FACTOID # 1: Idaho produces more milk than Iowa, Indiana and Illinois combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Abkhazia" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Abkhazia
Аҧсны
აფხაზეთი
Абхазия
Apsny / Apkhazeti / Abhazia
Abkhazia
Location of Abkhazia (dark green, circled)
within Georgia (lighter green)
Area
 -  Total 8,432 km² 
3,256 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) negligible
Population
 -  2006 estimate 157,000-190,000 (International Crisis Group)
177,000 (Encyclopædia Britannica
 -  2003 census 216,000 (disputed) 
 -  Density 29/km² 
75.1/sq mi
Time zone MSK (UTC+3)

Abkhazia (pronounced /æbˈkeɪʒə/ or /æbˈkɑziə/, Abkhaz: Аҧсны Apsny, Georgian: აფხაზეთი Apkhazeti or Abkhazeti, Russian: Абха́зия Abhazia) is an autonomous region of Georgia in the Caucasus. It is a de facto independent[1][2][3][4] republic,[5][6] with no international recognition. It is located within the internationally recognized borders of Georgia. Abkhazia is located on the eastern coast of the Black Sea, bordering the Russian Federation to the north. Within Georgia, it borders the region of Samegrelo-Zemo Svaneti to the east. Map of Abkhazia Adapted from http://www. ... Image File history File links LocationAbkhazia2. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... A square metre (US spelling: square meter) is by definition the area enclosed by a square with sides each 1 metre long. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... The International Crisis Group is an international, non-profit, non-governmental organization whose mission is to prevent and resolve deadly conflicts through field-based analysis and high-level advocacy. ... The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries not observing daylight saving Moscow Time (Russian: ) is the time zone for the city of Moscow, Russia and most of western Russia, including Saint Petersburg, Russia. ... UTC redirects here. ... Abkhaz is a Northwest Caucasian language spoken mainly in Abkhazia[1] and Turkey. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... Samegrelo-Zemo Svaneti is a region in western Georgia (country) which includes the historical Georgian provinces of Samegrelo (Mingrelia) and Zemo Svaneti (i. ...


Abkhazia's independence is not recognized by any country and it is recognized as an autonomous republic of Georgia (Georgian: აფხაზეთის ავტონომიური რესპუბლიკა, Abkhaz: Аҧснытәи Автономтәи Республика), with Sukhumi as its capital. The list of unrecognized countries enumerates those geo-political entities which lack general diplomatic recognition, but wish to be recognized as sovereign states. ... For other uses, see Country (disambiguation). ... A significant number of autonomous republics can be found within the successor states of the Soviet Union, but the majority are located within Russia. ... Abkhaz is a Northwest Caucasian language spoken mainly in Abkhazia[1] and Turkey. ... Destroyed shop in Sukhumi Sukhumi (Georgian: , Sokhumi; Abkhaz: , Aqwa; Russian: , Sukhumi) is the capital of Abkhazia, a de facto independent republic, which is internationally recognized as being an autonomous republic within Georgia. ...


A secessionist movement of the Abkhaz ethnic minority in the region led to the declaration of independence from Georgia in 1992 and the Georgian-Abkhaz armed conflict from 1992 to 1993 which resulted in the Georgian military defeat and the mass exodus and ethnic cleansing of Georgian population from Abkhazia. In spite of the 1994 ceasefire accord and the ongoing UN-monitored and Russian-dominated CIS peacekeeping operation, the sovereignty dispute has not yet been resolved and the region remains divided between the two rival authorities, with over 83 percent of its territory controlled by the Russian-backed Sukhumi-based separatist government and about 17 percent governed by the Government of the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia, recognized by Georgia as the legal authority of Abkhazia, located in the Kodori Valley, part of Georgian-controlled Upper Abkhazia. The Abkhazians or Abkhaz (Abkhaz: , Georgian: აფხაზები, Turkish: Abhazlar) are a Caucasian ethnic group, mainly living in Abkhazia, de jure an autonomous republic of Georgia. ... “Minority” redirects here. ... A declaration of independence is an assertion of the independence of an aspiring state or states. ... Combatants Abkhaz separatists Confederation of Mountain Peoples of the Caucasus Russian Cossacks Russian Forces1 Georgian Interior and Defense Ministry forces Paramilitary groups and volunteer batallions Commanders Iysuph Soslanbekov, Musa Shanibov, Shamil Basaev, Beslan Barghandjia, Anri Djergenia Geno Adamia, Guram Gubelashvili, Gia Kharkharashvili, Davit Tevzadze, Soso Akhalaia Casualties ~2,500-4... Dead Georgian civilian with his dog on the streets of Sukhumi, September 27, 1993 The Ethnic Cleansing of Georgians in Abkhazia, also known as the Genocide of Georgians in Abkhazia (Georgian: , Russian: ) or the Massacre of Georgians in Abkhazia [1][2] — refers to the massacres [3] and forced mass expulsion... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... A ceasefire is a temporary stoppage of a war or any armed conflict, where each side of the conflict agrees with the other to suspend aggressive actions. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ...  Member state  Associate member Headquarters Minsk, Belarus Working language Russian Type Commonwealth Membership 11 member states 1 associate member Leaders  -  Executive Secretary Sergei Lebedev Establishment December 21, 1991 Website http://cis. ... Official languages Abkhaz, Georgian Location Upper Abkhazia (formerly known as Kodori Valley) Status Partially government in exile Chairman of Cabinet of Ministers Malkhaz Akishbaia Chairman of the Supreme Council Temur Mzhavia The De jure Government of Abkhazia (Georgian: , Abkhaz: ) is the only body internationally recognized as a legal authority of... The Kodori Gorge of Upper Abkhazia The Kodori Valley (also known as the Kodori Gorge; Georgian: ) is a river valley in Abkhazia, Georgias breakaway autonomous republic which serves as the de facto boundary between the Georgian government and the secessionist-controlled territories. ... The upper Kodori Gorge is a principal part of Upper Abkhazia. ...

Contents

Political status

Government of the Republic of Abkhazia
Flag Coat of arms
AnthemAiaaira
Capital Sukhumi
43°00′N 40°59′E / 43, 40.983
Official languages Abkhaz, Russian1
Government
 -  President Sergei Bagapsh
 -  Prime Minister Alexander Ankvab
De facto independence from Georgia
 -  Declared 23 July 1992 
 -  Recognition none 
Currency Russian ruble (RUB)
1 Russian has co-official status and widespread use by government and other institutions.
Government of the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia
Flag Coat of arms
Capital Sukhumi (de jure)
Chkhalta (de facto)
Official languages Abkhaz, Georgian
Government
 -  Chairman,
Cabinet of Ministers

Malkhaz Akishbaia
 -  Chairman, Supreme Council Temur Mzhavia
Autonomous republic of Georgia
 -  Georgian independence
from the Soviet Union
Declared
Recognised


9 April 1991
25 December 1991 
Currency Georgian lari (GEL)

Abkhazia's independence is not recognized by any country. The United Nations is urging both sides to settle the dispute through diplomatic dialogue and ratifying the final status of Abkhazia in the Georgian Constitution.[7][8] However, the Abkhaz de-facto government considers Abkhazia a sovereign country, even though it is not recognized by any party in the world and is still populated with ethnic Georgians (who live in the Gali District and the Kodori Gorge). In 2005, the Georgian government offered Abkhazia a high degree of autonomy and possible federal structure within the borders and jurisdiction of Georgia. The Government of the Republic of Abkhazia governs the internationally unrecognised but de facto independent Republic of Abkhazia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Abkhazia. ... In the red canton, the open hand represents Abkhaz nationhood. ... The coat of arms of Abkhazia, an internationally unrecognized republic, was adopted by the Supreme Soviet of Abkhazia on 23 July 1992, after it declared its secession from Georgia. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... Destroyed shop in Sukhumi Sukhumi (Georgian: , Sokhumi; Abkhaz: , Aqwa; Russian: , Sukhumi) is the capital of Abkhazia, a de facto independent republic, which is internationally recognized as being an autonomous republic within Georgia. ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Abkhaz is a Northwest Caucasian language spoken mainly in Abkhazia[1] and Turkey. ... List of de facto separatist Presidents of Abkhazia Vladislav Ardzinba (1994 – 2005) Sergei Bagapsh (2005 – present) See also: List of Prime Ministers of Abkhazia, List of foreign ministers of Abkhazia President of the Republic of Abkhazia. ... Sergei Vasilyevich Bagapsh (Abkhaz: ) (born March 4, 1949, Sukhumi) is the president of the unrecognized de facto independent Republic of Abkhazia, which is recognized internationally as de jure part of Georgia. ... The position of Prime Minister in the de facto independent (though not internationally recognized) republic of Abkhazia is second to only that of President. ... Alexander (or Aleksandr) Zolotiskovich Ankvab (Abkhaz: Александр Анқәаб /anqwab/; born December 26, 1952, Sukhumi) is the de facto Prime Minister of Abkhazia, a breakaway republic of Georgia. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... ISO 4217 Code RUB User(s) Russia and self-proclaimed Abkhazia and South Ossetia Inflation 7% Source Rosstat, 2007 Subunit 1/100 kopek (копейка) Symbol руб kopek (копейка) к Plural The language(s) of this currency is of the Slavic languages. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Official languages Abkhaz, Georgian Location Upper Abkhazia (formerly known as Kodori Valley) Status Partially government in exile Chairman of Cabinet of Ministers Malkhaz Akishbaia Chairman of the Supreme Council Temur Mzhavia The De jure Government of Abkhazia (Georgian: , Abkhaz: ) is the only body internationally recognized as a legal authority of... Image File history File links Flag_of_Georgia. ... Flag ratio: 2:3 The official flag of Georgia is the five-cross flag, restored to official use on January 14, 2004 after a break of some 500 years. ... Georgias coat of arms was adopted on 1 October 2004. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... Destroyed shop in Sukhumi Sukhumi (Georgian: , Sokhumi; Abkhaz: , Aqwa; Russian: , Sukhumi) is the capital of Abkhazia, a de facto independent republic, which is internationally recognized as being an autonomous republic within Georgia. ... Chkhalta is a principal village in Upper Abkhazia (formerly known as the Kodori Valley), western Georgian autonomous republic of Abkhazia whose two third has been controlled by the Abkhaz separatist government in Sukhumi since 1993. ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Abkhaz is a Northwest Caucasian language spoken mainly in Abkhazia[1] and Turkey. ... Malkhaz Akishbaia is an ethnic Abkhaz and the Chairman of Cabinet of Ministers of the de jure Government of Abkhazia in Kodori. ... Temur Mzhavia is the Chairman of the Supreme Council of the de jure Government of Abkhazia in Kodori. ... A significant number of autonomous republics can be found within the successor states of the Soviet Union, but the majority are located within Russia. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Georgian 1 lari Georgian 2 lari Georgian 5 lari Georgian 10 lari Georgian 50 lari Georgian 100 lari The lari (Georgian: ლარი ; ISO 4217:GEL) is the national currency of Georgia. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... This article is about negotiations. ... Gali district is largely in the UN security zone Gali district is a district of the internationally unrecognised Republic of Abkhazia, de jure part of Georgia. ... The Kodori Gorge The Kodori Valley (also known as the Kodori Gorge) is a river valley in Abkhazia, Georgias breakaway autonomous republic which serves as the de facto boundary between the Georgian government and the secessionist-controlled territories. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Look up autonomy, autonomous in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Federal Republic of Germany and its sixteen Bundesländer (federal states) A federal republic is a federation of states with a republican form of government. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Meanwhile the Russian State Duma is urging to take into consideration the appeal made by Abkhaz de facto authorities which calls for recognition of its independence,[9] while Russian state media produce numerous materials in support of the separatist regime.[10] During the Georgian-Abkhaz conflict, Russian authorities and military supplied logistical and military aid to the separatist side.[7] Today, Russia still maintains a strong political and military influence over separatist rule in Abkhazia. Russia has also issued passports for the citizens of Abkhazia since 2000 (as the Abkhazian passports cannot be used for international travel) and subsequently paid retirement pensions and other monetary benefits. More than 80% of the Abkhazian population received Russian citizenship by 2006; however, Abkhazians do not pay Russian taxes, or serve in the Russian Army.[11][12] About 53,000 Abkhazian passports have been issued as of May 2007.[13] For other uses, see State Duma (disambiguation). ... Combatants Abkhaz separatists Confederation of Mountain Peoples of the Caucasus Russian Cossacks Russian Forces1 Georgian Interior and Defense Ministry forces Paramilitary groups and volunteer batallions Commanders Iysuph Soslanbekov, Musa Shanibov, Shamil Basaev, Beslan Barghandjia, Anri Djergenia Geno Adamia, Guram Gubelashvili, Gia Kharkharashvili, Davit Tevzadze, Soso Akhalaia Casualties ~2,500-4... Categories: Wikipedia cleanup | Military of Russia | Russia-related stubs ...


