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An abortion is the removal or expulsion of an embryo or fetus from the uterus, resulting in or caused by its death. This can occur spontaneously as a miscarriage or be artificially induced by medical, surgical or other means. "Abortion" can refer to an induced procedure at any point during human pregnancy; it is sometimes medically defined as either miscarriage or induced termination before the point of viability.[1] Throughout history, abortion has been induced by various methods and the moral and legal aspects of abortion are subject to intense debate in many parts of the world. Image File history File links WPAbortion-logo. ... This is a list of articles about abortion by country. ... Issues of discussion The abortion debate refers to discussion and controversy surrounding the moral and legal status of abortion. ... Issues of discussion Pro-choice describes the political and ethical view that a woman should have complete control over her fertility and pregnancy. ... This article is about the social movement. ... International status of abortion law  Legal on demand  Legal for rape, maternal life, health, mental health, socioecomic factors, and/or fetal defects  Legal for or illegal with exception for rape, maternal life, health, fetal defects, and/or mental health  Illegal with exception for rape, maternal life, health, and/or mental... Indirect advertisements for abortion services, like these in the New York Sun in 1842, were common during the Victorian era. ... For other uses, see Embryo (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fetus (disambiguation). ... This article is about female reproductive anatomy. ... Miscarriage or spontaneous abortion is the natural or spontaneous end of a pregnancy at a stage where the embryo or the fetus is incapable of surviving, generally defined in humans at a gestation of prior to 20 weeks. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ... This article is about human pregnancy in biological females. ... This article is about human pregnancy in biological females. ... Indirect advertisements for abortion services, like these in the New York Sun in 1842, were common during the Victorian era. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... International status of abortion law  Legal on demand  Legal for rape, maternal life, health, mental health, socioecomic factors, and/or fetal defects  Legal for or illegal with exception for rape, maternal life, health, fetal defects, and/or mental health  Illegal with exception for rape, maternal life, health, and/or mental... Issues of discussion The abortion debate refers to discussion and controversy surrounding the moral and legal status of abortion. ...

Contents

Definitions

The following medical terms are used to categorize abortion:

  • Spontaneous abortion (miscarriage): An abortion due to accidental trauma or natural causes. Most miscarriages are due to incorrect replication of chromosomes; they can also be caused by environmental factors.
  • Induced abortion: Abortion that has been caused by deliberate human action. Induced abortions are further subcategorized into therapeutic and elective:
    • Therapeutic abortion: An abortion performed either...
    • Elective abortion: Abortion performed for any other reason.

In common parlance, the term "abortion" is synonymous with induced abortion. However, in medical texts, the word 'abortion' might exclusively refer to, or may also refer to, spontaneous abortion (miscarriage). Miscarriage or spontaneous abortion is the natural or spontaneous end of a pregnancy at a stage where the embryo or the fetus is incapable of surviving, generally defined in humans at a gestation of prior to 20 weeks. ... In medicine, death by natural causes is a loosely-defined term used by coroners describing death when the cause of death was a naturally occurring disease process, or is not apparent given medical history or circumstances. ... A congenital disorder is any medical condition that is present at birth. ... For other uses, see Death (disambiguation). ... In medicine, epidemiology and actuarial science, the term morbidity can refer to the state of being diseased (from Latin morbidus: sick, unhealthy), the degree or severity of a disease, the prevalence of a disease: the total number of cases in a particular population at a particular point in time, the... Selective reduction (or fetal reduction) is the practice of reducing the number of fetuses in a multifetal pregnancy (i. ... For other uses, see Fetus (disambiguation). ... Identical triplet brothers at graduation. ...


Incidence

The incidence and reasons for induced abortion vary regionally. It has been estimated that approximately 46 million abortions are performed worldwide every year. Of these, 26 million are said to occur in places where abortion is legal; the other 20 million happen where the procedure is illegal. Some countries, such as Belgium (11.2 per 100 known pregnancies) and the Netherlands (10.6 per 100), have a low rate of induced abortion, while others like Russia (62.6 per 100) and Vietnam (43.7 per 100) have a comparatively high rate. The world ratio is 26 induced abortions per 100 known pregnancies.[3] International status of abortion law  Legal on demand  Legal for rape, maternal life, health, mental health, socioecomic factors, and/or fetal defects  Legal for or illegal with exception for rape, maternal life, health, fetal defects, and/or mental health  Illegal with exception for rape, maternal life, health, and/or mental...


By gestational age and method

Histogram of abortions by gestational age in England and Wales during 2004. Average is 9.5 weeks.
Histogram of abortions by gestational age in England and Wales during 2004. Average is 9.5 weeks.

Abortion rates also vary depending on the stage of pregnancy and the method practiced. In 2003, from data collected in those areas of the United States that sufficiently reported gestational age, it was found that 88.2% of abortions were conducted at or prior to 12 weeks, 10.4% from 13 to 20 weeks, and 1.4% at or after 21 weeks. 90.9% of these were classified as having been done by "curettage" (suction-aspiration, Dilation and curettage, Dilation and evacuation), 7.7% by "medical" means (mifepristone), 0.4% by "intrauterine instillation" (saline or prostaglandin), and 1.0% by "other" (including hysterotomy and hysterectomy).[4] The Guttmacher Institute estimated there were 2,200 intact dilation and extraction procedures in the U.S. during 2000; this accounts for 0.17% of the total number of abortions performed that year.[5] Similarly, in England and Wales in 2006, 89% of terminations occurred at or under 12 weeks, 9% between 13 to 19 weeks, and 1.5% at or over 20 weeks. 64% of those reported were by vacuum aspiration, 6% by D&E, and 30% were medical.[6] Image File history File links UK_abortion_by_gestational_age_2004_histogram. ... Image File history File links UK_abortion_by_gestational_age_2004_histogram. ... For the histogram used in digital image processing, see Color histogram. ... Gestational age is age of a fetus (or newborn infant) from presumed conception. ... This article is about human pregnancy in biological females. ... Gestational age is age of a fetus (or newborn infant) from presumed conception. ... In surgery, the use of a curette to remove tissue by scraping or scooping. ... Suction-aspiration abortion is a form of abortion using aspiration. ... Dilation (dilatation) and curettage literally refers to the dilation (opening) of the cervix and surgical removal of the contents of the uterus. ... Dilation and evacuation is a form of abortion using dilation and evacuation. ... Abortion, in its most common usage, refers to the voluntary or induced termination of a pregnancy, generally through the use of surgical procedures or drugs. ... Mifepristone is a synthetic steroid compound used as a pharmaceutical. ... Instillation abortion is a method of induced abortion used between 16th and 24th week of pregnancy. ... In medicine, saline is a solution of sodium chloride (a substance also commonly known as table salt) in sterile water, used frequently for intravenous infusion, rinsing contact lenses, and nasal irrigation (or the yogic practice called jala neti). ... E1 - Alprostadil I2 - Prostacyclin A prostaglandin is any member of a group of lipid compounds that are derived enzymatically from fatty acids and have important functions in the animal body. ... Hysterotomy abortion is a form of abortion, similar to a caesarian abortion. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Guttmacher Institute (formerly the Alan Guttmacher Institute) is a research institute that provides global and U.S.-specific demographic statistics on reproductive matters such as birth control and abortion. ... Intact dilation and extraction (IDX or intact D&X), also known as intact dilation and evacuation (intact D&E), dilation and extraction (D&X), intrauterine cranial decompression and in the United States as partial birth abortion, is a surgical abortion wherein an intact and usually viable fetus is removed from... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ...


By personal and social factors

A bar chart depicting selected data from the 1998 AGI meta-study on the reasons women stated for having an abortion.
A bar chart depicting selected data from the 1998 AGI meta-study on the reasons women stated for having an abortion.

