FACTOID # 11: Oklahoma has the highest rate of women in State or Federal correctional facilities.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Abkhaz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
Аҧсны/აფხაზეთი
Apsny/Apkhazeti


Area
 – Total
 – % water

 8,600 km²
 Negligible
Population
 - Total (2000 est.)
 - Density

 250,000
 29/km²
Time zone UTC +3
Government of the unrecognized Abkhazian Republic
Flag Coat of Arms
Official languages Abkhaz, with Russian having co-official status and widespread use by government and other institutions
Political status De facto independent
Capital Sukhumi
Capital's coordinates 43°00′N 40°59′E
President Sergei Bagapsh
Prime Minister Alexander Ankvab
Independence
 – Declared
 – Recognition
From Georgia
 23 July 1992
 none
Currency Russian ruble
Government of the Abkhazian Autonomous Republic
Flag Coat of Arms
Official languages Abkhaz and Georgian
Political status Autonomous Republic of Georgia
Location Upper Abkhazia
Capital Chkhalta
Chairman of the Cabinet of Ministers Malkhaz Akishbaia
Chairman of the
Supreme Council
Temur Mzhavia
Independence
(within Georgia)
 – Declared
 – Recognized
From Soviet Union
 
 9 April 1991
 25 December 1991
Currency Georgian lari

Abkhazia IPA: /æbˈkeɪʒə/ or /æbˈkɑziə/ (Abkhaz: Аҧсны Apsny, Georgian: აფხაზეთი Apkhazeti, or Abkhazeti, Russian: Абха́зия Abkhazia) is a region of 8,600 km² (3,300 sq mi.) in the Caucasus, which is de jure an autonomous republic of Georgia (Georgian: აფხაზეთის ავტონომიური რესპუბლიკა, Abkhaz: Аҧснытәи Автономтәи Республика), but which proclaimed independence after a war in the early 1990s. It remains largely de facto independent of Georgia and maintains control over a large part of its territory, although it is not recognized internationally as a separate nation. The capital is Sukhumi, which is located on the Black Sea. The de-jure Government of Abkhazia, the only body internationally recognized as a legal authority of Abkhazia, is located in the Kodori Valley, part of Georgian-controlled Upper Abkhazia. Map of Abkhazia Adapted from http://www. ... Abkhazia in Georgia, copied from Estonian Wikipedia. ... Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. ... World map of the population density in 2006 Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. ... A time zone is a region of the Earth that has adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. ... It has been suggested that leap second be merged into this article or section. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Abkhazia. ... Image File history File links Source: http://geraldika. ... In the red canton, the open hand represents Abkhaz nationhood. ... The coat of arms of Abkhazia, an internationally unrecognized republic, was adopted by the Supreme Soviet of Abkhazia on 23 July 1992, after it declared its secession from Georgia. ... An official language is a language that is given a privileged legal status in a state, or other legally-defined territory. ... Abkhaz is a Northwest Caucasian language spoken in Georgia and Turkey. ... In politics, a capital (also called capital city or political capital — although the latter phrase has a second meaning based on an alternative sense of capital) is the principal city or town associated with a countrys government. ... View of Sukhumi Sukhumi (Georgian: , Sokhumi; Abkhaz: , Aqwa; Russian: , Sukhumi) is the capital of Abkhazia, a de facto independent republic, which is internationally recognized as being an autonomous republic within Georgia. ... See Cartesian coordinate system or Coordinates (elementary mathematics) for a more elementary introduction to this topic. ... Sergei Bagapsh (Abkhaz: )born 1949) is the president of the unrecognized, though de facto independent Republic of Abkhazia. ... Alexander (or Aleksandr) Ankvab (born December 26, 1952) is the Prime Minister of the Republic of Abkhazia, formally part of Georgia but a self-declared independent state (although not recognised internationally). ... July 23 is the 204th day (205th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 161 days remaining. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... ISO 4217 Code RUB User(s) Russia and self-proclaimed Abkhazia and South Ossetia Inflation 11% (Russian only) Source CIA World Fact Book, 2005 est. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Georgia. ... The Flag of Georgia can refer to: Flag of Georgia (country) Flag of Georgia (U.S. state) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This is Georgias coat of arms adopted on 1 October 2004. ... An official language is a language that is given a privileged legal status in a state, or other legally-defined territory. ... Abkhaz is a Northwest Caucasian language spoken in Georgia and Turkey. ... A significant number of autonomous republics can be found within the successor states of the Soviet Union, but the majority are located within Russia. ... The upper Kodori Gorge is a principal part of Upper Abkhazia. ... In politics, a capital (also called capital city or political capital — although the latter phrase has a second meaning based on an alternative sense of capital) is the principal city or town associated with a countrys government. ... Chkhalta is a principal village in Upper Abkhazia (formerly known as the Kodori Valley), western Georgian autonomous republic of Abkhazia whose two third has been controlled by the Abkhaz separatist government in Sukhumi since 1993. ... Malkhaz Akishbaia is an ethnic Abkhaz and the Chairman of Cabinet of Ministers of the de jure Government of Abkhazia in Kodori. ... Temur Mzhavia is the Chairman of the Supreme Council of the de jure Government of Abkhazia in Kodori. ... April 9 is the 99th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (100th in leap years). ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 25 is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 6 days remaining for the year. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The lari (Georgian: ლარი ; ISO 4217:GEL) is the national currency of Georgia. ... The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation devised by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) used in spoken human language. ... Abkhaz is a Northwest Caucasian language spoken in Georgia and Turkey. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... The Entholinguistic patchwork of the modern Caucasus - CIA map The Caucasus, a region bordering Asia Minor, is located between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea which includes the Caucasus Mountains and surrounding lowlands. ... Look up De jure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary The terms de jure and de facto are used instead of in principle and in practice, respectively, when one is describing political situations. ... A significant number of autonomous republics can be found within the successor states of the Soviet Union, but the majority are located within Russia. ... Abkhaz is a Northwest Caucasian language spoken in Georgia and Turkey. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... View of Sukhumi Sukhumi (Georgian: , Sokhumi; Abkhaz: , Aqwa; Russian: , Sukhumi) is the capital of Abkhazia, a de facto independent republic, which is internationally recognized as being an autonomous republic within Georgia. ... Map of the Black Sea. ... Official languages Abkhaz, Georgian Location Upper Abkhazia (formerly known as Kodori Valley) Chairman of Cabinet of Ministers Malkhaz Akishbaia Chairman of the Supreme Council Temur Mzhavia The de-jure Government of Abkhazia (Georgian: , Abkhaz: ) is the only body internationally recognized as a legal authority of Abkhazia, Georgia’s autonomous republic... The Kodori Gorge of Upper Abkhazia The Kodori Valley (also known as the Kodori Gorge; Georgian: ) is a river valley in Abkhazia, Georgias breakaway autonomous republic which serves as the de facto boundary between the Georgian government and the secessionist-controlled territories. ... The upper Kodori Gorge is a principal part of Upper Abkhazia. ...

