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Encyclopedia > Abjad numerals
Arabic alphabet
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History · Transliteration
Diacritics · hamza ء
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+/- The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Alif ﺍ is the first letter of the Arabic alphabet. ...   Beth or Bet is the second letter of many Semetic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ... Taw or Tav is the twenty-second and last letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic alphabet . Its original value is an voiceless alveolar plosive, IPA , The Phoenician letter gave rise to the Greek Tau (Τ), Latin T, and the equivalent in the Cyrillic alphabet. ... () is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet added to the twenty-two inherited from the Phoenician alphabet (the others being , , , , ). It represents the voiceless dental fricative (IPA ). In name and shape, it is a variant of . ...   Gimmel is the third letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Aramaic, Syriac, Phoenician and Hebrew. ...   Kheth or Het is the eighth letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ... () is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet added to the twenty-two inherited from the Phoenician alphabet (the others being , , , , ). It represents the voiceless velar fricative (IPA ). In name and shape, it is a variant of (see also there). ... Dalet - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... () is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet added to the twenty-two inherited from the Phoenician alphabet (the others being , , , , ). It represents the voiced dental fricative (IPA ). In name and shape, it is a variant of . ... Resh is the twentieth letter of the Phoenician and Hebrew alphabets. ... Zayin or Zain is the seventh letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ... Shin or Sin is the twenty-first letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic (in abjadi order, 12th in modern order). ... Shin or Sin is the twenty-first letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic (in abjadi order, 12th in modern order). ... Tsade or Tsadi is the 18th letter in the Phoenician and Hebrew alphabets. ... () is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet added to the twenty-two inherited from the Phoenician alphabet (the others being , , , , ). It represents a pharyngealized voiced alveolar plosive (IPA ). In name and shape, it is a variant of . ... (also Teth, Tet) is the ninth letter of many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew , Syriac and Arabic (in abjadi order, 16th in modern order). ... () is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet added to the twenty-two inherited from the Phoenician alphabet (the others being , , , , ). It represents a = pharyngealized voiced dental or alveolar fricative (IPA or ). In name and shape, it is a variant of . ... Ayin is the sixteenth letter in many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ... () is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet added to the twenty-two inherited from the Phoenician alphabet (the others being , , , , ). It represents the voiced velar fricative (IPA ). In name and shape, it is a variant of . ... This is about the Hebrew letter: for the Cyrillic letter, see Pe (Cyrillic). ...   Qoph is the nineteenth letter in many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ... Kaph (also spelled Kap or Kaf) is the eleventh letter of many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic alphabet . Its value is IPA . ... Lamed or Lamedh is the twelfth letter of the Phoenician and Hebrew alphabets. ... Mem is the thirteenth letter of the Phoenician and Hebrew alphabets. ... Nun is the fourteenth letter of the Phoenician and Hebrew alphabets. ... He is the fifth letter of the Phoenician and Hebrew alphabets. ...   Vav or waw is the sixth letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, Aramaic, and Arabic in abjadi order; it is the twenty-seventh in modern Arabic order. ... Yodh (also spelled Yud or Yod) is the tenth letter of many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew , Syriac and Arabic (in abjadi order, 28th in modern order). ... If certain characters in this article display badly (as empty squares, question marks, etc), see Unicode. ... Due to the fact that the Arabic language has a number of phonemes that have no equivalent in English or other European languages, a number of different transliteration methods have been invented to represent certain Arabic characters, due to various conflicting goals: A desire to stay consistent with traditional