A 1998 aggregated study, from 27 countries, on the reasons women seek to terminate their pregnancies concluded that common factors cited to have influenced the abortion decision were: desire to delay or end childbearing, concern over the interruption of work or education, issues of financial or relationship stability, and perceived immaturity.[7] A 2004 study in which American women at clinics answered a questionnaire yielded similar results.[8] In Finland and the United States, concern for the health risks posed by pregnancy in individual cases was not a factor commonly given; however, in Bangladesh, India, and Kenya health concerns were cited by women more frequently as reasons for having an abortion.[7] 1% of women in the 2004 survey-based U.S. study became pregnant as a result of rape and 0.5% as a result of incest.[8] Another American study in 2002 concluded that 54% of women who had an abortion were using a form of contraception at the time of becoming pregnant while 46% were not. Inconsistent use was reported by 49% of those using condoms and 76% of those using the combined oral contraceptive pill; 42% of those using condoms reported failure through slipping or breakage.[9] In the United Kingdom, a 1994 survey of sexual behavior found that women who reported having an abortion were more likely to be of a higher social class, as well as either cohabitating or divorced. It also found that women who stated they have had 10 or more sexual partners in their lifetime were five times more likely to have had an abortion than those who stated they have had only one sexual partner.[10] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (898x262, 9 KB) Chart information This chart presents data from a 1998 AGI study on the motivating factors behind abortion around the world. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (898x262, 9 KB) Chart information This chart presents data from a 1998 AGI study on the motivating factors behind abortion around the world. ... A bar chart is a chart with rectangular bars of lengths usually proportional to the magnitudes or frequencies of what they represent. ... The Alan Guttmacher Institute is a research institute that provides global and U.S. specific demographic statistics on reproductive matters such as birth control and abortion. ... A meta-analysis is a statistical practice of combining the results of a number of studies. ... Parturition redirects here. ... This article is about work. ... An abortion clinic is a medical facility providing certain kinds of outpatient medical care, including abortions, to women. ... A questionnaire is a research instrument consisting of a series of questions and other prompts for the purpose of gathering information from respondents. ... Incest is sexual activity between two persons related by close kinship. ... This article is about the male contraceptive device. ... The Pill redirects here. ...


Some abortions are undergone as the result of societal pressures. These might include the stigmatization of disabled persons, preference for children of a specific sex, disapproval of single motherhood, insufficient economic support for families, lack of access to or rejection of contraceptive methods, or efforts toward population control (such as China's one-child policy). These factors can sometimes result in compulsory abortion or sex-selective abortion. In many areas, especially in developing nations or where abortion is illegal, women sometimes resort to "back-alley" or self-induced procedures. The World Health Organization suggests that there are 19 million terminations annually which fit its criteria for an unsafe abortion.[11] See social issues for more information on these subjects. The term disability, as it is applied to humans, refers to any condition that impedes the completion of daily tasks using traditional methods. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... It has been suggested that Baby mama be merged into this article or section. ... a family of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso in 1997 Family is a Western term used to denote a domestic group of people, or a number of domestic groups linked through descent (demonstrated or stipulated) from a common ancestor, marriage or adoption. ... Population control is the practice of limiting population increase, usually by reducing the birth rate. ... Poster of Chinese birth control policy under the slogan Sweet Achievement. ... Sex-selective abortion is the practice of aborting a fetus after a determination (usually by ultrasound but also rarely by amniocentesis or another procedure) that the fetus is an undesired sex, typically female. ...  High human development Medium human development Low human development Unavailable (colour-blind compliant map)   Developing countries not listed as least developed countries or as newly industrialized countries, in their respective articles. ... A self-induced abortion is an abortion that a pregnant woman causes herself to have without direct medical aid. ... “WHO” redirects here. ... An abortion is the removal or expulsion of an embryo or fetus from the uterus, resulting in or caused by its death. ... An abortion is the removal or expulsion of an embryo or fetus from the uterus, resulting in or caused by its death. ...


Forms of abortion

Spontaneous abortion

Main article: Miscarriage

Spontaneous abortions, generally referred to as miscarriages, occur when an embryo or fetus is lost due to natural causes before the 20th week of gestation. A pregnancy that ends earlier than 37 weeks of gestation, if it results in a live-born infant, is known as a "premature birth". When a fetus dies in the uterus at some point late in gestation, beginning at about 20 weeks, or during delivery, it is termed a "stillbirth". Premature births and stillbirths are generally not considered to be miscarriages although usage of these terms can sometimes overlap. Miscarriage or spontaneous abortion is the natural or spontaneous end of a pregnancy at a stage where the embryo or the fetus is incapable of surviving, generally defined in humans at a gestation of prior to 20 weeks. ... For other uses, see Embryo (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fetus (disambiguation). ... Gestation is the carrying of an embryo or fetus inside a female viviparous animal. ... A live birth of a human being occurs when a fetus is expelled and separated from the mothers body and subsequently shows some sign of life, such as voluntary movement, heartbeat, or pulsation of the umbilical cord, but for however brief thistime. ... “Baby” redirects here. ... In most systems of human pregnancy, the condition, premature birth (also known as a preterm birth), occurs when the baby is born within sooner than 36 weeks of completed gestation. ... Parturition redirects here. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Most miscarriages occur very early in pregnancy. Between 10% and 50% of pregnancies end in miscarriage, depending upon the age and health of the pregnant woman.[12] In most cases, they occur so early in the pregnancy that the woman is not even aware that she was pregnant.


The risk of spontaneous abortion decreases sharply after the 8th week.[13] This risk is greater in those with a known history of several spontaneous abortions or an induced abortion, those with systemic diseases, and those over age 35. Other causes can be infection (of either the woman or fetus), immune response, or serious systemic disease. A spontaneous abortion can also be caused by accidental trauma; intentional trauma to cause miscarriage is considered induced abortion or feticide. In medicine, a trauma patient has suffered serious and life-threatening physical injury resulting in secondary complications such as shock, respiratory failure and death. ... Abortion, in its most common usage, refers to the voluntary or induced termination of pregnancy, generally through the use of surgical procedures or drugs. ...


Induced abortion

A pregnancy can be intentionally aborted in many ways. The manner selected depends chiefly upon the gestational age of the fetus, in addition to the legality, regional availability, and doctor-patient preference for specific procedures. Gestational age is age of a fetus (or newborn infant) from presumed conception. ... For other uses, see Fetus (disambiguation). ...


Surgical abortion

Gestational age may determine which abortion methods are practiced.
Gestational age may determine which abortion methods are practiced.

In the first twelve weeks, suction-aspiration or vacuum abortion is the most common method.[14] Manual vacuum aspiration, or MVA abortion, consists of removing the fetus or embryo by suction using a manual syringe, while the Electric vacuum aspiration or EVA abortion method uses an electric pump. These techniques are comparable, differing in the mechanism used to apply suction, how early in pregnancy they can be used, and whether cervical dilation is necessary. MVA, also known as "mini-suction" and menstrual extraction, can be used in very early pregnancy, and does not require cervical dilation. Surgical techniques are sometimes referred to as STOP: 'Suction (or surgical) Termination Of Pregnancy'. From the fifteenth week until approximately the twenty-sixth week, a dilation and evacuation (D & E) is used. D & E consists of opening the cervix of the uterus and emptying it using surgical instruments and suction. Image File history File links Abortionmethods. ... Image File history File links Abortionmethods. ... Gestational age is age of a fetus (or newborn infant) from presumed conception. ... Suction-aspiration abortion is a form of abortion using aspiration. ... Vacuum or suction aspiration abortion is a form of abortion using aspiration. ... For other uses, see Fetus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Embryo (disambiguation). ... A syringe nowadays nearly always means a medical syringe, but it can mean any of these: A simple hand-powered piston pump consisting of a plunger that can be pulled and pushed along inside a cylindrical tube (the barrel), which has a small hole on one end, so it can... Vacuum or suction aspiration abortion is a form of abortion using aspiration. ... This article is about a mechanical device. ... Menstrual extraction is both a surgical abortion method and a menstrual hygiene technique, by which either an entire menstrual period may be removed in a few minutes, or a blastocyst or small embryo--without confirmation of pregnancy. ... Dilation and evacuation is a form of abortion using dilation and evacuation. ... The cervix (from Latin neck) is the lower, narrow portion of the uterus where it joins with the top end of the vagina. ... This article is about female reproductive anatomy. ...


Dilation and curettage (D & C) is a standard gynecological procedure performed for a variety of reasons, including examination of the uterine lining for possible malignancy, investigation of abnormal bleeding, and abortion. Curettage refers to cleaning the walls of the uterus with a curette. The World Health Organization recommends this procedure, also called sharp curettage, only when MVA is unavailable.[15] The term "D and C", or sometimes suction curette, is used as a euphemism for the first trimester abortion procedure, whichever the method used. Dilation (dilatation) and curettage literally refers to the dilation (opening) of the cervix and surgical removal of the contents of the uterus. ... In surgery, the use of a curette to remove tissue by scraping or scooping. ... This article is about female reproductive anatomy. ... Noun A spoon-shaped surgical instrument for cleaning a diseased surface. ... “WHO” redirects here. ...