On October 18, 2006, the People's Assembly of Abkhazia passed a resolution, calling upon Russia, international organizations, and the rest of the international community to recognize Abkhaz independence on the basis that Abkhazia possesses all the properties of an independent state.[14] However, international organizations have confirmed their support for Georgian territorial integrity and outlined the basic principles of conflict resolution which call for immediate return of all expelled ethnic Georgian refugees (approximately 250,000) and the involvement of International Police to monitor the safety of all ethnic groups living in Abkhazia.[15] About 60,000 Georgian refugees have spontaneously returned to Abkhazia's Gali district since 1994, but tens of thousands were displaced again when fighting resumed in the Gali district in 1998. Nevertheless from 40,000 to 60,000 refugees have returned to Gali district since 1998, including persons commuting daily across the ceasefire line and those migrating seasonally in accordance with agricultural cycles.[16] The human rights situation remains precarious in the Georgian-populated areas of the Gali district. The United Nations and other international organizations have been fruitlessly urging the Abkhaz de facto authorities "to refrain from adopting measures incompatible with the right to return and with international human rights standards, such as discriminatory legislation… [and] to cooperate in the establishment of a permanent international human rights office in Gali and to admit United Nations civilian police without further delay."[17] Key officials of the Gali district are virtually all ethnic Abkhaz, though their support staff are ethnic Georgian.[11] is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Type Unicameral Speaker Nugzar Ashuba, independent since 2002 Deputy Speaker Members 35 Meeting place Sukhumi The Peoples Assembly of Abkhazia is the legislature of the internationally unrecognised Republic of Abkhazia. ... The International Police is the title used for an organization of Police Officers representing various countries throughout the world, brought together to assist in the training, organization, stabilization of a destabilized region, or creation of Police Forces primarily in war torn countries. ... Gali district is largely in the UN security zone Gali district is a district of the internationally unrecognised Republic of Abkhazia, de jure part of Georgia. ...


Georgia accuses the Abkhaz secessionists of having conducted a deliberate campaign of ethnic cleansing, a claim supported by the OSCE and many Western governments.[18] The UN Security Council has, however, avoided use of the term "ethnic cleansing", but has affirmed "the unacceptability of the demographic changes resulting from the conflict".[19] Dead Georgian civilian with his dog on the streets of Sukhumi, September 27, 1993 The Ethnic Cleansing of Georgians in Abkhazia, also known as the Genocide of Georgians in Abkhazia (Georgian: , Russian: ) or the Massacre of Georgians in Abkhazia [1][2] — refers to the massacres [3] and forced mass expulsion...


Moscow hinted that it would recognize Abkhazia and South Ossetia if the Western countries recognise the independence of Kosovo suggesting it created a precedent. Following Kosovo's declaration of independence the Russian parliament released a joint statement reading: "Now that the situation in Kosovo has become an international precedent, Russia should take into account the Kosovo scenario...when considering ongoing territorial conflicts."[20] So far Russia has not recognised either of these republics. Anthem unknown Capital Tskhinvali Official languages Ossetian1 Government  -  President Eduard Kokoity  -  Prime Minister Yury Morozov De facto independence from Georgia  -  Declared November 28, 1991   -  Recognition none  Currency Russian ruble (RUB) Russian in widespread use by government and other institutions. ... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ...


On March 28, 2008, the President of Georgia Mikheil Saakashvili unveiled his government's new proposals to Abkhazia: the broadest possible autonomy within the framework of a Georgian state, a joint free economic zone, representation in the central authorities including the post of vice-president with the right to veto Abkhaz-related decisions.[21] The Abkhaz leader Sergei Bagapsh rejected these new initiatives as "propaganda", leading to Georgia's complaints that this skepticism was "triggered by Russia, rather than by real mood of the Abkhaz people."[22] is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... The President of Georgia (ge: საქართველოს პრეზიდენტი) is the head of the state and commander-in-chief of Georgia. ... Mikheil Saakashvili (Georgian: ) (born December 21, 1967) is a Georgian politician and the current President of Georgia. ... A vice president is an officer in government or business who is next in rank below a president. ... Sergei Vasilyevich Bagapsh (Abkhaz: ) (born March 4, 1949, Sukhumi) is the president of the unrecognized de facto independent Republic of Abkhazia, which is recognized internationally as de jure part of Georgia. ...


Geography and climate

View from Pitsunda cape.

Abkhazia covers an area of about 8,600 km² at the western end of Georgia. The Caucasus Mountains to the north and the northeast divide Abkhazia from the Russian Federation. To the east and southeast, Abkhazia is bounded by the Georgian region of Samegrelo-Zemo Svaneti; and on the south and southwest by the Black Sea. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Map of Abkhazia Abkhazia is a region in South Caucasus. ... The Caucasus Mountains are a mountain system between the Black and Caspian seas in the Caucasus region, usually considered the southeastern limit of Europe. ... Samegrelo-Zemo Svaneti is a region in western Georgia (country) which includes the historical Georgian provinces of Samegrelo (Mingrelia) and Zemo Svaneti (i. ...


Abkhazia is extremely mountainous. The Greater Caucasus Mountain Range runs along the region's northern border, with its spurs – the Gagra, Bzyb and Kodori ranges – dividing the area into a number of deep, well-watered valleys. The highest peaks of Abkhazia are in the northeast and east and several exceed 4,000 meters (13,120 ft) above sea level. The landscapes of Abkhazia range from coastal forests and citrus plantations, to eternal snows and glaciers to the north of the region. Although Abkhazia's complex topographic setting has spared most of the territory from significant human development, its cultivated fertile lands produce tea, tobacco, wine and fruits, a mainstay of the local agricultural sector. Bzyb Range is a mountain range in Abkhazia on the Southern slope of the Western part of Caucasus Major, running in parallel to it. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Austrias longest glacier, the Pasterze, winds its 8 km (5 mile) route at the foot of Austrias highest mountain, the Grossglockner A glacier is a large, long-lasting river of ice that is formed on land and moves in response to gravity. ... For other uses, see Tea (disambiguation). ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ...

Abkhazia is richly irrigated by small rivers originating in the Caucasus Mountains. Chief of these are: Kodori, Bzyb, Ghalidzga, and Gumista. The Psou River separates the region from Russia, and the Inguri serves as a boundary between Abkhazia and Georgia proper. There are several periglacial and crater lakes in mountainous Abkhazia. Lake Ritsa is the most important of them. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 594 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Ritsa lake (from upper side) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 594 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Ritsa lake (from upper side) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are... Location of the lake in Abkhazia Lake Ritsa Lake Ritsa (Abkhaz Риҵа, Georgian რიწა), located in the northern part of Abkhazia, Georgia, is a beautiful lake in Caucasus Mountains, surrounded by mixed mountain forests and subalpine meadows. ... For other uses, see River (disambiguation). ... The Kodori (, Kwydry; Georgian: , Kodori) is the second largest river of Abkhazia, de jure an autonomous republic of Georgia. ... Foto by Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii Bzyb River is a river in Abkhazia, in Western Caucasus. ... Psou River (Russian: ) is a river in the West Caucasus. ... The Inguri River Gorge in Svaneti The Inguri (Georgian: ენგური/Enguri; Russian: Ингури/Inguri) is a river in western Georgia. ... Periglacial refers to places in the edges of glacial areas, normally those related to past ice ages rather than those in the modern era. ... A crater lake that simply goes by the name Crater Lake, in Oregon, USA Heaven Lake (Chonji / Tianchi), North Korea / China Cuicocha, Ecuador Lake formed after 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines Mount Katmai, Alaska, USA Mount Wenchi crater lake, Ethiopia Nemrut, Turkey Volcán Irazú, Costa Rica This page... For other uses, see Lake (disambiguation). ... Location of the lake in Abkhazia Lake Ritsa Lake Ritsa (Abkhaz Риҵа, Georgian რიწა), located in the northern part of Abkhazia, Georgia, is a beautiful lake in Caucasus Mountains, surrounded by mixed mountain forests and subalpine meadows. ...


