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Encyclopedia > Abortion law
International status of abortion law      Legal on request      Legal for rape, maternal life, health, mental health, socioecomic factors, and/or fetal defects      Legal for or illegal with exception for rape, maternal life, health, fetal defects, and/or mental health      Illegal with exception for rape, maternal life, health, and/or mental health      Illegal with exception for maternal life, health, and/or mental health      Illegal with no exceptions      Varies by region      No information
International status of abortion law      Legal on request      Legal for rape, maternal life, health, mental health, socioecomic factors, and/or fetal defects      Legal for or illegal with exception for rape, maternal life, health, fetal defects, and/or mental health      Illegal with exception for rape, maternal life, health, and/or mental health      Illegal with exception for maternal life, health, and/or mental health      Illegal with no exceptions      Varies by region      No information

Abortion law is legislation which pertains to the provision of abortion. Abortion has at times emerged as a controversial subject in various societies because of the moral and ethical issues that surround it, though other considerations, such as a state's pro- or antinatalist policies or questions of inheritance and patriarchy, also dictate abortion law and regulation. It has been regularly banned and otherwise limited, though abortions have continued to be commonplace in many areas where it is illegal. Almost 2/3 of the world’s women currently reside in countries where abortion may be obtained on request for a broad range of social, economic or personal reasons. Abortion laws vary widely by country, ranging from Chile, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Malta, and Vatican City, which ban the procedure entirely, to Canada, which places no restrictions on the provision of abortion whatsoever. Both supporters and opponents of legal abortion believe their position addresses a fundamental human right. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1400x628, 38 KB)Created by Kyd from blank world map by Vardion. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1400x628, 38 KB)Created by Kyd from blank world map by Vardion. ... Morality (from the Latin manner, character, proper behaviour) has three principal meanings. ... For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ... Social refers to human society or its organization. ... Economics (deriving from the Greek words οίκω [okos], house, and νέμω [nemo], rules hence household management) is the social science that studies the allocation of scarce resources to satisfy unlimited wants. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ...

Contents

History

Abortion law
Part of the abortion series
History & overview
Case law
History of abortion law
Laws by country
Types of regulation
Buffer zones
Conscience clauses
Fetal protection
Informed consent
Late-term restrictions
Parental involvement
Spousal consent

Abortion and contraception have been widely available throughout the history of Western Civilization, despite ethical concerns on the part of some. Plato and Aristotle both argued in favor of compulsory abortion under certain circumstances, though Hippocrates expressly disapproved of the practice. Under Roman law, abortion sometimes occurred but family planning was conducted mainly through the exposure of healthy newborns--usually to protect the rights and interests of the biological father. References to abortion were included in the writings of Ovid, Seneca, Juvenal and Pliny, who included a list of abortifacients (drugs that induce an abortion) in one text. Early Christian philosophers, including Ivo of Chartres and Gratian, disapproved of abortion when it broke the link between the sexual act and procreation but argued that abortion of what Ivo termed an "unformed embryo" did not constitute homicide. Image File history File links Scale_of_justice. ... Indirect advertisements for abortion services, like these in the New York Sun in 1842, were common during the Victorian era. ... This is a list of articles about abortion by country. ... Governments sometimes take measures designed to afford legal protection of access to abortion. ... Conscience clauses are clauses in laws in some parts of the United States which permit pharmacists, physicians, and other providers of health care not to provide certain medical services for reasons of religion or conscience. ... The term fetal rights can refer either to legal rights accorded to fetuses or to the moral rights that some people ascribe to them. ... Informed consent is a legal condition whereby a person can be said to have given consent based upon an appreciation and understanding of the facts and implications of an action. ... Late-term abortions are abortions which are performed during the late stages of pregnancy. ... Many jurisdictions have laws applying to minors and abortion. ... The paternal rights and abortion issue is an extension of both the abortion debate and the fathers rights movement. ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hippocrates (disambiguation). ... Using the term Roman law in a broader sense, one may say that Roman law is not only the legal system of ancient Rome but the law that was applied throughout most of Europe until the end of the 18th century. ... For other uses, see Ovid (disambiguation) Publius Ovidius Naso (March 20, 43 BC – 17 AD) was a Roman poet known to the English-speaking world as Ovid who wrote on topics of love, abandoned women and mythological transformations. ... Bust, traditionally thought to be Seneca, now identified by some as Hesiod. ... Frontispiece depicting Juvenal and Persius, from a volume translated by John Dryden in 1711. ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Ivo (Yves) (born about 1040; died 1117) was bishop of Chartres from 1090-1117 and an important ecclesiastical figure and canon lawyer during the Investiture Crisis. ... Franciscus Gratianus, or Johannes Gratianus, known most often simply as Gratian, was a 12th century canon lawyer from Bologna. ...


