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Encyclopedia > Abraham
An angel prevents the sacrifice of Isaac. Abraham and Isaac
An angel prevents the sacrifice of Isaac. Abraham and Isaac

Abraham (Hebrew: אַבְרָהָם, Standard Avraham Tiberian ʾAḇrāhām Ashkenazi Avrohom or Avruhom ; Arabic: ابراهيم‎, Ibrāhīm ; Ge'ez: አብርሃም, ʾAbrəham) is a man mentioned in the Hebrew Bible, beginning with the Book of Genesis, the first of the Five Books of Moses, as well as in the Qur'an. His life as narrated in Genesis 11-25 may reflect various traditions. Jewish, Christian and Muslim traditions regard him as the founding patriarch of the Israelites, Ishmaelites and Edomite peoples. In what is thus called Abrahamic religious tradition, Abraham is the forefather of these peoples. Look up Abraham in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up abram in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1256x1824, 274 KB) Description: Title: de: Der Engel verhindert die Opferung Isaaks Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 193 × 133 cm Country of origin: de: Niederlande (Holland) Current location (city): de: St. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1256x1824, 274 KB) Description: Title: de: Der Engel verhindert die Opferung Isaaks Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 193 × 133 cm Country of origin: de: Niederlande (Holland) Current location (city): de: St. ... Abraham Sacrificing Isaac by Laurent de LaHire, 1650 Akedah or the Binding of Isaac (‎, Akedát Yitzhák) in Genesis 22, is narration from the Hebrew Bible, in which God asks Abraham to sacrifice his son Isaac on Mount Moriah. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Tiberian Hebrew is an oral tradition of pronunciation for ancient forms of Hebrew, especially the Hebrew of the Tanakh, that was given written form by masoretic scholars in the Jewish community at Tiberias in the early Middle Ages, beginning in the 8th century. ... Ashkenazi Hebrew is the pronunciation system for Biblical and Mishnaic Hebrew favored for liturgical use by Ashkenazi Jewish practice. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Ibrahim (Arabic: ابراهيم), also known as Abraham, is very important in Islam, both in his own right as prophet and as the father of the prophet Ismail (Ishmael), his firstborn son, who is considered the Father of the Arabs. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... This article is about the term Hebrew Bible. For the Jewish scriptures see Tanakh. ... Genesis redirects here. ... Template:Jews and Jewdaism Template:The Holy Book Named TorRah The Torah () is the most valuable Holy Doctrine within Judaism,(and for muslims) revered as the first relenting Word of Ulllah, traditionally thought to have been revealed to Blessed Moosah, An Apostle of Ulllah. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The Patriarchs, known as the Avot in Hebrew, are Abraham, his son Isaac and his grandson Jacob. ... Look up Israelite in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Hagar and Ishmael in the Wilderness, by Karel Dujardin Ishmael (Hebrew: יִשְׁמָעֵאל, Standard Tiberian ; Arabic: إسماعيل, Ismāīl) was Abrahams eldest son, born by his wifes handmaiden Hagar. ... Edomite redirects here. ... map showing the prevalence of Abrahamic (purple) and Dharmic (yellow) religions in each country. ...


His original name was Abram (Hebrew: אַבְרָם‎, Standard  Avram Tiberian ʾAḇrām) meaning either "exalted father" or "my father is exalted" (compare Abiram). For the later part of his life, he was called Abraham (see retroactive nomenclature), often glossed as av hamon (goyim) "father of many (nations)" per Genesis 17:5, although it does not have any literal meaning in Hebrew.[1] Hebrew redirects here. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Tiberian Hebrew is an oral tradition of pronunciation for ancient forms of Hebrew, especially the Hebrew of the Tanakh, that was given written form by masoretic scholars in the Jewish community at Tiberias in the early Middle Ages, beginning in the 8th century. ... Ab means father in most Semitic languages, affectionately extended to Abba or Aba in Northwest Semitic. ... MY or my can mean: my, the first-person possessive adjective in the English language Burmese language (ISO 639 alpha-2, my) Malaysia (ISO country code, MY) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This entry incorporates text from Eastons Bible Dictionary, 1897, with some modernisation. ... Retroactive nomenclature is the telling of the earlier history of a person, place or thing while referring to said person, place or thing by a name that came into use at a later date. ...


Abraham was the son of Terah and the grandson of Nahor. Abraham's brothers were named Nahor and Haran.[2] According to Genesis, Abraham was brought by God from Mesopotamia to the land of Canaan. There Abraham entered into a covenant: in exchange for sole recognition of YHWH as supreme universal deity and authority, Abraham will be blessed with innumerable progeny. According to Jewish tradition (based on the Anno Mundi era introduced by Maimonides in the 12th century), Abraham lived AM 1948–2123 (1812 BC to 1637 BC). Terah or Térach (Hebrew: תֶּרַח / תָּרַח, Standard  / Tiberian  /  ; Wanderer; loiterer) // Terah was the father of Abraham mentioned in the Hebrew Bible. ... (1. ... Haran (הָרָן) was a son of Terah, and brother of Nahor and Abram. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... Map of Canaan For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ... A covenant, in its most general sense, is a solemn promise to do or not do something specified. ... The Tetragrammaton in Phoenician (1100 BC to 300 CE), Aramaic (10th Century BC to 0) and modern Hebrew scripts. ... Anno Mundi (AM, in the year of the world) refers to a Calendar era counting from the creation of the world. ... Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Maimonides (March 30, 1135 or 1138–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Spain, Morocco and Egypt during the Middle Ages. ...


Judaism, Christianity and Islam are sometimes referred to as the "Abrahamic religions", because of the progenitor role Abraham plays in their holy books. In the Jewish tradition, he is called Avraham Avinu or "Abraham, our Father". God promised Abraham that through his offspring, all the nations of the world will come to be blessed (Genesis 12:3), interpreted in Christian tradition as a reference to Christ. Jews, Christians, and Muslims consider him father of the people of Israel through his son Isaac (cf. Exodus 6:3, Exodus 32:13). For Muslims, he is a prophet of Islam and the ancestor of Muhammad through his other son Ishmael - born to him by his wife's handmaiden, Hagar. Abraham is also a progenitor of the Semitic tribes of the Negev who trace their descent from their common ancestor Sheba (Genesis 10:28). Symbols of the three main Abrahamic religions: Judaism, Christianity and Islam Map showing the prevalence of Abrahamic (purple) and Eastern (yellow) religions in each country. ... Lukes genealogy of Jesus, from the Book of Kells transcribed by Celtic monks circa 800 The genealogy of Jesus through either one or both of his earthly parents (Mary and Joseph) is given by two passages from the Gospels, Matthew 1:2–16 and Luke 3:23–38. ... Look up Israelite in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Sacrifice of Isaac, a detail from the sarcophagus of the Roman consul Junius Bassus, ca. ... The Quran identifies a number of men as prophets of Islam. ... An ancestor is a parent or (recursively) the parent of an ancestor (i. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Hagar and Ishmael in the Wilderness, by Karel Dujardin Ishmael (Hebrew: יִשְׁמָעֵאל, Standard Tiberian ; Arabic: إسماعيل, Ismāīl) was Abrahams eldest son, born by his wifes handmaiden Hagar. ... A handmaiden (or handmaid) is a female assistant (or slave) that waits at hand as a servant or attendant. ... :For the light machine gun see IMI Negev. ... Sheba (from the English transcription of the Hebrew name shva and Saba, Arabic: سبأ, also Saba, Amharic: ሳባ, Tigrinya: ሳባ) was a southern kingdom mentioned in the Jewish scriptures (Old Testament) and the Quran. ...

Contents

Etymology

'brm (no. 72) represents 'abram, with which Spiegelberg (Aegypt. Randglossen zum Altes Testament, 14) proposes to connect the preceding name (so that the whole would read "the field of Abram.") Outside of Palestine this name (Abiramu) has come to light in Babylonia (e.g. in a contract of the reign of Apil-Sin, second predecessor of Hammurabi; also for the aunt (!) of Esarhaddon 680-669 BC). Ungnad has recently found it, among documents from Dilbat dating from the Hammurabi dynasty, in the forms A-ba-am-ra-ma, A-ba-am-ra-am, as well as A-ba-ra-ma.


Until this latest discovery of the apparently full, historical form of the Babylonian equivalent, the best that could be done with the etymology was to make the first constituent "father of" (construct -i rather than suffix -i), and the second constituent "Ram," a proper name or an abbreviation of a name. (Yet observe above its use in Assyria for a woman; compare ABISHAG; ABIGAIL). Some were inclined rather to concede that the second element was a mystery, like the second element in the majority of names beginning with 'abh and 'ach, "father" and "brother." But the full cuneiform writing of the name, with the case-ending am, indicates that the noun "father" is in the accusative, governed by the verb which furnishes the second component, and that this verb therefore is prove him (though hitherto childless) a great nation. Trusting this promise, Abram journeyed down to Shechem, and at the sacred tree (compare Genesis 35:4, Joshua 24:26, Judges 9:6) received a new promise that the land would be given unto his seed (descendant or descendants). Having built an altar to commemorate the theophany, he removed to a spot between Bethel and Ai, where he built another altar and then called upon (i.e. invoked) the name of God (Genesis 12:1-9. Shechem is a name of geographical places. ... Look up Altar in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up theophany in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Bethel (בית אל), also written as Beth El or Beth-El, is a Semitic word that has acquired various meanings. ... Et-Tell is an archaeological site in Israel that is popularly thought to be the Biblical city of Ai. ...


Genesis narrative

Origins and calling

Abraham was born in the Chaldean City of Ur, Mesopotamia, to Terah, his father. Ur KaÅ›dim or Ur of the Chaldees (אור כשדים) is the town in the Hebrew Bible and related literature where Abraham was said to have been born. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... Terah or Térach (Hebrew: תֶּרַח / תָּרַח, Standard  / Tiberian  /  ; Wanderer; loiterer) // Terah was the father of Abraham mentioned in the Hebrew Bible. ...


Josephus, Islamic tradition, and Jewish authorities like Maimonides all concur that Ur of the Chaldees was in Northern Mesopotamia — now southeastern Turkey (identified with Urartu, or claiming Abraham was born in Urfa), or the nearby Urkesh, which others identify with “Ur of the Chaldee." A fanciful representation of Flavius Josephus, in an engraving in William Whistons translation of his works Josephus (37 – sometime after 100 CE),[1] who became known, in his capacity as a Roman citizen, as Titus Flavius Josephus,[2] was a 1st-century Jewish historian and apologist of priestly and... Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Maimonides (March 30, 1135 or 1138–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Spain, Morocco and Egypt during the Middle Ages. ... Urartu at its greatest extent 743 BC Urartu (Biainili in Urartian) was an ancient kingdom in the mountainous plateau between Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, and Caucasus mountains, later known as the Armenian Highland, and it centered around Lake Van (present-day eastern Turkey). ... Shows the location of the province and city of Åžanlıurfa. ... Urkesh was a city situated at the base of the Taurus Mountains in what is now northern Syria near the modern city of Qamishli. ...


Abram migrated to Haran, apparently the classical Carrhae, which lay on the Balikh river, a branch of the Euphrates. Thence, after a short stay, he, his wife Sarai, Lot (the son of Abram's brother Haran), and all their followers, departed for Canaan. Moreover, the names of Abram's forefathers Peleg, Serug, Nahor, and Terah, all appear as names of cities in the region of Haran suggesting that these are eponymous ancestors of these communities. God called Abram to go to "the land I will show you", and promised to bless him and man. In the Old Testament, when applied, to the patriarch, the name appears as 'Abhram, up to Genesis 17:5; thereafter always as 'Abraham. Two other persons are named 'Abhiram. The identity of this name with 'Abhram cannot be doubted in view of the variation between 'Abhiner and 'Abhner, 'Abhishalom and 'Abhshalom, etc. Abraham also appears in the list at Karnak of places conquered by Sheshonk I. Haran (הָרָן) was a son of Terah, and brother of Nahor and Abram. ... Harran, also known as Carrhae, is a district of Åžanlıurfa Province in the southeast of Turkey, near the border with Syria, 24 miles (44 kilometres) southeast of the city of Åžanlıurfa, at the end of a long straight road across the roasting hot plain of Harran. ... The Balikh River has its origins in Turkey, and ends up in Syria, on the very western part of Euphrates. ... For the song River Euphrates by the Pixies, see Surfer Rosa. ... Engraving of Sarah by Hans Collaert from c. ... Lot and his Daughters, Hendrik Goltzius, 1616. ... Haran (הָרָן) was a son of Terah, and brother of Nahor and Abram. ... Map of Canaan For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ... Peleg (Hebrew: / Standard  / Tiberian  /  ; Division) is one of the two sons of Eber, the ancestor of the Hebrews according to the so-called Table of Nations in Genesis x, xi and 1 Chronicles i. ... Serug - branch - was the son of Reu and the father of Nahor. ... (1. ...


Sarah and Pharaoh

See also: Wife-sister narratives in Genesis

Driven by a famine to take refuge in Egypt (Genesis 26:11, Genesis 41:, Genesis 42:), fearing that his wife's beauty should arouse evil designs of the Egyptians and thus endanger his own safety, Abraham referred to Sarai as his sister, first to the Philistine king of Gerar and then to the unnamed Pharaoh of Egypt. This article may contain original research or unverified claims. ... <nowiki>Insert non-formatted text hereBold text</nowiki>A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ... Map showing the location of Philistine land and cities of Gaza, Ashdod, and Ashkelon Map of the southern Levant, c. ... Gerar - lodging-place - A very ancient town and district in the south border of Palestine, which was ruled over by a king named Abimelech. ... For other uses, see Pharaoh (disambiguation). ...


