious men, revered mainly by tradition and to the extent that they are considered to have been divinely inspired, if not dictated, by the divine being.


Judaism

The sacred scriptures of Judaism are comprised of the Tanakh, a Hebrew acronym that stands for Torah, Nevi'im (Prophets), and Ketuvim (Writings). These are also known as the Hebrew Bible or (to Christians) as the Old Testament in English. These are complemented by and supplemented with various originally oral traditions: Midrash, the Mishnah, the Talmud, and collected rabbinical writings. The Hebrew text of the Tanakh, and the Torah in particular, is considered holy, down to the last letter: transcribing is done with painstaking care. An error in a single letter, ornamentation or symbol of the over 300,000 stylized letters which make up the Hebrew Torah text renders a Torah scroll unfit for use, hence a Torah scribe is a specialist skill and takes considerable time to write and check. 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum This article discusses usage of the term Hebrew Bible. For the article on the Hebrew Bible itself, see Tanakh. ... Torah () is a Hebrew word meaning teaching, instruction, or law. It is the central and most important document of Judaism revered by Jews through the ages. ... Neviim [נביאים] or Prophets is the second of the three major sections in the Tanakh (the Hebrew Bible). ... Ketuvim is the third and final section of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible). ... 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum This article discusses usage of the term Hebrew Bible. For the article on the Hebrew Bible itself, see Tanakh. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh, but not Old Testament, because it does not recognize the concept of a New Testament. ... Midrash (Hebrew: מדרש; plural midrashim) is a Hebrew word referring to a method of exegesis of a Biblical text. ... The Mishnah (Hebrew משנה, repetition) is a major source of rabbinic Judaisms religious texts. ... The Talmud (תלמוד) is a record of rabbinic discussions of Jewish law, ethics, customs, and stories, which are authoritative in Jewish tradition. ...


Christianity

The sacred scriptures of most Christian sects are the Old Testament, which is largely the same as the Hebrew Bible; and the New Testament, comprising four accounts of the life and teachings of Jesus, traditionally attributed to his apostles Matthew and John, and Mark and Luke (the Four Gospels); and several writings by the apostles and early fathers such as Paul. Together these comprise the Christian Bible, which are usually considered to be divinely inspired in some sense. Thus Christians consider the fundamental teachings of the Old Testament, in particular the Ten Commandments, as valid; however they believe that the coming of Jesus as the messiah and savior of mankind as predicted in the Old Testament, and the fact that Jesus was raised Jewish and became a teacher of Judaism, would shed light on the true relationship between God and mankind — by restoring the emphasis of universal love and compassion (as mentioned in the Shema) above the other commandments, by de-emphasising the more "legalistic" and material precepts of rabbinical law (such as the dietary constraints and temple rites). Many Christians believe that the link between Old and New Testaments in the Bible means that Judaism has been superseded by Christianity as the "new Israel" — and some hold that Jesus' teachings described Israel not as a geographic place but as an association with God and promise of salvation in heaven. Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh, but not Old Testament, because it does not recognize the concept of a New Testament. ... John 21:1 Jesus Appears to His Disciples--Alessandro Mantovani: the Vatican, Rome. ... The Twelve Apostles (in Koine Greek απόστολος apostolos [1], someone sent forth/sent out, an emissary) were probably Galilean Jewish men (10 names are Aramaic, 4 names are Greek) chosen from among the disciples, who were sent forth by Jesus of Nazareth to preach the Gospel to both Jews and Gentiles... Gospels are a genre of ancient literature concerning the life of Jesus. ... Saul, also known as Paul, Paulus, and Saint Paul the Apostle (c. ... Biblical inspiration is the doctrine in Christian theology concerned with the divine origin of the Bible and what the Bible teaches about itself. ... The Ten Commandments on a monument on the grounds of the Texas State Capitol This 1768 parchment (612x502 mm) by Jekuthiel Sofer emulated 1675 decalogue at the Esnoga synagogue of Amsterdam The Ten Commandments, or Decalogue, are a list of religious and moral imperatives which, according to religious tradition, were... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh, but not Old Testament, because it does not recognize the concept of a New Testament. ... Shema Yisrael (שמע ישראל) are the first two words of a section of the Hebrew Bible that is used as a centerpiece of all morning and evening Jewish prayer services and closely echoes the monotheistic message of Judaism. ... Legalism, in Christian theology, is a pejorative term referring to an improper fixation on law or codes of conduct, or legal ideas, usually implying an allegation of pride and the neglect of mercy, and ignorance of the grace of God. ...


The vast majority of Christian religions (generally including Catholicism, Orthodox Christianity, and most forms of Protestantism, but not Restorationism) derive their beliefs from the conclusions reached by the Council of Nicea in 325, in a document known as the Nicene Creed. This describes the beliefs that God (as a Trinity of distinct persons with one substance) became human on earth, born as Jesus pursuant to the Old Testament scriptures, was crucified by humanity, died and was buried, only to be resurrected on the third day, then to rise and enter the Kingdom of Heaven and "sit at the right hand of" God. Christians generally believe that faith in Jesus is the only way to achieve salvation and to enter into heaven, and that salvation is a gift given by the grace of God. In Christianity, the term Catholicism (from Greek: καθολικός (katholikos), meaning general or universal) has two main ecclesiastical meanings, described in Websters Dictionary as: The whole orthodox Christian church, or adherence thereto. ... Orthodox Christianity is a generalized reference to the Eastern traditions of Christianity, as opposed to the Western traditions (which descend through, or alongside of, the Roman Catholic Church) or the Eastern Rite Catholic churches. ... Protestantism is one of three primary branches of Christianity. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Events May 20 - First Council of Nicaea - first Ecumenical Council of the Christian Church: The Nicene Creed is formulated, the date of Easter is discussed. ... Icon depicting the Holy Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea holding the Nicene Creed. ... God denotes the deity believed by monotheists to be the sole creator and ruler of the universe. ... For other uses, see Trinity (disambiguation). ... Jesus (8-2 BC/BCE — 29-36 AD/CE),[1] also known as Jesus of Nazareth, is the central figure of Christianity. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh, but not Old Testament, because it does not recognize the concept of a New Testament. ... Jesus (8-2 BC/BCE — 29-36 AD/CE),[1] also known as Jesus of Nazareth, is the central figure of Christianity. ... Heaven is an afterlife concept found in many religions or spiritual philosophies. ...