usage... In Arabic orthography, harakat are the diacritic marks used to represent vowel sounds. ... For Hamza, the letter in the Arabic alphabet, representing the glottal stop . ... The Eastern Arabic numerals (also called Eastern Arabic numerals, Arabic-Indic numerals, Arabic Eastern Numerals) are the symbols (glyphs) used to represent the Hindu-Arabic numeral system in conjunction with the Arabic alphabet in Egypt, Iran, Pakistan and parts of India, and also in the no longer used Ottoman Turkish... arabic numeration This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... A numeral is a symbol or group of symbols that represents a number. ... The Hindu-Arabic numeral system (also called Algorism) is a positional decimal numeral system documented from the 9th century. ... Numerals sans-serif Arabic numerals, known formally as Hindu-Arabic numerals, and also known as Indian numerals, Hindu numerals, European numerals, and Western numerals, are the most common symbolic representation of numbers around the world. ... The Eastern Arabic numerals (also called Eastern Arabic numerals, Arabic-Indic numerals, Arabic Eastern Numerals) are the symbols (glyphs) used to represent the Hindu-Arabic numeral system in conjunction with the Arabic alphabet in Egypt, Iran, Pakistan and parts of India, and also in the no longer used Ottoman Turkish... India has produced many numeral systems. ... The Brahmi numerals are an indigenous Indian numeral system attested from the 3rd century BCE (somewhat later in the case of most of the tens). ... Khmer numerals are the numerals used in the Khmer language of Cambodia. ... Cyrillic numerals was a numbering system derived from the Cyrillic alphabet, used by South and East Slavic peoples. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... The system of Hebrew numerals is a quasi-decimal alphabetic numeral system using the letters of the Hebrew alphabet. ... Ionian numerals were used by the ancient Greeks, possibly before the 7th century BC. They are also known by the names Milesian numerals or Alexandrian numerals. ... The Sanskrit alphabetic numerals were created in about A.D. 510 by Ä€ryabhaa. ... Attic numerals were used by ancient Greeks, possibly from the 7th century BC. They were also known as Herodianic numerals because they were first described in a 2nd century manuscript by Herodianus. ... The Etruscan numerals were used by the ancient Etruscans. ... The system of Roman numerals is a numeral system originating in ancient Rome, and was adapted from Etruscan numerals. ... Babylonian numerals were written in cuneiform, using a wedge-tipped reed stylus to make a mark on a soft clay tablet which would be exposed in the sun to harden to create a permanent record. ... Mayan numerals. ... This is a list of numeral system topics, by Wikipedia page. ... Positional notation is a system in which each position has a value represented by a unique symbol or character. ... In mathematics, the base or radix is the number of various unique symbols (digits), including zero, that a positional numeral system uses to represent numbers in a given counting system. ... The decimal (base ten or occasionally denary) numeral system has ten as its base. ... The binary numeral system (base 2 numerals) represents numeric values using two symbols, typically 0 and 1. ... Quaternary is the base four numeral system. ... The octal numeral system is the base-8 number system, and uses the digits 0 to 7. ... In mathematics and computer science, base-16, hexadecimal, or simply hex, is a numeral system with a radix or base of 16 usually written using the symbols 0–9 and A–F or a–f. ... Base32 is a derivation of Base64 with the following additional properties: The resulting character set is all uppercase, which can often be beneficial when using a case-sensitive filesystem. ... Base 64 is a positional numeral system using a base of 64. ... Uuencode is a form of binary to text encoding that originated as a Unix program for encoding binary data for transmission over the uucp mail system. ... Ternary or trinary is the base-3 numeral system. ... Nonary is a base 9 numeral system, typically using the digits 0-8, but not the digit 9. ... A duodecimal multiplication table The duodecimal (also known as base-12 or dozenal) system is a numeral system using twelve as its base. ... As there are 24 hours in a day a numbering system based upon 24, and as the base 12 is convenient here some examples of the base 24 (quadrovigesimal) system. ... Base 30 or trigesimal is a positional numeral system using 30 as the radix. ... Base 36 refers to a positional numeral system using 36 as the radix. ... The sexagesimal (base-sixty) is a numeral system with sixty as the base. ...