One interpretation of the original Hebrew includes Abram's explanation that Sarai was literally his sister since she was his father's daughter, but not his mother's, i.e., a half-sister.[3] However, the kinship pattern of the Semitic chiefs listed in Genesis followed an established protocol that involved betrothal to half-sisters, so Abram may not have lied when he said that Sarai was his sister. On the other hand, there has been ancient tablets recently recovered from the ancient city of Mari that may suggest otherwise. These ancient Semite legal records show that when a woman is married to a man, she is then formally adopted by his father as a full daughter as well[1]. Like Abram, many ancient Semites were Nomads and it was customary for the daughter-in-law to be officially adopted as a full daughter in case her husband is to die while she is traveling with his family. According to Genesis 12:5, Sarai left her family to set out for the land of Canaan, which puts her in this same position as suggested in the ancient tablets of Mari (an ancient Semite city of Abram's time). It is possible that Sarai may not have Abram's half-sister, but adopted sister by law. However,marriage to half sisters was common throughout the ancient middle east and inheritance in the nomadic Semitic tribes was matrilineal. This gave a powerful incentive to marry a half sister and thus retain property within the family.


In any case, this did not save her from the Pharaoh, who took her into the royal harem and enriched Abram with herds and servants. But when Yahweh "plagued Pharaoh and his house with great plagues" Abram and Sarai left Egypt. There are two other parallel tales in Genesis of a wife confused for a sister (Genesis 20-21and 27) describing a similar event at Gerar with the Philistine king Abimelech, though the latter attributing it to Isaac not Abram. For other uses, see Pharaoh (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Harem (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Yahweh (disambiguation). ... The Plagues of Egypt (Hebrew: ), the Biblical Plagues or the Ten Plagues (Hebrew: ) are the ten calamities foisted upon Egypt by God in the Bible (as recounted in the book of Exodus, chapters 7 - 12), in order to convince Pharaoh[1] to let the Israelite slaves go. ... Gerar - lodging-place - A very ancient town and district in the south border of Palestine, which was ruled over by a king named Abimelech. ... The historic Philistines (see note Philistines below) were a people that inhabited the southern coast of Canaan around the time of the arrival of the Israelites, their territory being named Philistia in later contexts. ... pages edit history. ...


When Abram with Sarai and his nephew Lot left Egypt they returned to Ai. Here he dwelt for some time, until strife arose between his herdsmen and those of his nephew, Lot. Abram thereupon proposed to Lot that they should separate, and allowed Lot the first choice. Lot preferred the fertile land lying east of the Jordan River, while Abram moved down to the oaks of Mamre in Hebron. After receiving reaffirmation and clarification of the promise from Yahweh, he built an altar there. This article is about the Jordan River and its valley in western Asia. ... Mamre, full Hebrew name Elonei Mamre (Oaks of Mamre), is where Abraham built an altar (Genesis 13:18). ... Arabic الخليل Government City (from 1997) Also Spelled Al-Khalil (officially) Al-Halil (unofficially) Governorate Hebron Population 167,000 (2006) Jurisdiction  dunams Head of Municipality Mustafa Abdel Nabi , Hebron (Arabic:   al-ḪalÄ«l or al KhalÄ«l; Hebrew:  , Standard Hebrew: Ḥevron, Tiberian Hebrew: Ḥeḇrôn) is a city at the...


Chedorlaomer and Melchisedek

Some years after this, Lot was taken prisoner by Chedorlaomer and his allies, then warring against the kings of Sodom, and the neighboring places. Abram with his household pursued the conquerors, overtook and defeated them at Dan, near the springs of Jordan and retook the spoil, together with Lot. Chedorlaomer (Hebrew: כְדָרְלָעומֶר) is the name of the main figure in a narrative within Genesis concerning a civil war in Canaan. ...


At his return, passing near Salem (supposed to be the city afterwards called Jerusalem), Melchisedek, king of that city, and priest of the Most High God, came out and blessed him, and presented him with bread and wine for his own refreshment and that of his army; or as some have thought, offered bread and wine to God, as a sacrifice of thanksgiving on Abram's behalf. This article is in need of attention. ...


Ishmael

Main articles: Ishmael and Hagar (biblical)

After this, the Lord renewed his promises to Abram, with fresh assurances that his descendants would possess the land of Canaan and that his posterity should be as numerous as the stars of heaven. Hagar and Ishmael in the Wilderness, by Karel Dujardin Ishmael (Hebrew: יִשְׁמָעֵאל, Standard Tiberian ; Arabic: إسماعيل, Ismāīl) was Abrahams eldest son, born by his wifes handmaiden Hagar. ... Hagar (Arabic هاجر; Hajar; Hebrew הָגָר Stranger, Standard Hebrew Hagar, Tiberian Hebrew Hāḡār) is an Egyptian-born servant of Sarah, wife of Abraham in the Book of Genesis of the Torah (Hebrew Bible). ...


As Sarai continued to be infertile, God's promise that Abram's seed would inherit the land seemed incapable of fulfillment. His sole heir was his servant, a certain Eliezer of Damascus (Genesis 15:2). Abram was promised one of his own flesh as heir.


The passage recording the ratification of the promise is remarkably solemn (see Genesis 15).


Sarai, in accordance with custom, gave to Abram her Egyptian handmaid Hagar as his wife (Genesis 16:3). But, Sarai seeing Hagar with child, was unable to endure the reproach of barrenness (cf. the story of Hannah, 1 Samuel 1:6), and dealt harshly with her and forced her to flee (Genesis 16:1-14). God heard Hagar's sorrow and promised her that her descendants will be too numerous to count, and she returned. The dismissal of Hagar, 1612 by Pieter Pietersz Lastman Hagar (Hebrew הָגָר Stranger, Standard Hebrew Hagar, Tiberian Hebrew ; Arabic هاجر; Hagar), according to the Abrahamic faiths, was an Egyptian handmaiden (or slave-girl) of Sarah, wife of Abraham. ... Hannah (or Chana) (Hebrew: חנה - Grace [of God]) was a wife of Elkanah and the mother of the prophet Samuel as recorded in the Book of Samuel. ... The Books of Samuel (Hebrew: Sefer Shmuel ספר שמואל), are part of the Tanakh (part of Judaisms Hebrew Bible) and also of the Old Testament (of Christianity). ...


Her son, Ishmael, Abram's firstborn, was born when Abram was 86 years of age (Genesis 16:15-16). Hagar and Ishmael were eventually driven permanently away from Abram by Sarai (Genesis 21:). Hagar and Ishmael in the Wilderness, by Karel Dujardin Ishmael (Hebrew: יִשְׁמָעֵאל, Standard Tiberian ; Arabic: إسماعيل, Ismāīl) was Abrahams eldest son, born by his wifes handmaiden Hagar. ...


Covenant

Main article: Isaac

God made his covenant with Abram thirteen years after the birth of Ishmael, when Abram was 99 years old (Genesis 17:1-5). Abram's name was changed to Abraham and Sarai's to Sarah. The covenant was sealed by Abraham's circumcision (Genesis 17:11-14) and the first commandment relating to circumcision. Ishmael was also circumcised on that day, at the age of 13, as were the other men of Abraham's household. Sacrifice of Isaac, a detail from the sarcophagus of the Roman consul Junius Bassus, ca. ... Engraving of Sarah by Hans Collaert from c. ... This article is about male circumcision. ... Brit milah (Hebrew: [bərīt mīlā] literally: covenant of circumcision), also berit milah (Sephardi), bris milah (Ashkenazi pronunciation) or bris (Yiddish) is a religious ceremony within Judaism to welcome infant Jewish boys into a covenant between God and the Children of Israel through ritual circumcision performed by a...


The Lord said to Abraham “ go from the country and your kindred and your fathers house to the land that I will show you.” And I will make of you a great nation and I will bless you and make your name great, so that you will be a blessing. I will bless those who bless you. And by you all the families of the earth shall bless themselves. At this time Abraham was promised not only many descendants, but descendants through Sarah specifically, as well as the land where he was living, which was to belong to his descendants. The covenant was to be fulfilled through Isaac, though God promised that Ishmael would become a great nation as well. The covenant of circumcision (unlike the earlier promise) was two-sided and conditional: if Abraham and his descendants fulfilled their part of the covenant, Yahweh would be their God, give them the land, and make a great nation and kings out of Abraham's line. Sacrifice of Isaac, a detail from the sarcophagus of the Roman consul Junius Bassus, ca. ...


The promise of a son to Abraham made Sarah "laugh," which became the name of the son of promise, Isaac. Sarah herself "laughs" at the idea because of her age, when Yahweh (God) appears to Abraham at Mamre (Genesis 18:1-15, ) and, when the child is born, cries "Yahweh has made me into laughter; every one that hears will laugh at me" (Genesis 21:6).


Sodom and Gomorrah

The enormous sins of Sodom, Gomorrah, and the neighboring cities, being now filled up, three angels were sent to inflict upon them the divine vengeance. After visiting Abraham, they were ready to depart and Abraham accompanied them towards Sodom, whither two of them (who proved to be divine messengers) continued their journey. The third remained with Abraham, and informed him of the approaching destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah. Abraham interceded, praying that if fifty righteous persons were found therein, the city should be spared; he reduced the numbers gradually to ten; but this number could not be found (or God, in answer to his prayers, would have averted his design[original research?]). Lot, his wife, and their 2 daughters were preserved from the disaster, either because they were the only righteous, or because of Abraham's intercession on their behalf. His wife was turned to salt on their escape from the destruction when she disobeyed God's command not to look back at the destruction. For other uses, see Sodom and Gomorrah (disambiguation). ... Lot and his Daughters, Hendrik Goltzius, 1616. ...


Sarah and Abimelech

Main article: Abimelech

After Sarah conceived, according to the divine promise, she and Abraham left the plain of Mamre and went south, to Gerar, where Abimelech reigned. Fearing that Sarah might be forced from him, and himself put to death, Abraham again called Sarah 'sister,' just as he had done in Egypt.
Abimelech took her to his house, with intentions to marry her. According to scripture, God informed Abimelech, through a dream, that Sarah was Abraham's wife. Abimelech returned Sarah to Abraham with great presents. pages edit history. ... Gerar - lodging-place - A very ancient town and district in the south border of Palestine, which was ruled over by a king named Abimelech. ...


Beersheba

Main article: Beersheba

About the same time, Abimelech came with Phicol, his general, to conclude an alliance with Abraham, who made that prince a present of seven ewe-lambs out of his flock, in consideration that a well that he had opened should be his own property; and they called the place Beer-sheba or "the well of swearing".
Here Abraham resided some time. Beersheba (Hebrew: ‎, Beer Sheva, Arabic: ‎, Bir as-Sabi, Turkish: ) is the largest city in the Negev desert of southern Israel, often being referred to as the Capital of the Negev. ...


Binding of Isaac

Main article: Binding of Isaac

Some time after the birth of Isaac, Abraham was commanded by God to offer his son up as a sacrifice in the land of Moriah. The patriarch traveled three days until he came to the mount that God taught him. He commanded the servant to remain while he and Isaac proceeded alone to the mountain, Isaac carrying the wood upon which he would be sacrificed. Along the way, Isaac repeatedly asked Abraham where the animal for the burnt offering was. Abraham then replied that God would provide one. Just as Abraham was about to sacrifice his son, he was prevented by an angel, and given on that spot a ram which he sacrificed in place of his son. Thus it is said, "On the mountain the Lord provides." (Genesis 22) As a reward for his obedience he received another promise of a numerous seed and abundant prosperity (22). After this event, Abraham did not return to Hebron, Sarah's encampment, but instead went to Beersheba, Keturah's encampment, and it is to Beersheba that Abraham's servant brought Rebecca, Isaac's patrilineal parallel cousin who became his wife. Abraham Sacrificing Isaac by Laurent de LaHire, 1650 Akedah or the Binding of Isaac (‎, Akedát Yitzhák) in Genesis 22, is narration from the Hebrew Bible, in which God asks Abraham to sacrifice his son Isaac on Mount Moriah. ... Sacrifice of Isaac, a detail from the sarcophagus of the Roman consul Junius Bassus, ca. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards and make it more accessible to a general audience, this article may require cleanup. ... This article is about the supernatural being. ... Sheep redirects here. ... Beersheba (Hebrew: ‎, Beer Sheva, Arabic: ‎, Bir as-Sabi, Turkish: ) is the largest city in the Negev desert of southern Israel, often being referred to as the Capital of the Negev. ... Rebecca by Johannes Takanen, 1877. ...


The near sacrifice of Isaac is one of the most challenging, and perhaps ethically troublesome, parts of the Bible. According to Josephus, Isaac was 25 years old at the time of the sacrifice or Akedah, while the Talmudic sages teach that Isaac was 37. In either case, Isaac was a fully grown man, old enough to prevent the elderly Abraham (who was 125 or 137 years old) from tying him up had he wanted to resist. The narrative now turns to Isaac. To his "only son" (22:2, 12) Abraham gave all he had, and dismissed his other sons, as Abraham himself had been dismissed by Terah after Terah had given his territory to Nahor. Abraham Sacrificing Isaac by Laurent de LaHire, 1650 Akedah or the Binding of Isaac (‎, Akedát Yitzhák) in Genesis 22, is narration from the Hebrew Bible, in which God asks Abraham to sacrifice his son Isaac on Mount Moriah. ... For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ... The Talmud (Hebrew: ) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs, and history. ...