Religious authorities have taken various positions on abortion throughout history (see Religion and abortion). In 1588, Pope Sixtus V adopted a papal bull adopting the position of St. Thomas Aquinas that contraception and abortion were crimes against nature and sins against marriage. This verdict was relaxed three years later by Pope Gregory XIV, who pronounced that abortion before "hominization" should not be subject to church penalties that were any stricter than civil penalties. Common law positions on abortion in individual countries varied significantly from country to country. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... 1588 was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... Pope Sixtus V (December 13, 1521 – August 27, 1590), born Felice Peretti, was Pope from 1585 to 1590. ... Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225 - March 7, 1274) was a Catholic philosopher and theologian in the scholastic tradition, who gave birth to the Thomistic school of philosophy, which was long the primary philosophical approach of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Crime against nature is a legal term used since 1828 and normally defined as a form of sexual behavior that is not considered to be natural and is seen as a punishable offense in several US states. ... For other uses, see Sin (disambiguation). ... Marriage is an interpersonal relationship with governmental, social, or religious recognition, usually intimate and sexual, and often created as a contract, or through civil process. ... Pope Gregory XIV (February 11, 1535 â€“ October 16, 1591), born Niccolò Sfondrati, was Pope from December 5, 1590 â€“ October 16, 1591. ... Hominization refers to the process of becoming human. ...


As a matter of common law in England and the United States, abortion was illegal anytime after quickening — when the movements of the fetus could first be felt by the woman. In the 19th Century, many Western countries began to use statutes to codify or further restrictions on abortion. Anti-abortion forces were led by a combination of conservative groups opposed to abortion on moral grounds and medical professionals who were concerned about the danger presented by the procedure and the regular involvement of non-medical personnel in performing abortions. This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Quickening may refer to: Quickening, the transfer of an immortals life force in the Highlander universe. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...


It became clear in the following years, however, that illegal abortions continued to take place in large numbers even where abortions were expressly illegal. It was difficult to obtain sufficient evidence to prosecute the women and abortion doctors, and judges and juries were often reluctant to convict. Henry Morgentaler, for instance, was never convicted by a jury. Many were also outraged at the invasion of privacy and the medical problems resulting from abortions taking place illegally in medically dangerous circumstances. Political movements soon coalesced around the legalization of abortion and liberalization of existing laws. Henry Morgentaler, M.D., LL.D. honourary (born March 19, 1923, in Lodz, Poland) is a Canadian medical doctor and long time abortion activist from Montreal. ...


By the early 20th century, many countries had begun to legalize abortions when performed to protect the life of the woman, and in some cases to protect the health of the woman. Under Vladimir Lenin, the Soviet Union legalized all abortions in 1920, but this was fully reversed in 1936 by Joseph Stalin in order to increase population growth. Iceland was the first Western country to legalize therapeutic abortion under limited circumstances, doing so in 1935, and the earliest country to do so without recriminalizing it later. Only a handful of countries – mostly in Scandinavia —decriminalized abortion before Britain did so in 1967. Other countries soon followed, including Canada (1969), the United States (1973 in most states, pursuant to the federal Supreme Court decision which legalized abortion nationwide), France (1975), Austria (1975),New Zealand (1977), Italy (1978) and the Netherlands (1980). However, these countries vary greatly in the circumstances under which abortion is permitted. In 1975, the West German Supreme Court struck down a law legalizing abortion, holding that they contradict the constitution's human rights guarantees. After Germany's reunification, despite the legal status of abortion in the former East Germany, a compromise was reached which deemed most abortions illegal but does not penalize it under certain circumstances. Lenin redirects here. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The German Supreme Court addressed the issue of abortion two years after Roe v. ...