Because of Abkhazia's proximity to the Black Sea and the shield of the Caucasus Mountains, the region's climate is very mild. The coastal areas of the republic have a subtropical climate, where the average annual temperature in most regions is around 15 degrees Celsius. The climate at higher elevations varies from maritime mountainous to cold and summerless. Abkhazia receives high amounts of precipitation, but its unique micro-climate (transitional from subtropical to mountain) along most of its coast causes lower levels of humidity. The annual precipitation vacillates from 1,100-1,500 mm (43-59 inches) along the coast to 1,700-3,500 mm (67-138 in.) in the higher mountainous areas. The mountains of Abkhazia receive significant amounts of snow. For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ...


There are two border crossings into Abkhazia. The southern border crossing is at the Inguri bridge, a short distance from the Georgian city of Zugdidi. The northern crossing ("Psou") is in the town of Gyachrypsh. Owing to the ongoing security situation, many foreign governments advise their citizens against travelling to Abkhazia.[23] Zugdidi is a city in the Western Georgian historical province of Mingrelia (Samegrelo). ...


Administrative division

Main article: Administrative divisions of Abkhazia

In Soviet times Abkhaz ASSR was divided into 6 raions named after their centres: Gagra, Gudauta, Sukhumi, Ochamchire, Gulripsh and Gali. The de jure division of Abkhazian Autonomous Republic of Georgia remained the same (see here). ... A raion (or rayon) (Russian and Ukrainian: ; Belarusian раён; Azeri: rayon, Latvian: rajons, Georgian: , raioni) is one of two kinds of administrative subdivisions in languages of some post-Soviet states: a subnational entity and a subdivision of a city. ... Gagra, View from the Black Sea Gagra is a city in the Abkhazia region of western Georgia, sprawling for 5 km on the northeast coast of the Black Sea, at the foot of the Caucasus Mountains. ... Gudauta is a town in Georgia’s breakaway region Abkhazia. ... Destroyed shop in Sukhumi Sukhumi (Georgian: , Sokhumi; Abkhaz: , Aqwa; Russian: , Sukhumi) is the capital of Abkhazia, a de facto independent republic, which is internationally recognized as being an autonomous republic within Georgia. ... Ochamchire (sometimes referred to as Ochamchira) is a seaside city on the Black Sea coast of Abkhazia, an autonomous republic in northwestern Georgia. ... Gulripsh (, Russian: ) is a town in Abkhazia, de facto independent republic within the internationally recognised borders of Georgia. ... Gali (, Gal) is a town in Abkhazia, Georgia’s breakaway region 77 km southeast to Sukhumi and bordering with the rest of Georgia. ... Motto ძალა ერთობაშია(Georgian) Strength is in Unity Anthem Tavisupleba Freedom Capital (and largest city) Tbilisi Official languages Georgian1 Demonym Georgian Government Semi-presidential unitary republic  -  President Mikheil Saakashvili  -  Prime Minister Zurab Noghaideli Consolidation  -  Georgian kingdoms of Colchis and Iberia c. ...


The administrative division of the unrecognised Republic of Abkhazia is the same with one exception - a new Tkvarcheli raion was carved from the Ochamchire and Gali raions in 1995. Tkvarcheli (, Tkwarchal, Georgian: ) is a town in Abkhazia, de facto independent republic within the internationally recognised borders of Georgia. ...


Economy

The economy of Abkhazia is heavily integrated with Russia and uses the Russian ruble as its currency. Tourism is a key industry and the Abkhaz de facto authorities claim that the organized tourists (mainly from Russia) numbered more than 100,000 in recent years, compared to about 200,000 in the 1990 before the war.[24] The number of visitors in 2006 was estimated by Abkhazian authorities to have been approximately 1.5 million.[25] Although Russia has established a visa regime with Georgia, Russian passport-holders do not require a visa to enter Abkhazia. Holders of European Union passports require an Entry Permit Letter issued by the de facto Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Sukhumi, against which a visa will be issued upon presentation of the Letter to the MFA.[26] ISO 4217 Code RUB User(s) Russia and self-proclaimed Abkhazia and South Ossetia Inflation 7% Source Rosstat, 2007 Subunit 1/100 kopek (копейка) Symbol руб kopek (копейка) к Plural The language(s) of this currency is of the Slavic languages. ...


Abkhazia's fertile land and abundance of agricultural products, including tea, tobacco, wine and fruits (especially tangerines), have secured a relative stability in the sector. Electricity is largely supplied by the Inguri hydroelectric power station located on the Inguri river between Abkhazia and Georgia proper and operated jointly by Abkhaz and Georgians. For other uses, see Tea (disambiguation). ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Citrus reticulata Blanco For other uses, see Tangerine (disambiguation). ... The Inguri Dam (Ingurskaya) is a hydroelectric dam on the Inguri River in Georgia. ...


Many Russian entrepreneurs, including the Mayor of Moscow, Yury Luzhkov, have invested or plan to do so in Abkhazia. Both Abkhaz and Russian officials have announced their intentions to exploit Abkhazia's facilities and resources for the Olympic construction projects in Sochi, as the city will host the 2014 Winter Olympics. The Government of Georgia has warned against such actions, however, and has threatened to ask foreign banks to close accounts of Russian companies and individuals that buy assets in Abkhazia.[27] For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Sochi (Russian: , IPA: [soʨɪ]) is a Russian resort city, situated in Krasnodar Krai just north of the southern Russian border. ... The 2014 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XXII Olympic Winter Games, is an international winter multiple sports event that will be celebrated from February 7 to February 23, 2014. ...


The region continues to suffer considerable economic problems owing to widespread corruption, the control by criminal organizations of large segments of the economy, and the continuing effects of the war.[28]


The CIS economic sanctions imposed on Abkhazia in 1996 are still formally in force although Russia announced on March 6, 2008 that it would no longer participate in them, declaring them "outdated, impeding the socio-economic development of the region, and causing unjustified hardship for the people of Abkhazia". Russia also called on other CIS members to undertake similar steps.[29]  Member state  Associate member Headquarters Minsk, Belarus Working language Russian Type Commonwealth Membership 11 member states 1 associate member Leaders  -  Executive Secretary Sergei Lebedev Establishment December 21, 1991 Website http://cis. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ...


Demographics

According to the Family Lists compiled in 1886 (published 1893 in Tbilisi) the Sukhumi District's population was 68,773, of which 30,640 were Samurzaq'anoans, 28,323 Abkhaz, 3,558 Mingrelians, 2,149 Greeks, 1,090 Armenians, 1,090 Russians and 608 Georgians[citation needed] (including Imeretians and Gurians). Samurzaq'ano is a present-day Gali district of Abkhazia. Most of the Samurzaq'anians must be thought to have been Mingrelians, and a minority Abkhaz.[30][31] Abkhaz is an agglutinative Georgia (in the autonomous republic of Abkhazia) and Turkey. ... The Mingrelians (Megrelians, Mingrels, Megrels; Megrelebi or მეგრელები in Georgian) are an ethnographic group of Georgians that mostly live in Samegrelo (Mingrelia) region of Georgia. ... Gali district is largely in the UN security zone Gali district is a district of the internationally unrecognised Republic of Abkhazia, de jure part of Georgia. ...


According to the 1897 census there were 58,697 people in Abkhazia who listed Abkhaz as their mother tongue.[32] The population of the Sukhumi district (Abkhazia) was about 100,000 at that time. Greeks, Russians and Armenians composed 3.5%, 2% and 1.5% of the district's population.[33] Russian Empire Census of 1897 was the first and the only census carried out in the Imperial Russia. ...


According to the 1917 agricultural census organized by the Russian Provisional Government, Georgians and Abkhaz composed 41.7% (54,760) and 30,4% (39,915) of the rural population of Abkhazia respectively.[34] At that time Gagra and its vicinity weren't part of Abkhazia. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


The following table summarises the results of the other censuses carried out in Abkhazia. The Russian, Armenian and Georgian population grew faster than Abkhaz one due to the large-scale migration.[35]

Year Total Georgians Abkhaz Russians Armenians Greeks
1926 Census 186,004 67,494 55,918 12,553 25,677 14,045
1939 Census 311,885 91,967 56,197 60,201 49,705 34,621
1959 Census 404,738 158,221 61,193 86,715 64,425 9,101
1970 Census 486,959 199,596 77,276 92,889 74,850 13,114
1979 Census 486,082 213,322 83,087 79,730 73,350 13,642
1989 Census 525,061 239,872 93,267 74,913 76,541 14,664
2003 Census1 215,972 45,953 94,606 23,420 44,870 1,486
1 -[36] Georgian authorities did not acknowledge the results of this census and consider it illegitimate. Several international sources also consider these figures unrealistically high. The International Crisis Group (2006) estimates Abkhazia's total population to be between 157,000 and 190,000 (or between 180,000 and 220,000 as estimated by UNDP in 1998),[37] while Encyclopædia Britannica puts it at 177,000 (2006 est.).[38] The State Department of Statistics of Georgia estimated, in 2005, Abkhazia's population to be approximately 178,000.[39] About 2,000 people (predominantly Svans, a subethnic group of the Georgian people) live in Georgia-controlled Upper Abkhazia.

History

Main article: History of Abkhazia

Early history

In the 9th–6th centuries BC, the territory of modern Abkhazia became a part of the ancient Georgian kingdom of Colchis (Kolkha), which was absorbed in 63 BC into the Kingdom of Egrisi. Greek traders established ports along the Black Sea shoreline. One of those ports, Dioscurias, eventually developed into modern Sukhumi, Abkhazia's traditional capital. The list of unrecognized countries enumerates those geo-political entities which lack general diplomatic recognition, but wish to be recognized as sovereign states. ...  Southwest Asia in most contexts. ... The borders of the continents are the limits of the several continents of the Earth, as defined by various geographical, cultural, and political criteria. ...  The North American plate, shown in brown The North American Plate is a tectonic plate covering most of North America, extending eastward to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and westward to the Cherskiy Range in East Siberia. ...  The African plate, shown in pinkish-orange The African Plate is a tectonic plate covering the continent of Africa and extending westward to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. ... The article refers to the history of Georgia’s autonomous republic of Abkhazia. ... In ancient geography, Colchis (sometimes spelled also as Kolchis) (Greek: Κολχίς, kŏl´kĬs; Georgian: კოლხეთი, Kolkheti) was a nearly triangular district in Caucasus. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 68 BC 67 BC 66 BC 65 BC 64 BC 63 BC 62 BC 61 BC 60... Egrisi (or Kolkheti) known to the ancient Greeks and Romans as Lazica and Persians as Lazistan was a kingdom in the western part of Georgia, which flourished between the 6th century BC and the 7th century AD. It covered the territory of the former kingdom Kolkha (Colchis) and the territory... Destroyed shop in Sukhumi Sukhumi (Georgian: , Sokhumi; Abkhaz: , Aqwa; Russian: , Sukhumi) is the capital of Abkhazia, a de facto independent republic, which is internationally recognized as being an autonomous republic within Georgia. ...


