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Encyclopedia > Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln

In office
March 4, 1861 – April 15, 1865
Vice President(s)   Hannibal Hamlin (1861 - 1865)
Andrew Johnson (1865)
Preceded by James Buchanan
Succeeded by Andrew Johnson

Born February 12, 1809
Hardin County, Kentucky
Died April 15, 1865 (aged 56)
Washington, D.C.
Political party Whig, Republican
Spouse Mary Todd Lincoln
Religion raised by Hard-shell Baptists; rented a pew in the New York Avenue Presbyterian Church; never officially acquired membership in a church
Signature

Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809April 15, 1865) President of the United States (March 4, 1861April 15, 1865). As an outspoken opponent of the expansion of slavery and a political leader in the western states, he won the Republican Party nomination in 1860 and was elected president later that year. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Abraham Lincoln may refer to: A person: Abraham Lincoln, the 16th President of the United States A place: Abraham Lincoln Birthplace National Historic Site, Hodgenville, Kentucky Abraham Lincoln National Cemetery, Elwood, Illinois Fort Abraham Lincoln, south of Mandan, North Dakota Any of a number of high schools: Abraham Lincoln High... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2850x3742, 1215 KB) Description Abraham Lincoln, 16th President of the United States of America. ... The presidential seal was first used in 1880 by President Rutherford B. Hayes and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii The President of the United States of America is the head of state and head of government of the United States. ... March 4 is the 63rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (64th in leap years). ... 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar) // January 1 - Benito Juárez captures Mexico City January 2 - Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia dies and is succeeded by... April 15 is the 105th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (106th in leap years). ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... Hannibal Hamlin (August 27, 1809 – July 4, 1891) was an American politician from the U.S. state of Maine. ... Andrew Johnson (December 29, 1808 – July 31, 1875) was the seventeenth President of the United States (1865–1869), succeeding to the presidency upon the assassination of Abraham Lincoln. ... James Buchanan (April 23, 1791 – June 1, 1868) was the 15th president of the United States (1857–1861). ... Andrew Johnson (December 29, 1808 – July 31, 1875) was the seventeenth President of the United States (1865–1869), succeeding to the presidency upon the assassination of Abraham Lincoln. ... February 12 is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1809 (MDCCCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... Hardin County is a county located in the U.S. state of Kentucky. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... April 15 is the 105th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (106th in leap years). ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... Nickname: Motto: Justitia Omnibus (=Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., in relation to the states Maryland and Virginia Coordinates: Country United States Federal District District of Columbia Government  - Mayor Adrian M. Fenty (D)  - City Council Chairperson: Vincent C. Gray (D) Ward 1: Jim Graham (D) Ward 2: Jack... The United States Whig Party was a political party of the United States. ... The Republican Party of the United States was established in 1854 and is one of the two dominant parties today. ... Mary Ann Todd Lincoln (December 13, 1818 – July 16, 1882) was the First Lady of the United States when her husband, Abraham Lincoln, served as the sixteenth President, from 1861 until 1865. ... Hard-shell is the adjective used to describe Baptists who reject the common Christian notion of missionary work. ... The New York Avenue Presbyterian Church in Washington, DC is a congregation of the Presbyterian Church (USA). ... Image File history File links Abraham_Lincoln_signature. ... February 12 is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1809 (MDCCCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... April 15 is the 105th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (106th in leap years). ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... The presidential seal was first used in 1880 by President Rutherford B. Hayes and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii The President of the United States of America is the head of state and head of government of the United States. ... March 4 is the 63rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (64th in leap years). ... 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar) // January 1 - Benito Juárez captures Mexico City January 2 - Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia dies and is succeeded by... April 15 is the 105th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (106th in leap years). ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... Slave sale in Easton, Maryland The history of slavery in the United States began soon after Europeans first settled in what became the United States. ... The Republican Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Democratic Party. ...


Lincoln helped preserve the United States by leading the defeat of the secessionist Confederacy in the American Civil War. He introduced measures that resulted in the abolition of slavery, issuing his Emancipation Proclamation in 1863 and promoting the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution in 1865. For other uses, see Secession (disambiguation). ... Motto: Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem: God Save the South (unofficial) Dixie (traditional) The Bonnie Blue Flag (popular) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (from April 3, 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Government Republic President... This article is becoming very long. ... Leland-Boker Authorized Edition, printed in June 1864 with a presidential signature The Emancipation Proclamation was an executive order given on January 1, 1863 by United States President Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War, which declared the freedom of all slaves in those areas of the rebellious Confederate States... Amendment XIII in the National Archives Amendment XIII (the Thirteenth Amendment) of the United States Constitution officially abolished, and continues to prohibit, slavery, and, with limited exceptions such as those convicted of a crime, prohibits involuntary servitude. ...


Lincoln's leadership qualities were evident in his close supervision of the victorious war effort, especially his successful selection of Ulysses S. Grant and other top generals. Historians conclude he brilliantly handled the factions of the Republican Party by bringing the leaders into his cabinet and forcing them to cooperate. In crisis management, he defused a war scare with the United Kingdom (1861), he outmaneuvered the Confederacy and took control of the border slave states in 1861-62, and he managed his own landslide reelection in the 1864 presidential election. Ulysses S. Grant[2] (born Hiram Ulysses Grant, April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885) was an American general and the 18th President of the United States (1869–1877). ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ...


Antiwar Copperheads criticized him for refusing to compromise on slavery. On the other hand, Radical Republicans, a strongly Abolitionist faction of the Republican Party, criticized him for moving too slowly in abolishing slavery. Lincoln rallied public opinion through the powerful rhetoric of his messages and speeches; his Gettysburg Address is remembered as the prime example. At the close of the war, Lincoln took a moderate view of Reconstruction, seeking to speedily re-unite the nation through a policy of generous reconciliation. The Copperheads were a faction of Democrats in the North (see also Union (American Civil War)) who opposed the American Civil War, wanting an immediate peace settlement with the Confederates. ... Radical Republicans were certain Republicans in Congress and other federal and state leaders during the American Civil War and Reconstruction eras in U.S. history. ... The Gettysburg Address is the most famous speech of U.S. President Abraham Lincoln and one of the most quoted speeches in United States history. ... Reconstruction was the attempt from 1865 to 1877 in U.S. history to resolve the issues of the American Civil War, when both the Confederacy and slavery were destroyed. ...


Lincoln's assassination in 1865 made him a martyr for the ideal of national unity. killing and death of Abraham Lincoln From left to right: Major Henry Rathbone, Clara Harris, Mary Todd Lincoln, Abraham Lincoln, and John Wilkes Booth. ...


Scholars rank Lincoln among the top three U.S. Presidents, with the average of those surveys placing him at number one. He is noted for his lasting influence on U.S. politics, including redefining republican values.[1] Many surveys have been conducted in order to construct rankings of the success of individuals who have served as President of the United States. ... Republicanism is the political value system that has dominated American political thought since the American Revolution. ...

Contents

Lincoln 1809 to 1854

Early life

Main Article: Lincoln's Early Life and Career

Abraham Lincoln was born on February 12, 1809, to Thomas Lincoln and Nancy Hanks, two uneducated farmers. He was born in a one-room log cabin on the 348 acre (1.4 km²) Sinking Spring Farm. The farm was in Nolin Creek, three miles (5 km) south of Hodgenville, Kentucky. This was the southeast part of Hardin County (now part of LaRue County), and was at that time considered the "frontier." Lincoln was named after his grandfather, who was killed in 1786 in an American Indian raid.[2] He had no middle name. Lincoln had one elder sister, Sarah Lincoln, who was born in 1807. He also had a younger brother, Thomas Jr, who died in infancy. Main Article: Abraham Lincoln Abraham Lincoln was born on February 12, 1809, in a one-room log cabin on the 348 acre (1. ... February 12 is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1809 (MDCCCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... Thomas Herring Lincoln (January 6, 1778 – January 17, 1851) was an American pioneer farmer and father of Abraham Lincoln. ... For the passenger train, see Nancy Hanks (passenger train). ... For the political organization that supports the United States Republican Party, see Log Cabin Republican Replica log cabin at Valley Forge, USA A log cabin is a small house built from logs. ... Hodgenville is a city located in Larue County, Kentucky. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Hardin County is a county located in the U.S. state of Kentucky. ... LaRue County is a county located in the state of Kentucky. ... A frontier is a political and geographical term referring to areas near or beyond a boundary, or of a different nature. ... American Indian can refer to: Native Americans in the United States; Any of the indigenous peoples of the Americas; the First Nations of Canada; American Indians, as defined by the U.S. Census. ... Sarah Lincoln (born February 10, 1807, in Elizabethtown, Kentucky- died January 20, 1828) was the eldest child of Thomas Lincoln and Nancy Hanks and the only sister of Abraham Lincoln. ...

Thomas Lincoln was a respected and relatively affluent citizen of the Kentucky back country for a period of time. He had purchased the Sinking Spring Farm in December 1808 for $200 cash and assumption of a debt.[3] Thomas however, lost all his property in court cases, and when Lincoln was a child the family was living in a dugout on the side of a hill in Indiana, without even a log cabin to shelter them. His parents belonged to a Baptist church that had pulled away from a larger church because they refused to support slavery. From a very young age, Lincoln was exposed to anti-slavery sentiment. However, he never joined his parents' church, or any other, and as a youth he ridiculed religion.[4] It is often debated whether Abraham Lincoln had Marfan syndrome, an autosomal dominant disorder of the connective tissue characterized by long limbs and great stature, among other things.[5] Image File history File links Abe-Lincoln-Birthplace-2. ... Image File history File links Abe-Lincoln-Birthplace-2. ... Abraham Lincoln Birthplace National Historic Site preserves two farm sites where Abraham Lincoln lived as a child. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Baptist is a term describing a tradition within Christianity and may also refer to individuals belonging to a Baptist church or a Baptist denomination. ... Marfan syndrome is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder of the connective tissue characterized by unusually long limbs, great stature, or long toes (or fingers) in proportion to the persons height, as well as a predisposition to cardiovascular disease. ... An autosome is a non-sex chromosome. ... In genetics, the term dominant gene refers to the allele that causes a phenotype that is seen in a heterozygous genotype. ... Connective tissue is one of the four types of tissue in traditional classifications (the others being epithelial, muscle, and nervous tissue. ...


In 1816, when Lincoln was seven years old, his impoverished family moved to Perry County (now in Spencer County), Indiana. He later noted that this move was "partly on account of slavery," and partly because of economic difficulties in Kentucky. In 1818, Lincoln's mother died of "milk sickness" at age thirty four, when Abe was nine. Soon afterwards, Lincoln's father remarried to Sarah Bush Johnston. Sarah Lincoln raised young Lincoln like one of her own children. Years later she compared Lincoln to her own son, saying "Both were good boys, but I must say — both now being dead that Abe was the best boy I ever saw or ever expect to see." Lincoln was affectionate toward his step-mother, whom he would for the rest of his life call "Mother," but distant from his father.[6] Perry County is a county located in the state of Indiana. ... Spencer County is a county located in the state of Indiana. ... Milk sickness also known as tremetol poisoning or in animals as trembles is characterized by trembling, vomiting, and severe intestinal pain that affects individuals who eat dairy products or meat from a cow that has fed on white snakeroot. ... Sarah Bush Johnston Lincoln Sarah Bush Johnston Lincoln (1788-1869) was the second wife of Thomas Lincoln and stepmother of President of the United States Abraham Lincoln. ...


In 1830, after more economic and land-title difficulties in Indiana, the family settled on public land[7] in Macon County, Illinois, 10 miles west of Decatur. Some scholars believe that it was his father's repeated land-title difficulties, and the financial hardships resulting from them, that led the young Lincoln to the study of law. The following winter was desolate and especially brutal, and the family nearly moved back to Indiana. When his father relocated the family to a new homestead in Coles County, Illinois the following year, the 22-year-old Lincoln struck out on his own, canoeing down the Sangamon River to Sangamon County, Illinois, in the village of New Salem. Later that year, hired by New Salem businessman Denton Offutt and accompanied by friends, he took goods from New Salem to New Orleans via flatboat on the Sangamon, Illinois and Mississippi rivers. While in New Orleans, he may have witnessed a slave auction. He visited Kentucky often and he had opportunity to see similar sales from time to time.[8] Macon County is a county located in the state of Illinois. ... The Decatur Transfer House in the background with a newly completed fountain in the foreground. ... The original Lincoln cabin (left) and the reconstruction at the site today. ... Coles County is a county located in the state of Illinois. ... Insert non-formatted text here Sangamon River The Sangamon River is a principal tributary of the Illinois River, approximately 250 mi (402 km) long, in central Illinois in the United States. ... Sangamon County is a county located in the state of Illinois. ... New Salem is the name of a former village in Menard County, Illinois in the United States. ... Denton Offutt was a 19th century American general store operator who hired future President Abraham Lincoln for his first job as an adult in New Salem, Illinois. ... Nickname: Location in the State of Louisiana and the United States Coordinates: Country United States State Louisiana Parish Orleans Founded 1718 Government  - Mayor Ray Nagin (D) Area  - City  350. ... This article is about the river in the U.S. state of Illinois. ... The Mississippi River, derived from the old Ojibwe word misi-ziibi meaning great river (gichi-ziibi big river at its headwaters), is the second-longest named river in North America, with a length of 2320 miles (3733 km) from Lake Itasca to the Gulf of Mexico. ...


His formal education consisted of about 18 months of schooling from unofficial teachers. In effect he was self-educated, studying every book he could borrow. He once walked 20 miles just to borrow one book. His favorite book was The Life of George Washington. He mastered the Bible, William Shakespeare's works, English history and American history, and developed a plain writing style that puzzled audiences more used to grandiloquent rhetoric. He was a local wrestler and skilled with an axe; some rails he had allegedly split in his youth were exhibited at the 1860 Republican National Convention, as the party celebrated the poor-boy-made-good theme. He avoided hunting and fishing because he did not like killing animals even for food and, though unusually tall and strong, spent so much time reading that some neighbors suspected he must be doing it to avoid strenuous manual labor. This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library of Congress. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... England is the largest and most populous of the four main divisions of the United Kingdom. ... Pre-Colonial America For details, see the main Pre-Colonial America article. ...


Early career

Young Abraham Lincoln
Young Abraham Lincoln

Lincoln began his political career in 1832, at age 23, with a campaign for the Illinois General Assembly as a member of the Whig Party. The centerpiece of his platform was the undertaking of navigational improvements on the Sangamon River in the hopes of attracting steamboat traffic to the river, which would allow sparsely populated, poor areas along and near the river to grow and prosper. He served as a captain in a company of the Illinois militia drawn from New Salem during the Black Hawk War, although he never saw combat. He wrote after being elected by his peers that he had not had "any such success in life which gave him so much satisfaction."[9] Lincoln did assist in burying the dead from the Battle of Stillman's Run the day after Major Isaiah Stillman's troops fled the field of battle.[10] Image File history File links Abe_Lincoln_young. ... Image File history File links Abe_Lincoln_young. ... The Illinois General Assembly convenes at the Illinois State Capitol in Springfield. ... The Whig Party was a political party of the United States during the era of Jacksonian democracy. ... Lexington Minuteman representing militia minuteman John Parker. ... Combatants United States Sauk Nation Commanders Henry Atkinson Henry Dodge Adam Snyder Isaiah Stillman Samuel Whiteside Black Hawk Strength 2,000 Miltia 1,500 Regulars volunteers? Indian allies ? 1000 The majority were women and children Casualties 33 killed in action 39 non-combatants killed 450-600 The Black Hawk War... // Introduction The Battle of Stillmans run was the first armed confrontation between the forces of the Illinois Militia, and Sauk chief Black Hawks Indian Band. ... Cavalry Major Isaiah Stillman (1793-April 15, 1861) led Illinois militia in the first armed confrontation of the Black Hawk War against Black Hawks Sauk Indian Band. ...