Unlike the Jews and Muslims, Christians generally do not consider a single version of their Bible as holy to the exclusion of the others, and accept good translations and re-translations as being just as valid, in principle, as the original. They recognize that the Gospels were passed on by oral tradition only to be set to paper decades after the death of Jesus and his apostles, and that the extant versions are only copies of those originals. Indeed, the version of the Bible considered to be most valid (in the sense of best conveying the true meaning of the word of God) has varied considerably: the Greek Septuagint, the Latin Vulgate, the English King James Version, and the Russian Synodal Bible have been authoritative to different communities at different times. In particular, Christians usually consult the Hebrew version of the Old Testament when preparing new translations, although some believe that the Septuagint should be preferred, as it was the Bible of the early Christian Church, and because they believe its translators probably knew Biblical Hebrew better than any person living today. Not surprisingly, many variant readings of the "Dead Sea Scrolls" are confirmed by the Septuagint — indicating that significant changes to the Masoretic Hebrew text occurred after the Council of Yavneh (90 AD). In the same sense that the Jewish mystics viewed the Torah as something living and existing prior to any written text, so too do Christians view the Bible and Jesus himself as God's "Word" (or logos in Greek), that transcends written documents. The Septuagint (LXX) is the name commonly given in the West to the Greek Alexandrine translation of the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh/Old Testament) translated some time between the 3rd to 1st century BC. The Septuagint translation includes additional books and chapters of the Hebrew text, including the books of the... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... The Vulgate Bible is an early 5th century translation of the Bible into Latin made by St. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... This articles subsection called Criticism is missing references or citation of sources. ... Hebrew (עִבְרִית, ‘Ivrit) is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family spoken by more than seven million people in Israel and Jewish communities around the world. ... Torah () is a Hebrew word meaning teaching, instruction, or law. It is the central and most important document of Judaism revered by Jews through the ages. ... A word is a unit of language that carries meaning and consists of one or more morphemes which are linked more or less tightly together. ... The Greek word λόγος or logos is a word with various meanings. ...


The sacred scriptures of the Christian Bible are complemented by a large body of writings by individual Christians and councils of Christian leaders. Some Christian churches and denominations consider certain additional writings to be binding; other Christian groups consider only the Bible to be binding. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints uses the Old and New Testaments (usually the King James Version of the Bible, often augmented with re-translations made by Joseph Smith), but also believes The Book of Mormon, Pearl of Great Price, the Doctrine and Covenants, and other writings by past and current prophets to be sacred scripture. This articles subsection called Criticism is missing references or citation of sources. ... The Joseph Smith Translation of the Bible, also called the Inspired Version of the Bible or the JST, is a version of the Bible dictated by Joseph Smith, Jr. ... Joseph Smith, Jr. ... Book of Mormon (The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints edition) The Book of Mormon is a sacred text of Mormonism first published in Palmyra, New York, USA, in March 1830 by Joseph Smith, Jr. ... Pearl of Great Price, 1888 Edition The Pearl of Great Price is part of the standard works (canonized scripture) of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church; see also Mormonism) and some other Latter Day Saint denominations. ... Doctrine and Covenants The Doctrine and Covenants (sometimes referred to as the D&C) is a part of the open scriptural canon of Mormonism. ... A prophet is a person who has directly encountered God, of whose intentions he can then speak. ...


Islam

Islam's holiest book is the Qur'an, comprised of 114 suras ("chapter of the Qur'an."). However, Muslims also believe in the religious texts of Judaism and Christianity in their original forms and not the current versions which they believe to be corrupted. According to the Qur'an itself, these were revealed from Allah and through the Archangel Gabriel to the Prophet Muhammad on separate occasions, and preserved as such by his disciples, until they were compiled into a single book (not in chronological order) several decades after his death. With the exception of Al Fatihah (The Opening), which is always the first Surah, the longer Surahs appear at the beginning of the Qur'an while shorter ones appear at the end. For other uses, including people named Islam, see Islam (disambiguation). ... The , (Arabic: recitation, also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and Al-Quran, Turkish Kuran), is the central religious text of Islam. ... Surah ( ) is the Arabic term for chapter of the Quran. ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Turkish: Müslüman, Persian and Urdu: مسلمان) is an adherent of Islam. ... This article describes the Jewish religion; for a consideration of ethnic, historic, and cultural aspects of the Jewish identity refer to the article Jew. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as recounted in the Gospels. ... 12th-century icon of Archangel Gabriel from Novgorod. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The , (Arabic: recitation, also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and Al-Quran, Turkish Kuran), is the central religious text of Islam. ...


The Qur'an includes several stories from the Jewish Bible (chiefly in Sura 17, "The Night Journey"), and mentions Jesus many times as a divinely inspired prophet. However the detailed precepts of the Tanakh and of the New Testament are not adopted outright; they are replaced by the new commandments revealed directly by Allah (through Gabriel) to Muhammad and codified in the Qur'an.