The Roman Empire conquered Egrisi in the 1st century AD and ruled it until the 4th century, following which it regained a measure of independence, but remained within the Byzantine Empire's sphere of influence. Although the exact time when the population of Abkhazia was converted to Christianity is not determined, it is known that the Metropolitan of Pitius participated in the First Œcumenical Council in 325 in Nicea. Abkhazia was made an autonomous principality of the Byzantine Empire in the 7th century — a status it retained until the 9th century, when it was united with the province of Imereti and became known as the Abkhazian Kingdom. In 9th–10th centuries the Georgian kings tried to unify all the Georgian provinces and in 1001 King Bagrat III Bagrationi became the first king of the unified Georgian Kingdom. For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Byzantine redirects here. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Imereti is a historic province in Western Georgia, situated along the middle and upper reaches of the Rioni river. ... The Abkhazian Kingdom or the Kingdom of the Abkhazians refers to an early medieval feudal state in the Caucasus which lasted from the 780s until being united, through dynastic succession, with the Kingdom of the Georgians (see Tao-Klarjeti) in 1008. ... Bagrat III (ca. ...


In the 16th century, after the break-up of the united Georgian Kingdom, the area was conquered by the Ottoman Empire, during this time some Abkhazians converted to Islam. The Ottomans were pushed out by the Georgians, who established an autonomous Principality of Abkhazia (abxazetis samtavro in Georgian), ruled by the Shervashidze dynasty (aka Sharvashidze, or Chachba). Ottoman redirects here. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The Principality of Abkhazia emerged as a separate feudal entity in the 15th-16th centuries, amid the civil wars in the Kingdom of Georgia that concluded with the dissolution of the unified Georgian monarchy. ... Coat of arms of the Shervashidze/Chachba family, 19th century Shervashidze (Abkhazian: Chachba) was a noble family in Abkhazia which, according to later sources, can be traced at least as far back as the twelfth century. ...

Abkhazia within the Russian Empire and Soviet Union

Flag of Abkhazia in 1925.
Flag of Abkhazia in 1978.

The expansion of the Russian Empire into the Caucasus region led to small-scale but regular conflicts between Russian colonists and the indigenous Caucasian tribes. Eventually the Caucasian War erupted, which ended with Russian conquest of the North and Western Caucasus. Various Georgian principalities were annexed to the empire between 1801 and 1864. The Russians acquired possession of Abhkazia in a piecemeal fashion between 1829 and 1842; but their power was not firmly established until 1864, when they managed to abolish the local principality which was still under Shervashidze rule. Large numbers of Muslim Abkhazians — said to have constituted as much as 60% of the Abkhazian population, although contemporary census reports were not very trustworthy — emigrated to the Ottoman Empire between 1864 and 1878 together with other Muslim population of Caucasus in the process known as Muhajirism. The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... Construction of the Georgian Military Road through disputed territories was a key factor in the eventual Russian success A Scene from the Caucasian War, by Franz Roubaud Russian Invasion of the Caucasus, better known in Russia as the Caucasian War of 1817-1864, was a series of military actions of... North Caucasus in Russia The North Caucasus (sometimes referred to as Ciscaucasia or Ciscaucasus) is the northern part of the Caucasus region between Europe and Asia. ... The last wild wisent in the world was killed by poachers here in 1927. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Coat of arms of the Shervashidze/Chachba family, 19th century Shervashidze (Abkhazian: Chachba) was a noble family in Abkhazia which, according to later sources, can be traced at least as far back as the twelfth century. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... The mountaineers leave the aul, by P. N. Gruzinsky, 1872 Muhajirism was the emigration of Muslim indigenous peoples from the Caucasus into the Ottoman Empire following the Russian-Circassian War and the Caucasian War (during the 19th century). ...


Modern Abkhazian historians maintain that large areas of the region were left uninhabited, and that many Armenians, Georgians and Russians (all Christians) subsequently migrated to Abkhazia, resettling much of the vacated territory. This version of events is strongly contested by some Georgian historians[40] who argue that Georgian tribes (Mingrelians and Svans) had populated Abkhazia since the time of the Colchis kingdom. According to these scholars, the Abkhaz are the descendants of North Caucasian tribes (Adygey, Apsua), who migrated to Abkhazia from the north of the Caucasus Mountains and merged there with the existing Georgian population. This theory has little support though among Georgian academics.[41][42] North Caucasus in Russia The North Caucasus (sometimes referred to as Ciscaucasia or Ciscaucasus) is the northern part of the Caucasus region between Europe and Asia. ... The Adyghe or Adygei are a Circassian people of the northwest Caucasus region, principally inhabiting Russian Federation). ... The Caucasus Mountains are a mountain system between the Black and Caspian seas in the Caucasus region, usually considered the southeastern limit of Europe. ...

Soviet Caucasus 1989 political divisions and subdivisions showing the Abkhazian ASSR (Abkhazskaya ASSR in Russian) of Georgian SSR
.

The Russian Revolution of 1917 led to the creation of an independent Georgia (which included Abkhazia) in 1918. Georgia's Menshevik government had problems with the area through most of its existence despite a limited autonomy being granted to the region. In 1921, the Bolshevik Red Army invaded Georgia and ended its short-lived independence. Abkhazia was made a Soviet republic with the ambiguous status of Union Republic associated with the Georgian SSR, In 1931, Stalin made it an autonomous republic within Soviet Georgia. Despite its nominal autonomy, it was subjected to strong central rule from central Soviet authorities. Georgian became the official language. Purportedly, Lavrenty Beria encouraged Georgian migration to Abkhazia, and many took up the offer and resettled there. Russians also moved into Abkhazia in great numbers. Later, in the 1950s and 1960s, Vazgen I and the Armenian church encouraged and funded the migration of Armenians to Abkhazia[citation needed]. Currently, Armenians are the largest minority group in Abkhazia. Image File history File links Soviet_Caucasus_SSRs_ASSRs_and_AOs_1989. ... Image File history File links Soviet_Caucasus_SSRs_ASSRs_and_AOs_1989. ... Soviet redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... In its final decades of its existence, the Soviet Union consisted of 15 Soviet Socialist Republics (SSR), often called simply Soviet republics. ... State motto: პროლეტარ ყველა ქვეყნისა, შეერთდით! Official language Georgian since 1978 Capital Tbilisi Chairman of the Supreme Council Zviad Gamsakhurdia (at independence) Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until February 25, 1921 December 30, 1922 April 9, 1991 Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 10th in former Soviet Union 69,700 km² -- Population  - Total (1989)  - Density Ranked... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... Leaders of the Menshevik Party at Norra Bantorget in Stockholm, Sweden, May 1917. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... For other uses, see Bolshevik (disambiguation). ... State motto: პროლეტარ ყველა ქვეყნისა, შეერთდით! Official language Georgian since 1978 Capital Tbilisi Chairman of the Supreme Council Zviad Gamsakhurdia (at independence) Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until February 25, 1921 December 30, 1922 April 9, 1991 Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 10th in former Soviet Union 69,700 km² -- Population  - Total (1989)  - Density Ranked... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვილი; see Other names section) (December 21, 1879[1] – March 5, 1953) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and leader of the Soviet Union. ... CCCP redirects here. ... Lavrenty Beria Lavrentiy Pavlovich Beria (Georgian: ლავრენტი ბერია; Russian: Лаврентий Павлович Берия; (29 March 1899 – 23 December 1953), was a Soviet politician and chief of the Soviet security and police apparatus. ... Vazgen I , originally Levon Garabed Baljian, Catholicos Vazgen (1908 - 1994), was an Armenian (Romanian-born) prelate. ...


The repression of the Abkhaz was ended after Stalin's death and Beria's execution, and Abkhaz were given a greater role in the governance of the republic. As in most of the smaller autonomous republics, the Soviet government encouraged the development of culture and particularly of literature. Ethnic quotas were established for certain bureaucratic posts, giving the Abkhaz a degree of political power that was disproportionate to their minority status in the republic. This was interpreted by some as a "divide and rule" policy whereby local elites were given a share in power in exchange for support for the Soviet regime. In Abkhazia as elsewhere, it led to other ethnic groups - in this case, the Georgians - resenting what they saw as unfair discrimination, thereby stoking ethnic discord in the republic.

The Abkhazian War

Flag of the Abkhazian SSR in 1989.
Main article: Georgian-Abkhaz conflict

As the Soviet Union began to disintegrate at the end of the 1980s, ethnic tensions grew between the Abkhaz and Georgians over Georgia's moves towards independence. Many Abkhaz opposed this, fearing that an independent Georgia would lead to the elimination of their autonomy, and argued instead for the establishment of Abkhazia as a separate Soviet republic in its own right. The dispute turned violent on July 16, 1989 in Sukhumi. Sixteen Georgians are said to have been killed and another 137 injured when they tried to enroll in a Georgian University instead of an Abkhaz one. After several days of violence, Soviet troops restored order in the city and blamed rival nationalist paramilitaries for provoking confrontations. Combatants Abkhaz separatists Confederation of Mountain Peoples of the Caucasus Russian Cossacks Russian Forces1 Georgian Interior and Defense Ministry forces Paramilitary groups and volunteer batallions Commanders Iysuph Soslanbekov, Musa Shanibov, Shamil Basaev, Beslan Barghandjia, Anri Djergenia Geno Adamia, Guram Gubelashvili, Gia Kharkharashvili, Davit Tevzadze, Soso Akhalaia Casualties ~2,500-4... The Sukhumi riot was a riot in Sukhumi, Abkhaz ASSR, Georgian SSR, Soviet Union, in July 1989, triggered by an increasing inter-ethnic tensions between the Abkhaz and Georgian communities and followed by several days of street fighting and civil unrest in Sukhumi and throughout Abkhazia. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ...