For a few months he operated a small store in New Salem, selling tea, coffee, sugar, salt, blue calico, brown muslin, straw hats and whiskey.[11] After coming across the Commentaries on the Laws of England, he taught himself law and was admitted to the bar in 1837. That same year, he moved to Springfield, Illinois, and began to practice law with John T. Stuart. Developing a reputation as a formidable adversary during cross-examination of witnesses and in closing arguments, Lincoln became one of the most respected and successful lawyers in Illinois and grew steadily more prosperous. Lincoln served four successive terms in the Illinois House of Representatives, as a Whig representative from Sangamon County, beginning in 1834. He became a leader of the Whig party in the legislature. In 1837, he made his first protest against slavery in the Illinois House, stating that the institution was "founded on both injustice and bad policy."[12] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In the United States, admission to the bar is permission granted by a particular court system to a lawyer to practice law in that system. ... Nickname: i did your mom a fovor tomake you a sandwich Motto: poo poo smells Location of Springfield within Illinois Coordinates: Country United States State Illinois County Sangamon Founded 1819  - Mayor Timothy Davlin Area    - City 156. ... The Illinois House of Representatives convenes at the Illinois State Capitol in Springfield. ...


It was in 1837, that Lincoln met his most intimate friend, Joshua Fry Speed Joshua Fry Speed (November 14, 1814 - May 29, 1882). ...


In 1842, Lincoln wrote a series of anonymous letters which were published in the Sangamon Journal, mocking prominent Democrat and State Auditor James Shields. When Shields found out it was Lincoln, he challenged him to a duel. Since Shields was the challenger, Lincoln chose the weapon and specified "Cavalry broad swords of the largest size." Lincoln, much taller with long arms, had an overwhelming advantage; but the duel was called off at the last minute.[13] The State Journal-Register is the primary daily newspaper for Springfield, Illinois and its surrounding area. ... James Shields James Shields (May 10, 1810 – June 1, 1879) was an American politician and U.S. Army officer who was born in Altmore, Ireland. ...

In 1844, Lincoln entered law practice with William Herndon, a fellow Whig. In 1854, both men joined the fledgling Republican Party. Following Lincoln's death, Herndon began collecting stories about Lincoln and published them in Herndon's Lincoln. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 443 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (491 × 665 pixel, file size: 79 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) http://hdl. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 443 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (491 × 665 pixel, file size: 79 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) http://hdl. ... Mary Ann Todd Lincoln (December 13, 1818 – July 16, 1882) was the First Lady of the United States when her husband, Abraham Lincoln, served as the sixteenth President, from 1861 until 1865. ... William Henry Herndon (born in Kentucky, 1818 - 1891 in Springfield, Illinois) was the law partner and biographer of Abraham Lincoln. ... The Republican Party of the United States was established in 1854 and is one of the two dominant parties today. ...


Family

On November 4, 1842 Lincoln married Mary Todd who came from a prominent slave-owning family from Kentucky. The couple had four sons: November 4 is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 57 days remaining. ... 1842 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Mary Ann Todd Lincoln (December 13, 1818 – July 16, 1882) was the First Lady of the United States when her husband, Abraham Lincoln, served as the sixteenth President, from 1861 until 1865. ...

Only Robert survived into adulthood. Lincoln greatly admired the science that flourished in the elite schools of New England and sent him to Phillips Exeter Academy and Harvard College. Robert Todd Lincoln (August 1, 1843 – July 26, 1926) was the first son of Abraham Lincoln and Mary Ann Todd. ... Manchester, Vermont Manchester is a town located in Bennington County, Vermont. ... This article belongs in one or more categories. ... William Wallace Lincoln William Wallace Lincoln, the third son of Abraham Lincoln and Mary Todd Lincoln, was born on December 21, 1850. ... Nickname: Motto: Justitia Omnibus (=Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., in relation to the states Maryland and Virginia Coordinates: Country United States Federal District District of Columbia Government  - Mayor Adrian M. Fenty (D)  - City Council Chairperson: Vincent C. Gray (D) Ward 1: Jim Graham (D) Ward 2: Jack... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Thomas (Tad) Lincoln. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in Chicagoland and Illinois Coordinates: Country United States State Illinois County Cook & DuPage Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... Phillips Exeter Academy (most commonly called Exeter, also Phillips Exeter or PEA) is a co-educational independent boarding school for grades 9-12, located on 619 acres[1] in Exeter, New Hampshire, USA, fifty miles north of Boston. ... Harvard Yard Harvard College is the undergraduate section and oldest school of Harvard University, having been founded in 1636. ...


Among his wife's family, four of his brothers-in-law fought for the Confederacy with one wounded and another killed in action. Lieutenant David H. Todd, a half-brother of Mary Todd Lincoln, served as commandant of the Libby Prison camp during the war. Libby Prison, located in Richmond, Virginia, was a former tobacco warehouse located on Tobacco Row, converted into prison used by the Confederacy to house captured Union officers during the American Civil War. ...

Daguerreotype of Lincoln c. 1846
Daguerreotype of Lincoln c. 1846

Download high resolution version (741x1024, 98 KB)Abraham Lincoln, probably in 1846 or 1847 From the Library of Congress: http://hdl. ... Download high resolution version (741x1024, 98 KB)Abraham Lincoln, probably in 1846 or 1847 From the Library of Congress: http://hdl. ... An 1837 daguerreotype by Daguerre. ...

Anti-War Activist

In 1846, Lincoln was elected to a term in the U.S. House of Representatives. A staunch Whig, Lincoln often referred to party leader Henry Clay as his political idol. As a freshman House member, Lincoln was not a particularly powerful or influential figure in Congress. He spoke out against the Mexican-American War, which he attributed to President Polk's desire for "military glory — that attractive rainbow, that rises in showers of blood." Besides this rhetoric, he also directly challenged Polk's claims as to the boundary of Texas.[14] Lincoln was among the 82 Whigs in January 1848 who defeated 81 Democrats in a procedural vote on an amendment to send a routine resolution back to committee with instructions for the committee to add the words "a war unnecessarily and unconstitutionally begun by the President of the United States." The amendment passed, but the bill never reemerged from committee and was never finally voted upon.[15] Seal of the House of Representatives The United States House of Representatives (or simply the House) is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress, the other being the Senate. ... Henry Clay, Sr. ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia Strength 7,000 - 43,000 18,000 - 40,000 Casualties KIA: 1,733 Total dead: 13,283 Wounded: 4,152 25,000 killed or wounded (Mexican government... James Knox Polk (November 2, 1795–June 15, 1849) was the eleventh President of the United States, serving from March 4, 1845 to March 4, 1849. ...


Lincoln damaged his reputation by an intemperate speech in the House. He announced, "God of Heaven has forgotten to defend the weak and innocent, and permitted the strong band of murderers and demons from hell to kill men, women, and children, and lay waste and pillage the land of the just." Two weeks later, Polk sent a peace treaty to Congress. No one in Washington paid any attention to Lincoln, but the Democrats orchestrated angry outbursts from all over his district, where the war was popular and many had volunteered. In Morgan County, resolutions were adopted in fervent support of the war and in wrathful denunciation of the "treasonable assaults of guerrillas at home; party demagogues; slanderers of the President; defenders of the butchery at the Alamo; traducers of the heroism at San Jacinto." Combatants Republic of Mexico Mexican state of Coahuila y Tejas Commanders Antonio López de Santa Anna Pérez de Lebrón William Travis† Jim Bowie† Davy Crockett† Strength 6,000 in attack {1,800 in assault-see below} 183 to 250 Casualties 370 to 600 total 70 to 200... Combatants Mexico Republic of Texas Commanders Antonio López de Santa Anna{POW} Manuel Fernandez Castrillon† Juan Almonte{POW} Sam Houston{wounded} Strength about 1,400 800 Casualties 630 killed, 208 wounded, 730 captured 9 killed, 26 wounded For other battles of the same name, see San Jacinto. ...


Lincoln's law partner William Herndon warned Lincoln that the damage was mounting and irreparable; Lincoln himself was despondent, and he decided not to run for reelection. In the fall 1848 election, he campaigned vigorously for Zachary Taylor, the successful general whose atrocities he had denounced in January. Lincoln's attacks on Polk and Taylor came back to haunt him during the Civil War and indeed was held against him when he applied for a major patronage job from the new Taylor administration. Instead Taylor's people offered Lincoln patronage jobs in the remote Oregon Territory. Acceptance would end his career in the fast-growing state of Illinois, so he declined. Returning instead to Springfield, Lincoln gave up politics for several years and turned his energies to making a living as an attorney, which involved grueling travels on horseback from county courthouse to county courthouse.[16] Zachary Taylor (November 24, 1784 – July 9, 1850) was an American military leader and the twelfth President of the United States. ... The Oregon Territory is the name applied both to the unorganized Oregon Country claimed by both the United States and Britain, as well as to the organized U.S. territory formed from it that existed between 1848 and 1859. ...


Prairie lawyer

By the mid-1850s, Lincoln faced competing transportation interests — both the river barges and the railroads. In 1849, he received a patent related to buoying vessels. Lincoln represented the Alton & Sangamon Railroad in an 1851 dispute with one of its shareholders, James A. Barret. Barret had refused to pay the balance on his pledge to the railroad on the grounds that it had changed its originally planned route. Lincoln argued that as a matter of law a corporation is not bound by its original charter when that charter can be amended in the public interest, that the newer proposed Alton & Sangamon route was superior and less expensive, and that accordingly the corporation had a right to sue Mr. Barret for his delinquent payment. He won this case, and the decision by the Illinois Supreme Court was eventually cited by several other courts throughout the United States.[17] Supreme Court of Illinois is the apex court of judicature of the state of Illinois, United States of America. ...


An important example of Lincoln's skills as a railroad lawyer was a lawsuit over a tax exemption that the state had granted to the Illinois Central Railroad. McLean County argued that the state had no authority to grant such an exemption, and it sought to impose taxes on the railroad notwithstanding. In January 1856, the Illinois Supreme Court delivered its opinion upholding the tax exemption. The Illinois Central (AAR reporting mark IC), sometimes called the Main Line of Mid-America, was a railroad carrier in the central United States, with its primary routes connecting Chicago, Illinois with New Orleans, Louisiana and Birmingham, Alabama. ... McLean County is a county located in the state of Illinois. ...


Lincoln's most notable criminal trial came in 1858 when he defended William "Duff" Armstrong, who was on trial for murder. The case is famous for Lincoln's use of judicial notice, a rare tactic at that time, to show that an eyewitness had lied on the stand. After the witness testified to having seen the crime by the light of the moon, Lincoln produced a Farmer's Almanac to show that the moon on that date was at such a low angle that it could not have provided enough illumination to see anything clearly. Based upon this evidence, Armstrong was acquitted.[18] William Duff Armstrong was a man on trial for the murder of James Preston Metzker. ... Judicial Notice is a rule of evidence that allows a fact to be introduced into evidence if the truth of that fact is so notorious or well known that it is cannot be refuted. ... Farmers Almanac is a reference book used by farmers to determine astronomical positions. ...


Lincoln was involved in more than 5,100 cases in Illinois alone during a 23-year legal practice. Amounting to about one case per business day, many cases involved little more than filing a writ, while others were more substantial and drawn-out. Lincoln and his partners appeared before the Illinois State Supreme Court more than 400 times.


Republican politics 1854–1860

The Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854, which expressly repealed the limits on slavery's spread that had been part of the Missouri Compromise of 1820, drew Lincoln back into politics. Illinois Democrat Stephen A. Douglas, the most powerful man in the Senate, proposed popular sovereignty as the solution to the slavery impasse, and he incorporated it into the Kansas-Nebraska Act. Douglas argued that in a democracy the people of a territory should decide whether to allow slavery and not have a decision imposed on them by Congress.[19] This 1854 map shows slave states (grey), free states (red), and US territories (green) with Kansas in center (white). ... The United States in 1820. ... Stephen Arnold Douglas, nicknamed the Little Giant (April 23, 1813 – June 3, 1861), was an American politician from the western state of Illinois, and was the Democratic Party nominee for President in 1860. ... Pooybuttpular sovereignty is the doctrine that the state is created by and therefore subject to the will of its people, who are the source of all political power. ...


It was a speech against the act, on October 16, 1854, in Peoria, that caused Lincoln to stand out among the other free soil orators of the day. In the speech, Lincoln commented upon the Kansas-Nebraska Act: October 16 is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years). ... 1854 (MDCCCLIV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... : See how it plays in Peoria United States Illinois Peoria 46. ... In the United States, Free Soil was a position taken by northern citizens and politicians in the 19th century advocating that all new U.S. territory be closed to slavery. ...

[The Act has a] declared indifference, but as I must think, covert real zeal for the spread of slavery, I cannot but hate. I hate it because of the monstrous injustice of slavery itself. I hate it because it deprives our republican example of its just influence in the world—enables the enemies of free institutions, with plausibility, to taunt us as hypocrites—causes the real friends of freedom to doubt our sincerity, and especially because it forces so many really good men amongst ourselves into an open war with the very fundamental principles of civil liberty—criticizing the Declaration of Independence, and insisting that there is no right principle of action but self-interest.[20]

He helped form the new Republican Party, drawing on remnants of the old Whig, Free Soil, Liberty and Democratic parties. In a stirring campaign, the Republicans carried Illinois in 1854 and elected a senator. Lincoln was the obvious choice, but to keep the new party balanced he allowed the election to go to an ex-Democrat Lyman Trumbull. The Free Soil Party was a short-lived political party in the United States active in the 1848 and 1852 presidential elections, and in some state elections. ... Lyman Trumbull was the United States Senator from Illinois during the American Civil War Categories: American politician stubs ...


In 1857-58, Douglas broke with President Buchanan, leading to a fight for control of the Democratic Party. Some eastern Republicans even favored the reelection of Douglas in 1858, since he led the opposition to the administration's push for the Lecompton Constitution which would have admitted Kansas as a slave state. Accepting the Republican nomination for the Senate in 1858, Lincoln delivered a famous speech in which he stated, "'A house divided against itself cannot stand.'(Mark 3:25) I believe this government cannot endure permanently half slave and half free. I do not expect the Union to be dissolved — I do not expect the house to fall — but I do expect it will cease to be divided. It will become all one thing, or all the other."[21] The speech created a lasting image of the danger of disunion because of slavery, and rallied Republicans across the north. James Buchanan (April 23, 1791 – June 1, 1868) was the 15th president of the United States (1857–1861). ... The Lecompton Constitution was one of four proposed Kansas state constitutions. ... A slave state was a U.S. state that had legal slavery of African Americans. ... The Gospel of Mark (anonymous[1] but ascribed to Mark the Evangelist) is a Gospel of the New Testament. ...


The 1858 campaign featured the Lincoln-Douglas debates, a nationally famous contest on slavery. Lincoln warned that the Slave Power was threatening the values of republicanism, while Douglas emphasized democracy, as in his Freeport Doctrine, which said that local settlers should be free to choose slavery or not. Though the Republican legislative candidates won more popular votes, the Democrats won more seats, and the legislature reelected Douglas to the Senate. Nevertheless, Lincoln's eloquence transformed him into a national political star. The Lincoln-Douglas debates of 1858 were a series of seven debates between Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas for an Illinois seat in the United States Senate. ... The Slave Power was the term used in the Northern United States in the period 1840-1865 to describe the political power of the slaveholding class in the South. ... The Freeport Doctrine was articulated by Stephen A. Douglas at the second of the Lincoln-Douglas debates on August 27, 1858, in Freeport, Illinois. ...