Other techniques must be used to induce abortion in the third trimester. Premature delivery can be induced with prostaglandin; this can be coupled with injecting the amniotic fluid with caustic solutions containing saline or urea. After the 16th week of gestation, abortions can be induced by intact dilation and extraction (IDX) (also called intrauterine cranial decompression), which requires surgical decompression of the fetus's head before evacuation. IDX is sometimes termed "partial-birth abortion," which has been federally banned in the United States. A hysterotomy abortion is an abortion procedure similar to a caesarean section, and is performed under general anesthesia because it is considered major abdominal surgery. The procedure requires a smaller incision than a caesarean section and is used during later stages of pregnancy.[16] The human gestation period of approximately 40 weeks between the time of the last menstrual cycle and delivery is traditionally divided into three periods of three months, or trimesters. ... E1 - Alprostadil I2 - Prostacyclin A prostaglandin is any member of a group of lipid compounds that are derived enzymatically from fatty acids and have important functions in the animal body. ... A drawing of the amniotic sac from Grays Anatomy. ... In medicine, saline is a solution of sodium chloride (a substance also commonly known as table salt) in sterile water, used frequently for intravenous infusion, rinsing contact lenses, and nasal irrigation (or the yogic practice called jala neti). ... Urea is an organic compound with the chemical formula (NH2)2CO. Urea is also known as carbamide, especially in the recommended International Nonproprietary Names (rINN) in use in Europe. ... Intact dilation and extraction (IDX or intact D&X), also known as intact dilation and evacuation (intact D&E), dilation and extraction (D&X), intrauterine cranial decompression and in the United States as partial birth abortion, is a surgical abortion wherein an intact and usually viable fetus is removed from... It has been suggested that Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act of 1995 be merged into this article or section. ... Hysterotomy abortion is a form of abortion, similar to a caesarian abortion. ... A caesarean section (AE cesarean section), or c-section, is a form of childbirth in which a surgical incision is made through a mothers abdomen (laparotomy) and uterus (hysterotomy) to deliver one or more babies. ... This article or section may be confusing for some readers, and should be edited to be clearer. ...


From the 20th to 23rd week of gestation, an injection to stop the fetal heart can be used as the first phase of the surgical abortion procedure.[17] In medicine, an injection is a method of putting liquid into the body with a hollow needle and a syringe. ...


Medical abortion

Main article: Medical abortion

Effective in the first trimester of pregnancy, medical (non-surgical) abortions comprise 10% of all abortions in the United States and Europe. Combined regimens include methotrexate or mifepristone, followed by a prostaglandin (either misoprostol or gemeprost: misoprostol is used in the U.S.; gemeprost is used in the UK and Sweden.) When used within 49 days gestation, approximately 92% of women undergoing medical abortion with a combined regimen completed it without surgical intervention.[18] Misoprostol can be used alone, but has a lower efficacy rate than combined regimens. In cases of failure of medical abortion, vacuum or manual aspiration is used to complete the abortion surgically. Amethopterin redirects here. ... Mifepristone is a synthetic steroid compound used as a pharmaceutical. ... E1 - Alprostadil I2 - Prostacyclin A prostaglandin is any member of a group of lipid compounds that are derived enzymatically from fatty acids and have important functions in the animal body. ... Misoprostol is a drug that is United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved for the treatment and prevention of stomach ulcers. ... Gemeprost (16, 16-dimethyl-trans-delta2 PGE1 methyl ester) is a prostaglandin E1 analogue. ...


Other means of abortion

Bas-relief at Angkor Wat, dated circa 1150, depicting a demon performing an abortion by pounding a mallet into a woman's belly.

Historically, a number of herbs reputed to possess abortifacient properties have been used in folk medicine: tansy, pennyroyal, black cohosh, and the now-extinct silphium (see history of abortion).[19] The use of herbs in such a manner can cause serious — even lethal — side effects, such as multiple organ failure, and is not recommended by physicians.[20] Image File history File links Angkordemon. ... Image File history File links Angkordemon. ... Bas relief is a method of sculpting which entails carving or etching away the surface of a flat piece of stone or metal. ... Aerial view of Angkor Wat The main entrance to the temple proper, seen from the eastern end of the Naga causeway Angkor Wat (or Angkor Vat) is a temple at Angkor, Cambodia, built for King Suryavarman II in the early 12th century as his state temple and capital city. ... “Fiend” redirects here. ... Herbs: basil Herbs (IPA: hÉ™()b, or É™b; see pronunciation differences) are seed-bearing plants without woody stems, which die down to the ground after flowering. ... An abortifacient is a substance that induces abortion. ... A traditional healer in Côte dIvoire Folk medicine refers collectively to procedures traditionally used for treatment of illness and injury, aid to childbirth, and maintenance of wellness. ... Binomial name L. Illustration of a tansy Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare) is a perennial herbaceous flowering plant of the aster family that is native to temperate Europe and Asia. ... Binomial name L. The herb Pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium, family Lamiaceae), is a member of the mint genus; an essential oil extracted from it is used in aromatherapy. ... Binomial name Cimicifuga racemosa (L.) Nutt. ... Ancient silver coin from Cyrene depicting a stalk of Silphium. ... An abortion is the removal or expulsion of an embryo or fetus from the uterus, resulting in or caused by its death. ... Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome MODS; previously known as multiple organ failure (MOF) is altered organ function in an acutely ill patient requiring medical intervention to maintain homeostasis. ... For other uses, see Doctor. ...


Abortion is sometimes attempted by causing trauma to the abdomen. The degree of force, if severe, can cause serious internal injuries without necessarily succeeding in inducing miscarriage.[21] Both accidental and deliberate abortions of this kind can be subject to criminal liability in many countries. In Burma, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand, there is an ancient tradition of attempting abortion through forceful abdominal massage.[22] For the human abdomen, see human abdomen. ... Miscarriage or spontaneous abortion is the natural or spontaneous end of a pregnancy at a stage where the embryo or the fetus is incapable of surviving, generally defined in humans at a gestation of prior to 20 weeks. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Reported methods of unsafe, self-induced abortion include misuse of misoprostol, and insertion of non-surgical implements such as knitting needles and clothes hangers into the uterus. These methods are rarely seen in developed countries where surgical abortion is legal and available.[23]
A self-induced abortion is an abortion that a pregnant woman causes herself to have without direct medical aid. ... Misoprostol is a drug that is United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved for the treatment and prevention of stomach ulcers. ... Bamboo knitting needles A little dexterity is helpful in working with knitting needles A knitting needle or knitting pin is a long stick or rod used as a tool in the manufacture of hand knitted fabric. ... Wire (top) and wooden (bottom) clothes hangers Clothes hanger with Clamps A clothes hanger, or coat hanger, is a device in the shape of: Human shoulders designed to facilitate the hanging of a coat, jacket, sweater, shirt, blouse or dress in a manner that prevents wrinkles, with a lower bar... This article is about female reproductive anatomy. ...


Health considerations

Early-term surgical abortion is a simple procedure, which is considered safer than childbirth when performed before the 16th week under modern medical conditions.[24][25] Abortion methods, like most surgical procedures, carry a small potential for serious complications, including perforated uterus,[26][27] perforated bowel[28] or bladder,[29] septic shock,[30] sterility,[31] and death.[32] The risk of complications can increase depending on how far pregnancy has progressed.[33][34] Parturition redirects here. ... This article is about female reproductive anatomy. ... The intestine is the portion of the alimentary canal extending from the stomach to the anus and, in humans and other mammals, consists of two segments, the small intestine and the large intestine. ... In anatomy, the urinary bladder is a hollow, muscular, and distensible (or elastic) organ that sits on the pelvic floor in mammals. ... Septic shock is a serious medical condition causing such effects as multiple organ failure and death in response to infection and sepsis. ... Infertility primarily refers to the biological inability of a man or a woman to contribute to conception. ... For other uses, see Death (disambiguation). ... This article is about human pregnancy in biological females. ...


Assessing the risks of induced abortion depends on a number of factors. First, there are relative health risks of induced abortion and pregnancy, which are both affected by wide variation in the quality of health services in different societies and among different socio-economic groups, a lack of uniform definitions of terms, and difficulties in patient follow-up and after-care. The degree of risk is also dependent upon the skill and experience of the practitioner; maternal age, health, and parity;[34] gestational age;[34][33] pre-existing conditions; methods and instruments used; medications used; the skill and experience of those assisting the practitioner; and the quality of recovery and follow-up care. For other uses, see Society (disambiguation). ... Socioeconomics is the study of the social and economic impacts of any product or service offering, market intervention or other activity on an economy as a whole and on the companies, organization and individuals who are its main economic actors. ... Look up definition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In medicine, parity is a technical term that refers to the number of times a woman has given birth. ... Gestational age is age of a fetus (or newborn infant) from presumed conception. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In the United Kingdom, the number of deaths directly due to legal abortion between the years of 1991 and 1993 was 5, compared to 3 deaths following spontaneous miscarriage and 8 deaths caused by ectopic pregnancy during the same time frame.[35] In the United States, during the year 1999, there were 4 deaths due to legal abortion, 10 due to miscarriage, and 525 due to pregnancy-related reasons.[36][37] Miscarriage or spontaneous abortion is the natural or spontaneous end of a pregnancy at a stage where the embryo or the fetus is incapable of surviving, generally defined in humans at a gestation of prior to 20 weeks. ...


Some practitioners advocate using minimal anaesthesia so the patient can alert them to possible complications. Others recommend general anaesthesia, to prevent patient movement, which might cause a perforation. General anaesthesia carries its own risks, including death, which is why public health officials recommend against its routine use. Anesthesia (AE), also anaesthesia (BE), is the process of blocking the perception of pain and other sensations. ... In modern medical practice, general anaesthesia (AmE: anesthesia) is a state of total unconsciousness resulting from general anaesthetic drugs. ...


Dilation of the cervix carries the risk of cervical tears or perforations, including small tears that might not be apparent and might cause cervical incompetence in future pregnancies. Most practitioners recommend using the smallest possible dilators, and using osmotic rather than mechanical dilators after the first trimester. Cervical dilation is the dilation (widening) of the cervix during childbirth. ... The cervix (from Latin neck) is the lower, narrow portion of the uterus where it joins with the top end of the vagina. ... Cervical incompetence is a condition in which the cervix begins to open (dilate) and thin (efface) before a pregnancy has reached term. ... This article is about devices that perform tasks. ... The human gestation period of approximately 40 weeks between the time of the last menstrual cycle and delivery is traditionally divided into three periods of three months, or trimesters. ...


Instruments that are placed within the uterus can, on rare occasions, cause perforation[33] or laceration of the uterus, and damage structures surrounding the uterus. Laceration or perforation of the uterus or cervix can, again on rare occasions, lead to more serious complications. A perforation is a hole made by puncturing a surface. ... Definition A cut is an injury that results in a break or opening in the skin. ...


Incomplete emptying of the uterus can cause hemorrhage and infection. Use of ultrasound verification of the location and duration of the pregnancy prior to abortion, with immediate follow-up of patients reporting continuing pregnancy symptoms after the procedure, will virtually eliminate this risk. The sooner a complication is noted and properly treated, the lower the risk of permanent injury or death. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Medical ultrasonography (sonography) is an ultrasound-based diagnostic imaging technique used to visualize muscles and internal organs, their size, structures and possible pathologies or lesions. ...


In rare cases, abortion will be unsuccessful and pregnancy will continue. An unsuccessful abortion can result in delivery of a live infant. This, termed a failed abortion, can occur only late in pregnancy. Some doctors have voiced concerns about the ethical and legal ramifications of letting the infant die. As a result, recent investigations have been launched in the United Kingdom by the Confidential Enquiry into Maternal and Child Health (CEMACH) and the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, in order to determine how widespread the problem is and what an ethical response in the treatment of the infant might be. A preliminary report from this investigation indicated that at least 50 babies a year are born in the UK following failed abortions after 18 weeks of gestation.[38] “Baby” redirects here. ... The Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists is a medical institution in England which is responsible for training and regulating medical practitioners who specialise in obstetrics and gynaecology. ... Ethics is a general term for what is often described as the science (study) of morality. In philosophy, ethical behavior is that which is good or right. ...


Unsafe abortion methods (e.g. use of certain drugs, herbs, or insertion of non-surgical objects into the uterus) are potentially dangerous, carrying a significantly elevated risk for permanent injury or death, as compared to abortions done by physicians. This article is about female reproductive anatomy. ... For other uses, see Doctor. ...


Suggested effects

There is controversy over a number of proposed risks and effects of abortion. Evidence, whether in support of or against such claims, might be influenced by the political and religious beliefs of the parties behind it.


Breast cancer

Main articles: Abortion-breast cancer hypothesis and Breast cancer

The abortion-breast cancer (ABC) hypothesis (also referred to by supporters as the abortion-breast cancer link) posits a causal relationship between induced abortion and an increased risk of developing breast cancer. In early pregnancy, levels of estrogen increase, leading to breast growth in preparation for lactation. The hypothesis proposes that if this process is interrupted by an abortion – before full differentiation in the third trimester – then more relatively vulnerable undifferentiated cells could be left than there were prior to the pregnancy, resulting in a greater potential risk of breast cancer. The hypothesis garnered renewed interest from rat studies conducted in the 1980s;[39][40][41] however, it has not been scientifically verified in humans, and abortion is not considered a breast cancer risk by any major cancer organization.[42] The controversial abortion-breast cancer (ABC) hypothesis posits a causal relationship between having an induced abortion and a higher risk of developing breast cancer in the future. ... Breast cancer is cancer of breast tissue. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... Breast cancer is cancer of breast tissue. ... This article is about human pregnancy in biological females. ... Estriol. ... For other uses, see Breast (disambiguation). ... Kittens nursing Lactation describes the secretion of milk from the mammary glands, the process of providing that milk to the young, and the period of time that a mother lactates to feed her young. ... Embryonic stem cells differentiate into cells in various body organs. ... The human gestation period of approximately 40 weeks between the time of the last menstrual cycle and delivery is traditionally divided into three periods of three months, or trimesters. ... Species 50 species; see text *Several subfamilies of Muroids include animals called rats. ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ...


A large epidemiological study by Mads Melbye et al. in 1997, with data from two national registries in Denmark, reported the correlation to be negligible to non-existent after statistical adjustment.[43] The National Cancer Institute conducted an official workshop with over 100 experts on the issue in February 2003, which concluded with its highest strength rating for the selected evidence that "induced abortion is not associated with an increase in breast cancer risk."[44] In 2004, Beral et al. published a collaborative reanalysis of 53 epidemiological studies and concluded that abortion does "not increase a woman's risk of developing breast cancer."[45] Epidemiology is the study of factors affecting the health and illness of populations, and serves as the foundation and logic of interventions made in the interest of public health and preventive medicine. ... In most countries, births, deaths, and marriages are recorded at a government controlled births, deaths and marriages registry office (eg. ... One may be faced with the problem of making a definite decision with respect to an uncertain hypothesis which is known only through its observable consequences. ... The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is part of the United States Federal governments National Institutes of Health. ... A meta-analysis is a statistical practice of combining the results of a number of studies. ...


Critics of these studies argue they are subject to selection bias,[46] that the majority of interview-based studies have indicated a link, and that some are statistically significant.[47] Debate remains as to the reliability of these retrospective studies because of possible response bias. The current scientific consensus that abortion does not increase the risk of breast cancer has solidified with the publication of large prospective cohort studies which find no significant association between abortion and breast cancer.[48][49] The ongoing prominence of the abortion-breast cancer hypothesis, despite the lack of clear scientific evidence, is seen by some as a part of the current pro-life "women-centered" strategy against abortion.[50][51] Nevertheless, the subject continues to be one of mostly political but some scientific contention.[52][53] Selection bias is the error of distorting a statistical analysis by pre- or post-selecting the samples. ... In statistics, a result is significant if it is unlikely to have occurred by chance, given that a presumed null hypothesis is true, but is not improbable if the null hypothesis is false. ... Response bias is a type of statistical bias which can affect the results of a statistical survey if respondents answer questions in the way they think the questioner wants them to answer rather than according to their true beliefs. ... Scientific consensus is the collective judgment, position, and opinion of the community of scientists in a particular field of science at a particular time. ... A Study design is a way to set up an epidemiological investigation, as a form of clinical trial. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Cohort (statistics). ... This article is about the social movement. ...


Fetal pain

Main article: Fetal pain

The existence or absence of fetal sensation during abortion is a matter of medical, ethical and public policy interest. Evidence conflicts, with several physicians holding that the fetus is capable of feeling pain sometime in the first trimester,[54][55] and medical researchers, notably from the American Medical Association, maintaining that the neuro-anatomical requirements for such experience do not exist until the 29th week of gestation.[56] The issue of when a fetus can feel pain is a highly divisive and keenly debated one when considering the experience of a fetus during abortion. ... “Hurting” redirects here. ... The human gestation period of approximately 40 weeks between the time of the last menstrual cycle and delivery is traditionally divided into three periods of three months, or trimesters. ... The American Medical Association (AMA) is the largest association of medical doctors in the United States. ... Neuroanatomy is the anatomy of the nervous system. ...


Pain receptors begin to appear in the seventh week of gestation.[55][57] The thalamus, the part of the brain which receives signals from the nervous system and then relays them to the cerebral cortex, starts to form in the fifth week.[58] However, other anatomical structures involved in the nociceptive process are not present until much later in gestation. Links between the thalamus and cerebral cortex form around the 23rd week.[58] There has been suggestion that a fetus cannot feel pain at all, as it requires mental development that only occurs outside the womb.[59] A nociceptor is a sensory receptor that responds only after a high level of stimuli or a level enough to hurt the individual. ... The thalamus (from Greek θάλαμος = bedroom, chamber, IPA= /ˈθæləməs/) is a pair and symmetric part of the brain. ... The nervous system of an animal coordinates the activity of the muscles, monitors the organs, constructs and also stops input from the senses, and initiates actions. ... Location of the cerebral cortex Slice of the cerebral cortex, ca. ... “Hurting” redirects here. ... Gestation is the carrying of an embryo or fetus inside a female viviparous animal. ...


Researchers have observed changes in heart rates and hormonal levels of newborn infants after circumcision, blood tests, and surgery — effects which were alleviated with the administration of anesthesia.[60] Others suggest that the human experience of pain, being more than just physiological, cannot be measured in such reflexive responses.[61] Hormone is also the NATO reporting name for the Soviet/Russian Kamov Ka-25 military helicopter. ... A human infant The word Infant derives from the Latin in-fans, meaning unable to speak. ... This article is about male circumcision. ... Blood tests are laboratory tests done on blood to gain an appreciation of disease states and the function of organs. ... Anesthesia or anaesthesia (see spelling differences) has traditionally meant the condition of having the perception of pain and other sensations blocked. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Mental health

Main articles: Post-abortion syndrome and Mental health

Post-abortion syndrome (PAS) is a term used to describe a set of mental health characteristics which some researchers claim to have observed in women following an abortion.[62] The psychopathological symptoms attributed to PAS are similar to those of post-traumatic stress disorder, but have also included, "repeated and persistent dreams and nightmares related with the abortion, intense feelings of guilt and the 'need to repair'".[62] Whether this would warrant classification as an independent syndrome is disputed by other researchers.[63] PAS is listed in neither the DSM-IV-TR nor the ICD-10. Issues of discussion Post-abortion syndrome (PAS), post-traumatic abortion syndrome and abortion trauma syndrome, are terms primarily used by opponents of abortion[1][2] and a minority of health care professionals to describe a proposed diagnosis of psychopathological characteristics which may be observed in some women following a medically... Mental health is a term used to describe either a level of cognitive or emotional wellbeing or an absence of mental illness. ... Issues of discussion Post-abortion syndrome (PAS), post-traumatic abortion syndrome and abortion trauma syndrome, are terms primarily used by opponents of abortion[1][2] and a minority of health care professionals to describe a proposed diagnosis of psychopathological characteristics which may be observed in some women following a medically... Mental health is a term used to describe either a level of cognitive or emotional wellbeing or an absence of mental illness. ... Psychopathology is a term which refers to either the study of mental illness or mental distress, or the manifestation of behaviors and experiences which may be indicative of mental illness or psychological impairment. ... Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a term for certain severe psychological consequences of exposure to, or confrontation with, stressful events that the person experiences as highly traumatic. ... The current usage of the term nightmare refers to a dream which causes the sleeper a strong unpleasant emotional response. ... “Guilty” redirects here. ... ... In medicine, the term syndrome is the association of several clinically recognizable features, signs, symptoms, phenomena or characteristics which often occur together, so that the presence of one feature alerts the physician to the presence of the others. ... The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, published by the American Psychiatric Association, is the handbook used most often in diagnosing mental disorders in the United States and other countries. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ...


Some studies have shown abortion to have neutral or positive effects on the mental well-being of some patients. A 1989 study of teenagers who sought pregnancy tests found that, counting from the beginning of pregnancy until two years later, the level of stress and anxiety of those who had an abortion did not differ from that of those who had not been pregnant or who had carried their pregnancy to term.[64] Another study in 1992 suggested a link between elective abortion and later reports of positive self-esteem; it also noted that adverse emotional reactions to the procedure are most strongly influenced by pre-existing psychological conditions and other negative factors.[65] Abortion, as compared to completion, of an undesired first pregnancy was not found to directly pose the risk of significant depression in a 2005 study.[66] “Young Men” redirects here. ... A modern pregnancy test A pregnancy test is a test to determine whether or not a woman is pregnant. ... In medical terms, stress is the disruption of homeostasis through physical or psychological stimuli. ... what up?? Anxiety is a physiological state characterized by cognitive, somatic, emotional, and behavioral components (Seligman, Walker & Rosenhan, 2001). ... In psychology, self-esteem or self-worth is a persons self-image at an emotional level; circumventing reason and logic. ... Psychological science redirects here. ... In medicine, gravidity is a technical term that refers to the number of times a woman has been pregnant. ...


Other studies have shown a correlation between abortion and negative psychological impact. A 1996 study found that suicide is more common after miscarriage and especially after induced abortion, than in the general population.[67] Additional research in 2002 by David Reardon reported that the risk of clinical depression was higher for women who chose to have an abortion compared to those who opted to carry to term — even if the pregnancy was unwanted.[68] Another study in 2006, which used data gathered over a 25-year period, found an increased occurrence of clinical depression, anxiety, suicidal behavior, and substance abuse among women who had previously had an abortion.[69] Dr. David C Reardon,director of The Elliot Institute, is a biomedical ethicist specializing in research and education related to the effects of abortion on women. ... On the Threshold of Eternity. ... what up?? Anxiety is a physiological state characterized by cognitive, somatic, emotional, and behavioral components (Seligman, Walker & Rosenhan, 2001). ... For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ... Also see Alcoholism and Drug addiction. ...


Miscarriage, or spontaneous abortion, is known to present an increased risk of depression.[70] Childbirth can also sometimes result in maternity blues or postpartum depression. Miscarriage or spontaneous abortion is the natural or spontaneous end of a pregnancy at a stage where the embryo or the fetus is incapable of surviving, generally defined in humans at a gestation of prior to 20 weeks. ... Parturition redirects here. ... The maternity baby blues, maternity blues or baby blues is a condition that 75-80% of mothers can experience after childbirth with a wide variety of symptoms which generally involve mild depression. ... Postpartum depression (also postnatal depression) is a form of clinical depression which can affect women, and less frequently men, after childbirth. ...


History of abortion

"French Periodical Pills." An example of a clandestine advertisement published in an 1845 edition of the Boston Daily Times.
"French Periodical Pills." An example of a clandestine advertisement published in an 1845 edition of the Boston Daily Times.
Main article: History of abortion

Induced abortion, according to some anthropologists, can be traced to ancient times.[71] There is evidence to suggest that, historically, pregnancies were terminated through a number of methods, including the administration of abortifacient herbs, the use of sharpened implements, the application of abdominal pressure, and other techniques. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (776x1024, 287 KB) Information French Periodical Pills advertisement published in the January 6, 1845 edition of the Boston Daily Times. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (776x1024, 287 KB) Information French Periodical Pills advertisement published in the January 6, 1845 edition of the Boston Daily Times. ... Indirect advertisements for abortion services, like these in the New York Sun in 1842, were common during the Victorian era. ... See Anthropology. ... An abortifacient is a substance that induces abortion. ...


The Hippocratic Oath, the chief statement of medical ethics in Ancient Greece, forbade all doctors from helping to procure an abortion by pessary. Nonetheless, Soranus, a second-century Greek physician, suggested in his work Gynaecology that women wishing to abort their pregnancies should engage in violent exercise, energetic jumping, carrying heavy objects, and riding animals. He also prescribed a number of recipes for herbal baths, pessaries, and bloodletting, but advised against the use of sharp instruments to induce miscarriage due to the risk of organ perforation.[72] It is also believed that, in addition to using it as a contraceptive, the ancient Greeks relied upon silphium as an abortifacient. Such folk remedies, however, varied in effectiveness and were not without risk. Tansy and pennyroyal, for example, are two poisonous herbs with serious side effects that have at times been used to terminate pregnancy. A twelfth-century Byzantine manuscript of the Oath in the form of a cross. ... Medical ethics is primarily a field of applied ethics, the study of moral values and judgments as they apply to medicine. ... The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... A pessary is a small plastic or silicone medical device or form of pharmaceutical preparation which is inserted into the vagina or rectum and held in place by the pelvic floor musculature. ... Soranus, Greek physician, born at Ephesus, lived during the reigns of Trajan and Hadrian (AD 98-138). ... For other uses, see Doctor. ... The shamefulness associated with the examination of female genitalia has long inhibited the science of gynaecology. ... Ancient Greek painting in a vase, showing a physician (iatros) bleeding a patient. ... A perforation is a hole made by puncturing a surface. ... Ancient silver coin from Cyrene depicting a stalk of Silphium. ... An abortifacient is a substance that induces abortion. ... Binomial name L. Illustration of a tansy Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare) is a perennial herbaceous flowering plant of the aster family that is native to temperate Europe and Asia. ... Binomial name L. The herb Pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium, family Lamiaceae), is a member of the mint genus; an essential oil extracted from it is used in aromatherapy. ... The skull and crossbones symbol (Jolly Roger) traditionally used to label a poisonous substance. ... This article is about the plants used in cooking and medicine. ... Adverse effect, in medicine, is an abnormal, harmful, undesired and/or unintended side-effect, although not necessarily unexpected, which is obtained as the result of a therapy or other medical intervention, such as drug/chemotherapy, physical therapy, surgery, medical procedure, use of a medical device, etc. ...


Abortion in the 19th century continued, despite bans in both the United Kingdom and the United States, as the disguised, but nonetheless open, advertisement of services in the Victorian era suggests.[73] Queen Victoria (shown here on the morning of her accession to the Throne, 20 June 1837) gave her name to the historic era The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ...


Social issues

A number of complex issues exist in the debate over abortion. These, like the suggested effects upon health listed above, are a focus of research and a fixture of discussion among members on all sides of the controversy.


Effect upon crime rate

A controversial theory attempts to draw a correlation between the United States' unprecedented nationwide decline of the overall crime rate during the 1990s and the decriminalization of abortion 20 years prior. The legalized abortion and crime effect is the highly controversial theory that the legalization of abortion in the United States, due to Roe v. ... Positive linear correlations between 1000 pairs of numbers. ... This graph shows the rate of non-fatal firearm-related crime in the United States from 1993 to 2003. ...


The suggestion was brought to widespread attention by a 1999 academic paper, The Impact of Legalized Abortion on Crime, authored by the economists Steven D. Levitt and John Donohue. They attributed the drop in crime to a reduction in individuals said to have a higher statistical probability of committing crimes: unwanted children, especially those born to mothers who are African-American, impoverished, adolescent, uneducated, and single. The change coincided with what would have been the adolescence, or peak years of potential criminality, of those who had not been born as a result of Roe v. Wade and similar cases. Donohue and Levitt's study also noted that states which legalized abortion before the rest of the nation experienced the lowering crime rate pattern earlier, and those with higher abortion rates had more pronounced reductions.[74] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Academic publishing. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Legalized_abortion_and_crime_effect. ... Alan Greenspan, former chairman, United States Federal Reserve. ... Steven Levitt Steven Levitt (born May 29, 1967) is prominent American economist best known for his work on crime, in particular on the link between legalized abortion and crime rates. ... Languages Predominantly American English Religions Protestantism (chiefly Baptist and Methodist); Roman Catholicism; Islam Related ethnic groups Sub-Saharan Africans and other African groups, some with Native American groups. ... A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows what he found. ... Teenage pregnancy is defined in the United States as an underaged girl becoming pregnant with a baby. ... This article is about institutionalized education. ... It has been suggested that Baby mama be merged into this article or section. ... Holding Texas law making it a crime to assist a woman to get an abortion violated her due process rights. ...


Fellow economists Christopher Foote and Christopher Goetz criticized the methodology in the Donohue-Levitt study, noting a lack of accommodation for statewide yearly variations such as cocaine use, and recalculating based on incidence of crime per capita; they found no statistically significant results.[75] Levitt and Donohue responded to this by presenting an adjusted data set which took into account these concerns and reported that the data maintained the statistical significance of their initial paper.[76] Methodology is defined as the analysis of the // == Headline text == principles of methods, rules, and postulates employed by a discipline or the development of methods, to be applied within a discipline a particular procedure or set of procedures. [1]. It should be noted that methodology is frequently used when method... Cocaine is a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant. ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... In statistics, a result is significant if it is unlikely to have occurred by chance, given that a presumed null hypothesis is true, but is not improbable if the null hypothesis is false. ... A data set (or dataset) is a collection of data, usually presented in tabular form. ...


Such research has been criticized by some as being utilitarian, discriminatory as to race and socioeconomic class, and as promoting eugenics as a solution to crime.[77][78] Levitt states in his book, Freakonomics, that they are neither promoting nor negating any course of action — merely reporting data as economists. Utilitarianism is a suggested theoretical framework for morality, law and politics, based on quantitative maximisation of some definition of utility for society or humanity. ... This box:      Most broadly, discrimination is the discernment of qualities and rejection of subjects with undesirable qualities. ... For other uses, see Race (disambiguation). ... Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. ... The word eugenics (from the Greek εὐγενής, for well-born) was coined in 1883 by Sir Francis Galton, a cousin of Charles Darwin, to refer to the study and use of selective breeding (of animals or humans) to improve a species over generations, specifically... The cover of this version of Freakonomics has a picture of what looks like an apple on the outside but is really an orange. ...


Sex-selective abortion

Main article: Sex-selective abortion and infanticide

The advent of both sonography and amniocentesis has allowed parents to determine sex before birth. This has led to the occurrence of sex-selective abortion or the targeted termination of a fetus based upon its sex. Issues of discussion Sex-selective abortion is the targeted abortion of a fetus based upon its sex. ... Medical ultrasonography (sonography) is an ultrasound-based diagnostic imaging technique used to visualize muscles and internal organs, their size, structures and possible pathologies or lesions. ... Amniocentesis (also referred to as amniotic fluid test or AFT), is a medical procedure used in prenatal diagnosis of genetic risk factors, in which a small amount of amniotic fluid, which contains fetal tissues, is extracted from the amnion or amniotic sac surrounding a developing fetus, and the fetal DNA... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Parturition redirects here. ... Issues of discussion Sex-selective abortion is the targeted abortion of a fetus based upon its sex. ... For other uses, see Fetus (disambiguation). ...


It is suggested that sex-selective abortion might be partially responsible for the noticeable disparities between the birth rates of male and female children in some places. The preference for male children is reported in many areas of Asia, and abortion used to limit female births has been reported in Mainland China, Taiwan, South Korea, and India.[79] ...


In India, the economic role of men, the costs associated with dowries, and a Hindu tradition which dictates that funeral rites must be performed by a male relative have led to a cultural preference for sons.[80] The widespread availability of diagnostic testing, during the 1970s and '80s, led to advertisements for services which read, "Invest 500 rupees [for a sex test] now, save 50,000 rupees [for a dowry] later."[81] In 1991, the male-to-female sex ratio in India was skewed from its biological norm of 105 to 100, to an average of 108 to 100.[82] Researchers have asserted that between 1985 and 2005 as many as 10 million female fetuses may have been selectively aborted.[83] The Indian government passed an official ban of pre-natal sex screening in 1994 and moved to pass a complete ban of sex-selective abortion in 2002.[84] Economics (deriving from the Greek words οίκω [okos], house, and νέμω [nemo], rules hence household management) is the social science that studies the allocation of scarce resources to satisfy unlimited wants. ... A dowry (also known as trousseau) is a gift of money or valuables given by the family of the bride to the family of the groom at the time of their marriage. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... For other uses, see Funeral (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... A son is a male offspring; a boy, man, or male animal in relation to either or both of his parents. ... It has been suggested that History of the rupee be merged into this article or section. ... Sex ratio by country for total population. ...


In the People's Republic of China, there is also a historic son preference. The implementation of the one-child policy in 1979, in response to population concerns, led to an increased disparity in the sex ratio as parents attempted to circumvent the law through sex-selective abortion or the abandonment of unwanted daughters.[85] Sex-selective abortion might be an influence on the shift from the baseline male-to-female birth rate to an elevated national rate of 117:100 reported in 2002. The trend was more pronounced in rural regions: as high as 130:100 in Guangdong and 135:100 in Hainan.[86] A ban upon the practice of sex-selective abortion was enacted in 2003.[87] Poster of Chinese birth control policy under the slogan Sweet Achievement. ... Not to be confused with the former Kwantung Leased Territory in north-eastern China. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Unsafe abortion

Soviet poster circa 1925. Title translation: "Abortions performed by either trained or self-taught midwives not only maim the woman, they also often lead to death."
Main article: Unsafe abortion

Where and when access to safe abortion has been barred, due to explicit sanctions or general unavailability, women seeking to terminate their pregnancies have sometimes resorted to unsafe methods. Image File history File links RussianAbortionPoster. ... Image File history File links RussianAbortionPoster. ... “CCCP” redirects here. ... Soviet Propaganda Poster during World War II. The text reads Red Army Fighter, SAVE US! Chinese propaganda poster from the time of the Cultural Revolution. ... Issues of discussion Unsafe abortion is a significant cause of maternal mortality and morbidity in the world, especially in developing countries (95% of unsafe abortions take place in developing countries). ...


"Back-alley abortion" is a slang term for any abortion not practiced under generally accepted standards of sanitation and professionalism. The World Health Organization defines an unsafe abortion as being, "a procedure...carried out by persons lacking the necessary skills or in an environment that does not conform to minimal medical standards, or both."[11] This can include a person without medical training, a professional health provider operating in sub-standard conditions, or the woman herself. “WHO” redirects here. ...


Unsafe abortion remains a public health concern today due to the higher incidence and severity of its associated complications, such as incomplete abortion, sepsis, hemorrhage, and damage to internal organs. WHO estimates that 19 million unsafe abortions occur around the world annually and that 68,000 of these result in the woman's death.[11] Complications of unsafe abortion are said to account, globally, for approximately 13% of all maternal mortalities, with regional estimates including 12% in Asia, 25% in Latin America, and 13% in sub-Saharan Africa.[88] Health education, access to family planning, and improvements in health care during and after abortion have been proposed to address this phenomenon.[89] Public health is concerned with threats to the overall health of a community based on population health analysis. ... Sepsis (in Greek Σήψις, putrefaction) is a serious medical condition, resulting from the immune response to a severe infection. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... A political map showing national divisions in relation to the ecological break (Sub-Saharan Africa in green) A geographical map of Africa, showing the ecological break that defines the sub-Saharan area Sub-Saharan Africa is the term used to describe the area of the African continent which lies south... Health education is defined as the process by which individuals and groups of people learn to behave in a manner conducive to the promotion, maintenance or restoration of health. ... Oral contraceptives. ... A physician visiting the sick in a hospital. ...


Abortion debate

Pro-choice activists near the Washington Monument at the March for Women's Lives.
Pro-life activists at the March for Life in 2002. The rally is held annually in Washington, DC.
Main articles: Abortion debate, Pro-choice, and Pro-life

Over the course of the history of abortion, induced abortion has been the source of considerable debate, controversy, and activism. An individual's position on the complex ethical, moral, philosophical, biological, and legal issues is often related to his or her value system. Opinions of abortion may be best described as being a combination of beliefs on its morality, and beliefs on the responsibility, ethical scope, and proper extent of governmental authorities in public policy. Religious ethics also has an influence upon both personal opinion and the greater debate over abortion (see religion and abortion). Photo from the 2004 March for Womens Lives, taken by me File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Photo from the 2004 March for Womens Lives, taken by me File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Washington Monument at dusk For other Washington Monuments, see Washington Monuments (world). ... Marchers on the National Mall Participants leaving the Washington Metro at Stadium-Armory after the march The March for Womens Lives was a demonstration for abortion rights and womens rights, held April 25, 2004 on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., and possibly the largest protest ever... Download high resolution version (1000x750, 183 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1000x750, 183 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... View of the 2007 Pro-life March. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... Issues of discussion The abortion debate refers to discussion and controversy surrounding the moral and legal status of abortion. ... Issues of discussion Pro-choice describes the political and ethical view that a woman should have complete control over her fertility and pregnancy. ... This article is about the social movement. ... Indirect advertisements for abortion services, like these in the New York Sun in 1842, were common during the Victorian era. ... Debate (North American English) or debating (British English) is a formal method of interactive and position representational argument. ... For the Wikipedia policy regarding controversial issues in articles, see Wikipedia:Guidelines for controversial articles. ... Activism, in a general sense, can be described as intentional action to bring about social or political change. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Ethics is a general term for what is often described as the science (study) of morality. In philosophy, ethical behavior is that which is good or right. ... A moral is a one sentence remark made at the end of many childrens stories that expresses the intended meaning, or the moral message, of the tale. ... Philosophy (from the Greek words philos and sophia meaning love of wisdom) is understood in different ways historically and by different philosophers. ... Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, knowledge), also referred to as the biological sciences, is the study of living organisms utilizing the scientific method. ... This article is about law in society. ... A value system refers to the order and priority an individual or society grants to ethical and ideological values. ... For the government in parliamentary systems, see Executive (government) A government is a body that has the power to make and the authority to enforce rules and laws within a civil, corporate, religious, academic, or other organization or group. ... This article is about authority as a concept. ... Public policy is a course of action or inaction chosen by public authorities to address a problem. ... Various Religious symbols, including (first row) Christian, Jewish, Hindu, Bahai, (second row) Islamic, tribal, Taoist, Shinto (third row) Buddhist, Sikh, Hindu, Jain, (fourth row) Ayyavazhi, Triple Goddess, Maltese cross, pre-Christian Slavonic Religion is the adherence to codified beliefs and rituals that generally involve a faith in a spiritual... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Abortion debates, especially pertaining to abortion laws, are often spearheaded by advocacy groups belonging to one of two camps. In the United States, most often those in favor of legal prohibition of abortion describe themselves as pro-life while those against legal restrictions on abortion describe themselves as pro-choice. Both are used to indicate the central principles in arguments for and against abortion: "Is the fetus a human being with a fundamental right to life?" for pro-life advocates, and, for those who are pro-choice, "Does a woman have the right to choose whether or not to continue a pregnancy?" International status of abortion law  Legal on demand  Legal for rape, maternal life, health, mental health, socioecomic factors, and/or fetal defects  Legal for or illegal with exception for rape, maternal life, health, fetal defects, and/or mental health  Illegal with exception for rape, maternal life, health, and/or mental... Advocacy is the act of arguing on behalf of a particular issue, idea or person. ... This article is about the social movement. ... Issues of discussion Pro-choice describes the political and ethical view that a woman should have complete control over her fertility and pregnancy. ...


In both public and private debate, arguments presented in favor of or against abortion focus on either the moral permissibility of an induced abortion, or justification of laws permitting or restricting abortion. Arguments on morality and legality tend to collide and combine, complicating the issue at hand. This article is about law in society. ...


Debate also focuses on whether the pregnant woman should have to notify and/or have the consent of others in distinct cases: a minor, her parents; a legally-married or common-law wife, her husband; or a pregnant woman, the biological father. In a 2003 Gallup poll in the United States, 79% of male and 67% of female respondents were in favor of spousal notification; overall support was 72% with 26% opposed.[90] This article is about human pregnancy in biological females. ... Consent (as a term of jurisprudence) is a possible justification against civil or criminal liability. ... In many countries such as India, the UK, Australia, Canada and New Zealand a minor is presently defined as a person under the age of 18. ... Marriage is an interpersonal relationship with governmental, social, or religious recognition, usually intimate and sexual, and often created as a contract, or through civil process. ... Common-law marriage (or common law marriage), sometimes called informal marriage or marriage by habit and repute is, historically, a form of interpersonal status in which a man and a woman are not legally married. ...


Public opinion

A number of opinion polls around the world have explored public opinion regarding the issue of abortion. Results have varied from poll to poll, country to country, and region to region, while varying with regard to different aspects of the issue. Societal attitudes towards abortion have varied throughout different historal periods and cultures. ... An opinion poll is a survey of opinion from a particular sample. ... Public Opinion is a book on media and democracy by Walter Lippmann. ...


A May 2005 survey examined attitudes toward abortion in 10 European countries, asking polltakers whether they agreed with the statement, "If a woman doesn't want children, she should be allowed to have an abortion". The highest level of approval was 81% in the Czech Republic and the highest level of disapproval was 48% in Poland.[91] For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


In North America, a December 2001 poll surveyed Canadian opinion on abortion, asking Canadians in what circumstances they believe abortion should be permitted; 32% responded that they believe abortion should be legal in all circumstances, 52% that it should be legal in certain circumstances, and 14% that it should be legal in no circumstances. A similar poll in January 2006 surveyed people in the United States about U.S. opinion on abortion; 33% said that abortion should be "permitted only in cases such as rape, incest or to save the woman's life", 27% said that abortion should be "permitted in all cases", 15% that it should be "permitted, but subject to greater restrictions than it is now", 17% said that it should "only be permitted to save the woman's life", and 5% said that it should "never" be permitted.[92] A November 2005 poll in Mexico found that 73.4% think abortion should not be legalized while 11.2% think it should.[93] North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Abortion in Canada is not limited by law. ... Abortion in the United States is a highly-charged issue with significant political and ethical debate. ...


Of attitudes in South and Central America, a December 2003 survey found that 30% of Argentines thought that abortion in Argentina should be allowed "regardless of situation", 47% that it should be allowed "under some circumstances", and 23% that it should not be allowed "regardless of situation".[94] A March 2007 poll regarding the abortion law in Brazil found that 65% of Brazilians believe that it "should not be modified", 16% that it should be expanded "to allow abortion in other cases", 10% that abortion should be "decriminalized", and 5% were "not sure".[95] A July 2005 poll in Colombia found that 65.6% said they thought that abortion should remain illegal, 26.9% that it should be made legal, and 7.5% that they were unsure.[96] South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... Abortion in Argentina is strictly limited by law. ... Abortion is currently illegal in Brazil except under the following two circumstances: the life of the mother is in danger, or the pregnancy is the result of rape. ...


Abortion law

International status of abortion law (detail).
International status of abortion law ( detail).

Before the scientific discovery that human development begins at fertilization, English common law allowed abortions to be performed before "quickening", the earliest perception of fetal movement by a woman during pregnancy, until both pre- and post-quickening abortions were criminalized by Lord Ellenborough's Act in 1803.[97] In 1861, the British Parliament passed the Offences Against the Person Act, which continued to outlaw abortion and served as a model for similar prohibitions in some other nations.[98] The Soviet Union, with legislation in 1920, and Iceland, with legislation in 1935, were two of the first countries to generally allow abortion. The second half of the 20th century saw the liberalization of abortion laws in other countries. The Abortion Act 1967 allowed abortion for limited reasons in the United Kingdom. In the 1973 case, Roe v. Wade, the United States Supreme Court struck down state laws banning abortion, ruling that such laws violated an implied right to privacy in the United States Constitution. The Supreme Court of Canada, similarly, in the case of R. v. Morgentaler, discarded its criminal code regarding abortion in 1988, after ruling that such restrictions violated the security of person guaranteed to women under the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Canada later struck down provincial regulations of abortion in the case of R. v. Morgentaler (1993). By contrast, abortion in Ireland was affected by the addition of an amendment to the Irish Constitution in 1983 by popular referendum, recognizing "the right to life of the unborn". International status of abortion law  Legal on demand  Legal for rape, maternal life, health, mental health, socioecomic factors, and/or fetal defects  Legal for or illegal with exception for rape, maternal life, health, fetal defects, and/or mental health  Illegal with exception for rape, maternal life, health, and/or mental... The history of abortion law dates back to ancient times and has impacted men and women in a variety of ways in different times and places. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1400x628, 38 KB)Created by Kyd from blank world map by Vardion. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1400x628, 38 KB)Created by Kyd from blank world map by Vardion. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1400x628, 38 KB)Created by Kyd from blank world map by Vardion. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... Quickening may refer to: Quickening, the transfer of an immortals life force in the Highlander universe. ... The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative institution in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories (it alone has parliamentary sovereignty). ... The Offences Against the Person Act 1861 (OAP, 24 & 25 Victoria, Cap. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wikisource. ... Holding Texas law making it a crime to assist a woman to get an abortion violated her due process rights. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the... The right to privacy is a purported human right and an element of various legal traditions which may restrain both government and private party action. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The United States Constitution The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ... The Supreme Court of Canada (French: Cour suprême du Canada) is the highest court of Canada and is the final court of appeal in the Canadian justice system. ... Holding Section 251 of the Criminal Code violates a womans right to security of person under section 7 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and cannot be saved under section 1 of the Charter. ... The Charter, signed by Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau in 1981. ... Holding Nova Scotia regulations regarding abortion were ultra vires the legislature of the province as criminal law. ... Abortion in Ireland has had a controversial history and remains a disputed subject today. ... The Eighth Amendment of the Constitution of Ireland, the founding legal document of the Republic of Ireland, introduced the controversial constitutional ban on abortion. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ...


Current laws pertaining to abortion are diverse. Religious, moral, and cultural sensibilities continue to influence abortion laws throughout the world. The right to life, the right to liberty, and the right to security of person are major issues of human rights that are sometimes used as justification for the existence or absence of laws controlling abortion. Many countries in which abortion is legal require that certain criteria be met in order for an abortion to be obtained, often, but not always, using a trimester-based system to regulate the window of legality: The term right to life is a political term used in controversies over various issues that involve the taking of a life (or what is perceived to be a life). ... Liberty is generally considered a concept of political philosophy and identifies the condition in which an individual has immunity from the arbitrary exercise of authority. ... Security of person or security of the person is a human right guaranteed by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted by the United Nations in 1948. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... The human gestation period of approximately 40 weeks between the time of the last menstrual cycle and delivery is traditionally divided into three periods of three months, or trimesters. ...

  • In the United States, some states impose a 24-hour waiting period before the procedure, prescribe the distribution of information on fetal development, or require that parents be contacted if their minor daughter requests an abortion.
  • In the United Kingdom, as in some other countries, two doctors must first certify that an abortion is medically or socially necessary before it can be performed.

Other countries, in which abortion is normally illegal, will allow one to be performed in the case of rape, incest, or danger to the pregnant woman's life or health. A few nations ban abortion entirely: Chile, El Salvador, Malta, and Nicaragua, although in 2006 the Chilean government began the free distribution of emergency contraception.[99][100] In Bangladesh, abortion is illegal, but the government has long supported a network of "menstrual regulation clinics", where menstrual extraction (manual vacuum aspiration) can be performed as menstrual hygiene.[101] This article is about prenatal development in humans. ... Many jurisdictions have laws applying to minors and abortion. ... In many countries such as India, the UK, Australia, Canada and New Zealand a minor is presently defined as a person under the age of 18. ... Incest is sexual activity between two persons related by close kinship. ... Politics of Chile takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Chile is both head of state and head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... Wikinews has related news: FDA to move on approval of over-the-counter sale of Plan B birth control Emergency contraception (EC), or emergency postcoital contraception, refers to contraceptive measures that, if taken after sex, may prevent pregnancy. ... Menstrual extraction is both a surgical abortion method and a menstrual hygiene technique, by which either an entire menstrual period may be removed in a few minutes, or a blastocyst or small embryo--without confirmation of pregnancy. ... Manual vacuum aspiration is a form of abortion using a manual vacuum. ...


See also

This is a list of articles about abortion by country. ... An abortion fund is a non-profit organization that provides financing for abortions to indigent women who cannot afford the fees. ... Issues of discussion Abortion-related violence is criminal violence committed against individuals and organizations that provide abortion. ... The term fetal rights can refer either to legal rights accorded to fetuses or to the moral rights that some people ascribe to them. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A sperm cell fertilizing an ovum This article is about reproduction in organisms. ... The shamefulness associated with the examination of female genitalia has long inhibited the science of gynaecology. ... Late-term abortions are abortions which are performed during the late stages of pregnancy. ... Governments sometimes take measures designed to afford legal protection of access to abortion. ... A uniquely controversial issue, particularly in American politics, is abortion. ... Many jurisdictions have laws applying to minors and abortion. ... Obstetrics (from the Latin obstare, to stand by) is the surgical specialty dealing with the care of a woman and her offspring during pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium (the period shortly after birth). ... The paternal rights and abortion issue is an extension of both the abortion debate and the fathers rights movement. ... This article is about human pregnancy in biological females. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see Reproduction (disambiguation) Reproduction is the biological process by which new individual organisms are produced. ... Selective reduction (or fetal reduction) is the practice of reducing the number of fetuses in a multifetal pregnancy (i. ... A self-induced abortion is an abortion that a pregnant woman causes herself to have without direct medical aid. ...

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Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Lennart Nilsson (b. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... March 16 is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Find more information on abortion by searching Wikipedia's sister projects
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Images and media from Commons
News stories from Wikinews
Learning resources from Wikiversity
  • Abortion at the Open Directory Project
  • Abortion Laws of the World
  • Abortion Policies: A Global Review
  • "Abortion Clinic:" a 1983 PBS Frontline episode.
  • U.S. National Library of Medicine and National Institutes of Health MedlinePlus encyclopedia
  • Abortion: All sides to the issue from the Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance
  • Issue Guide on Abortion from Public Agenda Online

The following information resources may be created by those with a non-neutral position in the abortion debate: Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ... Front page of Religious Tolerance. ...

  • The Guttmacher Institute
  • Johnston's Archive: Abortion Statistics and Other Data
  • Just Facts: Abortion
  • Abortion.com: Abortion Clinics and Medical Providers

The following links are to groups which advocate a specific position:

  • Children by Choice (Australia, pro-choice)
  • Right to Life Australia (pro-life)
  • Canadians for Choice (pro-choice)
  • LifeCanada (pro-life)
  • Abortion Law Reform Association of New Zealand (pro-choice)
  • Voice for Life (New Zealand, pro-life)
  • Abortion Rights (United Kingdom, pro-choice)
  • LifeUK (United Kingdom, pro-life)
  • American Life League (pro-life)
  • NARAL Pro-choice America (pro-choice)
  • CareNet (international, pro-life)
  • Planned Parenthood (international, pro-choice)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Abortion - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6477 words)
An abortion is the removal or expulsion of an embryo or fetus from the uterus, resulting in, or caused by, its death.
Opinions of abortion may be best described as being a combination of beliefs on its morality, and beliefs on the responsibility, ethical scope, and proper extent of governmental authorities in public policy.
Abortion debates, especially pertaining to abortion laws, are often spearheaded by advocacy groups belonging to one of two camps.
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Abortion (2860 words)
In it the fetus dies while yet within the generative organs of the mother, or it is ejected or extracted from them before it is viable; that is, before it is sufficiently developed to continue its life by itself.
In the normal course of nature the living embryo carries on its work of, self-evolution within the maternal womb, deriving its nourishment from the placenta through the vital cord, till, on reaching maturity, it is by the contraction of the uterus issued to lead its separate life.
More immediate causes of abortion may be found in cruel treatment of the mother by her husband or in starvation, or any kind of hardship.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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