Like the Jews with the Torah, Muslims consider the original Arabic text of the Qur'an as uncorrupted and holy to the last letter, and any translations are considered to be interpretations of the meaning of the Qur'an, as only the original Arabic text is considered to be the divine scripture. The Arabic language (Arabic: ‎ transliterated: ), or simply Arabic (Arabic: ‎ transliterated: ), is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ...


Like the Rabbinic Oral Law to the Hebrew Bible, the Qur'an is complemented by the Hadith, a set of books by later authors that record the sayings of the Prophet Muhammad. The Hadith interpret and elaborate Qur'anic precepts. There is no consensus within Islam on the authority of the Hadith collections, but Islamic scholars have categorized each Hadith at one of the following levels of authenticity or isnad: genuine (sahih), fair (hasan), or weak (da'if). Amongst Shia Muslims, no hadith is regarded as Sahih, and hadith in general are only accepted if there is no disagreement with the Qur'an. An oral law is a code of conduct in use in a given culture, religion or other regroupement, by which a body of rules of human behaviour is transmitted by oral tradition and effectively respected, or the single rule that is orally transmitted. ... Hadith (Arabic: hadīth, Arabic pl. ... The isnad (Arabic اسناد or in Quranic era Arabic اسند) are the citations or backings that establish the legitimacy of the hadith, which are the sayings of Muhammad, Prophet of Islam. ...


By the ninth century, six collections of Hadiths were accepted as reliable to Sunni Muslims. Shia Muslims however, refer to an alternate tradition of authenticated Hadiths.


The Sunni Collections:

  • al-Bukhari (d. 870)
  • Muslim b. al-Hajjaj (d. 875)
  • Abu Da'ud (d. 888)
  • al-Tirmidhi (d. 892)
  • al-Nasa'i (d. 915)
  • Ibn Maja (d. 886).

The Hadith and the life story of Muhammad (sira) form the Sunnah, a scriptural supplement to the Qur'an. The legal opinions of Islamic jurists (fiqh) provides another source for the daily practice and interpretation of Islamic tradition. Muhammad Ibn Ismail Ibn Ibrahim Ibn al-Mughirah Ibn Bardizbah al-Bukhari محمد بن اسماعيل بن ابراهيم بن المغيرة بن بردزبه البخاري (born 810 - died 870), Arabic author of the most generally accepted collection of traditions (Hadith) from Muhammad, was born at Bokhara (Bukharä), of an Iranian family, in AH... Abul Husayn Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj Qushayri al-Nisaburi (Arabic: أبو الحسين مسلم بن الحجاج القشيري النيسابوري) (born 204 A.H. - 261 (or 268?) A.H/ 875), Muslim Author of the second most widely recognized collection of Hadith in Sunni Islam. ... Abu Daud or Abu Dawod, full name Abu Daud Sulayman ibn Ash`ath al-Azadi al-Sijistani, was a noted collector of hadith (sayings of Muhammad), and wrote the third of the six canonical hadith collections recognized by Sunni Muslims, Sunan Abi Daud. ... Al-Tirmidhi, full name Abu Isa Muhammad ibn Isa ibn Musa ibn al-Dahhak al-Sulami al-Tirmidhi (824-892, ie 209 AH - 13 Rajab 279 AH) was a medieval collector of hadith (sayings of Muhammad), who wrote the Sunan al-Tirmidhi, one of the six canonical hadith compilations used... Al-Nasāī, full name Aḥmad ibn Shu`ayb ibn Alī ibn Sīnān Abū `Abd ar-Raḥmān al-Nasāī, was a noted collector of hadith (sayings of Muhammad), and wrote one of the six canonical hadith collections recognized by Sunni Muslims, al-Sunan al-ṣughrā, as well as 15... Ibn Maja, full name Abu `Abdallah Muhammad ibn Yazid Ibn Maja al-Rab`i al-Qazwini, was a medieval scholar of hadith (the sayings of Muhammad). ... For the river and also village in Norway named Sira, see Sira, Norway. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Rastafari movement

Some Rastafari use the King James Version of the Bible as their main scripture, while many others disdain it. A great many nowadays make special efforts to study the Orthodox Amharic version. Rastas often claim that the Bible only has half of God's Word, and that the other half is written in the heart of mankind. The teachings of Marcus Garvey and the Holy Piby are among other important documents, as are the writings and speeches of Emperor Haile Selassie I. Haile Selassie Ras Tafari was the title used by Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia during his time as tenure Regent and Crown Prince (1916-1928). ... This articles subsection called Criticism is missing references or citation of sources. ... Amharic (አማርኛ) is a Semitic language spoken in Northern Central Ethiopia, where it is the official language. ... Marcus Garvey (far right) in parade Marcus Mosiah Garvey, National Hero of Jamaica, (August 17, 1887 – June 10, 1940) was a publisher, journalist, entrepreneur, crusader for black nationalism, and founder of the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League (UNIA-ACL). ... —Bkell 09:34, 15 January 2006 (UTC) This book is considered to have deeply influenced the Rastafari movement, who see Haile Selassie as God, and Marcus Garvey as his prophet. ... Haile Selassie Haile Selassie (Power of Trinity) (July 23, 1892 – August 27, 1975) was the last Emperor (1930–1936; 1941–1974) of Ethiopia, and is a religious symbol in the Rastafarian movement. ...


The coming

Main article: Millennialism Millennialism (or chiliasm), from millennium, which literally means thousand years, is primarily a belief expressed in some Christian denominations, and literature, that there will be a Golden Age or Paradise on Earth where Christ will reign prior to the final judgment and future eternal state, primarily derived from the book...