The Soviet republic of Georgia boycotted March 17, 1991's all-Union referendum on the renewal of the Soviet Union called by Mikhail Gorbachev - but 52.3% of the Abkhazia's population (virtually all the ethnic non-Georgians) took part in the referendum and voted by an overwhelming majority (98.6%) to preserve the Union.[43][44] Most ethnic non-Georgians later boycotted a March 31 referendum on Georgia’s independence, which was supported by a huge majority of Georgia's population. Within weeks, Georgia declared independence on 9 April 1991, under former Soviet dissident Zviad Gamsakhurdia. CCCP redirects here. ... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev[1] (Russian: , IPA: ; born 2 March 1931) is a Russian politician. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Zviad Konstantines dze Gamsakhurdia[1] (Georgian: ზვიად კონსტანტინეს ძე გამსახურდია, IPA: ) (March 31, 1939 — December 31, 1993) was a dissident, scientist and writer, who became the first democratically elected President of the Republic of Georgia in the post-Soviet era. ...


Gamsakhurdia's rule soon became unpopular, and that December the Georgian National Guard, under the command of Tengiz Kitovani, laid siege to his government's offices in Tbilisi. After weeks of stalemate, he was forced to resign in January 1992. Former Soviet foreign minister and architect of the disintegration of the USSR Eduard Shevardnadze replaced Gamsakhurdia as president, inheriting a government dominated by hardline Georgian nationalists. He was not an ethnic nationalist but did little to avoid being seen as supporting his administration's dominant figures and the leaders of the coup that swept him to power. Tengiz Kitovani (b. ... Location of Tbilisi in Georgia Coordinates: , Country Georgia Established c. ... CCCP redirects here. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...

Monument to the Heroes who Fell Fighting for the Territorial Integrity of Georgia, Tbilisi.

On 21 February 1992, Georgia's ruling Military Council announced that it was abolishing the Soviet-era constitution and restoring the 1921 Constitution of the Democratic Republic of Georgia. Many Abkhaz interpreted this as an abolition of their autonomous status. On 23 July 1992, the scessionist Abkhazian regime declared effective independence from Georgia, although this gesture went unrecognised by any other country. The Georgian government accused Gamsakhurdia's supporters of kidnapping Georgia's interior minister and holding him captive in Abkhazia. The Georgian government dispatched 3,000 troops to the region, ostensibly to restore order. Heavy fighting between Tiblisi's forces and Abkhazian militia broke out in and around Sukhumi. The Abkhazian authorities rejected the legal government's claims, claiming that it was merely a pretext for an invasion. After about a week's fighting and many casualties on both sides, Georgian government forces took control of most of Abkhazia, and closed down the region's assembly. is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Anthem Dideba Zetsit Kurtheuls (Praise Be To The Heavenly Bestower of Blessings) Map of the Democratic Republic of Georgia from November 1918 to May 1920. ...


The Abkhazians' military defeat was met with a hostile response by the self-styled Confederation of Mountain Peoples of the Caucasus, an umbrella group uniting a number of pro-Russian movements in the North Caucasus, including Circassians, Abazas, Chechens, Cossacks, Ossetians and hundreds of volunteer paramilitaries from Russia, including the little-known Shamil Basayev, later a leader of the anti-Moscow Chechen secession, sided with the Abkhaz separatists to fight the Georgian government. Regular Russian forces also reportedly sided with the secessionsts. In September, the Abkhaz and Russian paramilitaries mounted a major offensive against Gagra after breaking a cease-fire, which drove the Georgian forces out of large swathes of the republic. Shevardnadze's government accused Russia of giving covert military support to the rebels with the aim of "detaching from Georgia its native territory and the Georgia-Russian frontier land". The year 1992 ended with the rebels in control of much of Abkhazia northwest of Sukhumi. The conflict remained stalemated until July 1993, when Abkhaz separatist militias launched an abortive attack on Georgian-held Sukhumi. They surrounded and heavily shelled the capital, where Shevardnadze was trapped. The warring sides declared a truce at the end of July, but it collapsed in mid-September 1993 after a renewed Abkhaz attack. After ten days of heavy fighting, Sukhumi fell on 27 September 1993. Shevardnadze narrowly escaped death, after vowing to stay in the city no matter what. He was forced to flee when separatist snipers fired on the hotel where he was staying. Abkhaz, North Caucasian militants and their allies committed numerous atrocities [7] against the city's remaining ethnic Georgians, in what has been dubbed the Sukhumi Massacre. The mass killings and destruction continued for two weeks, leaving thousands dead and missing. Confederation of Mountain Peoples of the Caucasus (Russian: Конфедерация горских народов Кавказа) is a militarized political organization composed of militants from the North Caucasian republics of the Russian Federation. ... North Caucasus in Russia The North Caucasus (sometimes referred to as Ciscaucasia or Ciscaucasus) is the northern part of the Caucasus region between Europe and Asia. ... Circassian language is used in a number of ways: as a synonym for the Adyghe language; as a synonym for the Kabardian language; as a term for a distinct language that includes both Adyghe and Kabardian. ... // Geography The Chechen people are mainly inhabitants of Chechnya, which is internationally recognized as part of Russia. ... This article needs cleanup. ... The Ossetians (oss. ... Shamil Basayev (Russian: ) (January 14, 1965 – July 10, 2006) was a militant Islamist and a leader of the Chechen separatist movement. ... Combatants Abkhaz National Guard, Confederation of Mountain Peoples of the Caucasus Abkhazian Battalion, Cossack units National Guard of Georgia, Shavnabada and Avaza units Strength 3,000-4,000[1] A few hundred Casualties Unknown Unknown military personnel, 429 civilians The Battle of Gagra was fought between Georgian forces and the... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Georgian civilians hiding from Abkhaz separatist militants near Sukhumi The Sukhumi Massacre took place on September 27, 1993, during the Georgian-Abkhaz conflict. ...


The Abkhaz forces quickly overran the rest of Abkhazia as the Georgian government faced a second threat: an uprising by the supporters of the deposed Zviad Gamsakhurdia in the region of Mingrelia (Samegrelo). In the chaotic aftermath of defeat almost all ethnic Georgians fled the region, escaping an ethnic cleansing initiated by the victors (see Ethnic cleansing of Georgians in Abkhazia). Many thousands died — it is estimated that between 10,000-30,000 ethnic Georgians and 3,000 ethnic Abkhaz may have perished — and some 250,000 people (mostly Georgians) were forced into exile.[7][45][7] For the video game, see Ethnic Cleansing (computer game). ... Dead Georgian civilian with his dog on the streets of Sukhumi, September 27, 1993 The Ethnic Cleansing of Georgians in Abkhazia, also known as the Genocide of Georgians in Abkhazia (Georgian: , Russian: ) or the Massacre of Georgians in Abkhazia [1][2] — refers to the massacres [3] and forced mass expulsion...


During the war, gross human rights violations were reported on the both sides (see Human Rights Watch report[7]), and the ethnic cleansing committed by the Abkhaz forces and their allies is recognized by the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) Summits in Budapest (1994)[46], Lisbon (1996)[47] and Istanbul (1999).[48] Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ... The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is an international organization for security. ... For other uses, see Budapest (disambiguation). ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... For other uses, see Lisbon (disambiguation). ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ...

Politics

Main article: Politics of Abkhazia
Abkhazia

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
Abkhazia
Abkhazia (Abkhaz: Аҧсны/Apsny, Georgian: აფხაზეთი/Apkhazeti, Russian: Абха́зия) is a region of 8,600 km² in the Caucasus. ... Abkhazia (Abkhaz: Аҧсны/Apsny, Georgian: აფხაზეთი/Apkhazeti, Russian: Абха́зия) is a region of 8,600 km² in the Caucasus. ...



See also: Politics of Georgia The Government of the Republic of Abkhazia governs the internationally unrecognised but de facto independent Republic of Abkhazia. ... List of Presidents of Abkhazia Vladislav Ardzinba (1994 – 2005) Sergei Bagapsh (2005 – present) See also: List of Prime Ministers of Abkhazia, List of foreign ministers of Abkhazia Categories: | ... Sergei Vasilyevich Bagapsh (Abkhaz: ) (born March 4, 1949, Sukhumi) is the president of the unrecognized de facto independent Republic of Abkhazia, which is recognized internationally as de jure part of Georgia. ... The Vice President of the Abkhaz Republic, an unrecognized state, internationally regarded as a part of Georgia, is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of Abkhazia upon the death, resignation, or removal of the President. ... Raul Khadjimba (born 1958) is the Prime Minister of the Republic of Abkhazia, a de facto independent republic of the Republic of Georgia. ... The position of Prime Minister in the de facto independent (though not internationally recognized) republic of Abkhazia is second to only that of President. ... Alexander (or Aleksandr) Zolotiskovich Ankvab (Abkhaz: Александр Анқәаб /anqwab/; born December 26, 1952, Sukhumi) is the de facto Prime Minister of Abkhazia, a breakaway republic of Georgia. ... Type Unicameral Speaker Nugzar Ashuba, independent since 2002 Deputy Speaker Members 35 Meeting place Sukhumi The Peoples Assembly of Abkhazia is the legislature of the internationally unrecognised Republic of Abkhazia. ... The Public Chamber of Abkhazia is an advisory body to the President of the internationaly unrecognised Republic of Abkhazia. ... A political party is a political organization subscribing to a certain ideology or formed around very special issues with the aim to participate in power, usually by participating in elections. ... redirect Template:Politics of Abkhazia Elections in Abkhazia gives information on election and election results in Abkhazia. ... Official languages Abkhaz, Georgian Location Upper Abkhazia (formerly known as Kodori Valley) Status Partially government in exile Chairman of Cabinet of Ministers Malkhaz Akishbaia Chairman of the Supreme Council Temur Mzhavia The De jure Government of Abkhazia (Georgian: , Abkhaz: ) is the only body internationally recognized as a legal authority of... Temur Mzhavia is the Chairman of the Supreme Council of the de jure Government of Abkhazia in Kodori. ... Malkhaz Akishbaia is an ethnic Abkhaz and the Chairman of Cabinet of Ministers of the de jure Government of Abkhazia in Kodori. ... The United Nations Observer Mission in Georgia (UNOMIG) was established on 24 August 1993 by Security Council Resolution 858 to verify compliance with the 27 July 1993, ceasefire agreement between the Republic of Georgia and forces in Abkhazia with special attention given to the situation in the city of Sukhumi... This article describes the Politics of Georgia Georgia (საქართველო (Sakartvelo) in Georgian) has been a democratic republic since the first multiparty, democratic parliamentary elections of October 28, 1990. ...