Contents

Political status

The United States, European Union and international organizations (UN, OSCE, Council of the European Union, etc.) recognize Abkhazia as an integral part of Georgia and are urging both sides to settle the conflict over Abkhazian autonomy through peaceful means.[1] However, the Abkhaz separatist government and the majority of the current Abkhazian population (excluding ethnic Georgians who still populate the Gali District and the Kodori Gorge) consider Abkhazia a sovereign country. This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ... The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is an international organization for security. ... The Council of the European Union forms, along with the European Parliament, the legislative arm of the European Union (EU). ... The Kodori Gorge The Kodori Valley (also known as the Kodori Gorge) is a river valley in Abkhazia, Georgias breakaway autonomous republic which serves as the de facto boundary between the Georgian government and the secessionist-controlled territories. ...


Meanwhile the Russian State Duma is looking for legal ways to incorporate this region into Russia[citation needed], while Russian media produce numerous materials in support of separatist rule. During the war, Russian authorities supplied significant military and financial aid to the separatist side. Since the beginning of the war, Russia has politically and militarily contributed in the creation of the separatist movement in Abkhazia.[2] Today, Russia still maintains a strong political and military influence over the separatist rule in Abkhazia. [3] Emblem commemorating the 100 year anniversary of Russia Dumas Boris Gryzlov, speaker of the Russian State Duma since December 2003 The State Duma (Russian: Государственная дума (Gosudarstvennaya Duma), common abbreviation: Госдума (Gosduma)) in the Russian Federation is the lower house of the Federal Assembly of Russia (legislature), the upper house being the Federation...


On October 18, 2006, the Abkhazian parliament passed a resolution, calling upon Russia, international organizations, and the rest of the international community to recognize Abkhazian independence, claiming that the region possesses all the properties of an independent state.[4] October 18 is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years). ... The Peoples Assembly is the legislature of Abkhazia. ...


Geography and climate

Abkhazia covers an area of about 8,600 km² at the western end of Georgia, on the north shore of the Black Sea. The Caucasus Mountains to the north and the northeast divide Abkhazia from Circassia. To the east, the region is bordered by Svanetia. To the southeast, Abkhazia is bounded by Samegrelo; and on the south and southwest by the Black Sea. Map of the Black Sea. ... The Caucasus Mountains are a mountain system between the Black and Caspian seas in the Caucasus region, usually considered the southeastern limit of Europe. ... Circassia, also known as Cherkessia in Russian, is a region in Caucasia. ... The Upper Svanetian village Ushguli Svaneti (also known as Svanetia or Svania in Russian and Western languages) is a historic province in Georgia, in the northwestern part of the country. ... Samegrelo (Mingrelia) is a historic province in the western part of the republic of Georgia, formerly also known as Odishi. ...


The region is extremely mountainous (nearly 75% is classified as mountains or foothills) and settlement is largely confined to the coast and a number of deep, well-watered valleys. The Greater Caucasus Mountain Range runs along the region's northern border. The Gagra, Bziphi, and Kodori Ranges branch off from the Main Caucasus Range. The highest peaks of Abkhazia are in the northeast and east (along the border with Svanetia) and several exceed 4,000 meters (13,120 feet) above sea level. The climate is quite mild, which in the Soviet times caused it to become a popular holiday destination known as the "Georgian Riviera". It is also renowned for its agricultural produce, including tea, tobacco, wine and fruits. The Caucasus Mountains are a mountain system between the Black and Caspian seas in the Caucasus region, usually considered the southeastern limit of Europe. ... The Upper Svanetian village Ushguli Svaneti (also known as Svanetia or Svania in Russian and Western languages) is a historic province in Georgia, in the northwestern part of the country. ... Tea leaves in a Chinese gaiwan. ... on tobacco usage see Tobacco smoking Species Nicotiana acuminata Nicotiana alata Nicotiana attenuata Nicotiana benthamiana Nicotiana clevelandii Nicotiana excelsior Nicotiana forgetiana Nicotiana glauca Nicotiana glutinosa Nicotiana langsdorffii Nicotiana longiflora Nicotiana obtusifolia Nicotiana paniculata Nicotiana plumbagifolia Nicotiana quadrivalvis Nicotiana repanda Nicotiana rustica Nicotianasuaveolens Nicotiana sylvestris Nicotiana tabacum Nicotiana tomentosa Ref: ITIS... Wine is an alcoholic beverage produced by the fermentation of the juice of fruits, usually grapes. ... Fruit stall in Barcelona, Spain. ...


Landscape

Abkhazia is well known for its beauty and contrasting landscapes. The landscapes of the region range from coastal forests (endemic pine forests near Bichvinta/Pitsunda) and citrus plantations, to eternal snows and glaciers to the north of the republic. Because of Abkhazia's complex topographic setting, most of the territory has been spared from significant human cultivation and development. Therefore, a large portion of Abkhazia (nearly 70% of the territory) is still covered by forests today. Abkhazia is also well known for the high number of endemic species of plants that are found only in the Caucasus, only in Georgia, or only in Abkhazia. In biology and ecology endemic means exclusively native to a place or biota, in contrast to cosmopolitan or introduced. ... Species About 115. ... Austrias longest glacier, the Pasterze, winds its 8 km (5 mile) route at the foot of Austrias highest mountain, the Grossglockner A glacier is a large, long-lasting river of ice that is formed on land and moves in response to gravity. ...