In the major Abrahamic religions, there exists the expectation of an individual who will herald the end of the world, and/or bring about the Kingdom of God on Earth. Judaism awaits the coming of the Jewish Messiah (the Jewish concept of Messiah differs from the Christian concept in several significant ways despite the same term being applied to both). The Jewish Messiah is not a "God" but a mortal man who by his holiness is worthy of that description, and will make his appearance only during an era of peace and holiness. Christianity awaits the Second Coming of Christ. Islam awaits both the second coming of Jesus (in order to complete his life and die, since he is said to have been risen alive and not crucified) and the coming of Mahdi (Sunnis in his first incarnation, Shi'as the return of Muhammad al-Mahdi). The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community believes that both Mahdi and Second Coming of Christ were fulfilled in Mirza Ghulam Ahmad. Conversely, members of the Bahá'í Faith believe that these were fulfilled in the person of Bahá'u'lláh. Rastafari awaits the return of Haile Selassie. The Jewish Messiah, (משיח) or Mashiah, Mashiach or Moshiach, has traditionally referred to a future Jewish king from the Davidic line who will be anointed (in Hebrew, mashiach -- משיח (messiah) means anointed with holy anointing oil) and inducted to rule the Jewish people. ... The Second Coming or Second Advent refers to the Christian belief in the return of Jesus to fulfill the rest of Messianic prophecy. ... The Mahdi (Arabic: ‎ translit: , also Mehdi; Guided One), in Islamic eschatology, is the prophesied redeemer of Islam, who will change the world into a perfect Islamic society before Yaum al-Qiyamah (literally Day of the Resurrection). The exact nature of the Mahdi differs according to Sunni and Shia Muslims. ... Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. ... Shia Islam, also Shi`ite Islam or Shi`ism (Arabic: ‎ transliterated: Persian: ‎ ) is the second largest denomination of the religion of Islam. ... MuhÌ£ammad al-MahdÄ« (born 868) (Arabic: ‎ ) is the twelfth and final Shia Imam. ... The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community (Arabic: الجماعة الأحمدية; transliterated: ; sometimes called the Qadiani community, after the locality of Qadian, India) is based on the Ahmadiyya movement (also known among some Muslim groups as Qadianism) founded in 1889 by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad of Qadian (born 1839/40). ... The Mahdi (Arabic: ‎ translit: , also Mehdi; Guided One), in Islamic eschatology, is the prophesied redeemer of Islam, who will change the world into a perfect Islamic society before Yaum al-Qiyamah (literally Day of the Resurrection). The exact nature of the Mahdi differs according to Sunni and Shia Muslims. ... The Second Coming or Second Advent refers to the Christian belief in the return of Jesus to fulfill the rest of Messianic prophecy. ... Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (مرزا غلام احمد) (February 13, 1835–May 26, 1908), a religious figure belonging to India, was the founder of the Ahmadiyya religious movement. ... Seat of the Universal House of Justice, governing body of the Baháís in Haifa, Israel The Baháí Faith is a religion founded by Baháulláh in 19th century Persia. ... Shrine of Baháulláh Baháulláh (ba-haa-ol-laa Arabic: ‎ Glory of God) (1817 - 1892), born Mírzá Husayn-`Alí (Persian: ‎ ), was the founder and prophet of the Baháí Faith. ...


Afterlife

Most Abrahamic religions agree that a human being comprises the body, which dies, and the soul, which need not do so. The soul, capable of remaining alive beyond human death, carries the essence of that person with it, and God will judge that persons life accordingly after they die. The importance of this, the focus on it, and the precise criteria and end result differs between religions.


Reincarnation and transmigration tend not to feature prominently in Abrahamic religions. Although as a rule they all look to some form of afterlife, Christianity and Islam support a continuation of life, usually viewed as eternal, rather than reincarnation and transmigration which are a return (or repeated returns) to this Earth or some other plane to live a complete new life cycle over again. Kabbalic Judaism, however, accepts the concept of returning in new births through a process called gilgul neshamot, but this is not Torah-derived, and is usually studied only among scholars and mystics within the faith. It is a mainstream belief of Hassidic Jews and many Orthodox Jews. Past Lives redirects here. ... Transmigration can has several meanings: Transmigration of the soul is a common term for reincarnation. ... The Physical Plane or Physical Universe in Hermeticism, Theosophical and New Age thought refers to the visible reality of space and time, energy and matter. ... Gilgulim neshamot (jewish concept of reincarnation) literally means circles of the souls (around lifes or incarnations to the body). ...


Judaism

Main article: Olam Haba

Judaism's views on the afterlife ("the World to Come") are quite diverse. This can be attributed to the fact that even though there clearly are traditions in the Hebrew Bible of an afterlife (see Naboth and the Witch of Endor), Judaism focuses on this life and how to lead a holy life to please God, rather than future reward, and its attitude can be mostly summed up by the rabbinical observation that at the start of Genesis God clothed the naked (Adam and Eve), at the end of Deuteronomy He buried the dead (Moses), the Children of Israel mourned for 40 days, then got on with their lives. Jewish eschatology is concerned with Mashiach (the Jewish Messiah) the continuation of the Davidic line, and Olam Haba (Hebrew for the world to come; i. ... 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum This article discusses usage of the term Hebrew Bible. For the article on the Hebrew Bible itself, see Tanakh. ... This article needs cleanup. ... The Witch of Endor: from the frontispiece to Sadducismus Triumphatus by Joseph Glanvill In the Hebrew Bible, the Witch of Endor of the First book of Samuel, chapter 28:4–25, was a witch, a woman who possesses a talisman, through which she called up the ghost of the recently... Moses or Móshe (מֹשֶׁה, Standard Hebrew, Tiberian Hebrew Mōšeh, Arabic موسى Mūsa, Geez ሙሴ Musse) is a legendary Hebrew liberator, leader, lawgiver, prophet, and historian, and also one of the greatest figures in Jewish history. ...