Other countries · Atlas
 Politics Portal
view  talk  edit
Zhiuli Shartava in Sukhumi, day before he was killed by the militants on September 27, 1993.

Much of the politics in Abkhazia is dominated by the territorial dispute with Georgia, from which the territory seceded, and by the fight over the presidency in 2004/2005. Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... Zhiuli Shartava Zhiuli Shartava (Georgian: ) (1944-1993) was a Georgian politician who was killed by Abkhaz rebels during the ethnic cleansing of Georgians in Abkhazia in 1993. ...


On 3 October 2004 presidential elections were held in Abkhazia. In the elections, Russia evidently supported Raul Khajimba, the prime minister backed by the ailing outgoing separatist President Vladislav Ardzinba. Posters of Russia's President Vladimir Putin together with Khajimba, who like Putin had worked as a KGB official, were everywhere in Sukhumi. Deputies of Russia's parliament and Russian singers, led by Joseph Kobzon, a deputy and a popular singer, came to Abkhazia campaigning for Khajimba. is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Raul Khadjimba (born 1958) is the Prime Minister of the Republic of Abkhazia, a de facto independent republic of the Republic of Georgia. ... Image:Ardzinba. ... Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Russian: ) (born October 7, 1952) is the current President of the Russian Federation. ... This article is about the KGB of the Soviet Union. ... Kobzon at a recent social event Iosif (Joseph) Davydovich Kobzon (Russian: ) (born September 11, 1937) is an iconic Soviet crooner, who has been acclaimed as the official voice of the Soviet Union. Kobzon was born to Jewish parents in the mining town of Chasiv Yar, Ukraine. ...


However Raul Khajimba lost the elections to Sergey Bagapsh. The tense situation in the republic led to the cancellation of the election results by the Supreme Court. After that a deal was struck between former rivals to run jointly — Bagapsh as a presidential candidate and Khajimba as a vice presidential candidate. They received more than 90% of the votes in the new election. Raul Khadjimba (born 1958) is the Prime Minister of the Republic of Abkhazia, a de facto independent republic of the Republic of Georgia. ...


The President appoints districts' heads from those elected to the districts assemblies. There are elected village assemblies whose heads are appointed by the districts heads.[11]


The People's Assembly, consisting of 35 elected members, is vested with legislative powers. The last parliamentary elections were held on March 4, 2007. The ethnicities other than Abkhaz (Armenians, Russians and Georgians) are believed to be under-represented in the Assembly as the number of the parliamentarians of these ethnicities is less than their share in the republic population.[11] Parliamentary elections were held in the unrecognized Republic of Abkhazia on 4 March 2007; a run-off round was held in seventeen constituencies on 18 March 2007. ...


About 250,000 ethnic Georgian residents of Abkhazia are restricted from settling in the region by the Abkhazian separatist regime and cannot participate in the elections.[49]

Government of the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia

Main article: Government of the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia

The Government of the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia, formerly known as The Council of Ministers of the Abkhazian Autonomous Republic, is the only government that Georgia recognizes as the legal government of Abkhazia, which has been largely out of Georgia's control since 1993 due to the War in Abkhazia.[50]After the Kodori crisis of 2006, the Government of the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia, along with its ministers, relocated to the north-eastern part of Abkhazia (known as Upper Abkhazia) in Chkhalta.[51] Official languages Abkhaz, Georgian Location Upper Abkhazia (formerly known as Kodori Valley) Status Partially government in exile Chairman of Cabinet of Ministers Malkhaz Akishbaia Chairman of the Supreme Council Temur Mzhavia The De jure Government of Abkhazia (Georgian: , Abkhaz: ) is the only body internationally recognized as a legal authority of... Motto: ძალა ერთობაშია (Georgian: Strength is in Unity) Anthem: Tavisupleba (Freedom) Capital Tbilisi Largest city Tbilisi Official languages Georgian Government President Prime Minister of Georgia Speaker of the Parliament Republic Mikhail Saakashvili Zurab Nogaideli Nino Burjanadze Independence  - Date From the USSR 9 April 1991 Area  â€¢ Total  â€¢ Water (%)   69,700 km² (118th) Negligible... Combatants Abkhaz separatists Confederation of Mountain Peoples of the Caucasus Russian Cossacks Russian Forces1 Georgian Interior and Defense Ministry forces Paramilitary groups and volunteer battalions Commanders Iysuph Soslanbekov, Musa Shanibov, Shamil Basaev, Beslan Barghandjia, Anri Djergenia Geno Adamia, Guram Gubelashvili, Gia Kharkharashvili, Davit Tevzadze, Soso Akhalaia Casualties ~2,500-4... Map of Abkhazia showing the location of the Kodori Gorge The 2006 Kodori crisis erupted in late July 2006 in Georgia’s Kodori Gorge, when a local militia leader declared his disobedience to the government of Georgia, which sent police forces to disarm the rebels. ... The upper Kodori Gorge is a principal part of Upper Abkhazia. ... Chkhalta is a principal village in Upper Abkhazia (formerly known as the Kodori Valley), western Georgian autonomous republic of Abkhazia whose two third has been controlled by the Abkhaz separatist government in Sukhumi since 1993. ...


The Council of Ministers of the autonomous republic was created during the Soviet period which included the Presidium where representatives (elected) from all regions in Abkhazia governed the affairs of the republic. The members of the Cabinet of Ministers and the Presidium included ethnic Georgians, Abkhaz and Armenians.


Zhiuli Shartava was elected as the Chairman of the Council of Ministers just before the outbreak of the war. When the hostilities reached their climax in 1992, the separatist wing of the government left the Presidium and moved to Gudauta. From Gudauta they started to arm militia groups (allegedly supplied by the Russian military base in Gudauta) which were used during the conflict. [52] Zhiuli Shartava Zhiuli Shartava (Georgian: ) (1944-1993) was a Georgian politician who was killed by Abkhaz rebels during the ethnic cleansing of Georgians in Abkhazia in 1993. ... Gudauta is a town in Georgia’s breakaway region Abkhazia. ...


The Council of Ministers remaining in Sukhumi still maintained its ethnic Abkhaz representatives, who rejected the separatist call for secession. [53] Two of them, leading Abkhaz politician Raul Eshba and Sumbat Saakian, a representative of the ethnic Armenian Diaspora, refused to leave Sukhumi and stayed along with Zhiuli Shartava, Guram Gabiskiria and other members of the government in Sukhumi until the tragic events of September 27th 1993, when Shartava, Eshba, Gabiskiria, Saakian and other members of the government were tortured and killed by the separatists and their allies (see Sukhumi massacre). The remaining survivors of the government fled to the capital Tbilisi where they organized the headquarters of the Abkhaz government in exile headed by Tamaz Nadareishvili (great grandson of Abkhaz Prince Shervashidze). [54] In 1998, Georgians in the Gali district (populated mainly by ethnic Georgians) of Abkhazia launched partisan activities against the de facto authorities in Sukhumi. The Abkhaz government in exile allegedly supported the rebel movement known as The White Legion. However, as a result of this insurrection, the Abkhaz separatist authorities launched a full scale attack on the Gali region, killing and expelling its ethnic Georgian inhabitants. [55] In 2004, Nadareishvili died leaving the government in a disorganized state. After the Rose Revolution and Kodori events of 2006, the de jure Abkhaz government was revived and reorganized. Malkhaz Akishbaia, a Western-educated Abkhaz politician was elected in April 2006 and is the current head of the de jure Government of Abkhazia. Akishbaia appointed ethnic Abkhaz ministers Temur Mzhavia and Ada Marshania to key positions and included former members of Council of Ministers in his government. The government moved to Upper Abkhazia (within the administrative borders of the autonomous republic) with its headquarters in Chkhalta. Raul Eshba (Georgian: ) (1944-1993) was an ethnic Abkhaz politician who was killed in Sukhumi along with Zhiuli Shartava, Guram Gabiskiria and others by Abkhaz separatist rebels during the ethnic cleansing of Georgians in Abkhazia on September 27th, 1993. ... Guram Gabiskiria, Sukhumi, Georgia 1992 Guram Gabiskiria (Georgian: ) (1947–1993) was a Mayor of Sukhumi who was murdered by Abkhaz separatists during the ethnic cleansing of Georgians in Abkhazia in 1993. ... Georgian civilians hiding from Abkhaz separatist militants near Sukhumi The Sukhumi Massacre took place on September 27, 1993, during the Georgian-Abkhaz conflict. ... Tamaz Nadareishvili (1954-2004) was a Georgian politician who served as head of the Supreme Council of the Abkhazian Autonomous Republic, a Georgian government-in-exile for the break-away province of Abkhazia. ... Coat of arms of the Shervashidze/Chachba family, 19th century Shervashidze (Abkhazian: Chachba) was a noble family in Abkhazia which, according to later sources, can be traced at least as far back as the twelfth century. ... Gali district is largely in the UN security zone Gali district is a district of the internationally unrecognised Republic of Abkhazia, de jure part of Georgia. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Map of Abkhazia showing the location of the Kodori Gorge The 2006 Kodori crisis erupted in late July 2006 in Georgia’s Kodori Gorge, when a local militia leader declared his disobedience to the government of Georgia, which sent police forces to disarm the rebels. ... Malkhaz Akishbaia is an ethnic Abkhaz and the Chairman of Cabinet of Ministers of the de jure Government of Abkhazia in Kodori. ... Temur Mzhavia is the Chairman of the Supreme Council of the de jure Government of Abkhazia in Kodori. ... Ada Marshania is an ethnic Abkhaz and the Deputy of Supreme Council of the de jure Government of Abkhazia in Kodori since July 2006. ... Chkhalta is a principal village in Upper Abkhazia (formerly known as the Kodori Valley), western Georgian autonomous republic of Abkhazia whose two third has been controlled by the Abkhaz separatist government in Sukhumi since 1993. ...

Territory controlled by Abkhazian authorities is marked in grey color.