Southeastern Abkhazia, a part of the Colchis Lowland, is covered by Colchian forests (alder, hornbeam, oak, beech), or by citrus and tea plantations. The foothills, up to an elevation of 600 meters (1,968 feet) above sea level, are covered by deciduous forests (with evergreen elements), and include tree species such as oak, hornbeam, beech, and buxus. The forest covers from 600 to 1,800 meters (1,960-5,904 ft) above sea level is made up of both deciduous and coniferous species of tree. The most common species are beech, spruce, and fir. The mixed forest zone is home to some of the tallest trees in Europe and the world, where some specimens of the Nordmann Fir (especially around Lake Ritsa) reach heights of over 70 meters (230 feet). The zone extending 1,800-2,900 m (5,904-9,512 ft) above sea level is made up of either subalpine forests or alpine meadows. Territory lying above 2,900 m (9,512 ft) is mainly covered by eternal snows and glaciers. In ancient geography, Colchis (sometimes spelled also as Kolchis) (Greek: Κολχίς, kŏl´kĬs; Georgian: კოლხეთი, Kolkheti) was a nearly triangular district in Caucasus. ... Species About 20-30 species, see text. ... Species Carpinus betulus - European Hornbeam Carpinus caroliniana - American Hornbeam Carpinus cordata - Sawa Hornbeam Carpinus fargesii - Farges Hornbeam Carpinus laxiflora - Aka-shide Hornbeam Carpinus japonica - Japanese Hornbeam Carpinus orientalis - Oriental Hornbeam Carpinus tschonoskii - Chonowskis Hornbeam Carpinus turczaninowii - Turkzaninovs Hornbeam The hornbeams (Carpinus) are a genus of relatively small hardwood... Species See List of Quercus species The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of several hundred species of trees and shrubs in the genus Quercus, and some related genera, notably Cyclobalanopsis and Lithocarpus. ... Binomial name Fagus orientalis Lipsky The Oriental Beech (Fagus orientalis) is a deciduous tree in the beech family Fagaceae. ... Species & major hybrids Species Citrus maxima- Pomelo Citrus medica- Citron Citrus reticulata- Mandarin & Tangerine Major hybrids Citrus × sinensis- Sweet Orange Citrus × aurantium- Bitter Orange Citrus × paradisi- Grapefruit Citrus × limon- Lemon Citrus × latifolia- Persian lime Citrus × aurantifolia- Key lime See also main text for other hybrids Citrus is a common term... Tea leaves in a Chinese gaiwan. ... Deciduous means temporary or tending to fall off (deriving from the Latin word decidere, to fall off). ... A Silver Fir shoot showing three successive years of retained leaves In botany, an evergreen plant is a plant which retains its leaves year-round, with each leaf persisting for more than 12 months. ... Species About 70 species; see text Buxus is a genus of about 70 species in the family Buxaceae. ... Orders & Families Cordaitales † Pinales   Pinaceae - Pine family   Araucariaceae - Araucaria family   Podocarpaceae - Yellow-wood family   Sciadopityaceae - Umbrella-pine family   Cupressaceae - Cypress family   Cephalotaxaceae - Plum-yew family   Taxaceae - Yew family Vojnovskyales † Voltziales † The conifers, division Pinophyta, are one of 13 or 14 division level taxa within the Kingdom Plantae. ... Binomial name Picea orientalis (L.) Link The Caucasian Spruce or Oriental Spruce (Picea orientalis) is a spruce native to the Caucasus and adjacent northeast Turkey. ... Binomial name Abies nordmanniana (Steven) Spach Nordmann Fir Abies nordmanniana is a fir native to the mountains south and east of the Black Sea, in Turkey, Georgia, Russian Caucasus and northern parts of Armenia. ... World map showing Europe Political map (neighbouring countries in Asia and Africa also shown) Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of the Earth. ... Location of the lake in Abkhazia Lake Ritsa Lake Ritsa (Abkhaz Риҵа, Georgian რიწა), located in the northern part of Abkhazia, Georgia, is a beautiful lake in Caucasus Mountains, surrounded by mixed mountain forests and subalpine meadows. ... Alpine may refer to: Alpine, a breed of goat. ...


Climate

Because of Abkhazia's proximity to the Black Sea, its climate is very mild, considering the northern latitude. The Caucasus Mountains are greatly responsible for moderating the region's climate, as they shield Abkhazia from cold northerly winds. Map of the Black Sea. ... Latitude, usually denoted symbolically by the Greek letter φ, gives the location of a place on Earth north or south of the Equator. ...


The coastal areas of the Republic have a subtropical climate, where the average annual temperature in most regions is around 15 degrees Celsius. Average winter (January) temperatures vary between 4 and 6°C, while average summer (July) temperatures are anywhere between 22 and 23°C. The coastal territory rarely experiences strong frosts during the winter. The Celsius scale is a temperature scale named after the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius (1701 â€“ 1744), who first proposed a similar system two years before his death. ...


Higher elevations of Abkhazia, above 1,000 meters (3,280 ft) above sea level have a maritime, mountain climate, experiencing relatively cold winters and long, warm summers. Elevations above 2,000 m (6,560 ft) above sea level have colder winters and shorter summers. Abkhazia's highest regions have a cold, summerless climate throughout the year.


Abkhazia receives high amounts of precipitation, but is known for its unique micro-climate (transitional from subtropical to mountain) along most of its coast, causing lower levels of humidity. The annual precipitation along the coast ranges from 1,100 to 1,500 mm (43-59 inches). The foothills, the lower ranges, and the interior gorges of the Republic receive anywhere between 1,000 and 1,800 mm (39-71 in.) of precipitation annually. Some of the interior gorges that are sheltered from the moist influences of the Black Sea receive the lowest amounts of precipitation. The higher mountainous regions receive 1,700-3,500 mm (67-138 in.) of precipitation per year. Although there is usually no significant snowfall in the coastal regions, the mountains of Abkhazia do receive significant amounts of snow. Avalanches in the northeast sometimes pose a threat to populated areas. Snow depths often exceed 5 meters (18 feet) in some of the high, mountainous areas facing the Black Sea. This article refers to the natural event known as an avalanche. ...


Economy

The economy of Abkhazia heavily depends on Russia and the Russian ruble is used for currency. ISO 4217 Code RUB User(s) Russia and self-proclaimed Abkhazia and South Ossetia Inflation 11% (Russian only) Source CIA World Fact Book, 2005 est. ...


Demographics

According to the Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary (published in Russia in 1890-1906) at the beginning of the 20th century Abkhazians and Georgians constituted 60-65% and 25-30% of the Sukhum district pupulation respectively (this district occupied about the same territory as Abkhazian ASSR in Soviet times)[1][2]. Title pages of «Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary» Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary (35 volumes, small; 86 volumes, large) is, in its scope and style, the Russian counterpart to the 1911 Britannica. ...


According to the other sources Abkhazians numbered only 20,000 in 1881 [citation needed].


Also, the 1917 statistics is cited according to which Georgians and Abkhazians composed 42% (75,000) and 21% (38,000) of the population of Abkhazia respectively [citation needed].


The demography of Abkhazia has undergone a massive shift since the 1990s. At the time of the last Soviet census in 1989, it had a population of about 500 000, of whom 48% were ethnic Georgians (principally Megrelians) and only 17% were Abkhaz. The Georgians (ქართველი ერი (Kartveli Eri) or ქართველები (Kartvelebi) in the Georgian language) are a nation or an ethnic group, originating in the Caucasus. ... Samegrelo (Mingrelia) is a historic province in the western part of the republic of Georgia, formerly also known as Odishi. ... The Abkhaz or Abkhazians are a caucasian ethnic group, mainly living in Abkhazia, and distinct from Georgians. ...


In 1993, war led to Abkhazia breaking away from Georgia, and virtually the entire ethnic Georgian population — some 250 000 people and virtually the entire population of the east of the country — were displaced in what is alleged to have been a campaign of ethnic cleansing.[5] Abkhazia's much-reduced population now has an ethnic Abkhaz plurality of 45%, with Russians, Armenians (mostly Christian Hamshenis), Georgians, Greeks, and Jews comprising most of the remainder of the population. The majority of non-Georgian population has Russian citizenship. Ethnic cleansing refers to various policies or practices aimed at the displacement of an ethnic group from a particular territory. ... Hamshenis (also known as Hemshinlis or Khemshils; Õ€Õ¡Õ´Õ·Õ«Õ¶Õ« in Armenian; HemÅŸinli in Turkish; Кхэмшыл in Russian) are a distinct ethnic group of Armenian origin that inhabit the Black Sea coastal areas of Turkey, Russia, and Georgia (Abkhazia). ...


History

Main article: History of Abkhazia

This is the history of Abkhazia. ...