In Christian theology this event is sometimes interpreted as a foreshadowing of the crucifixion of Jesus, where Abraham is represented as God, and Isaac as Jesus Christ. Key elements from the stories given as symbols of this foreshadowing include: Both of their births were believed to be miraculous (Isaac to a woman who was far too old to have children, Jesus to a woman believed to be a virgin). According to scripture Abraham was told by God that he would be the father of many nations, and in the Christian faith God is the seen as the father of all people. In both stories Jesus and Isaac had the wood laid upon their backs and were forced to carry it up to the hills where they were to be sacrificed. Although according to scripture Abraham had fathered a son previously, namely Ishmael with Hagar, Isaac was the only son of Abraham through Sarah, as Jesus was the "only begotten son" of God (see John 3:16)(Isaac is also referred to as "his [Abraham's] only begotten son" in Hebrews 11:17). They both made their way up hills to be sacrificed (Isaac up Moriah, and Jesus to Golgotha, which may be located on the same hill, but with Golgotha on the North end). The exact location referred to is currently a matter of some debate. They both were laid on the wood alive, and it was allegedly voluntary on both their parts (this theory would explain why Isaac, possibly a full grown man at the time would not have resisted when his father tied him down). The difference in the stories comes when Abraham was stopped from sacrificing his son, and God provided an alternative to Isaac. For Jesus, there was no "ram caught in the thicket" (Gen. 22:13) and the "sacrifice" was carried out to completion. Sacrifice of Isaac, a detail from the sarcophagus of the Roman consul Junius Bassus, ca. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Engraving of Sarah by Hans Collaert from c. ... Calvary (Golgotha) was the hill outside Jerusalem on which Jesus was crucified. ...


Death of Sarah

Sarah died at an old age at about 127, and was buried in the Cave of the Patriarchs near Hebron, which Abraham had purchased from Ephron the Hittite, along with the adjoining field (Genesis 23). Here Abraham himself was buried so they could be with each other forever. Centuries later the tomb became a place of pilgrimage and Muslims later built an Islamic mosque inside the site. The Enclosure of the Cave of the Patriarchs The Cave of the Patriarchs is a religious compound located in the ancient city of Hebron (which lies in the southwest part of the West Bank, in the heart of ancient Judea), and is generally considered by Jews, Christians, and Muslims, to... Arabic الخليل Government City (from 1997) Also Spelled Al-Khalil (officially) Al-Halil (unofficially) Governorate Hebron Population 167,000 (2006) Jurisdiction  dunams Head of Municipality Mustafa Abdel Nabi , Hebron (Arabic:   al-ḪalÄ«l or al KhalÄ«l; Hebrew:  , Standard Hebrew: Ḥevron, Tiberian Hebrew: Ḥeḇrôn) is a city at the... This article is about the religious or spiritual journey. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ...


A wife for Isaac

Abraham, being reminded by this occurrence, probably, of his own great age, and the consequent uncertainty of his life, became solicitous to secure an alliance between Isaac and a female branch of his own family.
Eliezer his steward was therefore sent into Mesopotamia, to fetch from the country and kindred of Abraham a wife for his son Isaac. Eliezer went on his commission with prudence, and returned with Rebecca, daughter of Bethuel, granddaughter of Nahor, and, consequently, Abraham's niece. Eliezer (אֱלִיעֶזֶר / אֱלִיעָזֶר Help/Court of my God, Standard Hebrew Eliʿézer / Eliʿázer, Tiberian Hebrew ʾĔlîʿézer / ʾĔlîʿāzer) was Moses and Zipporahs second son. ... Eliezer (אֱלִיעֶזֶר / אֱלִיעָזֶר Help/Court of my God, Standard Hebrew Eliʿézer / Eliʿázer, Tiberian Hebrew ʾĔlîʿézer / ʾĔlîʿāzer) was Moses and Zipporahs second son. ... Bethuel (Hebrew for “house of God”), in the Hebrew Bible, was an Aramean man (Gen. ... (1. ...


Other children of Abraham

Abraham lived a long time after these events. After the death of Sarah, who died when he was 137 years of age[4], and while in bad health (Gen 24:1), he took another wife, a concubine named Keturah and she bore Abraham six sons, Zimran, Jokshan, Medan, Midian, Ishbak, and Shuah. (Genesis 25:1-6) In the Book of Genesis, Keturah or Ketura (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; Incense) is the woman whom Abraham marries after the death of Sarah. ... Zimran (Hebrew: זִמְרָן ; vine dresser; celebrated; song;), was a son of Abraham and Keturah. ... Jokshan is the second son of Abraham and Keturah, mentioned in the Hebrew Bibles Book of Genesis 25:2. ... Medan is a son of Abraham and the concubine Keturah. ... In the Bible, Midian (Hebrew: מִדְיָן, Standard Midyan Tiberian ; Arabic مدين; Strife; judgment) is a son of Abraham and his concubine Keturah (who according to midrash is Hagar). ... Ishbak (ishbăk), in the Bible, is a son of Abraham and the concubine Keturah. ... Shuah was the son of Abraham and Keturah [1] ^ http://www. ...


Death

He died at the age of 175 years. [5] Jewish legend says that he was meant to live to 180 years, but God purposely took his life because he felt that Abraham did not need to go through the pain of seeing Esau's wicked deeds. Esaw redirects here. ...


He was buried by his sons Isaac (aged about 76 years) and Ishmael (aged about 89 years), in the Cave of the Patriarchs, where he had deposited the remains of his beloved Sarah. The Enclosure of the Cave of the Patriarchs The Cave of the Patriarchs is a religious compound located in the ancient city of Hebron (which lies in the southwest part of the West Bank, in the heart of ancient Judea), and is generally considered by Jews, Christians, and Muslims, to...

Sons of Abraham in order of birth
Sarah Isaac(1)
Hagar Ishmael(2)
Keturah Zimran Jokshan Medan Midian Ishbak Shuah

Sacrifice of Isaac, a detail from the sarcophagus of the Roman consul Junius Bassus, ca. ... Hagar can refer to: Hagar (Bible), in the Book of Genesis, the handmaiden of Sarah and wife of Abraham Hagarism: The Making of the Islamic World, title name taken from the above lady Hagar (company), an Icelandic retailer company, part of the Baugur Group Hägar the Horrible, the comic... Hagar and Ishmael in the Wilderness, by Karel Dujardin Ishmael (Hebrew: יִשְׁמָעֵאל, Standard Tiberian ; Arabic: إسماعيل, Ismāīl) was Abrahams eldest son, born by his wifes handmaiden Hagar. ... In the Book of Genesis, Keturah or Ketura (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; Incense) is the woman whom Abraham marries after the death of Sarah. ... Zimran (Hebrew: זִמְרָן ; vine dresser; celebrated; song;), was a son of Abraham and Keturah. ... Jokshan is the second son of Abraham and Keturah, mentioned in the Hebrew Bibles Book of Genesis 25:2. ... Medan is a son of Abraham and the concubine Keturah. ... In the Bible, Midian (Hebrew: מִדְיָן, Standard Midyan Tiberian ; Arabic مدين; Strife; judgment) is a son of Abraham and his concubine Keturah (who according to midrash is Hagar). ... Ishbak (ishbăk), in the Bible, is a son of Abraham and the concubine Keturah. ... Shuah was the son of Abraham and Keturah [1] ^ http://www. ...

Significance

Biblical narratives represent Abraham as a wealthy, powerful and supremely virtuous man, but humanly flawed, and when afraid for himself, miscalculating, and a sometimes deceiving and an inconsiderate husband. But his central importance in the Book of Genesis, and his portrait as a man favored by God, is unequivocal. Abraham's generations (Hebrew: toledoth, translated to Greek: "Genesis") are presented as part of the crowning explanation of how the world has been fashioned by the hand of God, how the boundaries and relationships of peoples were established by Him, and how the Kingdom of God would be established through Abraham. Kingdom of Heaven redirects here. ...


As the father of Isaac , Abraham is ultimately the common ancestor of the Israelites. As the father of Ishmael, whose twelve sons became desert princes (most prominently, Nebaioth and Kedar), along with Midian, Sheba and other Arabian tribes (25:1-4), the Book of Genesis gives a portrait of Isaac's descendants as being surrounded by kindred peoples, who are also more often enemies. This is because the clans practiced intermarriage. are in the descending scale, perhaps of purity of blood, or as of purity of relationship, or of connectedness to Sarah: Sarah, her servant, her husband's other wife. The Bible says of the Hebrew people: "Your father was a wandering Syrian". Yet to Abraham's face the Hittites said, "You are a great chief among us. Bury your dead in the choicest of our tombs." (Genesis 23:4 and 5) Look up Israelite in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Hagar and Ishmael in the Wilderness, by Karel Dujardin Ishmael (Hebrew: יִשְׁמָעֵאל, Standard Tiberian ; Arabic: إسماعيل, Ismāīl) was Abrahams eldest son, born by his wifes handmaiden Hagar. ... Nebaioth נְבָיוֹת (Hebrew: Nevayot), (also written in English as Nebajoth or Nbioth), is mentioned at least five times in the Hebrew Bible according to which he was the firstborn son of Ishmael, and the name is among the eponyms of tribes mentioned in the Book of Genesis 25:13, and in... Kedar is an another name for Lord Shiva, one of the three major gods of Hindu religion, the other two being Brahma and Bishnu. ... In the Bible, Midian (Hebrew: מִדְיָן, Standard Midyan Tiberian ; Arabic مدين; Strife; judgment) is a son of Abraham and his concubine Keturah (who according to midrash is Hagar). ... Sheba (from the English transcription of the Hebrew name shva and Saba, Arabic: سبأ, also Saba, Amharic: ሳባ, Tigrinya: ሳባ) was a southern kingdom mentioned in the Jewish scriptures (Old Testament) and the Quran. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people from Kaneš who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite...


As stated above, Abraham came from Ur in Chaldea to Haran and thence to Canaan. Late tradition supposed that this was to escape Babylonian idolatry (Judith 5, Jubilees 12; cf. Joshua 24:2), and knew of Abraham's miraculous escape from death (an obscure reference to some act of deliverance in Isaiah 29:22). The route along the banks of the Euphrates from south to north was so frequently taken by migrating tribes that the tradition has nothing improbable in itself. It was thence that Jacob, the father of the tribes of Israel, came, and the route to Shechem and Bethel is precisely the same in both. For other uses, see Chaldean. ... Map of Canaan For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ... Judith with the Head of Holophernes, by Christophano Allori, 1613 (Pitti Palace, Florence The Book of Judith is a parable, or perhaps the first historical novel according to Jewish authorities, who do not place it among the writings of the Tanakh or Hebrew Bible. ... The Book of Jubilees (ספר היובלים), sometimes called the Lesser Genesis (Leptogenesis), is an ancient Jewish religious work. ... The Book of Joshua (Hebrew: Sefer Yhoshua ספר יהושע) is the sixth book in both the Hebrew Tanakh and the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... Isaiah the Prophet in Hebrew Scriptures was depicted on the Sistine Chapel ceiling by Michelangelo. ... For the song River Euphrates by the Pixies, see Surfer Rosa. ... This article is about Jacob in the Hebrew Bible. ... Shechem is a name of geographical places. ... Bethel (בית אל), also written as Beth El or Beth-El, is a Semitic word that has acquired various meanings. ...


Further, there is yet another parallel in the story of the conquest by Joshua, partly implied and partly actually detailed (cf. also Joshua 8:9 with Gen. 12:8, 13:3), whence it would appear that too much importance must not be laid upon any ethnological interpretation which fails to account for the three versions. That similar traditional elements have influenced them is not unlikely; but to recover the true historical foundation is difficult. The invasion or immigration of certain tribes from the east of the Jordan; the presence of Aramean blood among the Israelites; the origin of the sanctity of venerable sites — these and other considerations may readily be found to account for the traditions. Ethnology (greek ethnos: (non-greek, barbarian) people) is a genre of anthropological study, involving the systematic comparison of the folklore, beliefs and practices of different societies. ... The Aramaeans, or Arameans, were a Semitic, semi-nomadic and pastoralist people who originated and had lived in upper Mesopotamia and Syria. ...


Noteworthy coincidences in the lives of Abraham and Isaac, such as the strong parallels between two tales of a wife confused for a sister, point to the fluctuating state of traditions in the oral stage, or suggest that Abraham's life has been built up by borrowing from the common stock of popular lore. More original is the parting of Lot and Abraham at Bethel. The district was the scene of contests between Moab and the Hebrews (cf. perhaps Judges 3), and if this explains part of the story, the physical configuration of the Dead Sea may have led to the legend of the destruction of inhospitable and vicious cities.[citation needed] This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Moab (Hebrew: מוֹאָב, Standard Tiberian  ; Greek Μωάβ ; Arabic مؤاب, Assyrian Muaba, Maba, Maab ; Egyptian Muab) is the historical name for a mountainous strip of land in modern-day Jordan running along the eastern shore of the Dead Sea. ... Judges may refer to the Book of Judges in the Bible more than one judge. ... The Dead Sea (Hebrew: ‎, , Sea of Salt; Arabic: , , Dead Sea) is a salt lake between the West Bank and Israel to the west, and Jordan to the east. ...


In Christianity

Abraham Sacrificing Isaac by Laurent de La Hire, 1650 (Musée des Beaux-Arts d'Orléans).
Abraham Sacrificing Isaac by Laurent de La Hire, 1650 (Musée des Beaux-Arts d'Orléans).

In the New Testament Abraham is mentioned prominently as a man of faith (see e.g., Hebrews 11), and the apostle Paul uses him as an example of salvation by faith, as the progenitor of the Christ (or Messiah) (see Galatians 3:16). Laurent de LaHire: Abraham Sacrificing Isaac 1650 The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Laurent de LaHire: Abraham Sacrificing Isaac 1650 The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Laurent de La Hyre: Cornelia Refusses The Crown of The Ptolomai, 1646. ... The introduction of this article does not provide enough context for readers unfamiliar with the subject. ... Orléans (Latin, meaning golden) is a city and commune in north-central France, about 130 km (80 miles) southwest of Paris. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... For other uses, see Faith (disambiguation). ... The Epistle to the Hebrews (abbr. ... Paul of Tarsus (b. ... For other uses, see Salvation (disambiguation). ... Icon of Christ in a Greek Orthodox church This page is about the title, office or what is known in Christian theology as the Divine Person. ... Messiah (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ; Aramaic: , Aramaic/Syriac: , ; Arabic: ‎, ) Literally, Messiah means The Anointed (One), typically someone anointed with holy anointing oil. ... The Epistle to the Galatians is a book of the New Testament. ...