On September 27, 2006 President Mikheil Saakashvili, Nino Burjanadze, Catholicos-Patriarch of All Georgia Ilia II and others members of the central government visited Kodori Valley and officially changed the name and designated the area as "Upper Abkhazia". President Saakashvili addressed the nation during the opening of de jure Government headquarters in Chkhalta, Upper Abkhazia: is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mikheil Saakashvili (Georgian: ) (born December 21, 1967) is a Georgian politician and the current President of Georgia. ... Nino Burjanadze (IPA: , Georgian: ნინო ბურჯანაძე) (surname sometimes transliterated in English as Burdzhanadze or Burdjanadze), (b. ... His Holiness and Beatitude Catholicos-Patriarch of All Georgia is the head of the Georgian Orthodox and Apostolic Church. ... His Holiness and Beatitude Ilia II (მისი უწმიდესობა და უნეტარესობა ილია II in Georgian. ... The upper Kodori Gorge is a principal part of Upper Abkhazia. ...

"We are here – Upper Abkhazia, very close to Sokhumi - and we are not going to leave this place. We will return to Abkhazia very soon, but only through peaceful means...We have told every foreign ambassador in Georgia that Abkhazia and Tbilisi are not separate entities...From now on the protocol of each foreign diplomat [visiting Abkhazia], apart from trips to Sokhumi, will also include the route to Abkhazia’s administrative center in the village of Chkhalta where the chairman of the Abkhaz government is Malkhaz Akishbaia."[56]

International involvement

The UN has played various roles during the conflict and peace process: a military role through its observer mission (UNOMIG); dual diplomatic roles through the Security Council and the appointment of a Special Envoy, succeeded by a Special Representative to the Secretary-General; a humanitarian role (UNHCR and UNOCHA); a development role (UNDP); a human rights role (UNCHR); and a low-key capacity and confidence-building role (UNV). The UN’s position has been that there will be no forcible change in international borders. Any settlement must be freely negotiated and based on autonomy for Abkhazia legitimized by referendum under international observation once the multi-ethnic population has returned.[57] According to Western interpretations the intervention did not contravene international law since Georgia, as a sovereign state, had the right to secure order on its territory and protect its territorial integrity. The United Nations Observer Mission in Georgia (UNOMIG) was established on 24 August 1993 by Security Council Resolution 858 to verify compliance with the 27 July 1993, ceasefire agreement between the Republic of Georgia and forces in Abkhazia with special attention given to the situation in the city of Sukhumi... Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) (established December 14, 1950) protects and supports refugees at the request of a government or the United Nations and assists in their return or resettlement. ... The Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), is a organisation under the United Nations which originated in December 1991 with the General Assembly Resolution 46/182. ... The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the largest multilateral source of grant technical assistance in the world. ... The United Nations Commission on Human Rights, a commission supervised by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, is composed of representatives from 53 member states, and meets each year in regular session in March/April for six weeks in Geneva. ... The United Nations Volunteers (UNV) programme is a United Nations agency that deploys international volunteers to directly support UN partners in the field. ...


OSCE has increasingly engaged in dialogue with officials and civil society representatives in Abkhazia, especially from NGOs and the media, regarding human dimension standards and is considering a presence in Gali. OSCE expressed concern and condemnation over ethnic cleansing of Georgians in Abkhazia during the 1994 Budapest Summit Decision[58] and later at the Lisbon Summit Declaration in 1996.[59] The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is an international organization for security. ... For other uses, see Budapest (disambiguation). ...


The USA rejects the unilateral secession of Abkhazia and urges its integration into Georgia as an autonomous unit. In 1998 the USA announced its readiness to allocate up to $15 million for rehabilitation of infrastructure in the Gali region if substantial progress is made in the peace process. USAID has already funded some humanitarian initiatives for Abkhazia. The USA has in recent years significantly increased its military support to the Georgian armed forces but has stated that it would not condone any moves towards peace enforcement in Abkhazia. The United States Agency for International Development (or USAID) is the US government organization responsible for most non-military foreign aid. ...


On August 22, 2006, Senator Richard Lugar, then visiting Georgia's capital Tbilisi, joined the Georgian politicians in criticism of the Russian peacekeeping mission, stating that "the U.S. administration supports the Georgian government’s insistence on the withdrawal of Russian peacekeepers from the conflict zones in Abkhazia and the Tskhinvali district."[60] is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Richard Green Dick Lugar (born April 4, 1932) is the senior United States Senator from Indiana. ...


On October 5, 2006, Javier Solana, the High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy of the European Union, ruled out the possibility of replacing the Russian peacekeepers with the EU force."[61] On October 10, 2006, EU South Caucasus envoy Peter Semneby noted that "Russia's actions in the Georgia spy row have damaged its credibility as a neutral peacekeeper in the EU's Black Sea neighbourhood."[62] For other uses, see 5th October (Serbia). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Javier Solana Madariaga (born July 14, 1942 in Madrid, Spain) is the High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and the Secretary-General of both the Council of the European Union (EU) and the Western European Union (WEU). ... The Common Foreign and Security Policy or CFSP was established as the second of the three pillars of the European Union in the Maastricht treaty of 1992, and further defined and broadened in the Amsterdam Treaty of 1997. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Russian officers arrested on charges of espionage paraded in Tbilisi before being handed over to the OSCE The 2006 Georgian-Russian espionage controversy began when the Government of Georgia arrested four Russian officers on charges of espionage, on September 27, 2006. ...


On October 13, 2006, the UN Security Council unanimously adopted a resolution, based on a Group of Friends of the Secretary-General draft, extending the UNOMIG mission until April 15, 2007. Acknowledging that the "new and tense situation" resulted, at least in part, from the Georgian special forces operation in the upper Kodori Valley, urged the country to ensure that no troops unauthorized by the Moscow ceasefire agreement were present in that area. It urged the leadership of the Abkhaz side to address seriously the need for a dignified, secure return of refugees and internally displaced persons and to reassure the local population in the Gali district that their residency rights and identity will be respected. The Georgian side is "once again urged to address seriously legitimate Abkhaz security concerns, to avoid steps which could be seen as threatening and to refrain from militant rhetoric and provocative actions, especially in upper Kodori Valley". Calling on both parties to follow up on dialogue initiatives, it further urged them to comply fully with all previous agreements regarding non-violence and confidence-building, in particular those concerning the separation of forces. Regarding the disputed role of the peacekeepers from the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Council stressed the importance of close, effective cooperation between UNOMIG and that force and looked to all sides to continue to extend the necessary cooperation to them. At the same time, the document reaffirmed the "commitment of all Member States to the sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity of Georgia within its internationally recognized borders."[63] is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The United Nations Observer Mission in Georgia (UNOMIG) was established on 24 August 1993 by Security Council Resolution 858 to verify compliance with the 27 July 1993, ceasefire agreement between the Republic of Georgia and forces in Abkhazia with special attention given to the situation in the city of Sukhumi... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


The HALO Trust, an international non-profit organisation that specialises in the removal of the debris of war, has been active in Abkhazia for a long time and has completed the removal of land-mines in Sukhumi and Gali districts. It plans to finish its operations in 2007/2008 and to declare Abkhazia a "mine impact free" territory.[64] The HALO Trust is a registered British charity and registered American non-profit organization whose purpose is to remove the debris left behind by war, in particular, landmines and unexploded ordinance that might present a danger to local civilians. ...

Religion

Main article: Religion in Abkhazia

The population (including all ethnic groups) of Abkhazia are majority Orthodox Christians (appx 75%) and Sunni Muslims (appx 10%).[65] Most of the ethnic Armenians living in Abkhazia belong to the Armenian Apostolic Church. However, most of the people who declare themselves Christian or Muslim do not attend religious services. There is also a very small number of Jews, Jehovah's Witnesses and the followers of new religions.[66] The Jehovah's Witnesses organization has officially been banned since 1995, though the decree is not currently enforced.[67] Pitsunda Cathedral The population (including all ethnic groups) of Abkhazia (internationally recognised to constitute an autonomous republic of Georgia but de facto independent) is in majority Orthodox Christians (appx 75%) and Sunni Muslims (appx 10%).[1] Most of the ethnic Armenians living in Abkhazia belong to the Armenian Apostolic Church. ... Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Official standard of Karekin II Catholicos of Armenia The Armenian Apostolic Church (Armenian: Õ€Õ¡Õµ Ô±Õ¼Õ¡Ö„Õ¥Õ¬Õ¡Õ¯Õ¡Õ¶ Եկեղեցի, Hay Arakelagan Yegeghetzi), sometimes called the Armenian Orthodox Church or the Gregorian Church, is the worlds oldest national church[1] [2] and one of the most ancient Christian communities [3]. // Baptism of Tiridates III. The earliest... A new religious movement or NRM is a term used to refer to a religious faith, or an ethical, spiritual or philosophical movement of recent origin that isnt part of an established denomination, church, or religious body. ...


According to the constitutions of Georgia, Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia and de facto Republic of Abkhazia the adherents of all religions (as well as atheists) have equal rights before the law.[68]


Abkhazia is recognized by the Eastern Orthodox world as a canonical territory of the Georgian Orthodox Church, which has been unable to operate in the region since the War in Abkhazia. Currently, the religious affairs of local Orthodox Christian community is run by the self-imposed "Eparchy of Abkhazia" under significant influence of the Russian Orthodox Church. Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ... Canonical territories are geographical subdivisions that mark the boundaries of the jurisdiction of local orthodox churches on the one hand and the Roman Catholic Church on the other. ... The Georgian Orthodox and Apostolic Church is one of the worlds most ancient Christian Churches, founded in the 1st century by the Apostle Andrew. ... The Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate (Russian: ), also known as the Orthodox Christian Church of Russia, is a body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ...