Early history

In the 9th-6th centuries BC, the territory of modern Abkhazia became a part of the ancient Georgian kingdom of Colchis (Kolkha), which was absorbed in 63 BC into the Kingdom of Egrisi. Greek traders established ports along the Black Sea shoreline. One of those ports, Dioscurias, eventually developed into modern Sukhumi, Abkhazia's traditional capital. In ancient geography, Colchis (sometimes spelled also as Kolchis) (Greek: Κολχίς, kŏl´kĬs; Georgian: კოლხეთი, Kolkheti) was a nearly triangular district in Caucasus. ... Egrisi (or Kolkheti) known to the ancient Greeks and Romans as Lazica and Persians as Lazistan was a kingdom in the western part of Georgia, which flourished between the 6th century BC and the 7th century AD. It covered the territory of the former kingdom Kolkha (Colchis) and the territory... View of Sukhumi Sukhumi (Georgian: , Sokhumi; Abkhaz: , Aqwa; Russian: , Sukhumi) is the capital of Abkhazia, a de facto independent republic, which is internationally recognized as being an autonomous republic within Georgia. ...


The Roman Empire conquered Egrisi in the 1st century AD and ruled it until the 4th century, following which it regained a measure of independence, but remained within the Byzantine Empire's sphere of influence. Although the exact time when the population of Abkhazia was converted to Christianity is not determined, it is known that the Metropolitan of Pitius participated in the First Oecumenical Council in 325 in Nicea. Abkhazia was made an autonomous principality of the Byzantine Empire in the 7th century — a status it retained until the 9th century, when it was united with the province of Imereti and became known as the Abkhazian Kingdom. In 9-10th centuries the Georgian kings were trying to unify all the Georgian provinces and in 1001 King Bagrat III Bagrationi became the first king of the unified Georgian Kingdom. The Roman Empire was a phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by an autocratic form of government. ... Byzantine EmpireGreek name: - Basileia tōn Romaiōn) is the term conventionally used since the 19th century to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire of the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on Jesus of Nazareth, and on his life and teachings as presented in the New Testament. ... Imereti is a historic province in Western Georgia, situated along the middle and upper reaches of the Rioni river. ... The Abkhazian Kingdom or the Kingdom of the Abkhazians refers to an early medieval feudal state in the Caucasus which lasted from the 780s until being united, through dynastic succession, with the Kingdom of the Georgians (see Tao-Klarjeti) in 1008. ... Bagrat III (ca. ...


In the 16th century, after the break-up of the united Georgian Kingdom, the area was conquered by the Ottoman Empire, during which the Abkhazians were partially converted to Islam. The Ottomans were pushed out by the Georgians, who established an autonomous Principality of Abkhazia (abxazetis samtavro in Georgian), ruled by the Shervashidze dynasty (aka Sharvashidze, or Chachba). Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Söğüt (1299-1326), Bursa (1326-1365), Edirne (1365-1453), Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul) (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah... For other uses, including people named Islam, see Islam (disambiguation). ... Coat of arms of the Shervashidze/Chachba family, 19th century Shervashidze (Abkhazian: Chachba) was a noble family in Abkhazia which, according to later sources, can be traced at least as far back as the twelfth century. ...


Abkhazia within the Russian Empire and Soviet Union

The expansion of the Russian Empire into the Caucasus region led to small-scale but regular conflicts between Russian colonists and the indigenous Caucasian tribes. Eventually the Caucasian War erupted, which ended with Russian conquest of the North and Western Caucasus. Various Georgian principalities were annexed to the empire between 1801 and 1864. The Russians acquired possession of Abhkazia in a piecemeal fashion between 1829 and 1842; but their power was not firmly established until 1864, when they managed to abolish the local principality which was still under Shervashidze rule. Large numbers of Muslim Abkhazians — said to have constituted as much as 60% of the Abkhazian population, although contemporary census reports were not very trustworthy — emigrated to the Ottoman Empire between 1864 and 1878 together with other Muslim population of Caucasus in the process known as Muhajirism. Official language Russian Official Religion Russian Orthodox Christianity Capital Saint Petersburg (Petrograd 1914-1924) Area Approx. ... Construction of the Georgian Military Road through disputed territories was a key factor in the eventual Russian success A Scene from the Caucasian War, by Franz Roubaud Russian Invasion of the Caucasus, better known in Russia as the Caucasian War of 1817-1864, was a series of military actions of... The North Caucasus, also called Ciscaucasus, Forecaucasus, or Front Caucasus (Russian: ), is the northern part of the Caucasus region. ... The last wild wisent in the world was killed by poachers here in 1927. ... Coat of arms of the Shervashidze/Chachba family, 19th century Shervashidze (Abkhazian: Chachba) was a noble family in Abkhazia which, according to later sources, can be traced at least as far back as the twelfth century. ... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Söğüt (1299-1326), Bursa (1326-1365), Edirne (1365-1453), Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul) (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah... Muhajirism was the emigration of Muslim indigenous peoples of the Caucasus into the Ottoman Empire and Middle East following the Caucasian War. ...


Modern Abkhazian historians maintain that large areas of the region were left uninhabited, and that many Armenians, Georgians and Russians (all Christians) subsequently migrated to Abkhazia, resettling much of the vacated territory. This version of events is strongly contested by Georgian historians (see Lortkipanidze M., The Abkhazians and Abkhazia, Tbilisi 1990) who argue that Georgian tribes (Mingrelians and Svans) had populated Abkhazia since the time of the Colchis kingdom. According to Georgian scholars, the Abkhaz are the descendants of North Caucasian tribes (Adygey, Apsua), who migrated to Abkhazia from the north of the Caucasus Mountains and merged there with the existing Georgian population. Either way, at the beginning of the 20th century demographics were such that in 1911 the Encyclopædia Britannica reported that in Sukhumi (population at the time 43 000), two-thirds of the population were Mingrelian and one-third were Abkhaz. North Caucasus in Russia The North Caucasus (sometimes referred to as Ciscaucasia or Ciscaucasus) is the northern part of the Caucasus region between Europe and Asia. ... The Adyghe or Adygei are a Circassian people of the northwest Caucasus region, principally inhabiting Russian Federation). ... The Caucasus Mountains are a mountain system between the Black and Caspian seas in the Caucasus region, usually considered the southeastern limit of Europe. ... 1913 advertisement for the 11th edition of Encyclopædia Britannica, with the slogan When in doubt—look it up in the Encyclopædia Britannica The Encyclopædia Britannica (properly spelled with æ, the ae-ligature) was first published in 1768–1771 as The Britannica was an important early English-language general...