During the debates of 1858, the issue of race was often discussed. During a time period when racial egalitarianism was considered politically incorrect, Stephen Douglas informed the crowds, "If you desire Negro citizenship… if you desire them to vote on an equality with yourselves… then support Mr. Lincoln and the Black Republican party, who are in favor of the citizenship of the negro."[22] On the defensive, Lincoln countered that he was "not in favor of bringing about in any way the social and political equality of the white and black races."[23] Lincoln's opposition to slavery was opposition to the Slave Power. But the Civil War changed many things, including Lincoln's beliefs in race relations.[24] The Slave Power was the term used in the Northern United States in the period 1840-1865 to describe the political power of the slaveholding class in the South. ...


Election of 1860

"The Rail Candidate," Lincoln's 1860 candidacy is held up by slavery issue (slave on left) and party organization (New York Tribune editor Horace Greeley on right)
"The Rail Candidate," Lincoln's 1860 candidacy is held up by slavery issue (slave on left) and party organization (New York Tribune editor Horace Greeley on right)

Entering the presidential nomination process as a distinct underdog, Lincoln was eventually chosen as the Republican candidate for the 1860 election for several reasons. His expressed views on slavery were seen as more moderate than the views of rivals William H. Seward and Salmon P. Chase. His "western" origins also appealed to the newer states. Other contenders, especially those with more governmental experience, had acquired enemies within the party and were weak in the critical western states. Lincoln was seen as a moderate who could win the West. Most Republicans agreed with Lincoln that the North was the aggrieved party as the Slave Power tightened its grasp on the national government. Despite his Southern connections (his in-laws owned slaves), Lincoln misunderstood the depth of the revolution underway in the South and the emergence of Southern nationalism. Throughout the 1850s he denied there would ever be a civil war. His supporters repeatedly denied that his election would be a spark for secession.[25] Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Image File history File links The_Rail_Candidate. ... Image File history File links The_Rail_Candidate. ... Horace Greeley (February 3, 1811 – November 29, 1872) was an American editor of a leading newspaper, a founder of the Republican party, reformer and politician. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... William Henry Seward, Sr. ... Salmon Portland Chase (January 13, 1808 – May 7, 1873) was an American politician and jurist in the Civil War era who served as Senator from Ohio, Governor of Ohio, as U.S. Treasury Secretary under President Abraham Lincoln, and Chief Justice of the United States. ... The Slave Power was the term used in the Northern United States in the period 1840-1865 to describe the political power of the slaveholding class in the South. ...


Lincoln did not campaign or give speeches. The campaign was handled by the state and county Republican organizations. They were thorough and used the newest techniques to sustain the enthusiasm of party members and thus obtain high turnout. There was little effort to convert non-Republicans, and there was virtually no campaigning in the South except for a few border cities such as St. Louis, Missouri, and Wheeling, Virginia; indeed the party did not run a slate of electors in most of the South. In the North, there were thousands of Republican speakers, tons of campaign posters and leaflets, and thousands of newspaper editorials. They focused first on the party platform, and second on Lincoln's life story, making the most of his boyhood poverty, his pioneer background, his native genius, his rise from obscurity to fame. His nicknames, "Honest Abe" and "the Rail-Splitter," were exploited to the full. The point was to emphasize the superior power of "free labor," whereby a common farm boy could work his way to the top by his own efforts.[26] This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Nickname: The Friendly City Location in Ohio County in the State of West Virginia Coordinates: Settled 1769 Established 1806 Incorporated 1836  - Mayor Nick Sparachane  - City Manager Robert Herron  - Chief of Police Kevin Gessler, Sr. ...


On November 6, 1860, Lincoln was elected the 16th President of the United States, beating Democrat Stephen A. Douglas, John C. Breckinridge of the Southern Democrats, and John Bell of the new Constitutional Union Party. Lincoln was the first Republican president. He won entirely on the strength of his support in the North: he was not even on the ballot in nine states in the South — and won only 2 of 996 counties in the other Southern states. Lincoln gained 1,865,908 votes (39.9% of the total,) for 180 electoral votes; Douglas 1,380,202 (29.5%) for 12 electoral votes; Breckenridge 848,019 (18.1%) for 72 electoral votes; and Bell 590,901 (12.5%) for 39 electoral votes. There were fusion tickets in some states, but even if his opponents had combined in every state, Lincoln had a majority vote in all but two of the states in which he won the electoral votes and would still have won the electoral college and the election. November 6 is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 55 days remaining. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... John C. Breckinridge This article is about the politician and Confederate General. ... John Bell (also known as The Great Apostate) (February 15, 1797–September 10, 1869) was a U.S. politician, attorney, and plantation owner. ... The Constitutional Union Party was a political party in the United States created in 1860. ... Electoral fusion is an arrangement where two or more political parties support a common candidate, pooling the votes for all those parties. ...


Civil War

Secession winter 1860–1861

As Lincoln's election became more probable, secessionists made it clear that their states would leave the Union. South Carolina took the lead followed by six other cotton-growing states in the deep South. The upper South (Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, Kentucky, Missouri, and Arkansas) listened to and rejected the secessionist appeal. They decided to stay in the Union, though warning Lincoln they would not support an invasion through their territory. The seven Confederate states seceded before Lincoln took office, declaring themselves an entirely new nation, the Confederate States of America. President Buchanan and President-elect Lincoln refused to recognize the Confederacy. Official language(s) English Capital Charleston(1670-1789) Columbia(1790-present) Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Greenville-Spartanburg-Anderson Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32°430N to 35... Official language(s) None Capital Dover Largest city Wilmington Area  Ranked 49th  - Total 2,491 sq mi (6,452 km²)  - Width 30 miles (48 km)  - Length 100 miles (161 km)  - % water 21. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 90 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37°53N to 39°43N  - Longitude 75°4W to 79°33... Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  Ranked 35th  - Total 42,793 sq mi (110,862 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 7. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (901 km)  - % water 9. ... Official language(s) English Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis Largest metro area Nashville Area  Ranked 36th  - Total 42,169 sq mi (109,247 km²)  - Width 120 miles (195 km)  - Length 440 miles (710 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Official language(s) English Capital Jefferson City Largest city Kansas City Largest metro area St. ... Official language(s) English Capital Little Rock Largest city Little Rock Area  Ranked 29th  - Total 53,179 sq mi (137,002 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 261 miles (420 km)  - % water 2. ... Motto: Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem: God Save the South (unofficial) Dixie (traditional) The Bonnie Blue Flag (popular) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (from April 3, 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Government Republic President...


President-elect Lincoln evaded possible assassins in Baltimore and on February 23, 1861, arrived in disguise in Washington, D.C. At Lincoln's inauguration on March 4, 1861, the Turners formed Lincoln's bodyguard; and a sizable garrison of federal troops was also present, ready to protect the capital from Confederate invasion or insurrection from Confederates in the capital city. March 4 is the 63rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (64th in leap years). ... 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar) // January 1 - Benito Juárez captures Mexico City January 2 - Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia dies and is succeeded by... Turners (German: , gymnasts in English) are German Americans who have organised themselves in gymnastic unions. Together with Carl Schurz they were supportive in getting Abraham Lincoln elected as president of the United States of America (USA). ...

Photograph showing the March 4, 1861, inauguration of Abraham Lincoln in front of U.S. Capitol Building
Photograph showing the March 4, 1861, inauguration of Abraham Lincoln in front of U.S. Capitol Building

In his First Inaugural Address, Lincoln declared, "I hold that in contemplation of universal law and of the Constitution the Union of these States is perpetual. Perpetuity is implied, if not expressed, in the fundamental law of all national governments," arguing further that the purpose of the United States Constitution was "to form a more perfect union" than the Articles of Confederation which were explicitly perpetual, and thus the Constitution too was perpetual. He asked rhetorically that even were the Constitution a simple contract, would it not require the agreement of all parties to rescind it? Image File history File links Photograph from Benjamin Brown French showing March 4, 1861 inauguration of Abraham Lincoln in front of U.S. Capitol, which was undergoing construction. ... Image File history File links Photograph from Benjamin Brown French showing March 4, 1861 inauguration of Abraham Lincoln in front of U.S. Capitol, which was undergoing construction. ... March 4 is the 63rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (64th in leap years). ... 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar) // January 1 - Benito Juárez captures Mexico City January 2 - Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia dies and is succeeded by... United States Capitol The United States Capitol is the building which serves as home for the legislative branch of the United States government. ... Lincolns First Inaugural Address, delivered March 4, 1861, was deeply conciliatory to Southern slave-holding interests. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Constitution of the United States of America Page one of the original copy of the Constitution. ... The Articles of Confederation The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, commonly known as the Articles of Confederation, was the first governing document, or constitution, of the United States of America. ...


Also in his inaugural address, in a final attempt to unite the Union and prevent the looming war, Lincoln supported the pending Corwin Amendment to the Constitution, which had passed Congress. It explicitly protected slavery in those states in which it already existed, and was designed to appeal not to the Confederacy but to the critical border states. Lincoln adamantly opposed the Crittenden Compromise, however, which would have permitted slavery in the territories. Despite support for the Crittenden compromise among some Republicans, Lincoln denounced it saying it "would amount to a perpetual covenant of war against every people, tribe, and state owning a foot of land between here and Tierra del Fuego [at the far end of South America]." The Corwin Amendment is a proposed amendment to the United States Constitution. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Crittenden Compromise The Crittenden Compromise (December 18, 1860) was an unsuccessful proposal by Kentucky Senator John J. Crittenden to resolve the U.S. secession crisis of 1860–1861 by addressing the concerns that led the states in the Deep South of the...


By the time Lincoln took office, the Confederacy was an established fact, and no leaders of the insurrection proposed rejoining the Union on any terms. No compromise was found because a compromise was virtually impossible. Lincoln perhaps could have allowed the southern states to secede, and some Republicans recommended that. However, conservative Democratic nationalists, such as Jeremiah S. Black, Joseph Holt, and Edwin M. Stanton had taken control of Buchanan's cabinet around January 1, 1861, and refused to accept secession. Lincoln and nearly all Republican leaders adopted this nationalistic position by March 1861: the Union could not be broken. However, Lincoln being a strict follower of the constitution, would not take any action against the South unless the Unionists themselves were attacked first. It finally happened in April 1861. Jeremiah Sullivan Black (January 10, 1810–August 19, 1883) was an American statesman and lawyer. ... Joseph Holt (January 6, 1807–August 1, 1894) was U.S. Secretary of War and a U.S. Postmaster General under James Buchanan. ... Edwin McMasters Stanton (December 19, 1814 – December 24, 1869), was an American lawyer, politician, United States Attorney General in 1860-61 and Secretary of War through most of the American Civil War and Reconstruction era. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar) // January 1 - Benito Juárez captures Mexico City January 2 - Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia dies and is succeeded by...


Fighting begins: 1861–1862

Main article: American Civil War

After Union troops at Fort Sumter were fired upon and forced to surrender in April 1861, Lincoln called on governors of every state to send detachments totaling 75,000 troops to recapture forts, protect the capital, and "preserve the Union," which in his view still existed intact despite the actions of the seceding states. Virginia, which had repeatedly warned Lincoln it would not allow an invasion of its territory or join an attack on another state, then seceded, along with North Carolina, Tennessee and Arkansas. This article is becoming very long. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Robert Anderson P.G.T. Beauregard Strength 85 soldiers 500 soldiers Casualties 1 dead 5 injured 4 injured The Battle of Fort Sumter (April 12 – April 13, 1861), a relatively minor military engagement at Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor, South...


Nevins[27] argues that Lincoln made three serious mistakes at this point. He at first underestimated the strength of the Confederacy, assuming that 75,000 troops could end the insurrection in 90 days. Second, he overestimated the strength of Unionist sentiment in the South and border states; he assumed he could call the bluff of the insurrectionists and they would fade away. Finally he misunderstood the demands of Unionists in the border states, who warned they would not support an invasion of the Confederacy.


The slave states of Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, and Delaware did not secede, and Lincoln urgently negotiated with state leaders there, promising not to interfere with slavery in loyal states. After the fighting started, he had rebel leaders arrested in all the border areas and held in military prisons without trial; over 18,000 were arrested. None were executed; one — Clement Vallandingham — was exiled; all were released, usually after two or three months. See Ex parte Merryman. This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Ex parte Merryman, (1861), is a well-known U.S. federal court case which arose out of the American Civil War. ...


Emancipation Proclamation

Lincoln met with his Cabinet for the first reading of the Emancipation Proclamation draft on July 22, 1862. L-R: Edwin M. Stanton, Salmon P. Chase, Abraham Lincoln, Gideon Welles, Caleb Smith, William H. Seward, Montgomery Blair and Edward Bates
Lincoln met with his Cabinet for the first reading of the Emancipation Proclamation draft on July 22, 1862. L-R: Edwin M. Stanton, Salmon P. Chase, Abraham Lincoln, Gideon Welles, Caleb Smith, William H. Seward, Montgomery Blair and Edward Bates

Congress in July 1862 moved to free the slaves by passing the Second Confiscation Act. The goal was to weaken the rebellion, which was led and controlled by slave owners. This did not abolish the legal institution of slavery (the 13th Amendment did that), but it shows Lincoln had the support of Congress in liberating the slaves owned by rebels. Lincoln implemented the new law by his "Emancipation Proclamation." Abraham Lincoln Abraham Lincolns position on freeing the slaves was one of the central issues in American history. ... Leland-Boker Authorized Edition, printed in June 1864 with a presidential signature The Emancipation Proclamation was an executive order given on January 1, 1863 by United States President Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War, which declared the freedom of all slaves in those areas of the rebellious Confederate States... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Leland-Boker Authorized Edition, printed in June 1864 with a presidential signature The Emancipation Proclamation was an executive order given on January 1, 1863 by United States President Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War, which declared the freedom of all slaves in those areas of the rebellious Confederate States... July 22 is the 203rd day (204th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 162 days remaining. ... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Edwin McMasters Stanton (December 19, 1814 – December 24, 1869), was an American lawyer, politician, United States Attorney General in 1860-61 and Secretary of War through most of the American Civil War and Reconstruction era. ... Salmon Portland Chase (January 13, 1808 – May 7, 1873) was an American politician and jurist in the Civil War era who served as Senator from Ohio, Governor of Ohio, as U.S. Treasury Secretary under President Abraham Lincoln, and Chief Justice of the United States. ... Gideon Welles (July 1, 1802–February 11, 1878) was the United States Secretary of the Navy from 1861 to 1869, including the entire duration of the American Civil War: his dedication to naval blockades was one of the key reasons for the Norths victory over the South. ... Caleb Blood Smith (April 16, 1808–January 7, 1864) was an American journalist and politician. ... William Henry Seward, Sr. ... Montgomery Blair (May 10, 1813–July 27, 1883), son of Francis Preston Blair and elder brother of Francis Preston Blair, Jr. ... Note: This article is about the American lawyer. ...


Lincoln is well known for ending slavery in the United States. In 1861-62, Lincoln made it clear that the North was fighting the war to preserve the Union, not to abolish slavery. Freeing the slaves became, in late 1862, a war measure to weaken the rebellion by destroying the economic base of its leadership class. Abolitionists criticized Lincoln for his slowness, but on August 22, 1862, Lincoln explained:

I would save the Union. I would save it the shortest way under the Constitution. The sooner the national authority can be restored; the nearer the Union will be "the Union as it was." ... My paramount object in this struggle is to save the Union, and is not either to save or to destroy slavery. If I could save the Union without freeing any slave I would do it, and if I could save it by freeing all the slaves I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing some and leaving others alone I would also do that.[28]

The Emancipation Proclamation, announced on September 22 and put in effect January 1, 1863, freed slaves in territories not under Union control. As Union armies advanced south, more slaves were liberated until all of them in Confederate hands were freed (over three million). Lincoln later said: "I never, in my life, felt more certain that I was doing right, than I do in signing this paper." The proclamation made abolishing slavery in the rebel states an official war goal. Lincoln then threw his energies into passage of the 13th Amendment to permanently abolish slavery throughout the nation.[29] Leland-Boker Authorized Edition, printed in June 1864 with a presidential signature The Emancipation Proclamation was an executive order given on January 1, 1863 by United States President Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War, which declared the freedom of all slaves in those areas of the rebellious Confederate States... September 22 is the 265th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (266th in leap years). ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Lincoln had for some time been working on plans to set up colonies for the newly freed slaves. He remarked upon colonization favorably in the Emancipation Proclamation but all attempts at such a massive undertaking failed. As Frederick Douglass observed, Lincoln was, "The first great man that I talked with in the United States freely who in no single instance reminded me of the difference between himself and myself, of the difference of color."[30] Abraham Lincoln Abraham Lincolns position on freeing the slaves was one of the central issues in American history. ... Frederick Douglass, ca. ...