Gallery of Abkhazia

See also

References

  1. ^ Olga Oliker, Thomas S. Szayna. Faultlines of Conflict in Central Asia and the South Caucasus: Implications for the U.S. Army. Rand Corporation, 2003, ISBN 0833032607
  2. ^ Abkhazia: ten years on. By Rachel Clogg, Conciliation Resources, 2001
  3. ^ Medianews.ge. Training of military operations underway in Abkhazia, August 21,2007
  4. ^ Emmanuel Karagiannis. Energy and Security in the Caucasus. Routledge, 2002. ISBN 0700714812
  5. ^ GuardianUnlimited. Georgia up in arms over Olympic cash
  6. ^ International Relations and Security Network. Kosovo wishes in Caucasus. By Simon Saradzhyan
  7. ^ a b c d e f Full Report by Human Rights Watch. Human Rights Watch. Georgia/Abkhazia. Violations of the laws of war and Russia's role in the conflict Helsinki, March 1995
  8. ^ Chervonnaia, Svetlana Mikhailovna. Conflict in the Caucasus: Georgia, Abkhazia, and the Russian Shadow. Gothic Image Publications, 1994.
  9. ^ BBC News, Abkhazia rallies for independence, 7.12.2006
  10. ^ Amy McCallio, Rise of Abkhaz Separatism, YATT Publications, 2004.
  11. ^ a b c d Abkhazia Today. The International Crisis Group Europe Report N°176, 15 September 2006, page 10. Retrieved on May 30, 2007. Free registration needed to view full report
  12. ^ Press conference of Sergey Shamba, Moskovskiy Komsomolets, July 6, 2006 (Russian)
  13. ^ "К концу 2007 года 90 процентов граждан Абхазии должны получить "национальные" паспорта — Президент", abkhaziagov.org, May 29, 2007 (Russian)
  14. ^ Breakaway Abkhazia seeks recognition, Al-Jazeera, October 18, 2006.
  15. ^ Abkhazia: Ways Forward, Europe Report N°179 , 18 January 2007
  16. ^ UN High Commissioner for refugees. Background note on the Protection of Asylum Seekers and Refugees in Georgia remaining outside Georgia, [1]
  17. ^ Report of the Representative of the Secretary-General on the human rights of internally displaced persons – Mission to Georgia. United Nations: 2006.
  18. ^ Resolution of the OSCE Budapest Summit, OSCE, 1994-12-06
  19. ^ Georgia-Abkhazia: Profiles. Accord: an international review of peace initiatives. Reconciliation Resources. Accessed on April 2, 2007.
  20. ^ UNOMIG, RECOGNITION MAY COME "THIS YEAR", SOUTH OSSETIA'S LEADER SAYS - REPORT, 21.02.08
  21. ^ Saakashvili Outlines Tbilisi’s Abkhaz Initiatives. Civil Georgia. 2008-03-28.
  22. ^ Burjanadze: Russia Behind Sokhumi’s No to New Proposals. Civil Georgia. 2008-03-29.
  23. ^ Travel advice by country: Georgia. The United Kingdom Foreign and Commonwealth Office. Retrieved on July 2, 2007; Consular Information Sheet: Georgia. The U.S. Department of State. Retrieved from Allsafetravels.com on July 2, 2007; Travel advisories: Georgia. Ministry of Foregin Affairs and Trade, New Zealand. Retrieved from Allsafetravels.com on July 2, 2007; Travel advice: Georgia. Australian Government, Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved from Allsafetravels.com on July 2, 2007; Travel advice: Georgia, Irish Government, Department of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved on July 2, 2007.
  24. ^ Civil.ge, Abkhazia’s Beauty out of Sight, 22.08.2003
  25. ^ Rosbalt.ru, Багапш: Все больше туристов приезжает в Абхазию (Bagapsh: More and more tourists come to Abkhazia), 01.09.2006 (Russian)
  26. ^ Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Abkhazia :: Consular Service
  27. ^ Moscow Mayor Pledges More Investment in Abkhazia, Civil Georgia. July 9, 2007.
  28. ^ Country Report 2007: Abkhazia (Georgia). The Freedom House. Accessed on October 3, 2007.
  29. ^ Russian Federation Withdraws from Regime of Restrictions Established in 1996 for Abkhazia. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia (2008-03-06). Retrieved on 2008-03-06.
  30. ^ Cornell, Svante E. (2001), Small Nations and Great Powers: A Study of Ethnopolitical Conflict in the Caucasus, p. 156. Routledge (UK), ISBN 0700711627)
  31. ^ Müller, D, 1999. Demography: ethno-demographic history, 1886-1989 in The Abkhazians: A handbook. Richmond: Curzon Press.
  32. ^ 1-я Всеобщая перепись населения Российской Империи 1897 г. Кутаисская губерния. Спб: 1905. С. 32б retrieved from "АБХАЗИЯ-1992: ПОСТОКОММУНИСТИЧЕСКАЯ ВАНДЕЯ" by Svetlana Chervonnaya
  33. ^ Sukhum, Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedia
  34. ^ Ментешашвили А.М. Исторические предпосылки современного сепаратизма в Грузии. - Тбилиси, 1998.
  35. ^ JRL RESEARCH & ANALYTICAL SUPPLEMENT ~ JRL 8226, Issue No. 24 • May 2004. SPECIAL ISSUE; THE GEORGIAN-ABKHAZ CONFLICT: PAST, PRESENT, FUTURE
  36. ^ 2003 Census statistics (Russian)
  37. ^ The International Crisis Group. Abkhazia Today. Europe Report N°176, p. 9. 15 September 2006.
  38. ^ "Georgia." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 30 Apr. 2007.
  39. ^ Statistical Yearbook of Georgia, 2005: Population (607kb, Microsoft Word Document). The State Department of Statistics of Georgia. Retrieved on April 30, 2007.
  40. ^ Lortkipanidze M., The Abkhazians and Abkhazia, Tbilisi 1990.
  41. ^ Abkhazia Today. The International Crisis Group Europe Report N°176, 15 September 2006, page 4. Retrieved on April 21, 2007. Free registration needed to view full report
  42. ^ Causes and Visions of Conflict in Abkhazia. Ghia Nodia, 1997, page 27. Retrieved on August 5, 2007.
  43. ^ Conciliation Resources. Georgia-Abkhazia, Chronology
  44. ^ Парламентская газета (Parlamentskaya Gazeta). Референдум о сохранении СССР. Грузия строит демократию на беззаконии. Георгий Николаев, March 17, 2006 (Russian)
  45. ^ Chervonnaia, Svetlana Mikhailovna. Conflict in the Caucasus: Georgia, Abkhazia, and the Russian Shadow. Gothic Image Publications, 1994, Introduction
  46. ^ CSCE Budapest Document 1994, Budapest Decisions, Regional Issues
  47. ^ Lisbon OSCE Summit Declaration
  48. ^ Istanbul OSCE Summit Declaration
  49. ^ * Zarkovic Bookman, Milica (1997). The Demographic Struggle for Power: The Political Economy of Demographic Engineering in the Modern World. ISBN 0714647322. 
  50. ^ Tbilisi-Based Abkhaz Government Moves to Kodori, Civil Georgia, July 27 2006. URL accessed on 2007-07-28.
  51. ^ Abkhazia: UN Reports Progress, 26.01.2007
  52. ^ Conflict in the Caucasus: Georgia, Abkhazia, and the Russian Shadow, S. A. Chervonnaia
  53. ^ Conflict in the Caucasus: Georgia, Abkhazia, and the Russian Shadow, S. A. Chervonnaia
  54. ^ Federal practice : exploring alternatives for Georgia and Abkhazia, Coppieters, Bruno
  55. ^ Inheritance of history : ethnic conflicts in Soviet and Post-Soviet Central Asia Mohapatra, Nalin Kumar.
  56. ^ Civil.ge, Tbilisi Turns Kodori into ‘Temporary Administrative Center’ of Abkhazia, 27.09.2006
  57. ^ Resolutions 849, 854, 858, 876, 881 and 892 adopted by the UN Security Council
  58. ^ From the Resolution of the OSCE Budapest Summit, 6 December 1994 [2]
  59. ^ Lisbon Summit Declaration of the OSCE, 2-3 December 1996
  60. ^ U.S. Senator Urges Russian Peacekeepers’ Withdrawal From Georgian Breakaway Republics. (MosNews).
  61. ^ Solana fears Kosovo 'precedent' for Abkhazia, South Ossetia. (International Relations and Security Network).
  62. ^ Russia 'not neutral' in Black Sea conflict, EU says, EUobserver, October 10, 2006.
  63. ^ SECURITY COUNCIL EXTENDS GEORGIA MISSION UNTIL 15 APRIL 2007, The UN Department of Public Information, October 13, 2006.
  64. ^ The HALO Trust. Abkhazia
  65. ^ Flashpoints Site Directory. Abkhazia-Georgia
  66. ^ Александр Крылов. ЕДИНАЯ ВЕРА АБХАЗСКИХ "ХРИСТИАН" И "МУСУЛЬМАН". Особенности религиозного сознания в современной Абхазии.
  67. ^ Georgia: International Religious Freedom Report 2005. The United States Department of State. Retrieved on May 24, 2007.
  68. ^ Constitution of the Republic of Abkhazia, art. 12 (Russian)

External links

  • Wikimedia Atlas of Abkhazia
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Abkhazia
Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Abkhazia
  • (English)/(Russian)/(Georgian) Government of the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia. Official web-page
  • (English)/(Russian)/(Turkish)/(Abkhaz) President of the Republic of Abkhazia. Official site
  • (English)/(Russian)/(Turkish) Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Abkhazia. Official Site
  • (English) BBC Regions and territories: Abkhazia
  • (English) The Autonomous Republic of Abkhazeti - from Georgian National Parliamentary Library
  • (English) Abkhazia.com Official website of the refugees from Abkhazia
  • (Russian) Georgia Online: Official documents on conflict in Abkhazia
  • (English) Abkhazia and South Ossetia: News on Georgia's rebel regions
  • (Russian) News, History, Society, Genocide Facts
  • (Russian) State Information Agency of the Abkhaz Republic
  • (English) Abkhazia Provisional Paper Money
  • (Russian) Orthodox Churches of Abkhazia
  • (Russian) Archaeology and ethnography of Abkhazia. Abkhaz Institute of Social Studies. Abkhaz State Museum
Geographic locale


  Results from FactBites:
 
Abkhazia - History of Abkhazia (3853 words)
To the east and southeast, Abkhazia is bounded by the Georgian region of Samegrelo-Zemo Svaneti; and on the south and southwest by the Black Sea.
The landscapes of Abkhazia range from coastal forests and citrus plantations, to eternal snows and glaciers to the north of the region.
Abkhazia was made an autonomous principality of the Byzantine Empire in the 7th century — a status it retained until the 9th century, when it was united with the province of Imereti and became known as the Abkhazian Kingdom.
Politics of Abkhazia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (436 words)
Politics in Abkhazia is dominated by the conflict with Georgia, of which the territory seceded.
Politics takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Abkhazia is both head of state and head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system.
Still, on 12 October Abkhazia's Supreme Court, after a series of contradictory decisions by the Electoral Committee, recognized that the new president would be a businessman Sergei Bagapsh, accused by his rival's supporters of being pro-Georgian.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m