International law

In addition to national and regional laws, there are multi-national and international treaties, conventions, and laws that may actually be enforced on or within signatory nations. However, there is an inherent difficulty in the enforcement of international law due to the issue that state sovereignty poses. As such, the effectiveness of even binding multi-national efforts to legislate the rights to life and liberty in general, or abortion in specific, is difficult to measure. Examples of such efforts that have or might have bearing for abortion law, nationally or internationally, include: This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ...

  • The 1978 American Convention on Human Rights states, in Article 4.1, "Every person has the right to have his life respected. This right shall be protected by law and, in general, from the moment of conception." The Convention is considered binding only for the 24 of 35 member nations of the Organization of American States who ratified it. The Inter-American Commission on Human Rights found that the words "in general" left room for individual nations to determine their own abortion legislation.[1]
  • The 1994 Programme of Action states, in paragraph 8.25, "In no case should abortion be promoted as a method of family planning. . . Any measures or changes related to abortion within the health system can only be determined at the national or local level according to the national legislative process. In circumstances where abortion is not against the law, such abortion should be safe." The nonbinding document was adopted by at least 179 countries at the United Nations International Conference on Population and Development held in Cairo, Egypt.
  • The 1995 Beijing Platform for Action states, in paragraph 96, “The human rights of women include their right to have control over and decide freely and responsibly on matters related to their sexuality, including sexual and reproductive health, free of coercion, discrimination and violence.” The nonbinding document has been adopted by 189 countries at the United Nations Fourth World Conference on Women held in Beijing, China. It calls upon nations in which abortion remains illegal to reconsider laws that punish women, but does not specifically advocate the legalization of abortion.

Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... American Convention on Human Rights Opened for signature 1969 at San José, Costa Rica Entered into force 18 July 1978 Conditions for entry into force 11 ratifications Parties 24 The American Convention on Human Rights (also known as the Pact of San José) is an International human rights instrument. ... The term conception can refer to more than one meaning: Concept Fertilisation This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Headquarters Washington, D.C. Official languages English, French, Spanish, Portuguese Membership 35 countries Leaders  -  Secretary General José Miguel Insulza (since 26 May 2005) Establishment  -  Charter first signed 30 April 1948 in effect 1 December 1951  Website http://www. ... Ratification is the process of adopting an international treaty, or a constitution or other nationally binding document (such as an amendment to a constitution) by the agreement of multiple subnational entities. ... The Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (the IACHR or, in Spanish, CIDH) is one of the two bodies that comprise the inter-American system for the promotion and protection of human rights. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... The United Nations coordinated an International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo, Egypt from 5-13 September 1994. ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... The United Nations convened the Fourth World Conference on Women on September 4-15, 1995 in Beijing, China. ... Peking redirects here. ...

National laws

The following series of tables present the current abortion legislation of the world's nations as divided by continent. Actual access to abortion may vary significantly on the basis of geography, income, cost, health care, social factors, and other issues. Many jurisdictions also place other restrictions on abortion access, including waiting periods, the provision of information, the assent of multiple doctors, and spousal or parental notification. Animated, colour-coded map showing the various continents. ... A physician visiting the sick in a hospital. ... The paternal rights and abortion issue is an extension of both the abortion debate and the fathers rights movement. ... Parental involvement legislation is the legal requirement that one or more parents be involved before their minor daughter may have an abortion. ...


Legend

  • Yes - Legal
  • No - Illegal
  • * - Legal during 1st trimester only (exact date may vary)
  • # - Legal during 1st and 2nd trimester only (exact date may vary)
  • Restricted - Legal but subject to significant restrictions
  • Varies - Varies by region
  •  ? - Information is unavailable or the law is too ambiguous