Domestic measures

While Lincoln is usually portrayed bearded, he first grew a beard in 1860 at the suggestion of 11-year-old Grace Bedell
While Lincoln is usually portrayed bearded, he first grew a beard in 1860 at the suggestion of 11-year-old Grace Bedell

Lincoln believed in the Whig theory of the presidency, which left Congress to write the laws while he signed them, vetoing only bills that threatened his war powers. Thus, he signed the Homestead Act in 1862, making available millions of acres of government-held land in the west for purchase at very low cost. The Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act, also signed in 1862, provided government grants for agricultural universities in each state. Lincoln also signed the Pacific Railway Acts of 1862 and 1864, which granted federal support to the construction of the United States' first transcontinental railroad, which was completed in 1869. Other important legislation involved money matters, including the first income tax and higher tariffs. Also included was the creation of the system of national banks by the National Banking Acts of 1863, 1864, and 1865 which allowed the creation of a strong national financial system. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (916x1028, 179 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Abraham Lincoln American Civil War Powers of the President of the United States ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (916x1028, 179 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Abraham Lincoln American Civil War Powers of the President of the United States ... Grace Bedell, an 11-year old girl from Westfield, New York, sent Abraham Lincoln a letter on October 15, 1860 (a few weeks before he was elected President). ... The Homestead Act was a United States Federal law that gave freehold title to 160 acres (about 65 hectares) of undeveloped land in the American West. ... The Morrill Land-Grant Acts are United States statutes that allowed for the creation of land-grant colleges. ... A university is an institution of higher education and of research, which grants academic degrees. ... The National Bank Act (ch. ...


Lincoln sent a senior general (John Pope) to put down the "Sioux Uprising" of August 1862 in Minnesota. Presented with 303 death warrants for convicted Santee Dakota who had massacred innocent farmers, Lincoln affirmed 39 of these for execution (one was later reprieved). Major General John Pope John Pope (March 18, 1822 – September 23, 1892) was a career Army officer and general in the American Civil War. ... Chief Taoyateduta, known as Chief Little Crow The Sioux Uprising, also known as the Dakota Conflict or the U.S.-Dakota War of 1862, was an armed conflict between the United States and several eastern bands of the Dakota people (often referred to as the Santee Sioux) that began on... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Area  Ranked 12th  - Total 87,014 sq mi (225,365 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 8. ...


1864 election and second inauguration

After Union victories at Gettysburg, Vicksburg and Chattanooga in 1863, victory seemed at hand. Lincoln promoted Ulysses S. Grant General-in-Chief on March 12, 1864. When the spring campaigns all turned into bloody stalemates, Lincoln strongly supported Grant's strategy of wearing down Lee's army at the cost of heavy Union casualties. Lincoln easily defeated efforts to deny his renomination, and selected Andrew Johnson, a War Democrat from the Southern state of Tennessee as his running mate in order to form a broader coalition. They ran on the new Union Party ticket; it was a coalition of Republicans and War Democrats. Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America Commanders George Gordon Meade Robert Edward Lee Strength 93,921 71,699 Casualties 23,055 (3,155 killed, 14,531 wounded, 5,369 captured/missing) 23,231 (4,708 killed, 12,693 wounded, 5,830 captured/missing) The Battle of... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant John C. Pemberton Strength 70,000 30,000 Casualties 10,142 9,091 (30,000 paroled) The Battle of Vicksburg, or Siege of Vicksburg, was the final significant battle in the Vicksburg Campaign of the American Civil... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant Braxton Bragg Strength Military Division of the Mississippi (56,359 effectives)[1] Army of Tennessee (44,010)[1] Casualties 5,824 (753 killed, 4,722 wounded, 349 missing)[1] 6,667 (361 killed, 2,160 wounded, 4... Andrew Johnson (December 29, 1808 – July 31, 1875) was the seventeenth President of the United States (1865–1869), succeeding to the presidency upon the assassination of Abraham Lincoln. ... War Democrats were those who broke with the majority of the Democratic Party and supported the military policies of President Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War of 1861-1865. ... The National Union Party was a political party in the United States from 1864 to 1868. ...

Lincoln, in stovepipe hat, with Allan Pinkerton and Gen. John McClernand at Antietam
Lincoln, in stovepipe hat, with Allan Pinkerton and Gen. John McClernand at Antietam

Republicans across the country had the jitters in August, fearing that Lincoln would be defeated. Acknowledging those fears, Lincoln wrote and signed a pledge that, if he should lose the election, he would nonetheless defeat the Confederacy by an all-out military effort before turning over the White House:[31] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2553x3570, 4712 KB) Allan Pinkerton, President Abraham Lincoln, and Major General John A. McClernand. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2553x3570, 4712 KB) Allan Pinkerton, President Abraham Lincoln, and Major General John A. McClernand. ... Vaudeville character actor Charles E. Grapewin wearing a top hat For the movie starring Fred Astaire see Top Hat A top-hat or top hat is a kind of tall, flat-crowned, broad-brimmed hat worn by men and was especially common in the 19th century. ... This article does not adequately cite its references. ... John Alexander McClernand John Alexander McClernand (May 30, 1812 – September 20, 1900) was an American soldier and lawyer. ...

This morning, as for some days past, it seems exceedingly probable that this Administration will not be re-elected. Then it will be my duty to so co-operate with the President elect, as to save the Union between the election and the inauguration; as he will have secured his election on such ground that he cannot possibly save it afterwards.[32]

Lincoln did not show the pledge to his cabinet, but asked them to sign the sealed envelope.


The Democratic platform followed the Peace wing of the party, calling the war a "failure." However their candidate, General George McClellan, supported the war and repudiated the platform. The Copperheads were a faction of Democrats in the North (see also Union (American Civil War)) who opposed the American Civil War, wanting an immediate peace settlement with the Confederates. ... George Brinton McClellan (December 3, 1826 - October 29, 1885) was a Major General of the Union Army during the American Civil War. ...


Lincoln provided Grant with new replacements and mobilized the Union party to support Grant and talk up local support for the war. Sherman's capture of Atlanta in September ended defeatist jitters; the Democratic Party was deeply split, with some leaders and most soldiers openly for Lincoln; the Union party was united and energized, and Lincoln was easily reelected in a landslide. He won all but two states, capturing 212 of 233 electoral votes.


On March 4, 1865, he delivered his second inaugural address, which was his favorite of all his speeches. At this time, a victory over the rebels was at hand, slavery was dead, and Lincoln was looking to the future. March 4 is the 63rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (64th in leap years). ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Fondly do we hope — fervently do we pray — that this mighty scourge of war may speedily pass away. Yet, if God wills that it continue, until all the wealth piled by the bond-man's two hundred and fifty years of unrequited toil shall be sunk, and until every drop of blood drawn with the lash, shall be paid by another drawn with the sword, as was said three thousand years ago, so still it must be said "the judgments of the Lord, are true and righteous altogether." With malice toward none; with charity for all; with firmness in the right, as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in; to bind up the nation's wounds; to care for him who shall have borne the battle, and for his widow, and his orphan — to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace, among ourselves, and with all nations[33]

Conducting the war effort

“Running the ‘Machine’”An 1864 cartoon featuring Lincoln, William Fessenden, Edwin Stanton, William Seward and Gideon Welles takes a swing at the Lincoln administration
“Running the ‘Machine’”
An 1864 cartoon featuring Lincoln, William Fessenden, Edwin Stanton, William Seward and Gideon Welles takes a swing at the Lincoln administration

The war was a source of constant frustration for the president, and it occupied nearly all of his time. Lincoln had a contentious relationship with General George B. McClellan, who became general-in-chief of all the Union armies in the wake of the embarrassing Union defeat at the First Battle of Bull Run and after the retirement of Winfield Scott in late 1861. Lincoln wished to take an active part in planning the war strategy despite his inexperience in military affairs. Lincoln's strategic priorities were twofold: first, to ensure that Washington, D.C., was well defended; and second, to conduct an aggressive war effort in hopes of ending the war quickly and appeasing the Northern public and press, who pushed for an offensive war. McClellan, a youthful West Point graduate and railroad executive called back to military service, took a more cautious approach. McClellan took several months to plan and execute his Peninsula Campaign, which involved capturing Richmond by moving the Army of the Potomac by boat to the peninsula between the James and York Rivers. McClellan's delay irritated Lincoln, as did McClellan's insistence that no troops were needed to defend Washington, D.C. Lincoln insisted on holding some of McClellan's troops to defend the capital, a decision McClellan blamed for the ultimate failure of his Peninsula Campaign. Image File history File links RunningtheMachine-LincAdmin. ... Image File history File links RunningtheMachine-LincAdmin. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... William Pitt Fessenden (October 16, 1806 – September 8, 1869) was an American politician from the U.S. state of Maine. ... Edwin McMasters Stanton (December 19, 1814 – December 24, 1869), was an American lawyer, politician, United States Attorney General in 1860-61 and Secretary of War through most of the American Civil War and Reconstruction era. ... William Henry Seward, Sr. ... Gideon Welles (July 1, 1802–February 11, 1878) was the United States Secretary of the Navy from 1861 to 1869, including the entire duration of the American Civil War: his dedication to naval blockades was one of the key reasons for the Norths victory over the South. ... For the 1960s commissioner of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, see George McClellan (police commissioner). ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Irvin McDowell Joseph E. Johnston P.G.T. Beauregard Strength 35,000 effectives 32,500 effectives Casualties 2,896 (460 killed, 1,124 wounded, 1,312 captured/missing) 1,982 (387 killed, 1,582 wounded, 13 missing) The First Battle... For other uses of Winfield Scott, see Winfield Scott (disambiguation). ... USMA redirects here. ... McClellan and Johnston of the Peninsula Campaign The Peninsula Campaign (also known as the Peninsular Campaign) of the American Civil War was a major Union operation launched in southeastern Virginia from March through July 1862, the first large-scale offensive in the Eastern Theater. ... Nickname: Motto: Sic Itur Ad Astra (Thus do we reach the stars) Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia Coordinates: Country United States State Virginia County Independent City Government  - Mayor L. Douglas Wilder (I) Area  - City 62. ... Generals Burnside, Hancock, Couch, Ferro, Patrick, Wilcox, Cochrane, Buford and others. ... The Virginia Peninsula is a peninsula in southeast Virginia, bounded by the York River, James River, Hampton Roads and Chesapeake Bay. ... The James River at Cartersville The James River in the U.S. state of Virginia is 547. ... The York River is a navigable estuary, approximately 40 mi (64 km) long, in eastern Virginia in the United States. ...


McClellan, a lifelong Democrat who was temperamentally conservative, was relieved as general-in-chief after releasing his Harrison's Landing Letter, where he offered unsolicited political advice to Lincoln urging caution in the war effort. McClellan's letter incensed Radical Republicans, who successfully pressured Lincoln to appoint fellow Republican John Pope as head of the new Army of Virginia. Pope complied with Lincoln's strategic desire for the Union to move towards Richmond from the north, thus guarding Washington, D.C. However, Pope was soundly defeated at the Second Battle of Bull Run during the summer of 1862, forcing the Army of the Potomac back into the defenses of Washington for a second time. Pope was sent to Minnesota to fight the Sioux. The Democratic Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States; the other being the Republican Party. ... Major General John Pope John Pope (March 18, 1822 – September 23, 1892) was a career Army officer and general in the American Civil War. ... The Army of Virginia was organized as a major unit of the Union Army and operated briefly and unsuccessfully in 1862 in the American Civil War. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders John Pope Robert E. Lee James Longstreet Stonewall Jackson Strength 63,000 54,000 Casualties 1,747 killed 8,452 wounded 4,263 captured/missing 1,553 killed 7,812 wounded 109 captured/missing The Second Battle of Bull Run... Wahktageli (Gallant Warrior), a Yankton Sioux chief (Karl Bodmer) Funeral scaffold of a Sioux chief (Karl Bodmer) Horse racing of the Sioux Indians (Karl Bodmer) The Sioux (IPA ) are a Native American people. ...

An 1864 Mathew Brady photo depicts President Lincoln reading a book with his youngest son, Tad.

Panicked by Confederate General Robert E. Lee's invasion of Maryland, Lincoln restored McClellan to command of all forces around Washington in time for the Battle of Antietam in September 1862. It was the Union victory in that battle that allowed Lincoln to release his Emancipation Proclamation. Lincoln relieved McClellan of command shortly after the 1862 midterm elections and appointed Republican Ambrose Burnside to head the Army of the Potomac, who promised to follow through on Lincoln's strategic vision for an aggressive offensive against Lee and Richmond. After Burnside was stunningly defeated at Fredericksburg, Joseph Hooker was given command, despite his idle talk about becoming a military strong man. Hooker was routed by Lee at Chancellorsville in May 1863 and relieved of command early in the subsequent Gettysburg Campaign. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (676x747, 76 KB) http://hdl. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (676x747, 76 KB) http://hdl. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Image:Matthew Brady 1875 cropped. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Thomas (Tad) Lincoln. ... // For the author of Inherit the Wind and other works, see Robert Edwin Lee. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George B. McClellan Robert E. Lee Strength 87,000 45,000 Casualties 12,401 (2,108 killed, 9,540 wounded, 753 captured/missing) 10,316 (1,546 killed, 7,752 wounded, 1,018 captured/missing) The Battle of Wyatt (also... Ambrose Everett Burnside (May 23, 1824 – September 13, 1881) was a railroad executive, inventor, industrialist, and politician from Rhode Island, serving as governor and a U.S. Senator. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ambrose E. Burnside Robert E. Lee Strength Army of the Potomac ~114,000 engaged Army of Northern Virginia ~72,500 engaged Casualties 12,653 (1,284 killed, 9,600 wounded, 1,769 captured/missing) 5,377 (608 killed, 4,116... Joseph Hooker (November 13, 1814 – October 31, 1879), known as Fighting Joe, was a career U.S. Army officer and a major general in the Union Army during the American Civil War. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Joseph Hooker Robert E. Lee Stonewall Jackson† Strength 133,868 60,892 Casualties 17,197 (1,606 killed, 9,672 wounded, 5,919 missing)[1] 12,764 (1,665 killed, 9,081 wounded, 2,018 missing)[1] The Battle of... Meade and Lee of Gettysburg Gettysburg Campaign (through July 3); cavalry movements shown with dashed lines. ...