17th-century Russian icon of Abraham (Andrei Rublev Museum, Moscow).
17th-century Russian icon of Abraham (Andrei Rublev Museum, Moscow).

Authors of the New Testament report that Jesus cited Abraham to support belief in the resurrection of the dead. "But concerning the dead, that they rise, have you not read in the Book of Moses, in the burning bush passage, how God spoke to him, saying, "I am the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob?" He is not the God of the dead, but the God of the living. You are therefore greatly mistaken" (Mark 12:26-27). The New Testament also sees Abraham as an obedient man of God, and Abraham's interrupted attempt to offer up Isaac is seen as the supreme act of perfect faith in God. "By faith Abraham, when he was tested, offered up Isaac, and he who had received the promises offered up his only begotten son, of whom it was said, 'In Isaac your seed shall be called,' concluding that God was able to raise him up, even from the dead, from which he also received him in a figurative sense" (Hebrews 11:17-19). The imagery of a father sacrificing his son is seen as a type of God the Father offering his Son on Calvary. Andrei Rublev Trinity c. ... This article is about the religious artifacts. ... Andrei Rublev (Andrey Rublev, Andrey Roublyov, Russian: Андре́й Рублёв) (1360? – 1430?) is considered to be the greatest Russian iconographer. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Look up Resurrection in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Template:Jews and Jewdaism Template:The Holy Book Named TorRah The Torah () is the most valuable Holy Doctrine within Judaism,(and for muslims) revered as the first relenting Word of Ulllah, traditionally thought to have been revealed to Blessed Moosah, An Apostle of Ulllah. ... Burning bush at St. ... The Gospel of Mark, anonymous[1] but traditionally ascribed to Mark the Evangelist, is a synoptic gospel of the New Testament. ... Sacrifice of Isaac, a detail from the sarcophagus of the Roman consul Junius Bassus, ca. ... The word typology literally means the study of types. ... In many religions, the supreme God is given the title and attributions of Father. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Son of... Golgotha redirects here. ...


The traditional view in Christianity is that the chief promise made to Abraham in Genesis 12 is that through Abraham's seed, all the people of earth would be blessed. Notwithstanding this, John the Baptist specifically taught that merely being of Abraham's seed was no guarantee of salvation. The promise in Genesis is considered to have been fulfilled through Abraham's seed, Jesus. It is also a consequence of this promise that Christianity is open to people of all races and not limited to Jews. Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... For the hip-hop producer with the same name, see John the Baptist (producer). ... For other uses, see Salvation (disambiguation). ...


Liturgical commemoration

The Roman Catholic Church calls Abraham "our father in Faith," in the Eucharistic prayer of the Roman Canon, recited during the Mass (see Abraham in the Catholic liturgy). He is also commemorated in the calendars of saints of several denominations: on August 20 by the Maronite Church, August 28 in the Coptic Church and the Assyrian Church of the East, with the full office for the latter, and on October 9 by the Roman Catholic Church and the Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod. He is also regarded as the patron saint of those in the hospitality industry.[6] Catholic Church redirects here. ... Then-Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger (now Benedict XVI) presiding at the 2005 Easter Vigil Mass. ... Before the 1970 revision of the Roman Missal, the Mass had, in the Roman Rite, only one Anaphora or Eucharistic Prayer, which was referred to as the Canon of the Mass, and which, in the present text of the Roman Missal, is called Eucharistic Prayer I or the Roman Canon. ... For other uses of Mass, see Mass (disambiguation). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organising a liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with one or more saints, and referring to the day as that saints day. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Religions Christianity Scriptures Bible Languages Vernacular: Lebanese Arabic, Cypriot Maronite Arabic Liturgical: Syriac Maronites (Arabic: ‎, transliteration: , Syriac: ܡܪܘܢܝܐ, Latin: Ecclesia Maronitarum) are members of one of the Eastern Catholic Churches, with a heritage reaching back to Maron in the early 5th century. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Christ - Coptic Art Coptic Orthodox Christianity is the indigenous form of Christianity that, according to tradition, the apostle Mark established in Egypt in the middle of the 1st century AD (approximately AD 60). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Assyrian Church of the East... The Liturgy of the Hours is usually recited in full in monastic communities. ... is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Lutheran Church—Missouri Synod (LCMS), founded in 1847 in Missouri, is the eighth largest Protestant denomination in the United States, and the second-largest Lutheran body in the U.S. after the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America. ... Saint Quentin is the patron saint of locksmiths and is also invoked against coughs and sneezes. ... For the Venetian Snares album, see Hospitality (album). ...


The Eastern Orthodox Church commemorates him as the "Rigteous Forefather Abraham", with two feast days in its liturgical calendar. The first time is on October 9 (for those churches which follow the traditional Julian Calendar, October 9 falls on October 22 of the modern Gregorian Calendar), where he is commemorated together with his nephew "Righteous Lot". The other on the "Sunday of the Forefathers" (two Sundays before Christmas), where he is commemorated together with other ancestors of Jesus. Abraham is also mentioned in the Divine Liturgy of Saint Basil the Great, just before the Anaphora. Abraham and Sarah are invoked in the prayers said by the priest over a newly married couple at the Sacred Mystery of Crowning (i.e., the Sacrament of Marriage). Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ... The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organising a liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with a saint, and referring to the day as the saints day of that saint. ... is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Julian calendar was a reform of the Roman calendar which was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... For the calendar of religious holidays and periods, see liturgical year. ... Lot and his Daughters, Hendrik Goltzius, 1616. ... For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ... Lukes genealogy of Jesus, from the Book of Kells transcribed by Celtic monks circa 800 The genealogy of Jesus through either one or both of his earthly parents (Mary and Joseph) is given by two passages from the Gospels, Matthew 1:2–16 and Luke 3:23–38. ... The Divine Liturgy is the common term for the Eucharistic service of the Byzantine tradition of Christian liturgy. ... Basil (ca. ... This article is about the rhetorical term. ... This article is about religious workers. ... The term Sacred Mysteries is used in the Eastern Churches to refer to what the Western Church calls Sacraments and Sacramentals. ... Ancient Christian Marriage symbol: two gold rings and Greek letters chi (X) and rho (P) for Jesus Christ // The Christian views of marriage historically have regarded marriage as ordained by God for the lifelong union of a man and a woman. ...


In Islam

Abraham, known as Ibrahim in Arabic, is very important in Islam, both in his own right as a prophet as well as being the father of Ishmael and Isaac. Ishmael, his firstborn son, is considered the Father of the Arabised Arabs, and Isaac is considered the Father of the Hebrews. Islam teaches that Ishmael was the son Abraham nearly sacrificed on Moriah. To support this view Muslims use various proofs, including the belief that at the time Ishmael was his only son. Abraham is revered by Muslims as one of the Prophets in Islam, and is commonly termed Khalil Ullah, "Friend of God". Abraham is considered a Hanif, that is, a discoverer of monotheism. For information on the racehorse, see Ibrahim (horse) (Arabic: ), the biblical patriarch Abraham, is an important prophet in Islam, son of Azar, and the father of the Prophet Ismail (Ishmael), his firstborn son, who is considered the Father of the Arabs. ... Ibrahim (Arabic: ابراهيم), also known as Abraham, is very important in Islam, both in his own right as prophet and as the father of the prophet Ismail (Ishmael), his firstborn son, who is considered the Father of the Arabs. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Hagar and Ishmael in the Wilderness, by Karel Dujardin Ishmael (Hebrew: יִשְׁמָעֵאל, Standard Tiberian ; Arabic: إسماعيل, Ismāīl) was Abrahams eldest son, born by his wifes handmaiden Hagar. ... Sacrifice of Isaac, a detail from the sarcophagus of the Roman consul Junius Bassus, ca. ... The Quran identifies a number of men as prophets of Islam. ... (Arabic , plural حنفاء) is an Arabic term that refers to pre-Islamic non-Jewish nor Christian Arabian monotheists. ... For the Celtic Frost album, see Monotheist (album) In theology, monotheism (from Greek one and god) is the belief in the existence of one deity, or in the oneness of God. ...


Abraham is mentioned in many passages in 25 Qur'anic suras (chapters). The number of repetitions of his name in the Qur'an is second only to Moses.[7] Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ...


Abraham's footprint is displayed outside the Kaaba, which is on a stone, protected and guarded by Mutawa (Religious Police). The annual Hajj, the fifth pillar of Islam, follows Abraham, Hagar, and Ishmael's journey to the sacred place of the Kaaba. Islamic tradition narrates that Abraham's subsequent visits to the Northern Arabian region, after leaving Ishmael and Hagar (in the area that would later become the Islamic holy city of Mecca), were not only to visit Ishmael but also to construct the first house of worship for God (that is, the monotheistic concept and model of God), the Kaaba -as per God's command.[8] The Eid ul-Adha ceremony is focused on Abraham's willingness to sacrifice his promised son on God's command. In turn, God spared his son's life and instead substituted a sheep. This was Abraham's test of faith. On Eid ul-Adha, Muslims sacrifice a domestic animal — a sheep, goat, cow, buffalo or camel — as a symbol of Abraham's sacrifice, and divide the meat among the family members, friends, relatives, and most importantly, the poor. A supplicating pilgrim at Masjid Al Haram, the mosque which was built around the Kaaba (the cubical building at center). ... The Five Pillars of Islam (Arabic: أركان الإسلام) is the term given to the five duties incumbent on every Muslim. ... The dismissal of Hagar, 1612 by Pieter Pietersz Lastman Hagar (Hebrew הָגָר Stranger, Standard Hebrew Hagar, Tiberian Hebrew ; Arabic هاجر; Hagar), according to the Abrahamic faiths, was an Egyptian handmaiden (or slave-girl) of Sarah, wife of Abraham. ... Hagar and Ishmael in the Wilderness, by Karel Dujardin Ishmael (Hebrew: יִשְׁמָעֵאל, Standard Tiberian ; Arabic: إسماعيل, Ismāīl) was Abrahams eldest son, born by his wifes handmaiden Hagar. ... Hagar and Ishmael in the Wilderness, by Karel Dujardin Ishmael (Hebrew: יִשְׁמָעֵאל, Standard Tiberian ; Arabic: إسماعيل, Ismāīl) was Abrahams eldest son, born by his wifes handmaiden Hagar. ... Hagar can refer to: Hagar (Bible), in the Book of Genesis, the handmaiden of Sarah and wife of Abraham Hagarism: The Making of the Islamic World, title name taken from the above lady Hagar (company), an Icelandic retailer company, part of the Baugur Group Hägar the Horrible, the comic... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... Hagar and Ishmael in the Wilderness, by Karel Dujardin Ishmael (Hebrew: יִשְׁמָעֵאל, Standard Tiberian ; Arabic: إسماعيل, Ismāīl) was Abrahams eldest son, born by his wifes handmaiden Hagar. ... This article is about the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... The Kaaba (Arabic: ; IPA: ) , also known as (), ( The Primordial House), or ( The Sacred House), is a large cuboidal building located inside the mosque known as al-Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. ... Eid al-Adha (Arabic: عيد الأضحى ‘Īd al-’Aḍḥā) is a religious festival celebrated by Muslims worldwide as a commemoration of Ibrahims (Abrahams) willingness to sacrifice his son Ismael for Allah, but a voice from heaven allows Ibrahim to sacrifice a goat instead. ...


Arab connection

A line in the Book of Jubilees (20:13) mentions that the descendants of Abraham's son by Hagar, Ishmael, as well as his descendants by Keturah, became the "Arabians" or "Arabs". The 1st century Jewish historian Josephus similarly described the descendants of Ishmael (i.e. the Ishmaelites) as an "Arabian" people.[9] He also calls Ishmael the "founder" (κτίστης) of the "Arabians".[10] Some Biblical scholars also believe that the area outlined in Genesis as the final destination of Ishmael and his descendants ("from Havilah to Assyria") refers to the Arabian peninsula. This has led to a commonplace view that modern Semitic-speaking Arabs are descended from Abraham via Ishmael, in addition to various other tribes who intermixed with the Ishmaelites, such as Joktan, Sheba, Dedan, Broham, etc. Both Judeo-Christian and Islamic traditions speak of earlier inhabitants of Arabia. The Book of Jubilees expands and reworks material found in Genesis to Exodus 15. ... A fanciful representation of Flavius Josephus, in an engraving in William Whistons translation of his works Josephus (37 – sometime after 100 CE),[1] who became known, in his capacity as a Roman citizen, as Titus Flavius Josephus,[2] was a 1st-century Jewish historian and apologist of priestly and... This article is about the academic treatment of the bible as a historical document. ... Havilah is a Biblical place-name mentioned in Genesis 2:11: The name of the first [river] is the Pishon; it is the one that winds through the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold. ... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... Arabia redirects here. ... Joktan or Yoktan (Arabic: قحطان Qahtan ) (יָקְטָן little, Standard Hebrew Yoqtan, Tiberian Hebrew Yoqṭān) was the second of the two sons of Eber (Gen. ... Sheba (from the English transcription of the Hebrew name shva and Saba, Arabic: سبأ, also Saba, Amharic: ሳባ, Tigrinya: ሳባ) was a southern kingdom mentioned in the Jewish scriptures (Old Testament) and the Quran. ... Dedan - low ground. ...