There is general agreement that there is some sort of reward for the righteous in Gan ‘Edhen (the Garden of Eden) and (less agreed upon) punishment in Ge-Hinnom. Popularly it is claimed that the maximum time of punishment for all but the most evil is one year. The mystically inclined also claim the souls (or sparks of souls) may be reincarnated, through Gilgul. Alone of the three Abrahamic religions, Judaim believes that the good of all the nations will get to heaven, one of the reasons Judaism does not normally proselytize. Gilgulim neshamot (jewish concept of reincarnation) literally means circles of the souls (around lifes or incarnations to the body). ...


Islam

Islam prescribes a literal Hell for those who disobey God and commit gross sin. While sinners are punished with fire, there are also many other forms of punishment described, depending on the sin committed. Those who worship and remember God are promised eternal abode in Paradise. In Islam, Heaven is divided into seven levels (hence the term 'Seventh Heaven'), however the heavens are not equated directly with Paradise. Paradise itself is divided into many levels, as is Hell, with higher levels of Paradise being the reward of those who have been more virtuous, and lower levels of Hell for those who have been more sinful. For example, the highest levels might contain the Prophets, those killed for believing, those who help orphans, and those who never tell a lie (among numerous other categories cited in the Qur'an and Hadith). The , (Arabic: recitation, also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and Al-Quran, Turkish Kuran), is the central religious text of Islam. ... Hadith (Arabic: hadīth, Arabic pl. ...


Upon repentance to God, many sins can be forgiven as God is said to be the most Merciful. Additionally, those who ultimately believe in God, but have led sinful lives, may be punished for a time, and then ultimately released into Paradise. The only sin that is beyond repentance, the Qur'an states, is the sin of Shirk (the association God in anyway i.e. claiming that He is equal with anything or worshipping other than Him); it is said that anyone with "one atom of faith" will eventually reach Heaven. Shirk (Arabic شرك) is the Islamic concept of the sin of polytheism. ...


Worship

Worship, ceremonies, and religion-related customs differ substantially between the various Abrahamic religions. Among the few similarities are a seven-day cycle in which one day is nominally reserved for worship, prayer, or other religious activities; this custom is related to the Biblical story of Genesis, where God created the universe in six days, and rested in the seventh. Islam, which has Friday as a day for special congregational prayers, does not subscribe to the 'resting day' concept.


Jewish men are required to pray three times daily and four times daily on the Sabbath and most Jewish holidays, and five times on Yom Kippur. Before the destruction of the Temple, Jewish priests offered sacrifices there; afterwards, the practice was stopped. Jewish women's prayer obligations vary by sect; traditionally (according to Torah Judaism), women do not read from the Torah and are only required to say certain parts of these services twice daily. Conservative Judaism, Reform Judaism, and the Reconstructionist movement have different views. This article concerns the Sabbath in Christianity. ... Yom Kippur (יום כיפור yom kippūr) is the Jewish holiday of the Day of Atonement. ... The Angkor Wat Hindu temple in Cambodia is the largest in the world. ... The term Torah Judaism is a term used by a number of Orthodox Jews to describe themselves. ... Torah () is a Hebrew word meaning teaching, instruction, or law. It is the central and most important document of Judaism revered by Jews through the ages. ... This article refers to Conservative (Masorti) Judaism in the United States. ... Reform Judaism can refer to (1) the largest denomination of Judaism in America and its sibling movements in other countries, (2) a branch of Judaism in the United Kingdom, and (3) the historical predecessor of the American movement that originated in 19th Century Germany. ... Reconstructionist Judaism is a denomination of Judaism characterized by: The belief that an individuals personal autonomy generally overrides traditional Jewish law and custom, yet also holding that ones practices must take into account communal consensus. ...


Christianity does not have any sacrificial rites as such, but its entire theology is based upon the concept of the sacrifice by God of his son Jesus so that his blood might atone for mankind's sins. However, offerings to Christian churches and charity to poor are highly encouraged and take the place of sacrifice. Aditionally, self-sacrifice in the form of lent, penitence and humbleness, in the name of Christ and according to his commandments (cf. Sermon on the Mount), is considered a form of sacrifice that appeals God. Jesus (8-2 BC/BCE — 29-36 AD/CE),[1] also known as Jesus of Nazareth, is the central figure of Christianity. ... The Sermon on the Mount by Carl Heinrich Bloch. ...


The followers of Islam, Muslims, are supposed to pray five times daily (salat) towards the direction (qibla) of what is considered to be the holiest site in Islam, the Kaaba in Mecca. The abled Muslims are obliged to fast in the month of Ramadan.They are also urged to undertake a pilgrimage, known as the Hajj, to Mecca at least once in one's life. During this pilgrimage, the Muslims spend several days in prayer, repenting and most notably, circumambulating the Kaaba among millions of other Muslims. At the end of the Hajj, sheep and other permissible animals are slaughtered to commemorate the moment when God (Allah) replaced Abraham's (Ibrahim) son, Ishmael with a sheep preventing his sacrifice. The meat from these animals is then distributed around the world to needy Muslims, neighbors and relatives. For other uses, including people named Islam, see Islam (disambiguation). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... Masjid al Haram The Kaaba ( transliterated: Persian: ‎ ) also known as al-Ka‘abatu’l-Musharrafat (), al-Baytu l-‘Atīq (), or al-Baytu’l-Ḥarām ( The Sacred House), is a building located inside the mosque known as al-Masjidu’l-Ḥarām in Mecca. ... Mecca or Makkah (in full: Makkah al-Mukarramah; Arabic: ‎) is the capital city of Saudi Arabias Makkah province, in the historic Hijaz region. ... The abbreviation FAST may have several meanings, depending on context: Five hundred meter Aperture Spherical Telescope – The world largest single dish radio antenna in southwest China. ... Ramadan or Ramadhan (Arabic: رمضان) is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar and the holiest month in Islam. ... A pilgrimage is a term primarily used in religion and spirituality of a long journey or search of great moral significance. ... The Hajj (Arabic: ‎ transliterated: ), (Turkish:Hac) is the Pilgrimage to Mecca in Islam. ... Mecca or Makkah (in full: Makkah al-Mukarramah; Arabic: ‎) is the capital city of Saudi Arabias Makkah province, in the historic Hijaz region. ... Masjid al Haram The Kaaba ( transliterated: Persian: ‎ ) also known as al-Ka‘abatu’l-Musharrafat (), al-Baytu l-‘Atīq (), or al-Baytu’l-Ḥarām ( The Sacred House), is a building located inside the mosque known as al-Masjidu’l-Ḥarām in Mecca. ... The Hajj (Arabic: ‎ transliterated: ), (Turkish:Hac) is the Pilgrimage to Mecca in Islam. ... Ishmael (יִשְׁמָעֵאל God hears or obeys, Standard Hebrew , Tiberian Hebrew , Arabic إسماعيل Ismāīl) is Abrahams eldest son, born by his wifes handmaiden Hagar. ...