Soviet Caucasus 1989 political divisions and subdivisons showing the Abkhazian ASSR (Abkhazskaya ASSR in Russian) of Georgian SSR
Soviet Caucasus 1989 political divisions and subdivisons showing the Abkhazian ASSR (Abkhazskaya ASSR in Russian) of Georgian SSR

The Russian Revolution of 1917 led to the creation of an independent Georgia (which included Abkhazia) in 1918. Georgia's Menshevik government had problems with the area through most of its existence despite a limited autonomy being granted to the region. In 1921, the Bolshevik Red Army invaded Georgia and ended its short-lived independence. Abkhazia was made a Soviet republic with the ambiguous status of Union Republic associated with the Georgian SSR, In 1931, Stalin made it an autonomous republic within Soviet Georgia. Despite its nominal autonomy, it was subjected to strong central rule from central Soviet authorities. Georgian became the official language. Purportedly Lavrenty Beria encouraged Georgian migration to Abkhazia, and many took up the offer and resettled there. Russians also moved in Abkhazia in great numbers. Later, in the 1950s and 1960s, Vazgen I and the Armenian church encouraged and funded the migration of Armenians to Abkhazia. Currently, Armenians are the largest minority group in Abkhazia. Image File history File links Soviet_Caucasus_SSRs_ASSRs_and_AOs_1989. ... Image File history File links Soviet_Caucasus_SSRs_ASSRs_and_AOs_1989. ... Soviet redirects here. ... The Entholinguistic patchwork of the modern Caucasus - CIA map The Caucasus, a region bordering Asia Minor, is located between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea which includes the Caucasus Mountains and surrounding lowlands. ... In its final decades of its existence, the Soviet Union consisted of 15 Soviet Socialist Republics (SSR), often called simply Soviet republics. ... State motto: პროლეტარ ყველა ქვეყნისა, შეერთდით! Official language Georgian since 1978 Capital Tbilisi Chairman of the Supreme Council Zviad Gamsakhurdia (at independence) Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until February 25, 1921 December 30, 1922 April 9, 1991 Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 10th in former Soviet Union 69,700 km² -- Population  - Total (1989)  - Density Ranked... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political events in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the system of autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal Provisional Government (Duma), resulting in the establishment of the Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... Leaders of the Menshevik Party at Norra Bantorget in Stockholm, Sweden, May 1917. ... Leaders of the Bolshevik Party and the Communist International, a painting by Malcolm McAllister on the Pathfinder Mural in New York City and on the cover of the book Lenin’s Final Fight published by Pathfinder. ... State motto: პროლეტარ ყველა ქვეყნისა, შეერთდით! Official language Georgian since 1978 Capital Tbilisi Chairman of the Supreme Council Zviad Gamsakhurdia (at independence) Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until February 25, 1921 December 30, 1922 April 9, 1991 Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 10th in former Soviet Union 69,700 km² -- Population  - Total (1989)  - Density Ranked... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვი&#4314... Motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Russian: Workers of the world, unite!) Anthem: The Internationale (1922-1944) Hymn of the Soviet Union (1944-1991) Capital Moscow Largest city Moscow None; Russian de facto Government Federation of Soviet Republics  - Last President Mikhail Gorbachev  - Last Premier Ivan Silayev Establishment October Revolution   - Declared... Lavrenty Beria Lavrentiy Pavlovich Beria (Georgian: ლავრენტი ბერია; Russian: Лаврентий Павлович Берия; (29 March 1899 – 23 December 1953), was a Soviet politician and chief of the Soviet security and police apparatus. ... Vazgen I , originally Levon Garabed Baljian, Catholicos Vazgen (1908 - 1994), was an Armenian (Romanian-born) prelate. ...


The repression of the Abkhaz was ended after Stalin's death and Beria's execution, and Abkhaz were given a greater role in the governance of the republic. As in most of the smaller autonomous republics, the Soviet government encouraged the development of culture and particularly of literature. Ethnic quotas were established for certain bureaucratic posts, giving the Abkhaz a degree of political power that was disproportionate to their minority status in the republic. This was interpreted by some as a "divide and rule" policy whereby local elites were given a share in power in exchange for support for the Soviet regime. In Abkhazia as elsewhere, it led to other ethnic groups — in this case, the Georgians — resenting what they saw as unfair discrimination, thereby stoking ethnic discord in the republic.


The Abkhazian War

Main article: Georgian-Abkhaz conflict

As the Soviet Union began to disintegrate at the end of the 1980s, ethnic tension grew between the Abkhaz and Georgians over Georgia's moves towards independence. Many Abkhaz opposed this, fearing that an independent Georgia would lead to the elimination of their autonomy, and argued instead for the establishment of Abkhazia as a separate Soviet republic in its own right. The dispute turned violent on 16 July 1989 in Sukhumi. Sixteen Georgians are said to have been killed and another 137 injured when they tried to enroll in a Georgian University instead of an Abkhaz one. After several days of violence, Soviet troops restored order in the city and blamed rival nationalist paramilitaries for provoking confrontations. The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Image File history File links Sokhumi1. ... Image File history File links Sokhumi1. ... Map of the Black Sea. ... View of Sukhumi Sukhumi (Georgian: , Sokhumi; Abkhaz: , Aqwa; Russian: , Sukhumi) is the capital of Abkhazia, a de facto independent republic, which is internationally recognized as being an autonomous republic within Georgia. ... July 16 is the 197th day (198th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 168 days remaining. ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Georgia declared independence on 9 April 1991, under the rule of the former Soviet dissident Zviad Gamsakhurdia. Gamsakhurdia's rule became unpopular, and that December, the Georgian National Guard, under the command of Tengiz Kitovani, laid siege to the offices of Gamsakhurdia's government in Tbilisi. After weeks of stalemate, he was forced to resign in January 1992. He was replaced as president by Eduard Shevardnadze, the former Soviet foreign minister and architect of the disintegration of the Soviet Union. Shevardnadze inherited a government dominated by hardline Georgian nationalists, and although he was not an ethnic nationalist, he did little to avoid being seen as supporting the government figures and powerful coup leaders who were. April 9 is the 99th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (100th in leap years). ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Zviad Gamsakhurdia Zviad Konstantines dze Gamsakhurdia (Georgian: ზვიად კონსტანტინეს ძე გამსახურდია) (March 31, 1939 - December 31, 1993) was a dissident, scientist and writer, who became the first democratically elected President of the Republic of Georgia in the post-Soviet era. ... Tengiz Kitovani (b. ... Tbilisi (Georgian თბილისი ) is the capital city of the country of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Kura (Mtkvari) river, at . ... Eduard Amvrosiyevich Shevardnadze (Georgian: ედუარდ შევარდნაძე, Russian: Эдуа́рд Амвро́сьевич Шевардна́&#1076...


On 21 February 1992, Georgia's ruling Military Council announced that it was abolishing the Soviet-era constitution and restoring the 1921 Constitution of the Democratic Republic of Georgia. Many Abkhaz interpreted this as an abolition of their autonomous status. In response, on 23 July 1992, the Abkhazia government effectively declared secession from Georgia, although this gesture went unrecognized by any other country. The Georgian government accused Gamsakhurdia supporters of kidnapping Georgia's interior minister and holding him captive in Abkhazia. The Georgian government dispatched 3,000 troops to the region, ostensibly to restore order. Heavy fighting between Georgian forces and Abkhazian militia broke out in and around Sukhumi. The Abkhazian authorities rejected the government's claims, claiming that it was merely a pretext for an invasion. After about a week's fighting and many casualties on both sides, Georgian government forces managed to take control of most of Abkhazia, and closed down the regional parliament. February 21 is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... Motto: None Anthem: Dideba Zetsit Kurtheuls (Praise Be To The Heavenly Bestower of Blessings) Capital Tbilisi Largest city Tbilisi Official language(s) Georgian Government Chairman of the Government Parliamentary democracy Noe Zhordania Independence - Declared - Formerly From the Russian Empire May 26, 1918 Transcaucasian Federation Population c. ... July 23 is the 204th day (205th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 161 days remaining. ...