Classical Arab historians traced the true Arabs (i.e., the original Arabs from Yemen) to Qahtan and the Arabicised Arabs (people from the region of Mecca, who assimilated into the Arabs) to Adnan, said to be an ancestor of Muhammad, and have further equated Ishmael with A'raq Al-Thara, said to be ancestor of Adnan. Umm Salama, one of Muhammad's wives, wrote that this was done using the following hermeneutical reasoning: Thara means moist earth, Abraham was not consumed by hell-fire, fire does not consume moist earth, thus A'raq al-Thara must be Ishmael son of Abraham.[11] The proper name Arab or Arabian (and cognates in other languages) has been used to translate several different but similar sounding words in ancient and classical texts which do not necessarily have the same meaning or origin. ... Qahtanite refers to al Arab al Aribah or the aboriginal Arabs. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... Adnan (Arabic: عدنان ) is the traditional ancestor of the Adnani (Arabized Arabs) of northern Arabia, as opposed to the Qahtani of Southern Arabia who descend from Qahtan. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Hind bint Abi Umayya (c. ... Hermeneutics may be described as the development and study of theories of the interpretation and understanding of texts. ...


Textual criticism

Writers have regarded the life of Abraham in various ways. He has been viewed as a chieftain of the Amorites, as the head of a great Semitic migration from Mesopotamia; or, since Ur and Haran were seats of Moon-worship, he has been identified with a moon-god. From the character of the literary evidence and the locale of the stories it has been held that Abraham was originally associated with Hebron. The double name Abram/Abraham has even suggested that two personages have been combined in the Biblical narrative; although this does not explain the change from Sarai to Sarah. The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view. ... Amorite (Hebrew ’emōrî, Egyptian Amar, Akkadian Amurrū (corresponding to Sumerian MAR.TU or Martu) refers to a Semitic people who occupied the middle Euphrates area from the second half of the third millennium BC and also appear in the Tanakh. ... In linguistics and ethnology, Semitic (from the Biblical Shem, Hebrew: שם, translated as name, Arabic: سام) was first used to refer to a language family of largely Middle Eastern origin, now called the Semitic languages. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... This article is about Earths moon. ...


The interesting discovery of the name Abi-ramu on Babylonian contracts of about 2000 BC does not prove the Abraham of the Old Testament to be an historical person, even as the fact that there were Amorites in Babylonia at the same period does not make it certain that the 'patriarch' was one of their number. A fairly lucid treatment of the subject is given by Michael Astour in The Anchor Bible Dictionary (s.v. "Amraphel", "Arioch" and "Chedorlaomer"), who explains the story of Genesis 14 as a product of anti-Babylonian propaganda during the Babylonian captivity of the Jews: Amorite (Hebrew ’emōrî, Egyptian Amar, Akkadian Amurrū (corresponding to Sumerian MAR.TU or Martu) refers to a Semitic people who occupied the middle Euphrates area from the second half of the third millennium BC and also appear in the Tanakh. ... For other uses, see Babylonian captivity (disambiguation). ...

"After Böhl's widely accepted, but wrong, identification of mTu-ud-hul-a with one of the Hittite kings named Tudhaliyas, Tadmor found the correct solution by equating him with the Assyrian king Sennacherib (see Tidal). Astour (1966) identified the remaining two kings of the Chedorlaomer texts with Tukulti-Ninurta I of Assyria (see Arioch) and with the Chaldean Merodach-baladan (see Amraphel). The common denominator between these four rulers is that each of them, independently, occupied Babylon, oppressed it to a greater or lesser degree, and took away its sacred divine images, including the statue of its chief god Marduk; furthermore, all of them came to a tragic end.
3. Relationship to Genesis 14. All attempts to reconstruct the link between the Chedorlaomer texts and Genesis 14 remain speculative. However, the available evidence seems consistent with the following hypothesis: A Jew in Babylon, versed in Akkadian language and cuneiform script, found in an early version of the Chedorlaomer texts certain things consistent with his anti-Babylonian feelings." (The Anchor Bible Dictionary, s.v. "Chedorlaomer") See Tudhaliya I and Tudhaliya II for the kings of the Empire of the same name. ... Arioch originally appears in the Book of Genesis chap. ... In the Tanakh or Old Testament, Amraphel was a king of Shinar (Babylonia, broadly speaking) in Genesis xiv. ...

Another scholar, criticizing Kitchen's maximalist viewpoint, considers a relationship between the tablet and Gen. speculative, also identifies but identifies Tudhula as a veiled reference to Sennacherib of Assyria, and Chedorlaomer, i.e. Kudur-Nahhunte, as "a recollection of a 12th century BC king of Elam who briefly ruled Babylon." ("Finding Historical Memories in the Patriarchal Narratives" by Ronald Hindel, BAR, Jul/Aug 1995)


The Anchor Bible Dictionary suggests that the biblical account was in all probability derived from a text very closely related to the Chedorlaomer Tablets, and this in a publication which can be said to do at least a reasonably good job of getting good scholarship. The Chedorlaomer Tablets are thought to be from the 6th or 7th century BC, well after the time of Hammurabi, at roughly the time when Gen. through Deu. are thought to have come into their present form (e.g. see the Documentary Hypothesis). While Astour's identifications of the figures these tablets refer to is certainly open to question, he does cautiously support a link between them and Gen. 14:1. Hammurabi is never known to have campaigned near the Dead Sea at all, although his son had. Writes Astour, "This identification, once widely accepted, was later virtually abandoned, mainly because Hammurabi was never active in the West." The Chedorlaomer Tablets, then, appear to still be the closest archaeological parallel to the kings of the Eastern coalition mentioned in Gen. 14:1. The only problem is, that in all probability, they refer to kings that were from widely separated times, having conquered Babylon in different eras. Linguistically, it seems, there is little reason to reject the identification of Hammurabi with Amraphel, but the narrative does not make sense in light of modern archeology when it is made. A number of scholars also say that the connection does not make sense on chronological grounds, since it would place Abram later than the traditional date, but on this, see the section on chronology below. For the computer game, see Hamurabi. ... A relational diagram describing the various versions postulated by the biblical documentary hypothesis. ...


If Gen. ch. 14 is a historical romance (cf., e.g., the Book of Judith), it is possible that a writer who lived in an exilic or post-exilic age (i.e. during or after the Babylonian Captivity), and who was acquainted with Babylonian history, decided to enhance the greatness of Abraham by claiming his military success against the monarchs of the Tigris and Euphrates, the high esteem he enjoyed in Canaan, and the practical character displayed in his brief exchange with Melchizedek. The historical section of the article Tithe deals more extensively with the historicity of the meeting with Melchizedek. For other uses of Judith, see Judith (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Babylonian captivity (disambiguation). ... The Tigris is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ... For the song River Euphrates by the Pixies, see Surfer Rosa. ... Meeting of Abraham and Melchizedek — by Dieric Bouts the Elder, 1464–67 Melchizedek or Malki-tzédek (מַלְכִּי־צֶדֶק / מַלְכִּי־צָדֶק, Standard Hebrew Malki-ẓédeq / Malki-ẓádeq, Tiberian Hebrew Malkî-ṣéḏeq / Malkî-ṣāḏeq), sometimes written Malchizedek, Melchisedec, Melchisedech, Melchisedek or Melkisedek, is a figure mentioned by various sects of both Christian and Judaic traditions. ... A tithe (from Old English teogoþa tenth) is a one-tenth part of something, paid as a (usually) voluntary contribution or as a tax or levy, usually to support a Jewish or Christian religious organization. ...


Many scholars claim, on the basis of archaeological and philological evidence, that many stories in the Pentateuch, including the accounts about Abraham and Moses, were written under King Josiah (7th century BC) or King Hezekiah (8th century BC) in order to provide a historical framework for the monotheistic belief in Yahweh. Some scholars point out that the archives of neighboring countries with written records that survive, such as Egypt, Assyria, etc., show no trace of the stories of the Bible or its main characters before 650 BC. Such claims are detailed in "Who Were the Early Israelites?" by William G. Dever (William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., Grand Rapids, MI, 2003). Another similar book by Neil A. Silberman and Israel Finkelstein is "The Bible Unearthed" (Simon and Schuster, New York, 2001). Even so, the Moabite Stele mentions king Omri of Israel, and many scholars draw parallels between the Egyptian pharaoh Shoshenq I and the Shishaq of the Bible (1 Ki. 11:40; 14:25; and 2 Chr. 12:2-9), and between the king David of the Bible and a stone inscription from 835 BC that appears to refer to "house of David"--although some would dispute the last two correspondences. Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... Josiah listening to the reading of the law by Julius Schnoor von Carolsfeld Josiah or Yoshiyahu (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; supported of the Lord) was king of Judah, and son of Amon and Jedidah, the daughter of Adaiah of Bozkath. ... Hezekiah (or Ezekias) (Hebrew: חזקיה or חזקיהו, God has strengthened) was the 13th king of indepedent Judah and the son of King Ahaz and Abijah (2 Chronicles 29:1), who was a daughter of a man (who was not the prophet) named Zechariah. ... William G. Dever is an American archaeologist, specialising in the history of Israel and the Near East in Biblical times, who was Professor of Near Eastern Archaeology and Anthropology at the University of Arizona in Tucson, Arizona from 1975 to 2002. ... Neil Asher Silberman is an archaeologist who serves as director of the Ename Center for Public Archaeology and Heritage Presentation in Belgium. ... Israel Finkelstein Israel Finkelstein is an Israeli archaeologist. ... Nomen: Shoshenq Hedjkheperre Setepenre Shoshenq I (Egyptian Å¡Å¡nq), also known as Shishak, Sheshonk or Sheshonq I (for discussion of the spelling, see Shoshenq), was a Meshwesh Libyan king of Egypt and founder of the Twenty-second Dynasty. ... Shishak (Hebrew: שישק, Tiberian: []) or Shishaq is the biblical Hebrew form of the ancient Egyptian name of a pharaoh. ...


Dating and historicity

Traditional dating

According to calculations directly derived from the Masoretic Hebrew Torah, Abraham was born 1,948 years after biblical creation and lived for 175 years (Genesis 25:7), which would correspond to a life spanning from 1812 BC to 1637 BC by Jewish dating. The figures in the Book of Jubilees have Abraham born 1,876 years after creation, and 534 years before the Exodus; the ages provided in the Samaritan version of Genesis agree closely with those of Jubilees before the Deluge, but after the Deluge, they add roughly 100 years to each of the ages of the Patriarchs in the Masoretic Text, resulting in the figure of 2,247 years after creation for Abraham's birth. The Greek Septuagint version adds around 100 years to nearly all of the patriarchs' births, producing the even higher figure of 3,312 years after creation for Abraham's birth. The Masoretic Text (MT) is the Hebrew text of the Tanakh approved for general use in Judaism. ... Template:Jews and Jewdaism Template:The Holy Book Named TorRah The Torah () is the most valuable Holy Doctrine within Judaism,(and for muslims) revered as the first relenting Word of Ulllah, traditionally thought to have been revealed to Blessed Moosah, An Apostle of Ulllah. ... THIS IS A FACT Creation is a doctrinal position in many religions and philosophical belief systems which maintains that a single God, or a group of or deities is responsible for creating the universe. ... Anno Mundi (AM, in the year of the world) refers to a Calendar era counting from the creation of the world. ... The Book of Jubilees expands and reworks material found in Genesis to Exodus 15. ... This article is about the second book in the Torah. ... This entry incorporates text from Eastons Bible Dictionary, 1897, with some modernisation. ... This article is about great floods. ... The Septuagint: A column of uncial text from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons Greek edition and English translation. ...


Other interpretations of Biblical chronology place Abraham's birth at 2008 AM (Anno Mundi). In Genesis 11:32 : Abraham was the youngest son of Terah who died in Haran aged 205, in year 2083 AM. In Gen.12:4 we learn that at that time Abraham was 75 years old. In other words Abraham was born when his father Terah was 130 years old. (205-75 = 130). Therefore Abraham was born in year 2008 AM. Anno Mundi (AM, in the year of the world) refers to a Calendar era counting from the creation of the world. ...


History of dating attempts

When cuneiform was first deciphered, Theophilus Pinches translated some Babylonian tablets which were part of the Spartoli collection in the British Museum. In particular, he believed he found in the Chedorlaomer Text, currently thought to have been written in the 6th to the 7th century BC, the names of three of the kings of the Eastern coalition fighting against the five kings from the Vale of Siddim in Gen. 14:1.


In 1887, Schrader then was the first to propose that Amraphel could be an alternate spelling for Hammurabi (cf. the ISBE of 1915, s.v. "Hammurabi").


Vincent Scheil subsequently found a tablet in the Imperial Ottoman Museum in Istanbul from Hammurabi to a king of the very same name, i.e. Kuder-Lagomer, as in Pinches' tablet. Thus are achieved the following correspondences: Location of Istanbul on the Bosphorus Strait, Turkey Coordinates: , Country Turkey Region Province Istanbul Founded 667 BC as Byzantium Roman/Byzantine period AD 330 as Nova Roma (original name given in 330 and used during Constantines reign) and later Constantinople (following Constantines death in 337) Ottoman period 1453...