The Abjad numerals are a decimal numeral system which was used in the Arabic-speaking world prior to the use of the Hindu-Arabic numerals from the 8th century, and in parallel with the latter until Modern times. In the Abjad system, the 28 letters of the Arabic alphabet are assigned numerical values, based on the Abjadi order. A numeral is a symbol or group of symbols that represents a number. ... The Arabic language (Arabic: ‎ translit: ), or simply Arabic (Arabic: ‎ translit: ), is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... Arabic numerals is the term usually applied to the Western variant of the Hindu-Arabic numeral system, commonly used in conjunction with the Latin alphabet since Early Modern times (0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9). ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ...


For example, the first letter of the Arabic alphabet, alif, is used to represent 1; the second letter, bāʼ, is used to represent 2, etc. Individual letters also represented 10's and 100's: yāʼ for 10, kāf for 20, qāf for 100, etc. Alif ﺍ is the first letter of the Arabic alphabet. ... Beth or Bet is the second letter of many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew Syriac and Arabic alphabet . Its value is a voiced bilabial plosive, IPA . ... Yud or Yodh is the tenth letter of many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew , Syriac and Arabic (in abjadi order, 28th in modern order). ... Kaph or Kaf is the eleventh letter of many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic alphabet . Its value is IPA . ...


The word "abjad" ( أبجد ʾabǧad) itself derives from the beginning of the order of the letters in the proto-Canaanite alphabet, Phoenician, Aramaic alphabet and Hebrew. The Old Arabic alphabet, thought to be derived from Aramaic by way of the Nabateans, also followed this pattern: aleph, beth, gimel, and daleth. These older alphabets contained only 22 letters, stopping at taw (= 400 in the Abjad system). The Arabic numerical system continues at this point with unique Arabic letters not found in the older versions: ṯāʼ = 500, etc. In modern Arabic, the word ʾabǧad means "alphabet" in general. Drawing of the 16 and 12 characters Wadi el-Hol inscriptions The Proto-Canaanite (also Proto-Sinaitic) alphabet is identified as the prototype of the Semitic alphabets that, mostly via the successful Phoenician alphabet became the ancestor of most scripts in use today. ... The Phoenician alphabet dates from around 1400 BC and is related to the Proto-Canaanite alphabet. ... The Aramaic alphabet is an abjad alphabet designed for writing the Aramaic language. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Petra, the Nabataean capital The Nabataeans were a trading people of ancient Arabia, whose oasis settlements in the time of Josephus gave the name of Nabatene to the borderland between Syria and Arabia, from the Euphrates to the Red Sea. ... is the reconstructed name of the first letter of the Proto-Canaanite alphabet, continued in descended Semitic alphabets as Phoenician , Syriac , Hebrew , , and Arabic . Aleph originally expressed the glottal stop (IPA ), usually transliterated as , a symbol based on the Greek spiritus lenis , for example in the transliteration of the letter...   Beth or Bet is the second letter of many Semetic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ...   Gimmel is the third letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Aramaic, Syriac, Phoenician and Hebrew. ... Dalet or daleth is the fourth letter of many abjad alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ... Taw may refer to: The 22nd letter of the Hebrew alphabet The game of marbles This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... () is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet added to the twenty-two inherited from the Phoenician alphabet (the others being , , , , ). It represents the voiceless dental fricative (IPA ). In name and shape, it is a variant of . ... The Arabic language (Arabic: ‎ translit: ), or simply Arabic (Arabic: ‎ translit: ), is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... A Specimen of typeset fonts and languages, by William Caslon, letter founder; from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ...

Contents


Abjadi order

The Abjad order of the Arabic alphabet (or two slightly variant orders) was devised by matching an Arabic letter of the fully consonant-dotted 28-letter Arabic alphabet to each of the 22 letters of the Aramaic alphabet (in their old Phoenician alphabetic order) — leaving six remaining Arabic letters at the end. The Abjadi order is not a simple historically-continuous preservation of the earlier north Semitic alphabetic order, since it contains a position corresponding to the Aramaic letter samekh/semkat ס, yet no letter of the Arabic alphabet historically derives from ס. Loss of samekh was compensated by the split of shin ש into two independent Arabic letters, and ش. The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... The Aramaic alphabet is an abjad alphabet designed for writing the Aramaic language. ... The Phoenician alphabet dates from around 1400 BC and is related to the Proto-Canaanite alphabet. ... Samekh is the fifteenth letter of the Phoenician and Hebrew alphabets. ... Shin or Sin is the twenty-first letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic (in abjadi order, 12th in modern order). ...


The most common Abjad sequence is:


أ ب ج د ﻫ و ز ح ط ي ك ل م ن س ع ف ص ق ر ش ت ث خ ذ ض ظ غ

ʼ b ǧ d h w z ḥ ṭ y k l m n s ʻ f ṣ q r š t ṯ ḫ ḏ ḍ ẓ ġ

This is commonly vocalized as follows:

  • ʼabǧad hawwaz ḥuṭṭī kalaman saʻfaṣ qarašat ṯaḫaḏ ḍaẓaġ.