The Abkhazians' military defeat was met with a hostile response by the self-styled Confederation of Mountain Peoples of the Caucasus, an umbrella group uniting a number of pro-Russian movements in the North Caucasus, Russia (Chechens, Cossacks, Ossetians and others). Hundreds of volunteer paramilitaries from Russia (including the then little known Shamil Basayev) joined forces with the Abkhazian separatists to fight the Georgian government forces. Regular Russian forces also reportedly sided with the secessionsts. In September, the Abkhaz and Russian paramilitaries mounted a major offensive after breaking a cease-fire, which drove the Georgian forces out of large swathes of the republic. Shevardnadze's government accused Russia of giving covert military support to the rebels with the aim of "detaching from Georgia its native territory and the Georgia-Russian frontier land". The year 1992 ended with the rebels in control of much of Abkhazia northwest of Sukhumi. Confederation of Mountain Peoples of the Caucasus (Russian: Конфедерация горских народов Кавказа) is a militarized political organization composed of militants from the North Caucasian republics of the Russian Federation. ... The North Caucasus, also called Ciscaucasus, Forecaucasus, or Front Caucasus (Russian: ), is the northern part of the Caucasus region. ... Chechen can mean: Chechen people, an ethnic group Chechen language Related to Chechnya This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article needs cleanup. ... The Ossetians live in the region of Ossetia, a region in the northern Caucasus Mountains in Europe. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


The conflict remained stalemated until July 1993, when the Abkhaz separatist militias launched an abortive attack on Georgian-held Sukhumi. The capital was surrounded and heavily shelled, with Shevardnadze himself trapped in the city.


Although a truce was declared at the end of July, this collapsed after a renewed Abkhaz attack in mid-September. After ten days of heavy fighting, Sukhumi fell on 27 September, 1993. Eduard Shevardnadze narrowly escaped death, having vowed to stay in the city no matter what, but he was eventually forced to flee when separatist snipers fired on the hotel where he was residing. Abkhaz, North Caucasians militants and their allies committed one of the most horrific massacres[6] of this war against remaining Georgian civilians in the city known as Sukhumi Massacre. The mass killings and destruction continued for two weeks, leaving thousands dead and missing. September 27 is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Georgian civilians hiding from Abkhaz separatist militants near Sukhumi The Sukhumi Massacre took place on September 27, 1993, during the Georgian-Abkhaz conflict. ...


The separatist forces quickly overran the rest of Abkhazia as the Georgian government faced a second threat: an uprising by the supporters of the deposed Zviad Gamsakhurdia in the region of Mingrelia (Samegrelo). In the chaotic aftermath of defeat almost all ethnic Georgians fled the region escaping an ethnic cleansing initiated by the victors. Many thousands died — it is estimated that between 10,000-30,000 ethnic Georgians and 3,000 ethnic Abkhaz may have perished — and some 250,000-300,000 people were forced into exile.


During the war, gross human rights violations were reported on the both sides, and the atrocities committed by the Abkhaz forces and their allies are recognized by the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) Summits in Budapest (1994), Lisbon (1996) and Istanbul (1999) as the full-scale ethnic cleansing campaign against the Georgian population. The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is an international organization for security. ... Nickname: Paris of the East, Pearl of the Danubeor Queen of the Danube Location of Budapest in Hungary Country Hungary County Pest Mayor Gábor Demszky (SZDSZ) Area    - City 525,16 km²  - Land n/a km²  - Water n/a km² Population    - City (2006) 1,695,000  - Density 3570/km... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ... Location    - Country Portugal    - Region Lisbon  - Subregion Grande Lisboa  - District or A.R. Lisbon Mayor Carmona Rodrigues  - Party PSD Area 84. ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural, and economic centre. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Old Farts by the Sometimes-United Nations. ... Ethnic cleansing of Georgians in Abkhazia. ...


De-jure Government of Abkhazia

Main article: De-jure Government of Abkhazia

The de-jure Government of Abkhazia is the only body internationally recognized as a legal authority of Abkhazia, which controls only the north-eastern part of Abkhazia and is located in Chkhalta, Upper Abkhazia. The de-jure Government of Abkhazia, then-the Council of Ministers of Abkhazia, left Abkhazia after the Russian-backed Abkhaz separatist forces and their allies stormed Sukhumi on September 27, 1993 and expelled majority of its Georgian residents and members of the Government. For about 13 years, the Government was known as the Government of Abkhazia in exile and was located in Tbilisi until 2006 Kodori crisis which reinstalled the Government back within the administrative borders of Abkhazia. Malkhaz Akishbaia, a western educated Abkhaz politician was elected in April 2006 and is the current head of the de-jure Government of Abkhazia. On September 27, 2006 President Mikheil Saakashvili, Nino Burjanadze, Catholicos-Patriarch of All Georgia Ilia II and others members of the central government visited Kodory Valley and officially changed the name and designated the area as Upper Abkhazia. President Saakashvili addressed the nation during the opening of de-jure Government headquarters in Chkhalta, Upper Abkhazia: Official languages Abkhaz, Georgian Location Upper Abkhazia (formerly known as Kodori Valley) Chairman of Cabinet of Ministers Malkhaz Akishbaia Chairman of the Supreme Council Temur Mzhavia The de-jure Government of Abkhazia (Georgian: , Abkhaz: ) is the only body internationally recognized as a legal authority of Abkhazia, Georgia’s autonomous republic... Chkhalta is a principal village in Upper Abkhazia (formerly known as the Kodori Valley), western Georgian autonomous republic of Abkhazia whose two third has been controlled by the Abkhaz separatist government in Sukhumi since 1993. ... The upper Kodori Gorge is a principal part of Upper Abkhazia. ... Map of Abkhazia showing the location of the Kodori Gorge The 2006 Kodori crisis erupted in late July 2006 in Georgia’s Kodori Gorge, when a local militia leader declared his disobedience to the government of Georgia, which sent police forces to disarm the rebels. ... Malkhaz Akishbaia is an ethnic Abkhaz and the Chairman of Cabinet of Ministers of the de jure Government of Abkhazia in Kodori. ... Mikhail Saakashvili briefing the press at UN headquarters Mikhail Saakashvili (Georgian: მიხეილ სააკაშვილი) (born December 21, 1967), Georgian jurist and politician, is the President of Georgia. ... Nino Burjanadze Nino Burjanadze (Georgian: ნინო ბურჯანაძე) (born on July 16, 1964) is a Georgian jurist and politician. ... His Holiness and Beatitude Catholicos-Patriarch of All Georgia is the head of the Georgian Orthodox and Apostolic Church. ... His Holiness and Beatitude Ilia II (მისი უწმიდესობა და უნეტარესობა ილია II in Georgian. ...