Name from Gen. 14:1 Name from Archaeology
Amraphel king of Shinar Hammurabi (="Ammurapi") king of Babylonia
Arioch king of Ellasar Eri-aku king of Larsa (i.e. Assyria)
Chedorlaomer king of Elam (= Chodollogomor in the LXX) Kudur-Lagamar king of Elam
Tidal, king of nations (i.e. goyim, lit. 'nations') Tudhulu, son of Gazza

By 1915, many scholars had become largely convinced that the kings of Gen. 14:1 had been identified (cf. again the ISBE of 1915, s.v. Hammurabi, which mentions the identification as doubtful, and also The Catholic Encyclopedia of 1917, s.v. "Amraphel", and Donald A. MacKenzie's 1915 Myths of Babylonia and Assyria, who has (p. 247) "The identification of Hammurabi with Amraphel is now generally accepted"). The terminal -bi on the end of Hammurabi's name was seen to parallel Amraphel since the cuneiform symbol for -bi can also be pronounced -pi. Tablets were known in which the initial symbol for Hammurabi, pronounced as kh to yield Khammurabi, had been dropped, such that Ammurapi was a viable pronunciation. Supposing him to have been deified in his lifetime or afterwards yielded Ammurabi-il, which was suitable close to the Bible's Amraphel. In the Tanakh or Old Testament, Amraphel was a king of Shinar (Babylonia, broadly speaking) in Genesis xiv. ... Shinar (Hebrew Šin`ar, Septuagint Σεννααρ Sennaar) is a broad designation applied to Mesopotamia, occurring eight times in the Hebrew Bible. ... For the computer game, see Hamurabi. ... Babylonia was a state in southern Mesopotamia, in modern Iraq, combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... Arioch originally appears in the Book of Genesis chap. ... Larsa (possibly the Biblical Ellasar, Genesis 14:1), was an important city of ancient Mesopotamia. ... Larsa (the Biblical Ellasar, Genesis 14:1), was an important city of ancient Babylonia, the site of the worship of the sun-god, Shamash, represented by the ancient ruin mound of Senkereh (Senkera). ... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... Chedorlaomer (Hebrew: כְדָרְלָעומֶר) is the name of the main figure in a narrative within Genesis concerning a civil war in Canaan. ... Elam (Persian: تمدن ایلام) is one of the oldest recorded civilizations. ... The Septuagint (LXX) is the name commonly given to the Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) made in the first centuries BC. The Septuagint bible includes additional books beyond those used in todays Jewish Tanakh. ...


Albright was instrumental in synchronizing Hammurabi with Assyrian and Egyptian contemporaries, such that Hammurabi is now thought to have lived in the late 18th century, not in the 19th as assumed by the long chronology. Since many ecumenical theologians may not hold that the dates of the Bible could be in error, they began synchronizing Abram with the empire of Sargon I (23rd century in the short chronology), and the work of Schrader, Pinches and Scheil fell out of favor with them. The Chronology of the Ancient Orient deals with the notoriously difficult task of assigning years of the Common Era to various events, rulers and dynasties of the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC. The chronology of this region is based on five sets of primary materials. ... Sargon (2334 BC - 2279 BC short chronology) was the first person in recorded history to create an empire, or multi-ethnic state. ... The Chronology of the Ancient Orient deals with the notoriously difficult task of assigning years of the Common Era to various events, rulers and dynasties of the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC. The chronology of this region is based on five sets of primary materials. ...


The objection[citation needed] resurfaced that Amraphel could not be derived from Khammurabi, in spite of the Ammurabi/Ammurapi spelling for Hammurabi that had already been found. More substantial objections were later made, including the finding that the days of the Kuder-Lagomer of Hammurabi's letter preceded the writing of the letter early in Hammurabi's reign led some to speculate that the Kuder-Lagomer of Gen. 14:1 should be associated with later Hittite or Akkadian kings with similar names. These scholars[citation needed] thus generally considered the passage anachronistic - the product of a much later period, such as during or after the Babylonian Captivity. Others[citation needed] pointed out that the Lagomer of Kuder-Lagomer was an Elamite deity's name, instead of the king's actual name, which some believe referred to a king that must have preceded Hammurabi. Other misreadings of the Chedorlaomer Text[citation needed] were pointed out, causing them to be associated with entirely different personages known from archaeology. It seemed that the theory of Schrader, Pinches and Scheil had fallen utterly apart. For other uses, see Babylonian captivity (disambiguation). ...


Mainstream scholarship in the course of the 20th century has given up attempts to identify Abraham and his contemporaries in Genesis with historical figures.[12] While it is widely admitted that there is no archaeological evidence to prove the existence of Abraham, apparent parallels to Genesis in the archaeological record assure that speculations on the patriarch's historicity and on the period that would best fit the account in Genesis remain alive in religious circles. "The Herald of Christ's Kingdom" in Abraham - Father of the Faithful (2001) implies a historical Abraham by stating "At one time it was popular to connect Amraphel, king of Shinar, with Hammurabi, king of Babylon, but now it is generally conceded that Hammurabi was much later than Abraham."


A traditional chronology can be constructed from the MT as follows: If Solomon's temple was begun when most scholars put it, ca. 960-970 BC, using e.g. 966, we get 1446 for the Exodus (I Ki. 6:1). There were 400 years reportedly spent in Egypt (Ex. 12:40), and then we only need add years from Jacob's going into Egypt to Abraham. So, we can add that Jacob was supposedly 130 when he came to Egypt (Gen. 47:9), Isaac was 60 years old when he had Jacob (Gen. 25:26) and Abraham was 100 when Isaac was born, and we get 1446 + 400 + 130 + 60 + 100 = 2136 BC for Abram's birth. The Masoretic Text (MT) is the Hebrew text of the Jewish Bible (Tanakh). ...


A considerable variety of scriptural chronologies is possible. For example, unlike most modern translations, according to all the oldest Bible versions not dependent on the mediaeval rabbis -- the Septuagint, the Samaritan Pentateuch, and the Dead Sea Scrolls -- the 430 years of the sojourn is the period "in Canaan and Egypt" (probable text of Exodus 12: 42), thus reckoning from the time of Abraham. Cf Paul's belief in Gal 3:17. Therefore the figure is more than two hundred years less (1446 + 430 = 1876 BC). The Septuagint: A column of uncial text from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons Greek edition and English translation. ... This entry incorporates text from Eastons Bible Dictionary, 1897, with some modernisation. ... The Dead Sea scrolls consist of roughly 1000 documents, including texts from the Hebrew Bible, discovered between 1947 and 1979 in eleven caves in and around the Wadi Qumran (near the ruins of the ancient settlement of Khirbet Qumran, on the northwest shore of the Dead Sea) in the West...


Thus, if one adheres to an Early Exodus theory, then Abram is usually synchronized with Sargon I, or sometimes other figures in the Sumerian Empire. If one favors a Late Exodus theory, and then Abraham's life could overlap that of Hammurabi's empire. Sargon (2334 BC - 2279 BC short chronology) was the first person in recorded history to create an empire, or multi-ethnic state. ...


Gen. 10:10 has it that Babel was the beginning of Nimrod's empire. Before the location of Sargon's capital city, Agade, was identified, it was sometimes supposed that Nimrod was Sargon I, and that Agade was Babel. But even so, there are reasons to prefer the equation of Hammurabi with Amraphel. The Nimrod of Gen. ch. 10 precedes the Amraphel of ch. 14, and Nimrod's kingdom began with "Babylon, Erech, Akkad, and Calneh, in Shinar" (Gen. 10:10). Mentions of Nimrod both precede and follow those of Abram. Furthermore, Nimrod is associated with the Tower of Babel, not the Tower of Agade, in the Bible. For other uses, see Nimrod (disambiguation). ... Sargon of Akkad, also known as Sargon the Great (Akkadian Å arru-kinu, cuneiform Å AR.RU.KI.IN , meaning the true king or the king is legitimate), was an Akkadian king famous for his conquest of the Sumerian city-states in the 24th and 23rd centuries BC.[1] The founder of... Akkad (or Agade) was a city and its region of northern Iraq) between Assyria to the northwest and Sumer to the south. ... Sargon (2334 BC - 2279 BC short chronology) was the first person in recorded history to create an empire, or multi-ethnic state. ... This article is about the Biblical story. ...


Rabbinic materials are full of an accounts of Abram being thrown into the furnace used for making bricks for the Tower of Babel by Nimrod, but Abram was miraculously unharmed, while the furnace spread to the rest of the city, causing the "Fire of the Chasdim".[citation needed] The conclusion then, based on these assertions, would be that Nimrod and Abram were more or less contemporaries. But only during the time of Hammurabi did Babylon become the beginning of an Empire in its own right.


If one insists that Gen. Ch. 14 reads as a testament of historical authenticity, then the Old Babylonian Empire, like Nimrod's, extended into the Trans-Jordan, but only during the reign of Hammurabi's son; whereas the Sumerian Empire by contrast did not. The city of Babel was not only the beginning of the Old Babylonian Empire, it was its capitol. After the end of the Old Babylonian Empire with the defeat of Hammurabi's son by the Elamites, there was not another empire ruled from the city of Babel until the Neo-Babylonian Empire, which was much too late to be synchronized with Abraham.


There are no archaeological correlates for the life of Abram, whereas the Exodus can be correlated with traces of a Semitic presence in Egypt, as per Bietak, as well as numerous transitions in Israel from Egypto-Canaanite material culture to proto-Israelite. An Early Exodus would preclude synchronizing Abram with Hammurabi's empire, pushing him back to Sumerian times.


Modern reception

In philosophy

Abraham, as a man communicating with God or the divine, has inspired some fairly extensive discussion in some philosophers, such as Søren Kierkegaard and Jean-Paul Sartre. Kierkegaard goes into Abraham's plight in considerable detail in his work Fear and Trembling. Sartre understands the story not in terms of Christian obedience or a "teleological suspension of the ethical", but in terms of mankind's utter behavioral and moral freedom. God asks Abraham to sacrifice his only son. Sartre doubts that Abraham can know that the voice he hears is really the voice of his God and not of someone else, or the product of a mental condition. Thus, Sartre concludes, even if there are signs in the world, humans are totally free to decide how to interpret them. A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (pronounced , but usually Anglicized as ;  ) (5 May 1813 – 11 November 1855) was a prolific 19th century Danish philosopher and theologian. ... Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (June 21, 1905 – April 15, 1980), normally known simply as Jean-Paul Sartre (pronounced: ), was a French existentialist philosopher and pioneer, dramatist and screenwriter, novelist and critic. ... Fear and Trembling Fear and Trembling (original Danish title: Frygt og Bæven) is a philosophical work by Søren Kierkegaard, published in 1843 under the pseudonym Johannes de Silentio. ...


Latter-Day Saint Book of Abraham

The Book of Abraham is a scriptural text for some denominations of the Latter Day Saint movement (also know as Mormons). The LDS version of the Abrahamic story includes material not present in Genesis. [13] For example; Abraham is described as seeking the "blessings of the fathers" (priesthood), using the Urim and Thummim to receive a vision of the history of the universe and humanity's relationship to God, being saved by an angel from being sacrificed on an altar by Pharoah's priests, and teaching Pharoah's court about astronomy. Chapters 1 and 2 include details about Abraham’s early life and his fight against the idolatry of Egypt (under rule of Pharaoh) and within his own family.[14] Chapter 2 includes information about God’s covenant with Abraham and how it would be fulfilled. For other meanings of this name, see Book of Abraham (disambiguation). ... This article is about the history and use of the word Mormon. For information about the religious beliefs and culture of Mormons, see Mormonism. ...


Joseph Smith Jr., founder of the Latter-Day Saint movement, claimed to have translated the Book of Abraham from papyri scrolls which came into the church's possession in 1835. While the scrolls were reported to be longer than the Bible,[15] only a portion was initially published in 1842,[16] in the Latter-Day Saint newspaper The Times and Seasons. The Book of Abraham was incorporated into the canon of LDS scripture in 1880 as part of the Pearl of Great Price. Daguerreotype which some experts believe to be an original 1843 photograph of Joseph Smith, Jr. ... The Pearl of Great Price is part of the standard works of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church; see also Mormonism) and some other Latter Day Saint denominations. ...


In addition to the text, there are three facsimiles of vignettes from the papyrus included in the Book of Abraham. The first and most disputed facsimile supposedly depicts Abraham about to be sacrificed by a priest; the second is in the form of a hypocephalus, which Smith said contained important insights about the organization of the heavens (Cosmos) and material associated with LDS Temple ordinances. Smith described the third vignette as showing Abraham teaching in Pharaoh’s court. For other meanings of this name, see Book of Abraham (disambiguation). ... A hypocephalus A hypocephalus is a small disk-shaped object made of papyrus, stuccoed linen, bronze, gold, wood, or clay, which Egyptians placed under the head of their dead (hypocephalus = hypó {Greek: under, below} + cephalus {Latin: head}). They believed it would magically cause the head and body to be enveloped... For other uses, see Pharaoh (disambiguation). ...


The LDS Bible Dictionary states:


"Abraham is always regarded in the Old Testament as founder of the covenant race, which is personified in the house of Israel. He is the “father of the faithful.” Latter-day revelation has "clarified" the significance of the Abrahamic covenant and other aspects of Abraham’s life and ministry. He was greatly blessed with divine revelation concerning the planetary system, the creation of the earth, and the pre-birth activities of the spirits of people. One of the most valiant spirits in the pre-birth or "premortal" life, he was chosen to be a leader in the kingdom of God before he was born into this world (Abr. 1 - 5) and that he is now exalted and sits upon a throne in eternity (D&C 132:29, 37)."[17]


Speculations on Hindu connections

In the 18th and 19th centuries, there were isolated speculations about an identity of Abraham and Brahma, or of Abraham and Rama. This was based on the similarities of the names (Abraham is a near anagram of Brahma and his wife Sarah is a near anagram of Saraswati Brahmas wife/consort). Voltaire summarised such speculations: This article is about the Hindu god of creation. ... This article is about the incarnation of Vishnu. ... This article is about the Hindu god of creation. ... For the Vedic river, see Saraswati River. ... For other uses, see Voltaire (disambiguation). ...


This name Bram, Abram, was famous in India and Persia: some learned men even allege that he was the same legislator as the one the Greeks called Zoroaster. Others say that he was the Brahma of the Indians.[18] Zoroaster (Greek Ζωροάστρης, Zōroastrēs) or Zarathustra (Avestan: Zaraθuštra), also referred to as Zartosht (Persian: ; Kurdish: ), was an ancient Iranian prophet and religious poet. ...