Africa

Country To protect woman's life Physical health Mental health Rape Fetal defects Socio-economic factors On request
Algeria Yes # # No No No No
Angola * No No No No No No
Benin Yes Yes ? Yes Yes No No
Botswana Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
Burkina Faso Yes Yes Yes * Yes No No
Burundi Yes Yes ? No No No No
Cameroon Yes Yes ? Yes No No No
Cape Verde Yes Yes Yes * Yes * *
Central African Republic Yes No No No No No No
Chad Yes Yes ? No Yes No No
Comoros Yes Yes ? No No No No
Congo (Brazzaville) Yes No No No No No No
Congo (Kinshasa) Yes No No No No No No
Côte d'Ivoire Yes No No No No No No
Djibouti Yes ? ? No No No No
Egypt Restricted No No No No No No
Equatorial Guinea Yes Yes ? No No No No
Eritrea Yes Yes ? No No No No
Ethiopia Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
Gabon Yes No No No No No No
Gambia Yes Yes Yes No No No No
Ghana Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
Guinea Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
Guinea-Bissau Yes * * * * * *
Kenya Restricted Restricted Restricted No No No No
Lesotho Yes No No No No No No
Liberia Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
Libya Yes No No No No No No
Madagascar Yes No No No No No No
Malawi Restricted No No No No No No
Mali Yes No No Yes No No No
Mauritania Yes No No No No No No
Mauritius Yes No No No No No No
Morocco * * * No No No No
Mozambique Yes Yes Yes No No No * (illegal, but selectively allowed)[2]
Namibia Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
Niger Yes No No No No No No
Nigeria Yes Yes Yes No No No No
Rwanda Yes Yes Yes No No No No
São Tomé and Príncipe * No No No No No No
Senegal Yes No No No No No No
Seychelles * * * * * No No
Sierra Leone Yes Yes Yes No No No No
Somalia Yes No No No No No No
South Africa # # # # # # *
Sudan Yes No No Yes No No No
Swaziland Yes No No No No No No
Tanzania Yes Yes Yes No No No No
Togo * ? ? ? ? No No
Tunisia * * * * * * *
Uganda Yes Yes Yes No No No No
Western Sahara ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Zambia Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No
Zimbabwe Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No

Asia

Country To protect woman's life Physical health Mental health Rape Fetal defects Socio-economic factors On request
Afghanistan Yes No No No No No No
Bangladesh Yes * * * * * *
Bhutan[3] Yes No No No No No No
Cambodia Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
China Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Hong Kong Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No
India Yes Yes # # # # No
Indonesia Yes No No No No No No
Japan # # # # # # No
Kazakhstan # # # # # # *
Kyrgyzstan # # # # # # *
Laos Yes No No No No No No
Malaysia * * * No No No No
Mongolia Restricted Restricted * * * * *
Myanmar Yes No No No No No No
Nepal Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes * *
North Korea Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Pakistan Yes Yes Yes No No No No
Philippines Yes No No No No No No
Singapore Yes Yes Yes # # # #
South Korea Restricted Restricted Restricted Restricted Restricted Restricted Restricted
Sri Lanka Yes No No No No No No
Tajikistan # # # # # # *
Thailand Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No
Turkmenistan # # # # # # *
Uzbekistan # # # # # # *
Vietnam Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Caribbean

Country To protect woman's life Physical health Mental health Rape Fetal defects Socio-economic factors On request
Antigua and Barbuda * No No No No No No
Bahamas Yes Yes Yes ? ? No No
Barbados Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
Cuba * * * * * * *
Dominica Yes No No No No No No
Dominican Republic Yes No No No No No No
Grenada Yes Yes Yes No No No No
Haiti Yes ? No ? ? No No
Jamaica Restricted Restricted Restricted No No No No
Puerto Rico Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Saint Kitts and Nevis Yes Yes Yes No No No No
Saint Lucia Yes Yes Yes No No No No
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
Trinidad and Tobago Yes Yes Yes No No No No