"We are here – Upper Abkhazia, very close to Sokhumi - and we are not going to leave this place. We will return to Abkhazia very soon, but only through peaceful means". “...We have told every foreign ambassador in Georgia that Abkhazia and Tbilisi are not separate entities… From now on the protocol of each foreign diplomat [visiting Abkhazia], apart from trips to Sokhumi, will also include the route to Abkhazia’s administrative center in the village of Chkhalta where the chairman of the Abkhaz government is Malkhaz Akishbaia.” [7]

Politics

There are approximately 300,000 Georgian IDPs from Abkhazia
There are approximately 300,000 Georgian IDPs from Abkhazia
Main articles on politics and government of Abkhazia can be found at the Politics and government of Abkhazia series.

Politics in Abkhazia is dominated by the conflict with Georgia, of which the territory seceded, and by the fight over the presidency in 2004/2005. On 3 October 2004 presidential elections were held in Abkhazia. In the elections, Russia evidently supported Raul Khajimba, the prime-minister backed by seriously ailing outgoing separatist President Vladislav Ardzinba. Posters of Russia's President Vladimir Putin together with Khajimba, who like Putin had worked as a KGB official, were everywhere in Sukhumi. Deputies of Russia's parliament and Russian singers, lead by Joseph Kobzon, a deputy and a popular songster, came to Abkhazia campaigning for Khajimba. Image File history File links Demoidps. ... Image File history File links Demoidps. ... Abkhazia (Abkhaz: Аҧсны/Apsny, Georgian: აფხაზეთი/Apkhazeti, Russian: Абха́зия) is a region of 8,600 km² in the Caucasus. ... October 3 is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Raul Khadjimba (born 1958) is the Prime Minister of the Republic of Abkhazia, a de facto independent republic of the Republic of Georgia. ... Image:Ardzinba. ... Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Russian: ) (born October 7, 1952) is a Russian politician, and the current President of Russia. ... The KGB emblem and motto: The sword and the shield KGB (transliteration of КГБ) is the Russian-language abbreviation for Committee for State Security, (Russian:  ; Komitet Gosudarstvennoj Bezopasnosti). ... Joseph Kobzon Joseph Davydovich Kobzon (Иосиф Давыдович Кобзон)(1937 - ) is a well-known Russian-Georgian singer, composer, and political activist - Joseph Kobzon worked with such well-known composers and poets as V. Muradeli...


International involvement

The UN has played various roles during the conflict and peace process: a military role through its observer mission (UNOMIG); dual diplomatic roles through the Security Council and the appointment of a Special Envoy, succeeded by a Special Representative to the Secretary-General; a humanitarian role (UNHCR and UNOCHA); a development role (UNDP); a human rights role (UNCHR); and a low-key capacity and confidence-building role (UNV). The UN’s position has been that there will be no forcible change in international borders. Any settlement must be freely negotiated and based on autonomy for Abkhazia legitimized by referendum under international observation once the multi-ethnic population has returned.[8] According to Western interpretations the intervention did not contravene international law since Georgia, as a sovereign state, had the right to secure order on its territory and protect its territorial integrity. The United Nations Observer Mission in Georgia (UNOMIG) was established on 24 August 1993 by Security Council Resolution 858 to verify compliance with the 27 July 1993, ceasefire agreement between the Republic of Georgia and forces in Abkhazia with special attention given to the situation in the city of Sukhumi... Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) (established December 14, 1950) protects and supports refugees at the request of a government or the United Nations and assists in their return or resettlement. ... The Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), is a organisation under the United Nations which originated in December 1991 with the General Assembly Resolution 46/182. ... The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the largest multilateral source of grant technical assistance in the world. ... The United Nations Commission on Human Rights, a commission supervised by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, is composed of representatives from 53 member states, and meets each year in regular session in March/April for six weeks in Geneva. ... The United Nations Volunteers (UNV) programme is a United Nations agency that deploys international volunteers to directly support UN partners in the field. ...


OSCE has increasingly engaged in dialogue with officials and civil society representatives in Abkhazia, especially from NGOs and the media, regarding human dimension standards and is considering a presence in Gali. OSCE expressed concern and condemnation over ethnic cleansing of Georgians in Abkhazia during the 1994 Budapest Summit Decision [9] and later at the Lisbon Summit Declaration in 1996.[10] The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is an international organization for security. ... Nickname: Paris of the East, Pearl of the Danubeor Queen of the Danube Location of Budapest in Hungary Country Hungary County Pest Mayor Gábor Demszky (SZDSZ) Area    - City 525,16 km²  - Land n/a km²  - Water n/a km² Population    - City (2006) 1,695,000  - Density 3570/km...


The USA rejects the unilateral secession of Abkhazia and urges its integration into Georgia as an autonomous unit. In 1998 the USA announced its readiness to allocate up to $15 million for rehabilitation of infrastructure in the Gali region if substantial progress is made in the peace process. USAID has already funded some humanitarian initiatives for Abkhazia. The USA has in recent years significantly increased its military support to the Georgian armed forces but has stated that it would not condone any moves towards peace enforcement in Abkhazia. The United States Agency for International Development (or USAID) is the US government organization responsible for most non-military foreign aid. ...


On August 28, Senator Richard Lugar, then visiting Georgia's capital Tbilisi, joined the Georgian politicians in criticism of the Russian peacekeeping mission, stating that "the U.S. administration supports the Georgian government’s insistence on the withdrawal of Russian peacekeepers from the conflict zones in Abkhazia and the Tskhinvali district." [11] Richard Green Dick Lugar (born April 4, 1932) is the senior United States Senator from Indiana. ...


On October 5, 2006, Javier Solana, the High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy of the European Union, ruled out the possibility of replacing the Russian peacekeepers with the EU force." [12] However, Georgian parliament is preparing for the vote in October of 2006 which will demand the complete withdrawal of Russian peacekeepers from Abkhazia. [13] On October 10 2006, EU South Caucasus envoy Peter Semneby noted that "Russia's actions in the Georgia spy row have damaged its credibility as a neutral peacekeeper in the EU's Black Sea neighbourhood."[14] October 5 is the 278th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (279th in Leap years). ... Javier Solana Francisco Javier Solana Madariaga (born July 14, 1942 in Madrid, Spain) is the High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and the Secretary-General of both the Council of the European Union (EU) and the Western European Union (WEU). ... The Common Foreign and Security Policy or CFSP was established as the second of the three pillars of the European Union in the Maastricht treaty of 1992, and further defined and broadened in the Amsterdam Treaty of 1997. ... October 10 is the 283rd day of the year (284th in Leap years). ... Russian officers arrested on charges of espionage paraded in Tbilisi before being handed over to the OSCE The 2006 Georgian-Russian espionage controversy began when the Government of Georgia arrested four Russian officers on charges of espionage, on September 27, 2006. ...