Such arguments were taken up by later religious synchretists such as Godfrey Higgins, who argued in 1834 that "The Arabian historians contend that Brahma and Abraham, their ancestor, are the same person. The Persians generally called Abraham Ibrahim Zeradust. Cyrus considered the religion of the Jews the same as his own. The Hindus must have come from Abraham, or the Israelites from Brahma…"[19] Syncretism is the attempt to reconcile disparate, even opposing, beliefs and to meld practices of various schools of thought. ... Sir Godfrey Higgins (January 30, 1772 in All Saints, Owston – August 9, 1833), was an archaeologist, Freemason and Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, humanist, social reformer, and author of various now-esoteric and rare books. ...


One may also consider noteworthy the similarity of the names of Brahma's wife Sarasvati[20] compared to Abraham's wife Sarah.


The argument has been used by Biblical literalists to prove that Brahma is a corrupted memory of Abraham and by certain Hindu nationalists to suggest the converse.[21] Biblical literalism is the supposed adherence to the explicit and literal sense of the Bible. ... For Veer Savarkars book, see Hindutva (book). ...


The argument has been used by Muslim missionaries to prove that Brahma is a corrupted memory of Abraham. They also have claimed that other characters in Hindu scripture are actually people mentioned in the Quran.[22] A. D. Pusalker, whose essay "Traditional History From the Earliest Times" appeared in The Vedic Age, claims a historical Rama dated to 1950 BC.So hence this cannot be true, since the historical dating of these scriptures were long before the biblical age.[23]


Notes

  1. ^ JewishEncyclopedia.com states, "The form 'Abraham' yields no sense in Hebrew". Many interpretations were offered, including an analysis of a first element abr- "chief", which however yields a meaningless second element.
  2. ^ The city of Haran was not named after this brother and is spelled differently in Hebrew.
  3. ^ David Rosenberg, Abraham, the First Historical Biography 23 (2006) (reading "But she is also my sister my father's daughter yet not my mother's and she became my wife.")
  4. ^ Abraham was 10 years senior to Sarah, who died at age 127. (Gen 23:1).
  5. ^ Gen 25:7
  6. ^ *Holweck, F. G. A Biographical Dictionary of the Saints. St. Louis, MO: B. Herder Book Co. 1924.
  7. ^ Ibrahim, Encyclopedia of Islam
  8. ^ USC-MSA Compendium of Muslim Texts.
  9. ^ Antiquities of the Jews, book 1, 12:4
  10. ^ Antiquities of the Jews, book 1, 12:2
  11. ^ The Life of the Prophet Muhammad (Al-Sira al-Nabawiyya), Volume I, translated by professor Trevor Le Gassick, reviewed by Dr. Ahmed Fareed Garnet Publishing Limited, 8 Southern Court, South Street Reading RG1 4QS, UK; The Center for Muslim Contribution to Civilization, 1998, pp. 50-52;
  12. ^ The Encyclopedia Britannica[citation needed] article on "Amraphel" has: "Scholars of previous generations tried to identify these names with important historical figures—e.g., Amraphel with Hammurabi of Babylon—but little remains today of these suppositions."
  13. ^ The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. “Abraham.” Bible Dictionary. Intellectual Reserve, 1979..
  14. ^ Vermes, Scripture and Tradition in Judaism, 70–72; Beer, Leben Abraham's, 9–14
  15. ^ Peterson, H. Donl. The Story of the Book of Abraham, 25. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, 1995.
  16. ^ Pearl of Great Price, Introductory Note.
  17. ^ The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. “Abraham.” Bible Dictionary. Intellectual Reserve, 1979..
  18. ^ Voltaire's article.
  19. ^ Higgins, G., Anacalypsis; Vol. I, p. 396.
  20. ^ Padma Purana, Srishtikhand, Chapter 17. "Accompanied by brahmanas and other devas, or demigods, Lord Brahma once went to Pushkara to perform a sacrifice. Such sacrifices are to be performed along with one’s wife, so when the arrangements for the sacrifice were complete, Lord Brahma sent Narada Muni, the sage among the devas, to bring Sarasvati, Lord Brahma’s consort. But Sarasvati was not ready to leave, so Narada returned to Punkara alone." Translation quoted from Back to Godhead magazine, #32-01, 1998.
  21. ^ The Vedic Past of Pre-Islamic Arabia - Part 1.
  22. ^ Prophet Muhammad (s) in Hindu Scriptures.
  23. ^ Gene D. Matlock. Who Was Abraham?. Viewzone.com.

The Encyclopedia of Islam (EI) is a scholarly encyclopedia covering all aspects of Islamic civilization and history. ... Anacalypsis is the short title of a lengthy two-volume treatise written by religious historian Godfrey Higgins, and published upon his death in 1833. ...

References

  • 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
  • The Book of Genesis
  • Rosenberg, David. Abraham: The First Historical Biography. Basic Books/Perseus Books Group, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2006. ISBN 0-465-07094-9.
  • Holweck, F. G. A Biographical Dictionary of the Saints. St. Louis, MO: B. Herder Book Co. 1924.
  • Latter-day Saint Bible Dictionary
  • Nibley, Hugh W. Abraham's Temple Drama
  • Vermes, Scripture and Tradition in Judaism
  • Beer, Leben Abraham's
  • Louis Ginzberg, The Legends of the Jews, trans. Henrietta Szold (Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America, 1909)
  • Book of Abraham LDS scripture Pearl of Great Price
  • Bloch, Israel und die Völker (Berlin: Harz, 1922)
  • Torcszyner, "The Riddle in the Bible," Hebrew Union College Annual 1 (1924)
  • Ginzberg, Legends of the Jews
  • Kohler, "The Pre-Talmudic Haggada," Jewish Quarterly Review 7 (July 1895): 587.

(Redirected from 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica) The Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1911) in many ways represents the sum of knowledge at the beginning of the 20th century. ... For other uses, see Genesis (disambiguation). ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Abraham
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Abraham


This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... map showing the prevalence of Abrahamic (purple) and Dharmic (yellow) religions in each country. ... Abrahams bosom (Luke 16:22,23) refers to the custom of reclining on couches at the dining table, which was prevalent among the Jews, an arrangement which brought the head of one person almost into the bosom of the one who sat or reclined above him. ... // Early life In his early life Bram was a Bitch. ... This article is about the academic treatment of the bible as a historical document. ... The Gathering of Israel, as foretold by numerous Old Testament prophets, refers to recovery or return of Israels Lost Tribes to the lands of their inheritance. ... For information on the racehorse, see Ibrahim (horse) (Arabic: ), the biblical patriarch Abraham, is an important prophet in Islam, son of Azar, and the father of the Prophet Ismail (Ishmael), his firstborn son, who is considered the Father of the Arabs. ... The following figures are believed to have founded major beliefs or to have been the first codifiers or best known proponents of older known religion or traditions. ... For other uses of Pearl of Great Price, see the Pearl of Great Price page. ... The genealogies of Genesis record the descendents of Adam and Eve as given in the first book of the Bible, Genesis. ... This article is about traditional Jewish Kabbalah. ... This T and O map, which abstracts that societys known world to a cross inscribed within an orb, remakes geography in the service of Christian iconography and identifies the three known continents as populated by descendents of Shem (Sem), Ham (Cham) and Japheth (Iafeth) The Table of Nations is... Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