After the Union victory at Gettysburg, Meade's failure to pursue Lee, and months of inactivity for the Army of the Potomac, Lincoln decided to bring in a western general: General Ulysses S. Grant. He had a solid string of victories in the Western Theater, including Vicksburg and Chattanooga. Earlier, reacting to criticism of Grant, Lincoln was quoted as saying, "I cannot spare this man. He fights." Grant waged his bloody Overland Campaign in 1864, using a strategy of a war of attrition, characterized by high Union losses at battles such as the Wilderness and Cold Harbor but by proportionately higher losses in the Confederate army. Grant's aggressive campaign eventually bottled up Lee in the Siege of Petersburg, took Richmond, and brought the war to a close in the spring of 1865. George Gordon Meade (December 31, 1815 - November 6, 1872) was an American military officer during the American Civil War. ... Ulysses S. Grant[2] (born Hiram Ulysses Grant, April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885) was an American general and the 18th President of the United States (1869–1877). ... The third Battle of Chattanooga (popularly known as The Battle of Chattanooga) was fought November 23–25, 1863, in the American Civil War. ... Ulysses S. Grant and Robert E. Lee, opposing commanders in the Overland Campaign The Overland Campaign, also known as Grants Overland Campaign and the Wilderness Campaign, was a series of battles fought in Virginia during May and June 1864, in the American Civil War. ... Combatants Israel Egypt Soviet Union Strength unknown Egyptian: unknown Soviet advisors: 10,700–12,300 Casualties 1,424 soldiers and >100 civilians killed 2,000 soldiers and 700 civilians wounded [1] [2] 10,000 Egyptian soldiers and civilians killed¹ 3 Soviet pilots killed The War of Attrition (Hebrew: ‎)(Arabic: ‎) was... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 101,895 61,025 Casualties 18,400 11,400 For the French and Indian War battle, see Battle of the Wilderness 1755. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 108,000 62,000 Casualties 13,000 2,500 The Battle of Cold Harbor, the final battle of Union Lt. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant Robert E. Lee Strength 67,000 – 125,000 average of 52,000 Casualties 53,386 ~32,000 The Richmond-Petersburg Campaign was a series of battles around Petersburg, Virginia, fought from June 15, 1864, to March 25...


Lincoln authorized Grant to destroy the civilian infrastructure that was keeping the Confederacy alive, hoping thereby to destroy the South's morale and weaken its economic ability to continue the war. This allowed Generals William Tecumseh Sherman and Philip Sheridan to destroy farms and towns in the Shenandoah Valley, Georgia, and South Carolina. The damage in Sherman's March to the Sea through Georgia totaled in excess of $100 million. William Tecumseh Sherman (February 8, 1820 – February 14, 1891) was an American soldier, businessman, educator, and author. ... Philip Henry Sheridan (March 6, 1831 – August 5, 1888) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Union general in the American Civil War. ... Canoeing on the Shenandoah River near Winchester, VA. The Shenandoah Valley region of western Virginia, from Winchester to Staunton, is bounded by the Blue Ridge mountains to the East and the Allegheny mountains to the West. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Lincoln had a star-crossed record as a military leader, possessing a keen understanding of strategic points (such as the Mississippi River and the fortress city of Vicksburg) and the importance of defeating the enemy's army, rather than simply capturing cities. However, he had limited success in motivating his commanders to adopt his strategies, until in late 1863 he found in Grant a man who shared his vision of the war. Only then was he able to insist on using black troops and to bring his vision to reality with a relentless pursuit of coordinated offensives in multiple theaters of war.


Lincoln showed a keen curiosity with military campaigning during the war. He spent hours at the War Department telegraph office, reading dispatches from his generals on many nights. He frequently visited battle sites and seemed fascinated by watching scenes of war. During Jubal A. Early's raid into Washington, D.C., in 1864, Lincoln had to be told to duck his head to avoid being shot while observing the scenes of battle. The United States Department of War was the military department of the United States governments executive branch from 1789 until 1949, when it became part of the United States Department of Defense. ... Optical Telegraf of Claude Chappe on the Litermont near Nalbach, Germany Telegraph and telegram redirect here. ... Jubal Anderson Early (November 3, 1816 – March 2, 1894) was a lawyer and Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... Battle of Fort Stevens Conflict American Civil War Date July 11-12, 1864 Place District of Columbia Result Union victory The Battle of Fort Stevens was fought in Washington D.C. in Jubal Earlys attempt to seize the city of Washington. ...


Home front

Redefining Republicanism

One of the last photographs of Lincoln, likely taken between February and April 1865.
One of the last photographs of Lincoln, likely taken between February and April 1865.

Lincoln's powerful rhetoric defined the issues of the war for the nation, the world, and for posterity. His extraordinary command of the English language was evidenced in the Gettysburg Address, a speech dedicating the cemetery at Gettysburg that he delivered on November 19, 1863. The speech virtually gained the status of a constitutional document, defying Lincoln's own prediction that "the world will little note, nor long remember what we say here." Lincoln's second inaugural address is also greatly admired and often quoted. In these speeches, Lincoln articulated better than anyone the rationale behind the Union effort. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3376x4606, 2747 KB) Description One of the last photographs of U.S. President Abraham Lincoln, taken on April 10, 1865, five days before his assassination. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3376x4606, 2747 KB) Description One of the last photographs of U.S. President Abraham Lincoln, taken on April 10, 1865, five days before his assassination. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... The Gettysburg Address is the most famous speech of U.S. President Abraham Lincoln and one of the most quoted speeches in United States history. ...


Historians in recent years have stressed Lincoln's use of and redefinition of republican values. At a time when most political rhetoric focused on the sanctity of the Constitution, Lincoln in the 1850s shifted emphasis to the Declaration of Independence as the foundation of American political values--what Lincoln called the "sheet anchor" of republicanism.[34] The Declaration's emphasis on freedom and equality for all, rather than the Constitution's tolerance of slavers, shifted the debate. As Diggins concludes regarding the highly influential Cooper Union speech, "Lincoln presented Americans a theory of history that offers a profound contribution to the theory and destiny of republicanism itself."[35] Lincoln's position gained strength because instead of legalisms he stressed the moral basis of republicanism.[36] In 1861 Lincoln justified the war in terms of legalisms (the Constitution was a contract and for one party to get out of a contract all the other parties had to agree), and then in terms of the national duty to guarantee a "republican form of government" in every state.[37] That duty was also the principle underlying federal intervention in Reconstruction. Republicanism is the political value system that has dominated American political thought since the American Revolution. ... A declaration of independence is an assertion of the independence of an aspiring state or states. ... Reconstruction was the attempt from 1865 to 1877 in U.S. history to resolve the issues of the American Civil War, when both the Confederacy and slavery were destroyed. ...

Lincoln's second inauguration on March 4, 1865. In the photo, Lincoln's assassin, John Wilkes Booth, can be seen in the crowd at the top and accomplices David Herold, Lewis Powell, George Atzerodt, John Surratt and Edmund Spangler in the bottom crowd.

In redefining the American nation in the Gettysburg Address, Lincoln argued the nation was born not in 1789 but in 1776, "conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal." He declared the deaths on the battlefield had rededicated the nation to the propositions of democracy and equality, "that this nation shall have a new birth of freedom — and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth." Lincoln stressed the centrality of the nation (ignoring the states). While some critics say Lincoln moved too far and too fast,[38] they all agree he rededicated the nation to the new values that marked "a new founding of the nation."[39] Image File history File links Photograph from 1865. ... Image File history File links Photograph from 1865. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... March 4 is the 63rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (64th in leap years). ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... John Wilkes Booth (May 10, 1838 – April 26, 1865) was an American actor from Maryland, who fatally shot U.S. President Abraham Lincoln at Fords Theater in Washington, D.C. on April 14, 1865. ... David Herold, Washington Navy Yard, 1865 Execution of the four persons condemned as conspirators (Mary E. Surratt, Lewis T. Powell, David E. Herold, and George A. Atzerodt), July 7, 1865, at Fort McNair in Washington, D.C. David Edgar Herold (16 June 1842 – 7 July 1865) conspired with John Wilkes... Lewis Thornton Powell (April 22, 1844 – July 7, 1865), also known as Lewis Paine or Payne, attempted unsuccessfully to assassinate United States Secretary of State William H. Seward, and was one of four people hanged for the Lincoln assassination conspiracy. ... George Atzerodt George Andreas Atzerodt (June 12, 1835 – July 7, 1865)[1][2] was a U.S. conspirator with John Wilkes Booth. ... John Surratt, in Zouave uniform John Surratt (April 13, 1844 - April 21, 1916), son of Mary Surratt, was accused of plotting to kidnap U.S. president Abraham Lincoln. ... Edman Spangler (August 10, 1825–February 7, 1875), also known as Edmund, Edward, and Ned Spangler, was originally from York, Pennsylvania, but he spent the majority of his life in the Baltimore, Maryland area. ... The Gettysburg Address is the most famous speech of U.S. President Abraham Lincoln and one of the most quoted speeches in United States history. ...


Civil liberties suspended

During the Civil War, Lincoln appropriated powers no previous President had wielded: he used his war powers to proclaim a blockade, suspended the writ of habeas corpus, spent money without congressional authorization, and imprisoned 18,000 suspected Confederate sympathizers without trial. Nearly all of his actions, although vehemently denounced by the Copperheads, were subsequently upheld by Congress and the Courts. 1861 Cartoon map of the blockade // The Union Blockade refers to the naval actions between 1861 and 1865, during the American Civil War, in which the Union Navy maintained a massive effort on the Atlantic and Gulf Coast of the Confederate States of America designed to prevent the passage of... In common law, habeas corpus (/heɪbiəs kɔɹpəs/) is the name of a legal action or writ by means of which detainees can seek relief from unlawful imprisonment. ... The Copperheads were a group of Northern Democrats who opposed the American Civil War, wanting an immediate peace settlement with the Confederates. ...


Reconstruction

Reconstruction began during the war as Lincoln and his associates pondered the questions of how to reintegrate the Southern states back into the Union, and what to do with Confederate leaders and with the freed slaves. Lincoln was the leader of the "moderates" regarding Reconstruction policy, and usually was opposed by the Radical Republicans led by Thaddeus Stevens in the House and Charles Sumner and Benjamin Wade in the Senate (though he cooperated with those men on most other issues). Lincoln was determined to find a course that would reunite the nation as soon as possible and not permanently alienate the Southerners, and throughout the war Lincoln urged speedy elections under generous terms in areas behind Union lines. Critical decisions had to be made during the war, as state after state was reconquered. Of special importance were Tennessee, where Lincoln appointed Andrew Johnson as governor, and Louisiana where Lincoln tried a plan that would restore the state when 10% of the voters agreed. The Radicals thought that policy was too lenient, and passed their own plan, the Wade-Davis Bill in 1864. Lincoln vetoed Wade-Davis, and the Radicals retaliated by refusing to seat representatives elected from Louisiana, Arkansas, and Tennessee.[40] Radical Republicans were certain Republicans in Congress and other federal and state leaders during the American Civil War and Reconstruction eras in U.S. history. ... Thaddeus Stevens Thaddeus Stevens (April 4, 1792 - August 11, 1868), also known as The Great Commoner, was a United States Representative from Pennsylvania. ... Charles Sumner (January 6, 1811 – March 11, 1874) was an American politician and statesman from Massachusetts. ... Benjamin Franklin Wade (October 27, 1800–March 2, 1878) was a U.S. lawyer. ... Andrew Johnson (December 29, 1808 – July 31, 1875) was the seventeenth President of the United States (1865–1869), succeeding to the presidency upon the assassination of Abraham Lincoln. ... Official language(s) de jure: none de facto: English & French Capital Baton Rouge Largest city Baton Rouge [1] Area  Ranked 31st  - Total 51,885 sq mi (134,382 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 16  - Latitude 29°N to 33°N  - Longitude 89°W... The Wade-Davis Bill of 1864 was a program proposed for the Reconstruction of the South written by two Radical Republicans, Senator Benjamin Wade of Ohio and Representative Henry Winter Davis of Maryland. ...


On April 9, 1865, General Lee surrendered at Appomattox Court House in Virginia; the war was effectively over. The other rebel armies surrendered and there was no guerrilla warfare. Lincoln went to Richmond to make a public gesture of sitting at Jefferson Davis's own desk, symbolically saying to the nation that the President of the United States held authority over the entire land. He was greeted at the city as a conquering hero by freed slaves, whose sentiments were epitomized by one admirer's quote, "I know I am free for I have seen the face of Father Abraham and have felt him." When a general asked Lincoln how the defeated Confederates should be treated, Lincoln replied, "Let 'em up easy."[41] April 9 is the 99th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (100th in leap years). ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... McLean house, April 1865. ... Jefferson Finis Davis (June 3, 1808 – December 6, 1889) was an American politician who served as President of the Confederate States of America for its entire history from 1861 to 1865 during the American Civil War. ...


Assassination

Further information: Abraham Lincoln's burial and exhumation
The assassination of Abraham Lincoln. From left to right: Henry Rathbone, Clara Harris, Mary Todd Lincoln, Abraham Lincoln and John Wilkes Booth
The assassination of Abraham Lincoln. From left to right: Henry Rathbone, Clara Harris, Mary Todd Lincoln, Abraham Lincoln and John Wilkes Booth

Originally, John Wilkes Booth had formulated a plan to kidnap Lincoln in exchange for the release of Confederate prisoners. He attended an April 11th speech outside the White House in which Lincoln promoted the idea of voting rights for blacks. Incensed at the prospect, Booth changed to a plan for assassination.[42] killing and death of Abraham Lincoln From left to right: Major Henry Rathbone, Clara Harris, Mary Todd Lincoln, Abraham Lincoln, and John Wilkes Booth. ... It has been suggested that Fleetwood Lindley be merged into this article or section. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Lincolnassassination. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Lincolnassassination. ... Henry Reed Rathbone (July 1, 1837 – August 14, 1911) was present at the assassination of Abraham Lincoln, and was sitting with his fiancée, Clara Harris, next to the President and his wife at the time of its occurence. ... This article lacks information on the subject matters importance. ... Mary Ann Todd Lincoln (December 13, 1818 – July 16, 1882) was the First Lady of the United States when her husband, Abraham Lincoln, served as the sixteenth President, from 1861 until 1865. ... John Wilkes Booth (May 10, 1838 – April 26, 1865) was an American actor from Maryland, who fatally shot U.S. President Abraham Lincoln at Fords Theater in Washington, D.C. on April 14, 1865. ... John Wilkes Booth (May 10, 1838 – April 26, 1865) was an American actor from Maryland, who fatally shot U.S. President Abraham Lincoln at Fords Theater in Washington, D.C. on April 14, 1865. ...


Booth, a well-known actor and a Confederate spy from Maryland, heard that the President and Mrs. Lincoln, along with the Grants, would be attending Ford's Theatre. Having failed in a plot to kidnap Lincoln earlier, Booth informed his co-conspirators of his intention to kill Lincoln. Others were assigned to assassinate vice-president Andrew Johnson and Secretary of State William H. Seward. Fords Theatre at 511 10th Street, NW, Washington, D.C. is an active theater in Washington DC, United States, used for various performances. ... A vice president is an officer in government or business who is next in rank below a president. ... Andrew Johnson (December 29, 1808 – July 31, 1875) was the seventeenth President of the United States (1865–1869), succeeding to the presidency upon the assassination of Abraham Lincoln. ... In several countries, Secretary of State is a senior government position. ... William Henry Seward, Sr. ...

President Lincoln's Grave at Oak Ridge Cemetery in Springfield, Illinois
President Lincoln's Grave at Oak Ridge Cemetery in Springfield, Illinois

Without his main bodyguard Ward Hill Lamon, to whom he related his famous dream regarding his own assassination, Lincoln left to attend the play Our American Cousin at Ford's Theater on April 14, 1865. As a lone bodyguard wandered, and Lincoln sat in his state box (Box 7) in the balcony, Booth crept up behind the President's box and waited for the funniest line of the play, hoping the laughter would cover the noise of the gunshot. When the laughter came Booth jumped into the box with the President and aimed a single-shot, round-slug .44 caliber Deringer at his head, firing at point-blank range. Major Henry Rathbone momentarily grappled with Booth but was cut by Booth's knife. Booth then leapt to the stage and shouted "Sic semper tyrannis!" (Latin: "Thus always to tyrants") and escaped, despite a broken leg suffered in the leap. A twelve-day manhunt ensued, in which Booth was chased by Federal agents (under the direction of Secretary of War Edwin Stanton), until he was finally cornered in a barnhouse in Virginia and shot, dying soon after. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... Categories: Stub ... Nickname: i did your mom a fovor tomake you a sandwich Motto: poo poo smells Location of Springfield within Illinois Coordinates: Country United States State Illinois County Sangamon Founded 1819  - Mayor Timothy Davlin Area    - City 156. ... Ward Hill Lamon (January 6, 1828 - May 7, 1893) was a personal friend and bodyguard of the American President Abraham Lincoln. ... Our American Cousin is a play in three acts by Tom Taylor. ... April 14 is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 261 days remaining. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... John Wilkes Booths Deringer A Philadelphia Deringer is a small percussion handgun designed by Henry Deringer (1786-1868) and produced from 1852 through 1968. ... Henry Reed Rathbone (July 1, 1837 – August 14, 1911) was present at the assassination of Abraham Lincoln, and was sitting with his fiancée, Clara Harris, next to the President and his wife at the time of its occurence. ... Great Seal of Virginia with the state motto. ... The Secretary of War was a member of the United States Presidents Cabinet, beginning with George Washingtons administration. ... Edwin McMasters Stanton (December 19, 1814 - December 24, 1869), born in Steubenville, Ohio, was an American political figure, prominent in the American Civil War and in the Reconstruction era. ...