On October 13, the UN Security Council unanimously adopted a resolution, based on a Group of Friends of the Secretary-General draft, extending the UNOMIG mission until April 15, 2007. Acknowledging that the "new and tense situation" resulted, at least in part, from the Georgian special forces operation in the upper Kodori Valley, urged the country to ensure that no troops unauthorized by the Moscow ceasefire agreement were present in that area. It urged the leadership of the Abkhaz side to address seriously the need for a dignified, secure return of refugees and internally displaced persons and to reassure the local population in the Gali district that their residency rights and identity will be respected. The Georgian side is "once again urged to address seriously legitimate Abkhaz security concerns, to avoid steps which could be seen as threatening and to refrain from militant rhetoric and provocative actions, especially in upper Kodori Valley". Calling on both parties to follow up on dialogue initiatives, it further urged them to comply fully with all previous agreements regarding non-violence and confidence-building, in particular those concerning the separation of forces. Regarding the disputed role of the peacekeepers from the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Council stressed the importance of close, effective cooperation between UNOMIG and that force and looked to all sides to continue to extend the necessary cooperation to them. At the same time, the document reaffirmed the "commitment of all Member States to the sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity of Georgia within its internationally recognized borders." [15] October 13 is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The United Nations Observer Mission in Georgia (UNOMIG) was established on 24 August 1993 by Security Council Resolution 858 to verify compliance with the 27 July 1993, ceasefire agreement between the Republic of Georgia and forces in Abkhazia with special attention given to the situation in the city of Sukhumi... April 15 is the 105th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (106th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) will be a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


See also

Abkhaz is a Northwest Caucasian language spoken in Georgia and Turkey. ... The Abkhaz or Abkhazians are a caucasian ethnic group, mainly living in Abkhazia, and distinct from Georgians. ... The Georgians (ქართველი ერი (Kartveli Eri) or ქართველები (Kartvelebi) in the Georgian language) are a nation or an ethnic group, originating in the Caucasus. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Official languages Abkhaz, Georgian Location Kodori Chairman of Cabinet of Ministers Malkhaz Akishbaia Chairman of the Supreme Council Temur Mzhavia The Government of Abkhazia-in-exile (Georgian: , Abkhaz: ) is the only body internationally recognized as a legal authority of Abkhazia, Georgia’s autonomous republic which has been largely out of... The recorded history of Georgia dates back more than 4,000 years and the Georgian language is one of the oldest living languages in the world. ... The Principality of Abkhazia emerged as a separate feudal entity in the 15th-16th centuries, amid the civil wars in the Kingdom of Georgia that concluded with the dissolution of the unified Georgian monarchy. ... The Divan of the Abkhazian Kings (Georgian: აფხაზთა მეფეთა დივანი, Ap’xazta mep’eta divan’i, which is often translated as the Chronicles of the Abkhazian Kings) is a short medieval document composed in Georgian in the late 10th or early 11th century. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Human Rights Watch. "Georgia/Abkhazia: Violations of the Laws of War and Russia's Role in the Conflict." Published on hrw.org, March 1995
  2. ^ Vakhtang Kholbaia, Labyrinth of Abkhazia, 1992
  3. ^ http://mosnews.com/news/2006/07/21/luzhkabkhaz.shtml
  4. ^ Breakaway Abkhazia seeks recognition, Al-Jazeera, October 18, 2006.
  5. ^ U.S. State Department, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 1993, Pub February 1994
  6. ^ Full Report by Human Rights Watch Helsinki, March 1995
  7. ^ http://civil.ge/eng/detail.php?id=13654
  8. ^ Resolutions 849, 854, 858, 876, 881 and 892 adopted by the UN Security Council
  9. ^ From the Resolution of the OSCE Budapest Summit, 6 December 1994
  10. ^ Lisbon Summit Declaration of the OSCE, 2-3 December 1996
  11. ^ U.S. Senator Urges Russian Peacekeepers’ Withdrawal From Georgian Breakaway Republics. (MosNews).
  12. ^ Solana fears Kosovo 'precedent' for Abkhazia, South Ossetia. (International Relations and Security Network).
  13. ^ http://civil.ge/eng/article.php?id=13827
  14. ^ Russia 'not neutral' in Black Sea conflict, EU says, EUobserver, October 10, 2006.
  15. ^ SECURITY COUNCIL EXTENDS GEORGIA MISSION UNTIL 15 APRIL 2007, The UN Department of Public Information, October 13, 2006.

It should also be noted that Aljazeera. ... December 6 is the 340th day (341st on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... October 10 is the 283rd day of the year (284th in Leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Flag of Georgia Subdivisions of Georgia
Autonomous Republics: Abkhazia1 | Adjara
Regions: Guria | Imereti | Kakheti | Kvemo Kartli | Mtskheta-Mtianeti | Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti | Samegrelo-Zemo Svaneti
Samtskhe-Javakheti | Shida Kartli2
City with special status: Tbilisi3

Notes: (1) A self-proclaimed republic which is de-jure part of Georgia; (2) Officially includes also the self-proclaimed Republic of South Ossetia; (3) Capital of Georgia The Economist is a weekly news and international affairs publication of The Economist Newspaper Ltd edited in London, UK. It has been in continuous publication since September 1843. ... August 19 is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... The New York Times is a newspaper published in New York City by Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Georgia. ... Image File history File links Gruzie-pahýl. ... Autonomous Republics are consituent units within the Russian Federation as they were within its predecessor, the former Soviet Union. ... Official language Georgian Capital Batumi ISO code GE.AJ Head of the Government Levan Varshalomidze Area  - Total  - % water 2,900 km² n/a Population  - Total (1989)  - Density 392,432 135. ... A region can be any area that has some unifying feature. ... Guria is a region in Georgia (Caucasus), in the western part of the country, bordered by the eastern end of the Black Sea. ... Imereti is a historic province in Western Georgia, situated along the middle and upper reaches of the Rioni river. ... Categories: Caucasus geography stubs | Georgia (country) ... Kvemo Kartli (i. ... Mtskheta-Mtianeti is a region in eastern Georgia (country) comprising the town of Mtskheta, which serves as a regional capital, together with its district and the adjoining mountainous areas. ... Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti is a region in northwestern Georgia which includes the historical provinces of Racha, Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti (i. ... Samegrelo-Zemo Svaneti is a region in western Georgia (country) which includes the historical Georgian provinces of Samegrelo (Mingrelia) and Zemo Svaneti (i. ... Samtskhe-Javakheti (Georgian: ) is a region in southern Georgia, with Akhaltsikhe as its capital. ... Shida Kartli is a region of Eastern Georgia. ... Chicago from the air. ... Tbilisi (Georgian თბილისი ) is the capital city of the country of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Kura (Mtkvari) river, at . ... Official language Ossetian Capital Tskhinvali President Eduard Djabeevich Kokoity Prime Minister Igor Viktorovich Sanakoyev Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % water  3,900 km²  n/a Population  â€“ Total  â€“ Density (2004)  70,000 (approx)  18/km² Independence  â€“ Declared  â€“ Recognition From Georgia  â€“ November 28, 1991  â€“ none Currency Russian ruble, Georgian lari Time zone UTC +3 Detailed...


 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m