Europe

Country To protect woman's life Physical health Mental health Rape Fetal defects Socio-economic factors On request
Albania Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Andorra Yes No No No No No No
Armenia # # # # # # *
Austria Yes Yes Yes * Yes * *
Azerbaijan Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes *
Belgium Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Belarus Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Bulgaria Yes # * * Yes * *
Croatia Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Cyprus Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes ? No
Czech Republic # # * * # * *
Denmark Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Estonia Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Faroe Islands # No No # # No No
Finland Yes Yes Yes # # # No
France Yes Yes Yes * Yes * *
Georgia # # # # # # *
Germany Yes Yes * Yes Yes * * (illegal, but not punished)
Greece Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Hungary Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Iceland Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
Ireland, Republic of Yes No No No No No No
Italy Yes Yes Yes * Yes * *
Latvia Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Liechtenstein Yes Yes Yes No No No No
Lithuania Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Luxembourg Yes Restricted Restricted Restricted Restricted Restricted No
Macedonia Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Malta No No No No No No No
Moldova Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes *
Monaco Yes No No No No No No
Montenegro Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Netherlands Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Norway Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes *
Northern Ireland[4] Yes Yes Yes No No No No
Poland Yes Yes No * # No No
Portugal # # * # # * *
Romania Yes Yes * * * * *
Russia Yes Yes Yes # Yes # *
San Marino Yes No No No No No No
Serbia Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Slovakia # # * # # * *
Slovenia Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Spain Yes Yes Yes * # No No
Sweden Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Switzerland Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes * *
Turkey Yes Yes Yes * Yes * *
Ukraine # # # # # # *
United Kingdom (England and Wales
and Scotland only)
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
Vatican City No No No No No No No

This article is about the country in Europe. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... This article is about the country. ...

Middle East

Country To protect woman's life Physical health Mental health Rape Fetal defects Socio-economic factors On request
Bahrain Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Iran Yes No No No No No No
Iraq Restricted No No No Restricted No No
Israel Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
Jordan Yes Yes Yes No No No No
Kuwait Restricted Restricted Restricted No Restricted No No
Lebanon Yes No No No No No No
Oman Yes No No No No No No
Qatar Yes Yes Yes No Restricted No No
Saudi Arabia * Restricted Restricted No No No No
Syria Restricted No No No No No No
United Arab Emirates Restricted No No No No No No
Yemen Yes No No No No No No

North and Central America

Country To protect woman's life Physical health Mental health Rape Fetal defects Socio-economic factors On request
Belize Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No
Canada Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Costa Rica Yes Yes ? No No No No
El Salvador Yes No No No No No No
Guatemala Yes No No No No No No
Honduras Restricted No No No No No No
Mexico Yes Varies Varies * * Varies Varies
Nicaragua No No No No No No No
Panama Yes Yes No * Yes No No
United States Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Varies

Australasia and Oceania

Country To protect woman's life Physical health Mental health Rape Fetal defects Socio-economic factors On request
Australia Yes Varies Varies Varies Varies Varies Varies
Brunei Yes No No No No No No
Cook Islands Yes Yes Yes No No No No
Fiji Yes Yes Yes ? ? Yes No
Kiribati Yes No No No No No No
Maldives Restricted Restricted No No No No No
Marshall Islands Restricted No No No No No No
Micronesia Yes No No No No No No
Nauru Restricted Restricted Restricted No No No No
New Zealand Yes # # # # Restricted No
Niue Yes ? ? No No No No
Palau Yes No No No No No No
Papua New Guinea * * * No No No No
Samoa Yes Yes Yes No No No No
Solomon Islands Restricted No No No No No No
Tonga Yes No No No No No No
Tuvalu Yes No No No No No No
Vanuatu Yes Yes Yes No No No No

South America

Country To protect woman's life Physical health Mental health Rape Fetal defects Socio-economic factors On request
Argentina Yes Yes No Restricted No No No
Bolivia Yes Yes ? Yes No No No
Brazil Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Chile No No No No No No No
Colombia Yes Restricted ? Yes Restricted No No
Ecuador Yes Yes ? Restricted No No No
Guyana Yes Yes Yes Yes * * *
Paraguay Yes No No No No No No
Peru Yes Yes Yes No No No No
Suriname Yes No No No No No No
Uruguay Yes Yes * * No * No
Venezuela Yes No No No No No No

Case law

Australia

Canada R v Davidson, also known as the Menhennitt ruling, was a significant ruling delivered in the Supreme Court of Victoria on May 26, 1969. ...