An army surgeon, Doctor Charles Leale, initially assessed Lincoln's wound as mortal. The President was taken across the street from the theater to the Petersen House, where he lay in a coma for nine hours before he died. Several physicians attended Lincoln, including U.S. Army Surgeon General Joseph K. Barnes of the Army Medical Museum. Using a probe, Barnes located some fragments of Lincoln's skull and the ball lodged 6 inches (15 cm) inside his brain. Lincoln never regained consciousness and was officially pronounced dead at 7:22:10 a.m. April 15, 1865 at the age of 56. There is some disagreement among historians as to Stanton's words after Lincoln died. Dr. Charles Leale was an army surgeon during the American Civil War. ... Fords Theatre at 511 10th Street, NW, Washington, D.C. is an active theater in Washington DC, United States, used for various performances. ... The Surgeon General of the United States Army is the senior-most medical corps officer in the U.S. Army. ... The exterior of the National Museum of Health and Medicine. ... April 15 is the 105th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (106th in leap years). ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ...

Lincoln's funeral train carried his remains, as well as 300 mourners and the casket of his son William, 1,654 miles (2,661 km) to Illinois
Lincoln's funeral train carried his remains, as well as 300 mourners and the casket of his son William, 1,654 miles (2,661 km) to Illinois

All agree he began "Now he belongs to the..." with some stating he said "ages," while others believe he said "angels." After Lincoln's body was returned to the White House, his body was prepared for his lying in repose in the East Room. He was the first president to lie in state. Abraham Lincolns funeral train The train that carried Lincolns remains from Washington, D.C. to Illinois was viewed by over seven million people, almost one-fifth the population of the U.S. at the time. ... Abraham Lincolns funeral train The train that carried Lincolns remains from Washington, D.C. to Illinois was viewed by over seven million people, almost one-fifth the population of the U.S. at the time. ... Abraham Lincolns funeral train. ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... Lying in repose is when the remains of a deceased person, often one of some stature, are available for viewing by the public. ... The East Room is one of the largest rooms in the White House, the home of the President of the United States. ... Lying-in-state is the term used during a major funeral procession when the coffin is placed on public view to allow members of the public to pay their respects to the deceased. ...


The Army Medical Museum, now named the National Museum of Health and Medicine, has retained in its collection several artifacts relating to the assassination. Currently on display in the museum are the bullet that was fired from the Deringer pistol, the probe used by Barnes, pieces of Lincoln's skull and hair, and the surgeon's cuff stained with Lincoln's blood.


Lincoln's body was carried by train in a grand funeral procession through several states on its way back to Illinois. The nation mourned a man whom many viewed as the savior of the United States. Copperheads celebrated the death of a man they considered an unconstitutional tyrant. He was buried in Oak Ridge Cemetery in Springfield, Illinois, where a 177 foot (54 m) tall granite tomb surmounted with several bronze statues of Lincoln was constructed by 1874. To prevent repeated attempts to steal Lincoln's body and hold it for ransom, Robert Todd Lincoln had Lincoln exhumed and reinterred in concrete several feet thick in 1901. The Copperheads were a faction of Democrats in the North (see also Union (American Civil War)) who opposed the American Civil War, wanting an immediate peace settlement with the Confederates. ... Categories: Stub ... Robert Todd Lincoln (August 1, 1843 – July 26, 1926) was the first son of Abraham Lincoln and Mary Ann Todd. ... By other animals Humans are not the only species to bury their dead. ...


Religious beliefs

Further information: Abraham Lincoln and religion

Lincoln's religious beliefs are a matter of controversy. As a youth, he was known among his friends as an admirer of the deist author Thomas Paine[43], and he had begun a book challenging orthodox Christianity modelled on Paine's book The Age of Reason.[citation needed] Lincoln's friends soon burned the manuscript to protect him from ridicule.[citation needed] As Lincoln matured and became a candidate for public office, he kept his deist views more to himself,[citation needed] though early in his career he had to respond to charges of atheism. Raised by fundamentalist Baptists, Christianity was a force throughout his life, especially the Calvinistic "doctrine of necessity," also known as predestination, determinism, or fatalism. Lincoln read the Bible throughout his life, and quoted from it extensively. There is more disagreement about whether he experienced a conversion to Christianity later in life, particularly during his tenure as president. Several ministers have claimed such conversions at various stages of Lincoln's life (the death of a son in 1850, the death of another son in 1862, and the 1863 trip to Gettsyburg), with some of their statements contradicting those of the others. He routinely attended the New York Avenue Presbyterian Church in Washington, D.C., and rented a pew there during the four years of his presidency, but he never officially joined any church. He remarked several times during his life that he could not agree with the doctrines preached by Christian churches.[citation needed] Abraham Lincolns religious beliefs are a matter of controversy. ... Thomas Paine (Thetford, England, 29 January 1737 – 8 June 1809, New York City, USA) was a pamphleteer, revolutionary, radical intellectual, and deist. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The Age of Reason For the 18th Century intellectual and scientific movement, see The Age of Enlightenment. ... In an unadorned church, the 17th century congregation stands to hear the sermon. ... Predestination and foreordination are religious concepts, under which the relationship between the beginning of things and the destiny of things is discussed. ... Determinism is the philosophical proposition that every event, including human cognition, decision and action, is causally determined by an unbroken chain of prior occurrences. ... It has been suggested that Theological fatalism be merged into this article or section. ... The New York Avenue Presbyterian Church in Washington, DC is a congregation of the Presbyterian Church (USA). ...


Presidential appointments

Administration and Cabinet

Lincoln was known for appointing his political rivals to high positions in his Cabinet to keep in line all factions of his party — and to let them battle each other and not combine against Lincoln. Historians agree that except for Simon Cameron, it was a highly effective group. Simon Cameron Simon Cameron (March 8, 1799 – June 26, 1889) was United States Secretary of War for Abraham Lincoln from 1861 to 1862. ...

Portrait of Abraham Lincoln
Portrait of Abraham Lincoln
Office Name Term
President Abraham Lincoln 1861–1865
Vice President Hannibal Hamlin 1861–1865
Andrew Johnson 1865
Secretary of State William H. Seward 1861–1865
Secretary of the Treasury Salmon P. Chase 1861–1864
William P. Fessenden 1864–1865
Hugh McCulloch 1865
Secretary of War Simon Cameron 1861–1862
Edwin M. Stanton 1862–1865
Attorney General Edward Bates 1861–1864
James Speed 1864–1865
Postmaster General Montgomery Blair 1861–1864
William Dennison 1864–1865
Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles 1861–1865
Secretary of the Interior Caleb B. Smith 1861–1862
John P. Usher 1863–1865

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (709x877, 159 KB) http://hdl. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (709x877, 159 KB) http://hdl. ... The presidential seal was first used in 1880 by President Rutherford B. Hayes and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii The President of the United States of America is the head of state and head of government of the United States. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      The Vice President of the United States is the first in the presidential line of... Hannibal Hamlin (August 27, 1809 – July 4, 1891) was an American politician from the U.S. state of Maine. ... Andrew Johnson (December 29, 1808 – July 31, 1875) was the seventeenth President of the United States (1865–1869), succeeding to the presidency upon the assassination of Abraham Lincoln. ... Seal of the United States Department of State. ... William Henry Seward, Sr. ... The United States Secretary of the Treasury is the head of the United States Department of the Treasury, concerned with finance and monetary matters, and, until 2003, some issues of national security and defense. ... Salmon Portland Chase (January 13, 1808 – May 7, 1873) was an American politician and jurist in the Civil War era who served as Senator from Ohio, Governor of Ohio, as U.S. Treasury Secretary under President Abraham Lincoln, and Chief Justice of the United States. ... William Pitt Fessenden (October 16, 1806 – September 8, 1869) was an American politician from the U.S. state of Maine. ... Hugh McCulloch Hugh McCulloch (December 7, 1808 – May 24, 1895) was an American statesman who served two non-consecutive terms as U.S. Treasury Secretary, serving under three presidents. ... The Secretary of War was a member of the United States Presidents Cabinet, beginning with George Washingtons administration. ... Simon Cameron Simon Cameron (March 8, 1799 – June 26, 1889) was United States Secretary of War for Abraham Lincoln from 1861 to 1862. ... Edwin McMasters Stanton (December 19, 1814 – December 24, 1869), was an American lawyer, politician, United States Attorney General in 1860-61 and Secretary of War through most of the American Civil War and Reconstruction era. ... The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. ... Note: This article is about the American lawyer. ... James Speed (March 11, 1812–June 25, 1887) was a American lawyer, politician and professor. ... The Postmaster General is the executive head of the United States Postal Service. ... Montgomery Blair (May 10, 1813–July 27, 1883), son of Francis Preston Blair and elder brother of Francis Preston Blair, Jr. ... William Dennison, Jr. ... Flag of the United States Secretary of the Navy. ... Gideon Welles (July 1, 1802–February 11, 1878) was the United States Secretary of the Navy from 1861 to 1869, including the entire duration of the American Civil War: his dedication to naval blockades was one of the key reasons for the Norths victory over the South. ... The United States Secretary of the Interior is the head of the United States Department of the Interior, concerned with such matters as national parks and The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... Caleb Blood Smith (April 16, 1808–January 7, 1864) was an American journalist and politician. ... John Palmer Usher (1816 - 1889) was a U.S. administrator. ...

Supreme Court

Lincoln appointed the following Justices to the Supreme Court of the United States: Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      The Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) is the highest judicial body in the...

Noah Haynes Swayne (December 7, 1804 - June 8, 1884) was an American jurist and politician. ... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Samuel Freeman Miller (April 5, 1816 - October 13, 1890), was an associate justice of the United States Supreme Court, 1862-1890. ... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... David Davis III (March 9, 1815 - June 26, 1886) was a United States Senator from Illinois and associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. ... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Stephen Johnson Field (November 4, 1816 – April 9, 1899) was an associate justice of the United States Supreme Court from May 20, 1863, to December 1, 1897. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Salmon Portland Chase (January 13, 1808 – May 7, 1873) was an American politician and jurist in the Civil War era who served as Senator from Ohio, Governor of Ohio, as U.S. Treasury Secretary under President Abraham Lincoln, and Chief Justice of the United States. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      The Chief Justice of the United States is the head of the judicial branch of... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ...

Major presidential acts

Signed as President

Lincoln spent most of his attention on military and diplomatic matters and politics, but with his strong support, Congress and his cabinet established the current system of national banks with the National Bank Act. His Administration increased the tariff to raise revenue, imposed the first income tax, issued hundreds of millions of dollars of bonds and the first national Greenbacks (paper money), encouraged immigration from Europe, started the transcontinental railroad, set up the Department of Agriculture, and encouraged farm ownership with the Homestead Act of 1862. During the war, his Treasury department effectively controlled all cotton trade in the occupied South—the most dramatic incursion of federal controls on the economy. The Revenue Act of 1861 proposed that there shall be levied, collected, and paid, upon annual income of every person residing in the U.S. whether derived from any kind of property, or from any professional trade, employment, or vocation carried on in the United States or elsewhere, or from... The Homestead Act was a United States Federal law that gave freehold title to 160 acres (about 65 hectares) of undeveloped land in the American West. ... The Morrill Land-Grant Acts are pieces of US legislation which allowed for the creation of land-grant colleges, which would be funded by the grant of federally-controlled land to each of the states which had stayed with the United States during the American Civil War. ... The Revenue Act of 1862 was passed by the United States Congress during the American Civil War and signed into law by President Abraham Lincoln. ... The United States Department of Agriculture (also called the Agriculture Department, or USDA) is a United States Federal Executive Department (or Cabinet Department). ... The National Bank Act (ch. ... The Internal Revenue Act of 1864 increased the income tax rates established by the Internal Revenue Act of 1862. ... The term national bank has several meanings: especially in developing countries, a bank owned by the state an ordinary private bank which operates nationally (as opposed to regionally or locally or even internationally) In the past, the term national bank has been used synonymously with central bank, but it is... The National Banking Act of 1863 raised money for the Union in the United States Civil War by enticing banks to buy federal bonds, and taxed state bonds out of existence. ... The Morrill Tariff of 1861 was a protective tariff bill passed by the U.S. Congress in early 1861. ... The United States imposes an income tax on the taxable income of individuals, corporations, trusts, decedents estates and certain bankruptcy estates. ... This article refers to a railroad built in the United States between Omaha and Sacramento completed in 1869. ... The United States Department of Agriculture (also called the Agriculture Department, or USDA) is a United States Federal Executive Department (or Cabinet Department). ...


States admitted to the Union

Official language(s) English Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Area  Ranked 41st  - Total 24,244 sq mi (62,809 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ...

Legacy and memorials

Lincoln's portrait on the five dollar bill
Lincoln's portrait on the five dollar bill
Lincoln's likeness on Mt. Rushmore
Further information: Cultural depictions of Abraham Lincoln
Proof-quality Lincoln cent with cameo effect, obverse
Proof-quality Lincoln cent with cameo effect, obverse
Lincoln stamp, issued Nov. 19, 1965

Lincoln's death made the President a martyr to many. Repeated polls of historians have ranked Lincoln as among the greatest presidents in U.S. history and average scholar ranking summed up with Lincoln at the first position. Among contemporary admirers, Lincoln is usually seen as a figure who personifies classical values of honesty, integrity, as well as respect for individual and minority rights, and human freedom in general. Many American organizations of all purposes and agendas continue to cite his name and image, with interests ranging from the gay rights group Log Cabin Republicans to the insurance corporation Lincoln Financial. The Lincoln automobile is also named after him. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (662x770, 420 KB) Summary A cropped out image of Lincolns face as seen on the U.S. five-dollar bill, 2003 (A) series. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (662x770, 420 KB) Summary A cropped out image of Lincolns face as seen on the U.S. five-dollar bill, 2003 (A) series. ... Obverse of the $5 bill Reverse of the $5 bill The United States five-dollar bill ($5) is a denomination of United States currency. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3008x2000, 2049 KB) Summary Lincoln Memorial, Washington, DC on October 11, 2004. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3008x2000, 2049 KB) Summary Lincoln Memorial, Washington, DC on October 11, 2004. ... The monument which is in the National Mall in Washington, D.C., is a United States Presidential Memorial built to honor 16th President Abraham Lincoln. ... Nickname: Motto: Justitia Omnibus (=Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., in relation to the states Maryland and Virginia Coordinates: Country United States Federal District District of Columbia Government  - Mayor Adrian M. Fenty (D)  - City Council Chairperson: Vincent C. Gray (D) Ward 1: Jim Graham (D) Ward 2: Jack... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1592x2238, 511 KB) Summary Mt. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1592x2238, 511 KB) Summary Mt. ... The faces of (left to right) George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt, and Abraham Lincoln Air Force One flying over Mount Rushmore. ... // The first known motion picture based on Mr. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (910x910, 596 KB)Media:Example. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (910x910, 596 KB)Media:Example. ... A beautiful example of a proof coin. ... 2002 Lincoln cent, obverse, proof with cameo Cameo is a method of carving, or an item of jewelry made in this manner. ... In logic (and usually without being paired with reverse), obverse has a meaning close to contrapositive. ... Image File history File links Lincoln_Stamp. ... Image File history File links Lincoln_Stamp. ... November 19 is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Sculptor Gutzon Borglum and President Calvin Coolidge selected Washington, Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt, and Lincoln to appear on Mount Rushmore. ... LGBT rights Around the world · By country History · Groups · Activists Declaration of Montreal Same-sex relationships Marriage · Adoption Opposition · Persecution Violence This box:      The LGBT rights movement in the United States seeks to achieve equality for all Americans, regardless of their sexual orientations (heterosexual, lesbian, gay, bisexual and/or transgendered). ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Insurance, in law and economics, is a form of risk management primarily used to hedge against the risk of a contingent loss. ... Lincoln Financial is a United States financial advice corporation. ... Lincoln Limousine used by President Calvin Coolidge, c. ...