Circumcision

Judaism prescribes circumcision for males as a token symbol of dedication to the religion. Islam recommends this practice as a form of cleanliness. Christianity replaced that custom by a baptism ceremony that varies according to the denomination, but generally includes immersion, aspersion or anointment with water. Because of the decision of the Early Church (Acts 15) that circumcision is not mandatory, it continues to be optional for Christians. Many countries with majorities of Christian adherents have low circumcision rates.[1] It has been suggested that Circumcision advocacy be merged into this article or section. ... Baptism in early Christian art. ...


Food restrictions

Judaism and Islam have strict dietary laws, with lawful food being called kosher in Judaism and halaal in Islam. Both religions prohibit the consumption of pork; Islam also prohibits the consumption of alcoholic beverages of any kind. Halaal restrictions can be seen as a subset of the kashrut dietary laws, so many kosher foods are considered halaal; especially in the case of meat, which Islam prescribes must be slaughtered in the name of God. Catholic Christianity developed ritual prohibitions against the consumption of meat (but not fish) on Fridays, and the Christian calendars prescribe abstinence from some foods at various times of the year; but these customs vary from place to place, and have changed over time, and some sects have nothing comparable. Some Christians oppose the consumption of alcoholic beverages, while a few Christians also follow a kosher diet, sometimes identified as a "What Would Jesus Eat?" diet. The "Mormon" church or Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints prohibits the consumption of alcohol, along with "hot drinks", usually interpreted as coffee, tea, and other caffeinated beverages. Some approaches to faith and practice have developed in sects of Protestantism such as the Seventh-day Adventist Church, which strongly advise against certain foods; and in some cases vegetarianism or veganism is encouraged. The circled U indicates that this can of tuna is certified kosher by the Union of Orthodox Congregations. ... Halaal (حلال, halāl, halal) is an Islamic Arabic term meaning permissible. In English it is most frequently used to refer to food that is permissible according to Islamic law. ... Two halves of a pig being delivered Pork is the meat taken from pigs. ... Bottles of cachaça, a Brazilian alcoholic beverage. ... It has been suggested that Kosher foods be merged into this article or section. ... What would Jesus do? bracelets The phrase What would Jesus do? (often abbreviated WWJD) became popular in the United States in the 1990s, becoming the personal motto of thousands of Christians, who used the phrase as a reminder of their belief that Jesus is the supreme model for morality, and... The Seventh-day Adventist Church is a Christian denomination which, as its name suggests, is most well known for its teaching that Saturday, the seventh day of the week, is the Sabbath. ... Vegetarianism is the practice of not eating meat, including beef, poultry, fish, and their by-products, with or without the use of dairy products or eggs. ... The logo of the worlds first Vegan Society, registered in 1944 [3] Veganism is a philosophy and lifestyle that avoids using animals and animal products for food, clothing and other purposes. ...


The distinguishing character of Sexuality in Abrahamic Religions

It may be that a distinguishing characteristic of the Abrahamic religions is their generally intolerant stance on homosexuality and sexuality. This contrasts the Abrahamic traditions strongly against the backdrop of the views of their immediate neighbors. In the regions surrounding the geographical homelands of Abrahamic religions (i.e. the Near east and Aegean), sexuality was considered in a more tolerant light (tolerant in the sense that it was not recommended by their Non-Abrahamic religions to legislate death punishments for the practices of homosexuality or prostitution.) The word homosexuality has acquired multiple meanings over time. ... Look up Sex on Wiktionary, the free dictionary A sex is one of two specimen categories of species that recombine their genetic material in order to reproduce, a process called genetic recombination. ... The Near East is a term commonly used by archaeologists and historians, less commonly by journalists and commentators, to refer to the region encompassing the Levant (modern Israel, Palestine, Jordan, Syria and Lebanon), Asia Minor (modern Turkey), Mesopotamia (Iraq and eastern Syria), and the Iranian Plateau (Iran, Afghanistan and western... The Aegean Sea. ... The word homosexuality has acquired multiple meanings over time. ... Prostitution is the sale of sexual services. ...


