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Encyclopedia > Abenaki
Abenaki
Flag of the Western Abenaki
Flag of Western Abenaki
Total population

around 4,500 Image File history File links Flag_of_Western_Abenaki. ...

Regions with significant populations
United States (Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont)
Canada (Quebec)
Languages
English, Abenaki
Religions
Related ethnic groups
Algonquian peoples

The Abenaki (also "Wabanuok" or Wabanaki) are a tribe of Native Americans/First Nations belonging to the Algonquian peoples of northeastern North America. The two major tribes within the Abenaki people are Western Abenaki and Eastern Abenaki. Official language(s) None (English de facto; French is also an administrative language) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Official language(s) None[1] Capital Montpelier Largest city Burlington Area  Ranked 45th  - Total 9,620 sq mi (24,923 km²)  - Width 80 miles (130 km)  - Length 160 miles (260 km)  - % water 3. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Abenakis. ... The Algonquian (also Algonkian) languages are a subfamily of Native American languages that includes most of the languages in the Algic language family (others are Wiyot and Yurok of northwestern California). ... http://www. ... Native Americans are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States, including parts of Alaska. ... First Nations is a term of ethnicity used in Canada. ... Algonquian Indians are one of the most populous and widespread North American Native groups, with tribes originally numbering in the hundreds, and hundreds of thousands who still identify with various Algonquian peoples. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... Abenaki couple The Western Abenaki (also Abenaki, Wabanaki), meaning people of the dawn, are a tribe of Native Americans/First Nations belonging to the Algonquian peoples of northeastern North America. ... Abenaki is the cover term for a complex of dialects of one of the Eastern Algonquian languages, originally spoken in what is now Vermont, New Hampshire and Maine. ...


The term "Wabanuok" or Wabanakiyik means "People of the Dawn Land" in the Abenaki language, from waban ("dawn" or "east") and ki ("land")—the aboriginal name of the area broadly corresponding to New England. It is, therefore, sometimes used to refer to all the Algonquian language speaking peoples of the area — Western Abenaki, Eastern Abenaki, Wolastoqiyik-Passamaquoddy, and Micmac — as a single group. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Abenakis. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... The Algonquian languages are a subfamily of Native American languages that includes most of the languages in the Algic language family (others are Wiyot and Yurok of northwestern California). ... Passamaquoddy Territory The Passamaquoddy (Peskotomuhkati or Pestomuhkati in the Passamaquoddy language) are a Native American/First Nations people who live in northeastern North America, primarily in Maine and New Brunswick. ... The Mikmaq (also Míkmaq, Micmac; in Quebec, Migmaq) are a First Nations people indigenous to northeastern New England, Canadas Maritimes and the Gaspe Peninsula of Quebec. ...

Contents

History

Abenaki couple
Abenaki couple

The Abenakis were traditionally allied with the French; one of them, Assacumbuit, was declared a noble under the reign of Louis XIV. Image File history File links Abenaki couple File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Facing annihilation from English attacks and epidemics, they started to emigrate to Quebec around 1669, where two municipalities were given to them. The first was on the Saint Francis River and is nowadays known as the Odanak Indian Reservation; the second was founded near Bécancour and is called the Wolinak Indian Reservation. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... // Events Samuel Pepys stopped writing his diary. ... Odanak, Quebec is an Indian reserve in the Centre-du-Québec region, Quebec, Canada. ... Bécancour is a town in central Quebec, Canada; it is the seat of the Regional County Municipality Bécancour. ... Wôlinak, Quebec is an Indian reserve in the Centre-du-Québec region, Quebec, Canada. ...


When their principal town, Allidgewook/Norridgewock, was taken, and their missionary, