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Encyclopedia > Aboriginal peoples in Canada

Aboriginal people in Canada are Indigenous Peoples recognized in the Canadian Constitution Act, 1982, sections 25 and 35, respectively, as Indians (First Nations), Métis, and Inuit. It also refers to self-identification of Aboriginal Peoples who live within Canada, but who have not chosen to accept the extinction of their rights of Sovereignty or Aboriginal Title of their lands. These Indigenous Peoples who assert that their Sovereign rights have not been extinguished point to the Royal Proclamation of 1763 which is mentioned in the Canadian Constitution Act, 1982, Section 25, as well as to the British North America Act and the 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties to which Canada and Great Britain are signatories, in support of this claim. The term indigenous peoples has no universal, standard or fixed definition, but can be used about any ethnic group who inhabit the geographic region with which they have the earliest historical connection. ... The Constitution Act, 1982 (Schedule B of the Canada Act 1982 (U.K.)) is a part of the Constitution of Canada. ... Section Twenty-five of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms is the first section under the heading General in the Canadian constitutions Charter, and like other sections within the General sphere, it aids in the interpretation of rights elsewhere in the Charter. ... // Overview The Constitution Act, 1982 is Schedule B to the Canada Act 1982. ... First Nations is a term of ethnicity used in Canada. ... The Métis (pronounced MAY tee, IPA: , in French or , in Michif ), also historically known as Bois Brule, Countryborn, or Black Scots, are one of three recognized Aboriginal peoples in Canada. ... For other uses, see Inuit (disambiguation). ... A portion of eastern North America; the 1763 Proclamation line is the border between the red and the pink areas. ... The British North America Acts 1867–1975 are a series of Acts of the British Parliament dealing with the government of Canada. ... The Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (or VCLT), adopted on May 22, 1969 and opened for signature on May 23, 1969, codified the pre-existing customary international law on treaties, with some necessary gap-filling and clarifications. ...

The term "First Peoples" has also been used synonymously, and is occasionally used as a descriptive term by U.S. Native Americans in solidarity with their Canadian relatives. As of the 2001 Canadian Census there are over 900,000 Aboriginal people in Canada, 3.3% of the country's total population.[1] This includes approximately 600,000 people of First Nations descent, 290,000 Métis, and 45,000 Inuit. In the east, the Wabanaki never ceded, surrendered or sold lands in what some people call the Atlantic provinces. National representative bodies of Aboriginal peoples in Canada include the Assembly of First Nations, the Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, the Métis National Council, the Native Women's Association of Canada and the Congress of Aboriginal Peoples. These bodies however are not recognized by some Indigenous Peoples in Canada as representing their interests. Some such Indigenous Peoples prefer to rely upon their traditional laws and governance and pick their representation accordingly. Native Americans are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States, including parts of Alaska. ... The Canada 2001 Census was a detailed enumeration of the Canadian population. ... The Assembly of First Nations (AFN) is a body of Aboriginal leaders in Canada. ... The Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami (ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᑕᐱᕇᑦ ᑲᓇᑕᒥ) is an organization in Canada that represents over 40,000 Inuit. ... The Métis National Council is the national representative of the Métis people in Canada. ... The Native Womens Association of Canada, or NWAC, is an organization in Canada that represents Aboriginal women, particularly First Nations and Métis women. ... The Congress of Aboriginal Peoples (CAP) is a Canadian aboriginal organization, whose stated goal is to represent Canadian aboriginals (First Nations and Metis) who do not live on reserves, whether this be an urban, rural or wilderness setting. ...

The Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples was an important commission undertaken by the Government of Canada in the 1990s. It assessed past government policies towards Aboriginal peoples, such as residential schools, and provided many policy recommendations to the government. Of the many recommendations made by RCAP, not one has been implemented by the Federal Government of Canada to date. The Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples was a royal commission established in 1991 to address many issues of Aboriginal status that had come to light with recent events such as the Oka Crisis and the Meech Lake Accord. ... Bold text The Canada wordmark, used by most agencies of the Canadian federal government. ... The 1990s decade refers to the years from the start of 1990 to the end of 1999. ... This article needs to be wikified. ...

Under the Employment Equity Act, and in the view of Statistics Canada, Aboriginal peoples are not considered members of a visible minority.[2]


Native languages

Today, there are more than fifty different languages spoken by Native peoples, most of which are spoken only in Canada and are in decline. Among those with the most speakers include Ojibwe and Cree, together totalling up to 150,000 speakers; Inuktitut, with about 29,000 speakers in the Northwest Territories, Nunavut, Nunavik (Northern Quebec), and Nunatsiavut (Northern Labrador); and Mi'kmaq, with around 8,500 speakers, mostly in Eastern Canada. Ojibwe, Ojibwa, Chippewa or Anishinaabemowin in Eastern Ojibwe syllabics) is the third most commonly spoken Native language in Canada (after Cree and Inuktitut), and the fourth most spoken in North America (behind Navajo, Cree, and Inuktitut). ... Cree is the name for a group of closely-related Algonquian languages spoken by approximately 50,000 speakers across Canada, from Alberta to Labrador. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... Motto: none Capital Yellowknife Largest city Yellowknife Official languages Chipewyan, Cree, English, French, Gwich’in, Inuinnaqtun, Inuktitut, Inuvialuktun, North Slavey, South Slavey, TłįchÇ« [1] Government - Commissioner Tony Whitford - Premier Joe Handley (Consensus government (no party affiliations)) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 1 - Senate seats 1 Confederation 1870... Motto: Nunavut Sannginivut (Inuktitut: Nunavut our strength or Our land our strength) Capital Iqaluit Largest city Iqaluit Official languages Inuktitut, Inuinnaqtun, English, French Government - Commissioner Ann Meekitjuk Hanson - Premier Paul Okalik (Consensus government) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 1 (Nancy Karetak-Lindell) - Senate seats 1 (Willie Adams) Confederation... The Nunavik Region of Quebec, Canada Nunavik (ᓄᓇᕕᒃ) is a region making up the northern third of the province of Quebec, Canada. ... Capital Hopedale (legislative) Nain (administrative) Area Total Recognized 142,450 km² 72,520 km² Nunatsiavut (Inuktitut: ᓄᓇᑦᓯᐊᕗᑦ) is an area claimed by the Inuit in Canada (not to be confused with the territory Nunavut). ... The Mikmaq language (also spelled Míkmaq, Migmaq, and Micmac) is an Eastern Algonquian language spoken by around 7,300 Mikmaq in Canada, and another 1,200 in United States, out of a total ethnic Mikmaq population of roughly 20,000. ...

Two of Canada's territories give official status to Native languages. In Nunavut, Inuktitut and Inuinnaqtun are official languages alongside English and French, and Inuktitut is a common vehicular language in government. In the Northwest Territories, the Official Languages Act specifies no fewer than eleven official languages: Dene Suline, Cree, English, French, Gwichʼin, Inuinnaqtun, Inuktitut, Inuvialuktun, North Slavey, South Slavey and Tåîchô. However besides English and French, these languages are not vehicular in government; official status entitles citizens to receive services in them on request and to deal with the government in them. It also allows their use in the Legislative Assembly of Northwest Territories. Inuinnaqtun is an indigenous language of Canada. ... Dene Suline (also Dëne Sųłiné, Dene Sųłiné, Chipewyan, Dene Suliné, Dëne Suliné, Dene Soun’liné) is the language spoken by the Chipewyan people of central Canada (parts of Alberta, Manitoba, Northwest Territories, Nunavut, Saskatchewan) and is also called Dene. ... Cree is the name for a group of closely-related Algonquian languages spoken by approximately 50,000 speakers across Canada, from Alberta to Labrador. ... The Gwichʼin language is the Athabaskan language of the Gwichʼin indigenous people. ... The Slavey language is a spoken language used among the Slavey Native American people of Canada. ... The Slavey language is a spoken language used among the Slavey Native American people of Canada. ... Dogrib or Tli Cho is a language spoken by the First Nations Tli Cho people of the Canadian territory Northwest Territories. ... The Legislative Assembly of the Northwest Territories, Canada, is located in Yellowknife. ...


Policies regarding the capitalization of "Aboriginal" differ from organization to organization. The Government of Canada's Department of Indian and Northern Affairs advises that the term should always be capitalized [1]. However, the Canadian Oxford Dictionary, Official Dictionary of the Canadian Press (ISBN 0-19-541816-6), instructs that the term should not be capitalized when used as an adjective. Some proponents of capitalization argue that "Aboriginal" should always be capitalized just as other ethnic terms are, such as "Japanese", "Irish", or "German". The Department of Indian and Northern Affairs, also referred to as Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, is the department of the government of Canada with responsibility for policies governing First Nations and Canadas three northern territories. ... The Canadian Press (CP) is a Canadian news agency established in 1917 as a vehicle to permit Canadian newspapers of the day to exchange their news and information. ... An ethnic group or ethnicity is a population of human beings whose members identify with each other, usually on the basis of a presumed common genealogy or ancestry (Smith 1987). ...


  1. ^ Aboriginal peoples of Canada - 2001 Census, Statistics Canada
  2. ^ Definition of "visible minority" at Statistics Canada

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