Lincoln has been memorialized in many city names, notably the capital of Nebraska. Lincoln, Illinois, is the only city to be named for Abraham Lincoln before he became President. Lincoln's name and image appear in numerous places. These include the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C. (pictured, right); the U.S. $5 bill and the 1 cent coin; as part of the Mount Rushmore National Memorial; Lincoln's Tomb, Lincoln Home National Historic Site in Springfield, Illinois. In addition, New Salem, Illinois (a reconstruction of Lincoln's early adult hometown), Ford's Theater and Petersen House (where he died) are all preserved as museums. The Lincoln Shrine in Redlands, California is located behind the A.K. Smiley Public Library. The state nickname for Illinois is Land of Lincoln. Nickname: Location in Nebraska Coordinates: Country   State     County United States   Nebraska     Lancaster Founded[1]   Renamed   Incorporated 1856   July 29, 1867   April 1, 1869 Government  - Mayor Coleen Seng Area  - City 195. ... Lincoln is a town located in Logan County, Illinois. ... The monument which is in the National Mall in Washington, D.C., is a United States Presidential Memorial built to honor 16th President Abraham Lincoln. ... The U.S. five dollar bill ($5) is a denomination of United States currency. ... The United States one-cent coin, commonly called a penny, is a unit of currency equaling 1/100 of a United States dollar. ... The faces of (left to right) George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt, and Abraham Lincoln Mount Rushmore National Memorial, located in Keystone, South Dakota, memorializes the birth, growth, preservation and development of the United States of America. ... Abraham Lincolns tomb at Oak Ridge Cemetery. ... Lincoln Home National Historic Site Lincoln Home National Historic Site preserves President Abraham Lincolns Springfield, Illinois home and four-block historic district surrounding the home. ... New Salem is the name of a former village in Menard County, Illinois in the United States. ... Fords Theatre in the 19th century Fords Theatre in Washington, D.C. was the site of the assassination of U.S. President Abraham Lincoln on April 14, 1865. ... Redlands is a city in San Bernardino County, California, United States. ... This is a list of U.S. state nicknames: both official and traditional (official state nicknames in bold). ...


Counties in 19 U.S. states (Arkansas, Colorado, Idaho, Kansas, Maine, Minnesota, Mississippi, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Dakota, Tennessee, West Virginia, Washington, Wisconsin, and Wyoming) are named after Lincoln. United States of America, showing states, divided into counties. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties Libertarian Party State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... Lincoln County is a county located in the U.S. state of Arkansas. ... Lincoln County is a county located in the U.S. state of Colorado. ... Lincoln County is a county located in the U.S. state of Idaho. ... Lincoln County (standard abbreviation: LC) is a county located in the state of Kansas. ... Lincoln County is a county located in the state of Maine. ... Lincoln County is a county located in the state of Minnesota. ... Lincoln County is a county located in the U.S. state of Mississippi. ... Lincoln County is a county located in the state of Montana. ... Lincoln County is a county located in the state of Nebraska. ... Lincoln County is a county located in the state of Nevada. ... Lincoln County is a county located in the state of New Mexico. ... Lincoln County is a county located in the state of Oklahoma. ... Lincoln County is a county located in the state of Oregon. ... Lincoln County is a county located in the state of South Dakota. ... Lincoln County is a county located in the state of Tennessee. ... Lincoln County is a county located in the state of West Virginia. ... Lincoln County is a county located in the U.S. state of Washington. ... Lincoln County is a county located in the state of Wisconsin. ... Lincoln County is a county located in the state of Wyoming. ...


Abraham Lincoln's birthday, February 12 was previously a national holiday that is now commemorated as Presidents' Day. However, it is still observed in Illinois and many other states as a separate legal holiday, Lincoln's Birthday. A dozen states have legal holidays celebrating the third Monday in February as 'Presidents' Day' as a combination Washington-Lincoln Day. February 12 is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Presidents Day is the common name for the United States federal holiday officially designated as Washingtons Birthday. ... Presidents Day, officially known as Washingtons Birthday, is a national holiday in the United States of America celebrated on the third Monday of February. ...


Lincoln's birthplace and family home are national historic memorials: Abraham Lincoln Birthplace National Historic Site in Hodgenville, Kentucky and Lincoln Home National Historic Site in Springfield, Illinois. The Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum opened in 2005 in Springfield as a major tourist attraction with state-of-the-art exhibits. The Abraham Lincoln National Cemetery is located in Elwood, Illinois. Abraham Lincoln Birthplace National Historic Site preserves two farm sites where Abraham Lincoln lived as a child. ... Hodgenville is a city in and the county seat of LaRue County, Fork of the Nolin River. ... The Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum was built in Springfield, Illinois in the historic downtown section, near many other Lincoln sites. ... The Abraham Lincoln National Cemetery covers 982 acres in Elwood, Illinois. ... Elwood is a village in Will County, Illinois, United States. ...


The ballistic missile submarine Abraham Lincoln (SSBN-602) and the aircraft carrier Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72) were named in his honor. Also, the Liberty ship, SS Nancy Hanks was named to honor his mother. During the Spanish Civil War the American faction of the International Brigades named themselves the Abraham Lincoln Brigade after Lincoln. Diagram of V-2, the first ballistic missile. ... Alvin in 1978, a year after first exploring hydrothermal vents. ... USS Abraham Lincoln (SSBN-602), a George Washington-class submarine, was the first ship of the United States Navy to be named for the 16th President of the United States. ... Four aircraft carriers, (front-to-back) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault carrier USS Wasp, supercarrier USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences. ... The second USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72), nicknamed Abe, is the fifth Nimitz-class supercarrier in the United States Navy. ... The Liberty ships were cargo ships built in the United States during World War II. They were cheap and quick to build, and came to symbolize U.S. wartime industrial output. ... Combatants Spanish Republic With the support of: Soviet Union[1] Nationalist Spain With the support of: Italy Germany Commanders Manuel Azaña Francisco Largo Caballero Juan Negrín Francisco Franco Gonzalo Queipo de Llano Emilio Mola José Sanjurjo Casualties 500,000[2] The Spanish Civil War (Spanish: Guerra Civil Espa... Flag of the International Brigades. ... Confederación Nacional del Trabajo propaganda poster promoting the Abraham Lincoln Brigade. ...


In a recent public vote titled "The Greatest American," Lincoln placed second only to Ronald Reagan, who like Lincoln, was from Illinois. The Greatest American was a public vote, modeled after the 100 Greatest Britons competition, in which citizens of the United States were asked to nominate, and then later vote for, the Greatest American of all time. ... Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981 – 1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967 – 1975). ...


See also

The Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum was built in Springfield, Illinois in the historic downtown section, near many other Lincoln sites. ... The American School also known as National System in politics, policy and philosophy represents three different yet related things. ... // The first known motion picture based on Mr. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This is a list of the religious affiliations of Presidents of the United States. ... The battle of Fort Sumter was the first stage in a conflict that had been brewing for decades. ...

Notes

Military of the United States Portal
  1. ^ As Diggins explains, "Lincoln presented Americans a theory of history that offers a profound contribution to the theory and destiny of republicanism itself." John Patrick Diggins, The Lost Soul of American Politics: Virtue, Self-interest, and the Foundations of Liberalism (1986) p. 307. Foner (1970) p. 215 noted that, "Lincoln stressed the moral basis of Republicanism." Jaffa (2000) p. 399, stresses Lincoln's emphasis on the Declaration of Independence as what Lincoln called the "sheet anchor" of republicanism. See also McPherson (1992) pp.61-64.
  2. ^ Donald (1995) p 21
  3. ^ The farm site is now preserved as part of Abraham Lincoln Birthplace National Historic Site.
  4. ^ Life of Abraham Lincoln, Colonel Ward H. Lamon, 1872 - portions reprinted in http://www.positiveatheism.org/hist/steinlinc.htm
  5. ^ http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/marfan-syndrome/DS00540
  6. ^ Donald, (1995) pp. 28, 152.
  7. ^ http://showcase.netins.net/web/creative/lincoln/sites/decaturock.htm
  8. ^ Donald, (1995) ch. 2.
  9. ^ Thomas (1952) 32-34; Basler (1946) p. 551
  10. ^ Abraham Lincoln Online Retrieved on March 11, 2007
  11. ^ Beveridge (1928) 1:127-8
  12. ^ Protest in Illinois Legislature on Slavery, p.75, March 3, 1837
  13. ^ Beveridge (1928) 1:349. Lincoln had been practicing with the broad sword.
  14. ^ Congressional Globe, 30th Session (1848) pp.93-95
  15. ^ House Journal, 30th Session (1848) pp.183-184
  16. ^ Beveridge, (1928) 1: 428-33; Donald (1995) p. 140-43.
  17. ^ Donald, (1995) ch. 6.
  18. ^ Donald (1995), 150-51
  19. ^ Donald, (1995) ch. 7.
  20. ^ Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln, 2:255
  21. ^ A House Divided Against Itself Cannot Stand, June 1858
  22. ^ First Debate with Stephen A. Douglas at Ottawa, Illinois, August 21, 1858
  23. ^ Fourth Debate with Stephen A. Douglas at Charleston, Illinois, September 18, 1858
  24. ^ Donald, (1995) ch. 8.
  25. ^ Gabor S. Boritt, "'And the War Came'? Abraham Lincoln and the Question of Individual Responsibility," Why the Civil War Came ed by Boritt (1996), pp 3-30.
  26. ^ Thomas (1952) p 216; Reinhard H. Luthin, The First Lincoln Campaign (1944); Nevins vol 4;
  27. ^ Allan Nevins, The Improvised War, 1861-1862 (1959) p 29
  28. ^ Letter to Horace Greeley, August 22, 1862
  29. ^ Lincoln addressed the issue of his consistency in an 1864 letter to Albert G. Hodges. Letter to Albert G. Hodges, April 4, 1864
  30. ^ Life and Times of Frederick Douglass, by Frederick Douglass, 1895
  31. ^ Mark Grimsley and Brooks D Simpson, eds. The Collapse of the Confederacy (2001) p 80
  32. ^ Lincoln, Memorandum concerning his probable failure of re-election, August 23, 1864. Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln, vol. 7, p. 514, (1953).
  33. ^ Lincoln, Second inaugural address, March 4, 1865. From Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln, vol. 8, p. 333, Rutgers University Press (1953, 1990).
  34. ^ Jaffa (2000) p. 399
  35. ^ John Patrick Diggins, The Lost Soul of American Politics: Virtue, Self-interest, and the Foundations of Liberalism (1986) p. 307.
  36. ^ Foner (1970) p. 215 says, "Lincoln stressed the moral basis of republicanism." See also McPherson (1992) pp.61-64.
  37. ^ Jaffa (2000) p. 263
  38. ^ H.L. Mencken said "It is difficult to imagine anything more untrue. The Union soldiers in the battle actually fought against self-determination; it was the Confederates who fought for the right of their people to govern themselves." Mencken did not mention the self-determination rights of the blacks.
  39. ^ Wills (1992) p. 39.
  40. ^ Donald (1995) ch. 20
  41. ^ Donald (1995) 576, 580, [1]
  42. ^ Booth plans to kidnap Lincoln (timeline)
  43. ^ Joseph Lewis, "Thomas Paine and The Age of Reason", Address delivered Feb. 17, 1957, over Radio Station WMIE, Miami Florida. Transcript online at positiveatheism.org. Retrived 14 April 2007

Image File history File links Naval_Jack_of_the_United_States. ... Abraham Lincoln Birthplace National Historic Site preserves two farm sites where Abraham Lincoln lived as a child. ... March 11 is the 70th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (71st in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... March 4 is the 63rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (64th in leap years). ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ...

Bibliography

Biographies

  • Isaac N. Arnold, The Life of Abraham Lincoln (1885), written by Lincoln's friend and political ally
  • Beveridge, Albert J. Abraham Lincoln: 1809-1858 (1928). 2 vol. to 1858; notable for strong, unbiased political coverage online edition
  • Richard Carwardine. Lincoln: A Life of Purpose and Power ISBN 1-4000-4456-1 (2003), winner of the 2004 Lincoln Prize from Gettysburg College
  • David Herbert Donald. Lincoln (1999) ISBN 0-684-82535-X, very well reviewed by scholars; Donald has won two Pulitzer prizes for biography
  • William E. Gienapp. Abraham Lincoln and Civil War America: A Biography by ISBN 0-19-515099-6 (2002), short online edition
  • Allen C. Guelzo. Abraham Lincoln: Redeemer President ISBN 0-8028-3872-3 (1999) online edition
  • John Hay & John George Nicolay. Abraham Lincoln: a History (1890); online at Volume 1 and Volume 2 10 volumes in all; highly detailed narrative of era written by Lincoln's top aides
  • Reinhard H Luthin. The Real Abraham Lincoln (1960), emphasis on politics
  • Mark E. Neely. The Abraham Lincoln Encyclopedia (1984), detailed articles on many men and movements associated with AL
  • Mark E. Neely. The Last Best Hope of Earth: Abraham Lincoln and the Promise of America (1993), Pulitzer prize winning author
  • Stephen B. Oates. With Malice Toward None: The Life of Abraham Lincoln (1994)
  • James G. Randall. Lincoln the President (4 vol., 1945–55; reprint 2000.) by prize winning scholar
    • Mr. Lincoln excerpts ed. by Richard N. Current (1957) online edition
  • Carl Sandburg Abraham Lincoln: The Prairie Years (2 vol 1926); The War Years (4 vol 1939). Pulitzer Prize winning biography by famous poet vol1 online vol 2 online
  • Benjamin P. Thomas; Abraham Lincoln: A Biography (1952) online edition
  • Ingri and Edgar Parin d'Aulaire, Abraham Lincoln (1939), for children

Isaac Newton Arnold (born November 30, 1815, Hartwick, New York; died April 24, 1884, Chicago) was an American politician and biographer. ... Albert Jeremiah Beveridge ( October 6, 1862 – April 27, 1927 ) was a historian and United States Senator from Indiana. ... David Herbert Donald (b. ... John Milton Hay (October 8, 1838 – July 1, 1905) was an American statesman, diplomat, author, journalist, and private secretary and assistant to Abraham Lincoln. ... John George Nicolay (February 26, 1832, Essingen, Rhineland-Palatinate – September 26, 1901) was an American (German-born) biographer of Abraham Lincoln. ... Carl Sandburg in 1955 Carl August Sandburg (January 6, 1878 – July 22, 1967) was an American poet, historian, novelist, balladeer, and folklorist. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Abraham Lincoln is a book by Ingri and Edgar Parin dAulaire about Abraham Lincoln. ...