Another vocalization is:

  • ʼabuǧadin hawazin ḥuṭiya kalman saʻfaṣ qurišat ṯaḫuḏ ḍaẓuġ

Another Abjad sequence (probably older, now mainly confined to the Maghreb), is:


أ ب ج د ﻫ و ز ح ط ي ك ل م ن ص ع ف ض ق ر س ت ث خ ذ ظ غ ش

ʼ b ǧ d h w z ḥ ṭ y k l m n ṣ ʻ f ḍ q r s t ṯ ḫ ḏ ẓ ġ š

which can be vocalized as:

  • ʼabuǧadin hawazin ḥuṭiya kalman ṣaʻfaḍ qurisat ṯaḫuḏ ẓaġuš

Modern dictionaries etc. never use any of the above orders to order things alphabetically; instead, this newer order (with letters partially grouped together by similarity of Arabic cursive shape) is used:


أ ب ت ث ج ح خ د ذ ر زس ش ص ض ط ظ ع غ ف ق ك ل م ن ه و ي


Uses of the Abjad system

In early Islamic times, these numbers were used by mathematicans. In modern Arabic, they are primarily used for numbering small quantities, such as items in a list. They are also used to assign numerical values to Arabic words for purposes of numerology.


Example: The common Islamic phrase بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم bi-smi-llaahi r-rahmaani r-rahiim ("in the name of God, the merciful, the compassionate" – see Basmala) would have a nominal value of 786 (from a letter-by-letter cumulative value of 2+60+40 + 1+30+30+5 + 1+30+200+8+40+50 + 1+30+200+8+10+40), where the word "Allah" (God) alone has the value 66. Arabic calligraphy of the Basmala phrase An artistic form of Basmala in the shape of a pear Basmala (Arabic بسملة) is an Arabic-language noun which is used as the collective name of the whole of the recurring Islamic phrase . This phrase constitutes the first verse of the first sura (or... Allāh is the Arabic language word referring to God, the Lord and, literally according to the Quran, to the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob in the Abrahamic religions. ...


Hebrew numerals based on letters of the Hebrew alphabet are equivalent to the Abjad numerals up through 400. The counting system using the Hebrew alphabet is known as Gematria and figures highly in Kabalistic texts and numerology. The Greek Language also has a similar historic system of letters-as-numbers called isopsephy. The system of Hebrew numerals is a quasi-decimal alphabetic numeral system using the letters of the Hebrew alphabet. ... This article is mainly about Hebrew letters. ... Gematria (Heb. ... The tree of life Kabbalah (קבלה Reception, Standard Hebrew Qabbala, Tiberian Hebrew Qabbālāh; also written variously as Cabala, Cabalah, Cabbala, Cabbalah, Kabala, Kabalah, Kabbala, Qabala, Qabalah) is a religious philosophical system claiming an insight into divine nature. ... Greek (, IPA — Hellenic) has a documented history of 3,500 years, the longest of any single language within the Indo-European family. ... Isopsephy (iso meaning equal and psephos meaning pebble) is the Greek word for the practice of adding up the number values of the letters in a word to form a single number. ...


Letter values

ā/' ا 1 y/ī ي 10 q ق 100
b ب 2 k ك 20 r ر 200
j ج 3 l ل 30 sh ش 300
d د 4 m م 40 t ت 400
h ه 5 n ن 50 th ث 500
w/ū و 6 s س 60 kh خ 600
z ز 7 ` ع 70 dh ذ 700
H ح 8 f ف 80 D ض 800
T ط 9 S ص 90 Z ظ 900
gh غ 1000

(A few of the numerical values would be different when the alternative order of the abjad is used — see Abjadi order above.)


See also

The Phoenician alphabet dates from around 1400 BC and is related to the Proto-Canaanite alphabet. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Middle Bronze Age alphabets. ... An abjad is a type of writing system where there is one symbol per consonantal phoneme, sometimes also called a consonantary. ... Gematria (Heb. ...

External links

  • Overview of the abjad numerological system
  • Sufi numerology site

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