It seems to be a general mark of the rise of Abrahamic traditions that all sexuality was eliminated from the concept of the divine. By the time of the "Triumph of Christianity", in the late 4th century CE this was generally true throughout the realms of the declining Roman Empire. For example, within territories where Christianity and Judaism held political power the presence of femininity in local deities as well as the Godhead was eliminated. Contrastingly, the Non-Abrahamic religions, from which the Abrahamic scribes heavily borrowed mythological material (like the Epic of Gilgamesh etc...), accepted female high-priestesses. They also believed in the existence of many powerful female divinities like Athena, the Grechian Goddess of wisdom, and Isis who was worshipped as the archetypal wife and mother. In general Abrahamic Religions negate the possibility of sexual openess with respect to the divine nature. Octavian, widely known as Augustus, founder of the Roman empire The Roman Empire was a phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by an autocratic form of government. ... This article is about a system of myths. ... The Epic of Gilgamesh is a literary work from Babylonia, dating from long after the time that king Gilgamesh was supposed to have ruled. ... Helmeted Athena, of the Velletri type. ... It has been suggested that Isis in literature be merged into this article or section. ...


Homosexuality

Many of the sacred texts of the Abrahamic Religions refer to homosexual behavior as an abomination, deriving from the Holiness Code of the book of Leviticus and an interpretation of the legend of Sodom and Gomorrah. By the first century, the writings of Philo Judaeus and Flavius Josephus evolved it into a fully developed form. Thus the condemnation of homosexuality in all three faiths has a single Old Testament source. While all three religions unequivocally condemn male homosexuality, lesbianism is nowhere explicitly mentioned in the Old Testament, the New Testament, or the Qur'an; though some scholars have argued the passage in Romans 1:26, "Their women exchanged natural intercourse for unnatural," is a reference to it. Since its coinage, the word homosexuality has acquired multiple meanings. ... Leviticus is the third book of the Hebrew Bible, also the third book in the Torah (five books of Moses). ... In the Bible, Sodom and Gomorrah (עֲמוֹרָה, Standard Hebrew , Tiberian Hebrew , ) —were two cities destroyed by God for their sins. ... Philo (20 BCE - 40 CE) was an Alexandrian Jewish philosopher born in Alexandria, Egypt. ... Josephus, also known as Flavius Josephus (c. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh, but not Old Testament, because it does not recognize the concept of a New Testament. ... The word homosexuality has acquired multiple meanings over time. ... This article is about homosexual women, not inhabitants of the Greek island of Lesbos A lesbian (lowercase L) is a homosexual woman. ... John 21:1 Jesus Appears to His Disciples--Alessandro Mantovani: the Vatican, Rome. ... The , (Arabic: recitation, also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and Al-Quran, Turkish Kuran), is the central religious text of Islam. ... The Epistle to the Romans is one of the epistles, or letters, included in the New Testament canon of the Christian Bible. ...


The enforcement of this prohibition took different forms in each religion. Early Judaism referenced Leviticus and later Talmudic law in prescribing the death penalty. However, high legal hurdles, such as requiring two witnesses of the act following a previous warning by at least two people, made executions extremely rare. Early Christian emperors also advocated the death penalty: Theodosius I ordained death by the sword, and the Byzantine emperor Justinian, in his summary on Roman law, prescribed burning at the stake. Islamic jurists prescribe a death by stoning or crushing with a wall. Leviticus is the third book of the Hebrew Bible, also the third book in the Torah (five books of Moses). ... The Talmud (תלמוד) is a record of rabbinic discussions of Jewish law, ethics, customs, and stories, which are authoritative in Jewish tradition. ... On the reverse of this coin minted under Valentinian II, both Valentinian and Theodosius are depicted with halos. ... This is a list of the Emperors of the late Eastern Roman Empire, called Byzantine. ... Justinian may refer to: Justinian I, a Roman Emperor; Justinian II, a Byzantine Emperor; Justinian, a storeship sent to the convict settlement at New South Wales in 1790. ...


Proselytism

Christianity encourages evangelism — convincing others to convert to the religion; many Christian organizations, especially Protestant churches, send missionaries to non-Christian communities throughout the world. The Four Evangelists, by Jakob Jordaens Evangelism is the proclaiming of the Christian Gospel or, by extension, any other form of preaching or proselytizing. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... A missionary is a propagator of religion, often an evangelist or other representative of a religious community who works among those outside of that community. ...


Forced conversions to Catholicism have been documented at various points throughout history. The most prominently cited allegations are the conversions of the pagans after Constantine; of Muslims, Jews and Eastern Orthodox during the Crusades; of Jews and Muslims during the Spanish Inquisition; and of the Aztecs by Hernan Cortes. Many Hindutva organizations in India allege that some Christian missionaries in India are converting the illiterate Dalits (the so-called low castes of the Hindus) by "fraudulent means" (sic). Forced conversions are condemned as sinful by major denominations such as the Roman Catholic Church, which officially state that forced conversions pollute the Christian religion and offend human dignity, so that past or present offenses are regarded as a scandal (a cause of unbelief). [2] This article is about historical Crusades . ... // Pedro Berruguete. ... Hernán Cortés Hernán(do) Cortés, marqués del Valle de Oaxaca (1485–December 2, 1547) was the conquistador who conquered Mexico for Spain. ... Hindutva (Hinduness, a word coined by Vinayak Damodar Savarkar in his 1923 pamphlet entitled Hindutva: Who is a Hindu? ) is used to describe movements advocating Hindu nationalism. ... Dalit may have the following meanings. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ...