Specialty topics

  • Angle, Paul M., Here I Have Lived: A History of Lincoln's Springfield, 1821-1865, (1935) online edition
  • Baker, Jean H. Mary Todd Lincoln: A Biography (1987) online edition
  • Belz, Herman. Abraham Lincoln, Constitutionalism, and Equal Rights in the Civil War Era (1998)
  • Boritt, Gabor S. Lincoln and the Economics of the American Dream (1994). Lincoln's economic theory and policies
  • Boritt, Gabor S. ed. Lincoln the War President (1994)
  • Boritt, Gabor S., ed. The Historian's Lincoln U. of Illinois Press, 1988, historiography
  • Bruce, Robert V. Lincoln and the Tools of War (1956) on weapons development during the war online edition
  • Chittenden, Lucius E., Recollections of President Lincoln and His Administration, (1891). – Google Books
  • Donald, David Herbert. Lincoln Reconsidered: Essays on the Civil War Era (1960)
  • Donald, David Herbert. We Are Lincoln Men: Abraham Lincoln and His Friends Simon & Schuster, (2003).
  • Don E. Fehrenbacher. "The Origins and Purpose of Lincoln's "House-Divided" Speech," The Mississippi Valley Historical Review, Vol. 46, No. 4. (Mar., 1960), pp. 615-643. in JSTOR
  • Foner, Eric. Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party before the Civil War (1970) intellectual history of different prewar faction's in AL's party
  • Doris Kearns Goodwin, Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln ISBN 0-684-82490-6 (2005)
  • Harris, William C. With Charity for All: Lincoln and the Restoration of the Union (1997). AL's plans for Reconstruction
  • Hendrick, Burton J. Lincoln's War Cabinet (1946) online edition
  • Hofstadter, Richard. The American Political Tradition: And the Men Who Made It (1948) ch 5: "Abraham Lincoln and the Self-Made Myth."
  • Holzer, Harold. Lincoln at Cooper Union: The Speech That Made Abraham Lincoln President (2004).
  • Jaffa, Harry V.,A New birth of Freedom: Abraham Lincoln and the Coming of the Civil War (2000) ISBN 0-8476-9952-8.
  • Marshall, John A., " American Bastille" (1870) Fifth edition: A History of the Illegal Arrests and Imprisonment of American Citizens in the Northern and Border States on Account of Their political opinions during the late Civil War. Part 1.
  • McPherson, James M. Abraham Lincoln and the Second American Revolution (1992)
  • McPherson, James M. Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era (1988). Pulitzer Prize winner surveys all aspects of the war
  • Morgenthau, Hans J., and David Hein. Essays on Lincoln's Faith and Politics. White Burkett Miller Center of Public Affairs at the U of Virginia, 1983.
  • Neely, Mark E. The Fate of Liberty: Abraham Lincoln and Civil Liberties (1992). Pulitzer Prize winner. online version
  • Nevins, Allan. Ordeal of the Union 8-volume (1947-1971). 1. Fruits of Manifest Destiny, 1847-1852; 2. A House Dividing, 1852-1857; 3. Douglas, Buchanan, and Party Chaos, 1857-1859; 4. Prologue to Civil War, 1859-1861; 5. The Improvised War, 1861-1862; 6. War Becomes Revolution, 1862-1863; 7. The Organized War, 1863-1864; 8. The Organized War to Victory, 1864-1865; most thorough coverage of the era, with Lincoln at center
  • Ostendorf, Lloyd, and Hamilton, Charles, Lincoln in Photographs: An Album of Every Known Pose, Morningside House Inc., 1963, ISBN 089029-087-3.
  • Paludan, Philip S. The Presidency of Abraham Lincoln (1994), thorough treatment of Lincoln's administration
  • Peterson, Merrill D. Lincoln in American Memory (1994). how Lincoln was remembered after 1865
  • Polsky, Andrew J. "'Mr. Lincoln's Army' Revisited: Partisanship, Institutional Position, and Union Army Command, 1861–1865." Studies in American Political Development (2002), 16: 176-207
  • Randall, James G. Lincoln the Liberal Statesman (1947).
  • Richardson, Heather Cox. The Greatest Nation of the Earth: Republican Economic Policies during the Civil War (1997)
  • Neil Schmitz. "Refiguring Lincoln: Speeches and Writings, 1832-1865," American Literary History, Vol. 6, No. 1. (Spring, 1994), pp. 103-118 in JSTOR
  • Shenk, Joshua Wolf. Lincoln's Melancholy: How Depression Challenged a President and Fueled His Greatness (2005).
  • Kenneth P. Williams. Lincoln Finds a General: A Military Study of the Civil War (1959) 5 volumes on Lincoln's control of the war
  • Williams, T. Harry. Lincoln and His Generals (1967).
  • Wills, Garry. Lincoln at Gettysburg: The Words That Remade America by ISBN 0-671-86742-3
  • Wilson, Douglas L. Honor's Voice: The Transformation of Abraham Lincoln by (1999).

Lucius Eugene Chittenden (May 24, 1824 - July 22, 1900) was a Vermont author, banker, lawyer, politician and peace advocate who served as Register of the Treasury during the Lincoln administration. ... // Google offers a variety of services and tools besides its basic web search. ... Doris Kearns Goodwin (born January 4, 1943) is an award-winning author and historian. ...

Lincoln in art and popular culture

  • DiLorenzo, Thomas (2002). The Real Lincoln. ISBN 0-7615-2646-3. 
  • Lauriston, Bullard. F. (1952). Lincoln in Marble and Bronze. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press. 
  • Mead, Franklin B. (1932). Heroic Statues in Bronze of Abraham Lincoln: Introducing The Hoosier Youth by Paul Manship. Fort Wayne, Indiana: The Lincoln National Life Foundation. 
  • Moffatt, Frederick C. (1998). Errant Bronzes: George Grey Barnard's Statues of Abraham Lincoln. Newark, DE: University of Delaware Press. 
  • Murry, Freeman Henry Morris [1916] (1972). Emancipation and the Freed in American Sculpture. Freeport, NY: Books For Libraries Press, the Black Heritage Library Collection. 
  • Petz, Weldon (1987). Michigan's Monumental Tributes to Abraham Lincoln. Historical Society of Michigan. 
  • Redway, Maurine Whorton; Bracken, Dorothy Kendall (1957). Marks of Lincoln on Our Land. New York: Hastings House, Publishers. 
  • Savage, Kirk (1997). Standing Soldiers, Kneeling Slaves: Race War and Monument in Nineteenth Century America. Princeton New Jersey: Princeton University Press. 
  • Tice, George (1984). Lincoln. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press. 

Thomas J. DiLorenzo is an economics professor at Loyola College in Maryland and a senior fellow at the Ludwig von Mises Institute. ... Paul Howard Manship (December 24, 1885 - January 28, 1966) was a prominent American sculptor of the early 20th century. ... George Grey Barnard, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1947 George Grey Barnard (May 24, 1863 - April 24, 1938) was an American sculptor. ...

Fiction

  • Robert Emmet Sherwood; Abe Lincoln in Illinois: A Play in Twelve Scenes (1939) online version
  • Gore Vidal. Lincoln ISBN 0-375-70876-6, a novel.

Gore Vidal in 1948, photographed by Carl Van Vechten Eugene Luther Gore Vidal (born October 3, 1925) (pronounced , occasionally , , etc) is an American author of novels, stage plays, screenplays, and essays. ...

Film and Television

The Birth of a Nation is a famously controversial film which promoted the superiority of the white race. ... 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... Joseph Henabery (15 January 1888) Omaha, Nebraska, was a US film actor and director. ... Abraham Lincoln Released in 1930 under the title Abraham Lincoln, D.W. Griffiths Abraham Lincoln is a biopic of former American president Abraham Lincoln starring Walter Huston. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link is to a full 1930 calendar). ... Walter Huston (April 6, 1884 – April 7, 1950) was a Canadian-born actor. ... Young Mr. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full year calendar). ... Henry Jaynes Fonda (May 16, 1905 – August 12, 1982) was a highly acclaimed Academy Award-winning American film actor, best known for his roles as plain-speaking idealists. ... Abe Lincoln in Illinois is a 1940 biographical film which tells the story of the life of Abraham Lincoln from his early days as a lawyer up until his election as President of the United States. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Raymond Massey photographed by Carl Van Vechten Raymond Hart Massey (August 30, 1896 – July 29, 1983) was a Canadian actor. ... Movie poster of 1962s How the West Was Won. ... 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar). ... Raymond Massey photographed by Carl Van Vechten Raymond Hart Massey (August 30, 1896 – July 29, 1983) was a Canadian actor. ... Abe Lincoln in Illinois is a 1940 biographical film which tells the story of the life of Abraham Lincoln from his early days as a lawyer up until his election as President of the United States. ... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... Holbrook as Twain, 1957. ... 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Eldred Gregory Peck (April 5, 1916 – June 12, 2003) was an Oscar-winning American film actor. ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Samuel Atkinson Waterston (born November 15, 1940) is an Oscar nominated American actor noted particularly for his portrayal of Jack McCoy on the long-running NBC television series Law & Order. ... Bill & Teds Excellent Adventure (1989) is a comedy/science fiction film based on the idea of time travel. ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Robert V. Barron (December 26, 1932-December 1, 2000) was an American actor best known as the voice of Admiral Donald Hayes in Robotech. ... The Civil War was a highly popular and acclaimed PBS documentary about the American Civil War created by Sam Sim, and released on PBS in September 1990. ... MCMXC redirects here; for the Enigma album, see MCMXC a. ... Samuel Atkinson Waterston (born November 15, 1940) is an Oscar nominated American actor noted particularly for his portrayal of Jack McCoy on the long-running NBC television series Law & Order. ...

Primary sources

  • Basler, Roy P. ed. (1953–55). Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln, 9 vols., New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers Univ. Press. 
  • Basler, Roy P. ed. (1946). Abraham Lincoln: His Speeches and Writings. 
  • Lincoln, Abraham (2000). in ed by Philip Van Doren Stern: The Life and Writings of Abraham Lincoln. Modern Library Classics. 
  • Fehrenbacher, Don E., ed. Abraham Lincoln: Speeches and Writings 1832-1858 (Library of America, ed. 1989) ISBN 978-0-94045043-1
  • Fehrenbacher, Don E., ed. Abraham Lincoln: Speeches and Writings 1859-1865 (Library of America, ed. 1989) ISBN 978-0-94045063-9

Volumes in the Library of America series The Library of America (LoA) is a nonprofit publisher of classic American literature. ... Volumes in the Library of America series The Library of America (LoA) is a nonprofit publisher of classic American literature. ...

External links

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Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... The Biographical Directory of the United States Congress is a biographical dictionary of all members of both houses of the United States Congress, past and present. ... The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about movies, actors, television shows, production crew personnel, and video games. ... Political Graveyard logo. ...

Project Gutenberg eTexts

Preceded by
John Henry
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Illinois's 7th congressional district

March 4, 1847March 3, 1849
Succeeded by
Thomas L. Harris
Preceded by
John C. Frémont
Republican Party presidential nominee
1860 (won), 1864 (won)
Succeeded by
Ulysses S. Grant
Preceded by
James Buchanan
President of the United States
March 4, 1861April 15, 1865
Succeeded by
Andrew Johnson
Persondata
NAME Lincoln, Abraham
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION 16th President of the United States of America
DATE OF BIRTH February 12, 1809
PLACE OF BIRTH Hardin County, Kentucky
DATE OF DEATH April 15, 1865
PLACE OF DEATH Washington, D.C.

[1] Died in office. ... John Charles Frémont (January 21, 1813 – July 13, 1890), born John Charles Fremont, was an American military officer, explorer, the first candidate of the Republican Party for the office of President of the United States, and the first Presidential candidate of a major party to run on a platform... Ulysses S. Grant[2] (born Hiram Ulysses Grant, April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885) was an American general and the 18th President of the United States (1869–1877). ... Rutherford Birchard Hayes (October 4, 1822 – January 17, 1893) was an American politician, lawyer, military leader and the 19th President of the United States (1877–1881). ... James Abram Garfield (November 19, 1831 – September 19, 1881) was the 20th President of the United States (1881) and the second U.S. President to be assassinated (Abraham Lincoln was the first). ... James G. Blaine James Gillespie Blaine (January 31, 1830 – January 27, 1893) was a U.S. Representative, U.S. Senator from Maine and a two-time United States Secretary of State. ... Benjamin Harrison (August 20, 1833 – March 13, 1901) was the 23rd President of the United States, serving one term from 1889 to 1893. ... For the mountain, see Mount McKinley. ... Theodore (Teddy) Roosevelt, Jr. ... William Howard Taft (September 15, 1857 – March 8, 1930) was an American politician, the 27th President of the United States, the 10th Chief Justice of the United States, a leader of the progressive conservative wing of the Republican Party in the early 20th century, a pioneer in international arbitration, and... Charles Evans Hughes (April 11, 1862 – August 27, 1948) was Governor of New York, United States Secretary of State, Associate Justice and Chief Justice of the United States. ... Warren Gamaliel Harding (November 2, 1865 - August 2, 1923) was an American politician and the 29th President of the United States, from 1921 to 1923, when he became the sixth president to die in office. ... John Calvin Coolidge, Jr. ... Herbert Clark Hoover, (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964), the 31st President of the United States (1929–1933), was a world-famous mining engineer and humanitarian administrator. ... Alfred Mossman Alf Landon (September 9, 1887 – October 12, 1987) was an American Republican politician from Kansas, who was defeated in a landslide by Franklin D. Roosevelt in the 1936 presidential election. ... Wendell L. Willkie Wendell Lewis Willkie (February 18, 1892 – October 8, 1944) was a lawyer in the United States and the Republican nominee for the 1940 presidential election. ... Thomas Dewey Thomas Edmund Dewey (March 24, 1902 – March 16, 1971) was the Governor of New York (1943-1955) and the unsuccessful Republican candidate for the U.S. Presidency in 1944 and 1948. ... Dwight David Ike Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 - March 28, 1969) was an American soldier and politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953-1961). ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... Barry Morris Goldwater (January 1, 1909 – May 29, 1998[1]) was a five-term United States Senator from Arizona (1953–1965, 1969–87) and the Republican Partys nominee for President in the 1964 election. ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr. ... Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981 – 1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967 – 1975). ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... Robert Joseph Dole (born July 22, 1923) was a United States Senator from Kansas from 1969-1996, serving part of that time as United States Senate Majority Leader. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... February 12 is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1809 (MDCCCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... April 15 is the 105th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (106th in leap years). ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... Nickname: Motto: Justitia Omnibus (=Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., in relation to the states Maryland and Virginia Coordinates: Country United States Federal District District of Columbia Government  - Mayor Adrian M. Fenty (D)  - City Council Chairperson: Vincent C. Gray (D) Ward 1: Jim Graham (D) Ward 2: Jack...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Abraham Lincoln: The Lincoln Institute provides support to scholars studying the life of Abraham Lincoln. (213 words)
Lincoln’s August 1859 visit was to examine land that had been pledged by Chicago attorney Norman B. Judd as collateral for a loan from Mr.
Abraham Lincoln was a Kentuckian – but that did not help him much in his dealings with his native state.
Lincoln’s selection as the Republican presidential nominee in 1860, he had never given a speech in the state.
Abraham Lincoln - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (9105 words)
Lincoln was born in a one-room log cabin on the 348 acre (1.4 km²) Sinking Spring Farm in the southeast part of Hardin County, Kentucky, then considered the frontier (now part of LaRue County, in Nolin Creek, three miles (5 km) south of Hodgenville), to Thomas Lincoln and Nancy Hanks.
Lincoln was named after his deceased grandfather, who was scalped in 1786 in an Indian raid.
Lincoln was the leader of the "moderates" regarding Reconstruction policy, and usually was opposed by the Radical Republicans led by Thaddeus Stevens in the House and Charles Sumner and Benjamin Wade in the Senate (though he cooperated with those men on most other issues).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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