Preceded by
Terah
Abraham Succeeded by
Isaac
Terah or Térach (Hebrew: תֶּרַח / תָּרַח, Standard  / Tiberian  /  ; Wanderer; loiterer) // Terah was the father of Abraham mentioned in the Hebrew Bible. ... The Patriarchs, known as the Avot in Hebrew, are Abraham, his son Isaac and his grandson Jacob. ... Sacrifice of Isaac, a detail from the sarcophagus of the Roman consul Junius Bassus, ca. ... Michelangelos The Creation of Adam, a fresco on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, shows God creating Adam, with Eve in His arm. ... This article is about the term Hebrew Bible. For the Jewish scriptures see Tanakh. ... This article is about the biblical text. ... This article is about the vessel described in the Hebrew scriptures. ... Michelangelos The Creation of Adam, a fresco on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, shows God creating Adam, with Eve in His arm. ... This article is about the Biblical Seth. ... Enos or Enosh (Hebrew: אֱנוֹשׁ, Standard , Tiberian ; mortal man; sick) is a biblical name in the genealogies of Adam, and consequently referred to within the genealogies of Chronicles, and of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke. ... Kenan or Qenan (Cainan seems to be an improper rendering of this word; it is separate from the word transliterated Cainan later in the Torah; the rendering Cainan is based off the Greek renderings, Kaïvav as found in Luke 3:36, 37) (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; possession; smith) was a... Mahalalel or Mahalaleel (Hebrew מהללאל Mahalalel or Mahălal’ēl) was a patriarch named in the Hebrew Bible. ... Jared (Hebrew: ירד) in Judeo-Christian religious belief was a fifth generation descendent of the first human beings, the man called Adam and his wife, Eve. ... Enoch (Hebrew: חֲנוֹךְ; Tiberian: , Standard: ) is a name occurring twice in the generations of Adam. ... Methuselah or Metushélach (Hebrew: / Standard  / Tiberian  /  ; Man of the dart, or alternatively when he dies/died, it will be sent/has been sent) is the oldest person whose age is mentioned in the Hebrew Bible. ... Lamech (in Hebrew לֶמֶך Lemmech) is the name of two men appearing in the genealogies of Adam in the book of Genesis. ... This article is about the biblical Noah. ... Shem (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; Greek: Σημ, SÄ“m ; Arabic:  ; Geez: Sham ; renown; prosperity; name) was one of the sons of Noah in the Bible. ... The Patriarchs, known as the Avot in Hebrew, are Abraham, his son Isaac and his grandson Jacob. ... Arpachshad or Arphaxad or Arphacsad (אַרְפַּכְשַׁד / אַרְפַּכְשָׁד healer; releaser, Standard Hebrew , Tiberian Hebrew / ) was one of the five sons of Shem, the son of Noah (Genesis 10:22,24;11:12,13; 1 Chronicles 1:17,18). ... . ... Eber (עֵבֶר, Standard Hebrew , Tiberian Hebrew , Arabic: هود) is mentioned in the Hebrew Bible. ... Peleg (Hebrew: / Standard  / Tiberian  /  ; Division) is one of the two sons of Eber, the ancestor of the Hebrews according to the so-called Table of Nations in Genesis x, xi and 1 Chronicles i. ... Reu or Ragau (Hebrew: Behold) in Genesis was the son of Peleg and the father of Serug, thus being Abrahams great-great-grandfather. ... Serug - branch - was the son of Reu and the father of Nahor. ... (1. ... Terah or Térach (Hebrew: תֶּרַח / תָּרַח, Standard  / Tiberian  /  ; Wanderer; loiterer) // Terah was the father of Abraham mentioned in the Hebrew Bible. ... Sacrifice of Isaac, a detail from the sarcophagus of the Roman consul Junius Bassus, ca. ... This article is about Jacob in the Hebrew Bible. ... “The Twelve Tribes” redirects here. ... United Monarchy - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... In Genesis (the first book of the Bible) Judah (יְהוּדָה Praise, Standard Hebrew YÉ™huda, Tiberian Hebrew YÉ™hûḏāh) is the fourth son of Jacob and Leah, born in Padan-aram (Genesis xxix. ... In the Book of Genesis, Pharez or Péretz (פֶּרֶץ / פָּרֶץ Breach, Standard Hebrew Péreẓ / Páreẓ, Tiberian Hebrew Péreá¹£ / Pāreá¹£) is the son of Judah by the Canaanitish woman Tamar. ... In the Book of Genesis, Hezron or Hetzron (חֶצְרוֹן Enclosed, Standard Hebrew Ḥeẓron, Tiberian Hebrew Ḥeṣrôn) is the name of two men. ... Ram (Hebrew:רם) is a figure in the Hebrew Bible. ... The term Aram can refer to: Aram (אֲרָם or ), the son of Shem, according to the Table of nations of Genesis 10 in the Hebrew Bible. ... Nahshon or Nachshon ben Aminadav (Nacshon son of Aminadav) is first mentioned in the Hebrew Bibles Book of Exodus. ... Salmon is a person in the Hebrew Bible. ... Boaz (Heb. ... In the Bible, Obed was a son of Boaz and Ruth (Ruth 4:21, 22), and the grandfather of David (Matt. ... For other uses, see Jesse (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... This article is about the term Hebrew Bible. For the Jewish scriptures see Tanakh. ... Sacrifice of Isaac, a detail from the sarcophagus of the Roman consul Junius Bassus, ca. ... This article is about Jacob in the Hebrew Bible. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... Of all Biblical personages Moses has been chosen most frequently as the subject of later legends; and his life has been recounted in full detail in the poetic haggadah. ... The Adoration of the Golden Calf by Nicolas Poussin Aaron (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ), or Aaron the Levite (flourished about 1200 B.C.), was, according to biblical accounts, one of two brothers who play a unique part in the history of the Hebrew people. ... -1... Joshua, Jehoshuah or Yehoshua. ... Phinehas or Pinhas - פִּינְחָס, Standard Hebrew Pinəḥas, Tiberian Hebrew Pînəħās is a name shared by two characters in the Hebrew Bible. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For information on the name Deborah, see Debbie For information on the nurse of Rebeccah, mentioned in Genesis, see Deborah (Genesis) Deborah or Dvora (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; Bee) was a prophetess and the fourth Judge and only female Judge of pre-monarchic Israel in the Old Testament (Tanakh). ... The Prophet Samuel, fresco painting from the Mikhailovskr monastery of Kiev, c. ... Saul (שאול המלך) (or Shaul) (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; asked for) is identified in the Books of Samuel, 1 Chronicles and the Quran as the first king of the ancient Kingdom of Israel. ... David and Goliath, by Caravaggio, c. ... Jeduthun - lauder; praising - the name of two men in the Bible. ... This article is about the Biblical character . ... Gad was a seer or more commonly understood, a prophet in the Bible. ... Nathan the Prophet was a court prophet who lived in the time of King David and his wife Bathsheba. ... Ahijah HaShiloni, also known as Ahijah the Shilonite, was a prophet of Shiloh (1 Kings 11:29; 14:2). ... Elijah, 1638, by José de Ribera This article is about the prophet in the Hebrew Bible. ... Not to be confused with Elishah. ... Isaiah the Prophet in Hebrew Scriptures was depicted on the Sistine Chapel ceiling by Michelangelo. ... Isaiah in rabbinic literature. ... For other uses, see Jeremiah (disambiguation). ... Ezekiel, , IPA: , God will strengthen, from , chazaq, [ xazaq ], literally to fasten upon, figuratively strong, and , el, [ el ], literally strength, figuratively Almighty. He is a prophet and priest in the Bible who prophesied for 22 years sometime in the 500s BCE while in the form of visions exiled in... See also Hoshea, who has the same name in Biblical Hebrew. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Book of Joel. ... Amos (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; Burden) is one of the twelve minor prophets in the Hebrew Bible, and putative author of the speeches reported in the Book of Amos. ... This article is about people named Obadiah in the Old Testament. ... For other uses, see Jonah (disambiguation). ... Jonah in rabbinic literature. ... Micah the titular prophet of the Book of Micah, also called The Morasthite He is not the same as another prophet , Micaiah son of Imlah. ... Nahum (נחום) was a minor prophet whose prophecy is recorded in the Hebrew Bible. ... Habakkuk or Havakuk (חֲבַקּוּק, Standard Hebrew Ḥavaqquq, Tiberian Hebrew Ḥăḇaqqûq) was a prophet in the Bible Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh. ... Zephaniah or Tzfanya (צְפַנְיָה Concealed of/is the LORD, Standard Hebrew Ẓəfanya, Tiberian Hebrew ṢəpÌ„anyāh) is the name of several people in the Bible Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh. ... An 18th century Russian icon of the prophet Haggai For the prophetic book, see Book of Haggai. ... Zechariah as depicted on Michelangelos ceiling of the Sistine Chapel Zechariah or Zecharya (זְכַרְיָה Renowned/Remembered of/is the LORD, Standard Hebrew , Tiberian Hebrew ) was a person in the Bible Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh. ... For the Northern Irish singer songwriter, see Malachi Cush. ... Image File history File links Christian_cross. ... Shemaiah was a prophet in the reign of Rehoboam (I Kings 12:22-24). ... Iddo (עדו also יעדו) was a minor biblical prophet, who appears to have lived during the reigns of King Solomon and his heirs, Rehoboam and Abijah in the Kingdom of Judah. ... Hanani was a prophet in the Hebrew Bible. ... Jehu was a prophet in the Hebrew Bible. ... Micah or Micha (מִיכָה, Standard Hebrew Miḫa, Tiberian Hebrew Mîḵāh) is the name of several people in the Bible Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh. ... Jahaziel or Chaziel the Levite was a prophet in the Hebrew Bible. ... Eliezer (אֱלִיעֶזֶר / אֱלִיעָזֶר Help/Court of my God, Standard Hebrew Eliʿézer / Eliʿázer, Tiberian Hebrew ʾĔlîʿézer / ʾĔlîʿāzer) was Moses and Zipporahs second son. ... Zechariah Ben Jehoida was the son or grandson of Jehoiada, the high priest in the times of Ahaziah and Jehoash (Joash). ... In the Bible, there were two prophets called Oded. ... Huldah was a prophetess mentioned briefly in the Second Book of Kings, Chapter 22. ... Uriah or Urijah (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; (My) light/flame of/is the ) was the name of several men in the Hebrew Bible. ... Engraving of Sarah by Hans Collaert from c. ... Sarah in rabbinic literature // Sarah was the niece of Abraham, being the daughter of his brother Haran. ... This article is about the Biblical character. ... Rebecca by Johannes Takanen, 1877. ... Joseph interprets the dream of the Pharaoh. ... Eli (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; Ascent) was, according to the Books of Samuel, the name of a priest of Shiloh, and one of the last Israelite Judges before the rule of kings in ancient Israel. ... Elkanah was, according to the Books of Samuel, the husband of Hannah, and the father of her children including her first - either Samuel or Saul depending on whether it is those who take the Bible at face value or textual scholars (respectively) that are to be trusted[1]. Elkanah is... Hannah (or Chana) (Hebrew: ×—× ×” - Grace [of God]) was a wife of Elkanah and the mother of the prophet Samuel as recorded in the Book of Samuel. ... Abigail (אֲבִיגַיִל / אֲבִיגָיִל her Fathers joy or, fountain of joy ;leader of/is dance/, Standard Hebrew Avigáyil, Tiberian Hebrew ʾĂḇîḡáyil / ʾĂḇîḡāyil), once Abigal (Samuel 2 3:3), is a female character in the Bible. ... Categories: Hebrew Bible/Tanakh-related stubs | Hebrew Bible/Tanakh people ... Beeri, is the father of the prophet Hosea. ... Hilkiah was a Hebrew Priest at the time of King Josiah. ... Buzi (my contempt) was the father of the prophet Ezekiel. ... For other uses, see Mordecai (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Esther (disambiguation). ... Baruch ben Neriah was a Jewish aristocrat and scribe of the sixth century BCE. He was the disciple, secretary, and devoted friend of the Biblical prophet Jeremiah. ... Look up fratricide in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Enoch (Hebrew: חֲנוֹךְ; Tiberian: , Standard: ) is a name occurring twice in the generations of Adam. ... This article is about the Biblical figure called Daniel. ... Daniel in rabbinic literature // According to rabbinical tradition Daniel was of royal descent; and his fate, together with that of his three friends, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah, was foretold by the prophet Isaiah to King Hezekiah in these words, and they shall be eunuchs in the palace of the king... Kenan or Qenan (Cainan seems to be an improper rendering of this word; it is separate from the word transliterated Cainan later in the Torah; the rendering Cainan is based off the Greek renderings, Kaïvav as found in Luke 3:36, 37) (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; possession; smith) was a... This article is about the biblical Noah. ... Noah in rabbinic literature. ... Eber (עֵבֶר, Standard Hebrew , Tiberian Hebrew , Arabic: هود) is mentioned in the Hebrew Bible. ... Edwin Longs 1886 painting of Batya finding the baby Moses Bithiah, in Hebrew Batya (בִּתְיָה, literally daughter of God), is the name given to a character in the account of the Hebrew Exodus from Egypt in Rabbinic Midrash, as she is not named in the text. ... Beor is the father of Balaam and is considered a prophet by Judaism because the Talmud says in Baba Bathra 15b Seven prophets prophesied to the heathen, namely, Balaam and his father, Job, Eliphaz the Temanite, Bildad the Shuhite, Zophar the Naamathite, and Elihu the son of Barachel the Buzite... Balaam (Hebrew בִּלְעָם, Standard Hebrew BilÊ»am, Tiberian Hebrew Bilʻām; could mean glutton or foreigner, but this etymology is uncertain), is a prophet in the Bible, his story occurring in the Book of Numbers. ... Balak was king of Moab around 1200 BC. Revelations 2:12 - 2:14 says about Balak: 12 `And to the messenger of the assembly in Pergamos write: These things saith he who is having the sharp two-edged sword: 13 I have known thy works, and where thou dost dwell... William Blakes imagining of Satan inflicting boils on Job. ... one of Jobs friends, probably a descendant of Eliphaz, son of Esau (Job 4:1). ... Bildad the Shuhite was one of Jobs three friends. ... In the Book of Job, Zophar or Tzófar (צוֹפַר Chirping; rising early, Standard Hebrew Ẓófar, Tiberian Hebrew ṢôpÌ„ar) is one of the friends of Job who visits to comfort him during his illness. ... This article or section seems not to be written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia entry. ... Prophets of Islam are male human beings who are regarded by Muslims to be prophets chosen by God. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Adam is the first Prophet of Islam and mentioned in the Quran as the husband of Eve (Hawwa). ... Idris (Arabic: إدريس ) is a Prophet in Islam. ... Nuh is a prophet in the Quran. ... Hud (Arabic هود) is a prophet in the Quran. ... Saleh (Arabic: صالح) is a prophet of Islam and is mentioned in the Quran. ... For information on the racehorse, see Ibrahim (horse) (Arabic: ), the biblical patriarch Abraham, is an important prophet in Islam, son of Azar, and the father of the Prophet Ismail (Ishmael), his firstborn son, who is considered the Father of the Arabs. ... Lut (circa 1781 BC - 1638 BC?[1] [2]), (Arabic: لوط ) was a prophet mentioned in the Quran and known as Lot in the Bible. ... In Islam, Ishmael is known as the first-born son of Abraham (Ibrahim in Arabic) from Hagar, and as an appointed prophet and messenger (Rasul) of God. ... This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... Yaqub (in Syriac: ܝܰܥܩܽܘܒ) is a common Syriac and Arabic name. ... This is a sub-article to Joseph (Hebrew Bible). ... In Islam, Job is known as an appointed prophet and messenger (Rasul) of God. ... Image File history File links Mosque. ... Michelangelos The Creation of Adam, a fresco on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, shows God creating Adam, with Eve in His arm. ... Enoch (Hebrew: חֲנוֹךְ; Tiberian: , Standard: ) is a name occurring twice in the generations of Adam. ... This article is about the biblical Noah. ... Eber (עֵבֶר, Standard Hebrew , Tiberian Hebrew , Arabic: هود) is mentioned in the Hebrew Bible. ... According to the Bible and the Quran, Lot (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ; Arabic: لوط, ; Hidden, covered[1]) was the nephew of the patriarch, Abraham or Abram. ... Hagar and Ishmael in the Wilderness, by Karel Dujardin Ishmael (Hebrew: יִשְׁמָעֵאל, Standard Tiberian ; Arabic: إسماعيل, Ismāīl) was Abrahams eldest son, born by his wifes handmaiden Hagar. ... Sacrifice of Isaac, a detail from the sarcophagus of the Roman consul Junius Bassus, ca. ... This article is about Jacob in the Hebrew Bible. ... Joseph interprets the dream of the Pharaoh. ... William Blakes imagining of Satan inflicting boils on Job. ... Shoaib (Arabic: ‎ ; also ShuÊ•ayb, ShuÊ•aib, Shuaib, literally Who Shows the Right Path), is traditionally associated with the biblical figure Jethro. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Harun (Arabic: هارون ) was a prophet of Islam mentioned in the Quran. ... Dhul-Kifl (Arabic ذو الكفل ) is considered by Muslims to be either a prophet of Islam or simply a righteous man mentioned in the Quran. ... In Islam, David is known as an appointed prophet and messenger (Rasul) of God. ... Sulayman (Süleyman, Sulaiman, Suleyman, Suleiman) (Arabic: سليمان) is a prophet in the Quran, which assumes that he is King Solomon of the Bible. ... Ilyas is a prophet in the Quran. ... Al-Yasa is a prophet in the Quran. ... Yunus (Jonah) is one of the prophets of Islam whose story is recounted in the Quran. ... Zakariya (Arabic: زكريا), the New Testament priest Zechariah or Zacharias, is one of the prophets mentioned in the Quran. ... Isa redirects here. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Jethro (Hebrew: יִתְרוֹ, Standard Yitro Tiberian ; His Excellence/Posterity) is a figure from the Hebrew Bible. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... The Adoration of the Golden Calf by Nicolas Poussin Aaron (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ), or Aaron the Levite (flourished about 1200 B.C.), was, according to biblical accounts, one of two brothers who play a unique part in the history of the Hebrew people. ... Ezekiel, , IPA: , God will strengthen, from , chazaq, [ xazaq ], literally to fasten upon, figuratively strong, and , el, [ el ], literally strength, figuratively Almighty. He is a prophet and priest in the Bible who prophesied for 22 years sometime in the 500s BCE while in the form of visions exiled in... This page is about the Biblical king David. ... This article is about the Biblical character . ... Elijah, 1638, by José de Ribera This article is about the prophet in the Hebrew Bible. ... Not to be confused with Elishah. ... For other uses, see Jonah (disambiguation). ... According to the Gospel of Luke, Zechariah (Zacharias in the King James Version of the Bible) was a priest of the line of Abijah, during the reign of King Herod the Great, and was the father of John the Baptist and husband of Elizabeth, a woman from the priestly family... For the hip-hop producer with the same name, see John the Baptist (producer). ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... For other people named Muhammad, see Muhammad (disambiguation). ...

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CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Abraham (4444 words)
Abraham and his seed (Genesis 12:7) that his seed shall increase and multiply as the stars of heaven; that he himself shall be blessed and that in him "all the kindred of the earth shall be blessed" (xii, 3).
Abraham, so it does of all the Jews; though as a rule, when this is done, it is accompanied with a note of warning, lest the Jews should imagine that they are entitled to place confidence in the fact of their carnal descent from
Abraham as for instance in the case of Sarai in Egypt, where her age seems inconsistent with her adventure with the Pharao.
Abraham / Ibrahim (1217 words)
Abraham is believed to have lived around 2000 BCE, and died at the age of 175 years according to the Biblical (Old Testament) as well as Muslim sources.
Abraham is of great importance to Judaism because he is the forefather of the Jews, through the line of his legitimate son, Isaac.
Abraham is important to the Muslims not only because he is a prophet of the same message from God as Muhammad, but also because he erected the Ka'ba, the most holy place in earthly Islam.
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