Germany The abortion trial of Emily Stowe was a famous early Canadian judicial decision on abortion in Canada. ... Holding In this case, the trial judge failed to adequately summarize the evidence to a jury. ... Morgentaler v. ... Holding Section 251 of the Criminal Code violates a womans right to security of person under section 7 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and cannot be saved under section 1 of the Charter. ... Holding With section 251 of the Criminal Code having already been found unconstitutional, questions of whether it violates fetal rights are moot. ... Holding A fetus does not have a right to life under the Quebec Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms or the Civil Code of Quebec Court membership Case opinions Tremblay v. ... Holding Nova Scotia regulations regarding abortion were ultra vires the legislature of the province as criminal law. ...

Ireland The German Supreme Court addressed the issue of abortion two years after Roe v. ...

United States Attorney General v. ...

Holding Texas law making it a crime to assist a woman to get an abortion violated her due process rights. ... Doe v. ... H. L. v. ... City of Akron v. ... Holding The Court approved a Missouri law that imposed restrictions on the use of state funds, facilities and employees in performing, assisting with, or counseling on abortions. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Holding A Pennsylvania law that required spousal notification prior to obtaining an abortion was invalid under the Fourteenth Amendment because it created an undue burden on married women seeking an abortion. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Holding Laws banning partial-birth abortion are unconstitutional if they do not make an exception for the womans health, or if they cannot be reasonably construed to apply only to the partial-birth abortion (intact D&X) procedure and not to other abortion methods. ... McCorvey v. ... Holding that invalidating the statute entirely is not always necessary or justified, for lower courts may be able to render narrower declaratory and injunctive relief. ... The majority of information on this page is speculative. ...

See also

This is a list of articles about abortion by country. ... Issues of discussion The abortion debate refers to discussion and controversy surrounding the moral and legal status of abortion. ... Indirect advertisements for abortion services, like these in the New York Sun in 1842, were common during the Victorian era. ... The Mexico City Policy, named for the place of the population conference where it was announced, was instituted by United States President Ronald Reagan in 1984 to make the issue of abortion a condition for providing funds from the US foreign aid agency USAID. Called the global gag rule by... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Roe effect is a theory about the long-term effect of abortion on the political balance of the United States, which suggests that since supporters of abortion rights, cause the erosion of their own political base, the practice of abortion will eventually lead to the restriction or illegalization of... Henry Morgentaler, M.D., LL.D. honourary (born March 19, 1923, in Lodz, Poland) is a Canadian medical doctor and long time abortion activist from Montreal. ... The term Wrongful Abortion was defined by Perry & Adar as an abortion that a pregnant woman is induced to undergo by negligent conduct (usually a medical misrepresentation). ...

Notes

  1. ^ Inter-American Commission on Human Rights. (March 6, 1981). Resolution 23/81. Retrieved October 27, 2006.
  2. ^ Libombo, Aida, &, Bay Ustá, Momade. (2001). Mozambique Abortion Situation. Retrieved October 27, 2006.
  3. ^ World Health Organization. (2005). Improving Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health in the South-East Asia Region. Retrieved October 3, 2007.
  4. ^ Q&A: Abortion in NI. (June 13 , 2001). BBC News. Retrieved October 27, 2006.

References

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
BBC NEWS | UK | Q&A: Abortion law (814 words)
Abortions can legally be performed under certain conditions - the first is that continuing with the pregnancy involves a greater risk to the physical or mental health of the woman, or her existing children, than having a termination.
Abortion up to 24 weeks is also allowed if there is a substantial risk that the child when born would suffer "such physical or mental abnormalities as to be seriously handicapped".
Abortions after 24 weeks are allowed if there is grave risk to the life of the woman; evidence of severe foetal abnormality; or risk of grave physical and mental injury to the woman.
ROE v. WADE (13090 words)
It is undisputed that at common law, abortion performed before "quickening" -- the first recognizable movement of the fetus in utero, appearing usually from the 16th to the 18th week of pregnancy 20 -- was not an indictable offense.
Those striking down state laws have generally scrutinized the State's interests in protecting health and potential life, and have concluded that neither interest justified broad limitations on the reasons for which a physician and his pregnant patient might decide that she should have an abortion in the early stages of pregnancy.
By 'abortion' is meant that the life of the fetus or embryo shall be destroyed in the woman's womb or that a premature birth thereof be caused.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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