Despite accusations and some documented incidents of forced conversions, Islam does not permit forcing someone or repeatedly trying to convince them to convert. Islam does not have missionaries comparable to Christianity, though it does encourage its followers to learn about other religions and to teach others about Islam; one converts to Islam on their own free will. In several locations in the Qur'an, converting away from Islam is punishable by death. The Qur'an has a chapter (Sura) dealing with non believers (called "Al-Kafiroon") (Q 109). In the chapter there is also an often quoted verse (ayat) which reads, "There is no compulsion in religion, the path of guidance stands out clear from error" [2:256] and [60:8]. This means that no one is to be compelled into Islam and that the righteous path is distinct from the rest. According to this verse, converts to Islam are ones that see this path. The Muslim expansion during the Ummayad dynasty held true to this teaching, affording second-class citizenship to People of the Book instead of forced conversion. Nevertheless, it should be noted that pagan Arab tribes were given the choice of 'Islam or the sword.'[1] For other uses, including people named Islam, see Islam (disambiguation). ... A missionary is a propagator of religion, often an evangelist or other representative of a religious community who works among those outside of that community. ... The Umayyad Dynasty (Arabic الأمويون / بنو أمية umawiyy; in Turkish, Emevi) was the first dynasty of caliphs of the Prophet Muhammad who were not closely related to Muhammad himself, though they were of the same Meccan tribe, the Quraish. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


While Judaism accepts converts, it does not encourage them, and has no missionaries as such. Judaism states that non-Jews can achieve righteousness by following Noahide Laws, a set of seven universal commandments that non-Jews are expected to follow. In this context the Rambam (Rabbi Moses Maimonides, one of the major Jewish teachers) commented, "Quoting from our sages, the righteous people from other nations have a place in the world to come, if they have acquired what they should learn about the Creator." Because the commandments applicable to the Jews are much more detailed and onerous than Noahide laws, Jewish scholars have traditionally maintained that it is better to be a good non-Jew than a bad Jew, thus discouraging conversion. Most often, converts to Judaism are those who marry Jews; in the United States, the number of such converts is estimated at 10,000-15,000 per year. A missionary is a propagator of religion, often an evangelist or other representative of a religious community who works among those outside of that community. ... The Seven Noahide Laws (Hebrew: שבע מצוות בני × ×— Å baˤ miÅŸwōt bnÄ“-Noḥ), also called the Brit Noah (Covenant of Noah) or Law of the First Covenant, are the Jewish mitzvot (commandments) and halakhot (laws) that are morally binding on non-Jews. ... Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon (Hebrew: רבי משה בן מיימון; Arabic: Mussa bin Maimun ibn Abdallah al-Kurtubi al-Israili; March 30, 1135—December 13, 1204), commonly known by his Greek name Maimonides, was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher. ... Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon (Hebrew: רבי משה בן מיימון; Arabic: Mussa bin Maimun ibn Abdallah al-Kurtubi al-Israili; March 30, 1135—December 13, 1204), commonly known by his Greek name Maimonides, was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher. ...


See also

The Christadelphians are a nontrinitarian Christian Britain and North America in the 19th century. ... Abrahamic mythology is a term used in comparative mythology to refer to those aspects of religious belief and tradition common to the Abrahamic religions, as distinct from those of the Pagan religions from which most mainstream research in this field suggests they developed. ... This article describes the Jewish religion; for a consideration of ethnic, historic, and cultural aspects of the Jewish identity refer to the article Jew. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as recounted in the Gospels. ... For other uses, including people named Islam, see Islam (disambiguation). ... Christo-Islamic is a term of comparative religion to connect fundamental ideas in Christianity with similar ones in Islam. ... The term Judeo-Christo-Islamic (or Judeo-Christian-Islamic) is sometimes used to include Islam in discussions about Western religion. ... Judeo-Christian (or Judaeo-Christian) is a term used to describe the body of concepts and values which are thought to be held in common by Judaism and Christianity, and typically considered (along with classical Greco-Roman civilization) a fundamental basis for Western legal codes and moral values. ... The term Judeo-Islamic refers to the mutual and interacting cultural influences that existed between the predominantly Muslim society of the Middle East, North Africa, and to some degree, India, and the Jewish minority that lived within that society. ... Comparing and contrasting Judaism and Christianity suggests that Judaism and Christianity are not necessarily part of the same Judeo-Christian tradition. ... This entry discusses how the Abrahamic faiths of Judaism, Christianity and Islam deal with God and gender. ... Major religious groups as a percentage of the world population in 2005. ... Monotheism (in Greek μόνος = single and θεός = God) is the belief in the existence of one God, or in the oneness of God. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The sons of Noah are named in Genesis 10 as Shem, Ham, and Japheth. ...

References

  • Ask Rabbi Simmons
  • Johansson, Warren Abrahamic Religions. Encyclopedia of Homosexuality (Dynes, Wayne R., ed.) Garland Publishing, 1990. pp. 5&6.
  1. ^ Watt, Montgomery. "A Historical Overview." Introduction to World Religions. Ed. Christopher Partridge. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2005. 360.

External links

  • What's Next? Heaven, hell, and salvation in major world religions A side-by-side comparison of different religion's views from Beliefnet.
  • The Abrahamic Faiths: A Comparison How do Judaism, Christianity, and Islam differ? More from Beliefnet

  Results from FactBites:
 
Abrahamic religion - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5363 words)
All the Abrahamic religions are derived to some extent from Judaism as practiced in ancient kingdoms of Israel and Judah prior to the Babylonian Exile, at the beginning of the 1st millennium BCE.
It may be that a distinguishing characteristic of the Abrahamic religions is their generally intolerant stance on homosexuality and sexuality.
While all three religions unequivocally condemn male homosexuality, lesbianism is nowhere explicitly mentioned in the Old Testament, the New Testament, or the Qur'an; though some scholars have argued the passage in Romans 1:26, "Their women exchanged natural intercourse for unnatural," is a reference to it.
Religion - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4302 words)
Religion is commonly defined as a group of beliefs concerning the myth of the supernatural, sacred, or divine, and the moral codes, practices, values, institutions, and rituals associated with such belief.
Religion may be defined as the presence of an awareness of the sacred or the holy.
Models that view religion as a social construction include the "Dogma Selection Model," which holds that religions, although untrue in themselves, encode instructions or habits useful for survival, that these ideas "mutate" periodically as they are passed on, and they spread or die out in accord with their effectiveness at improving chances for survival.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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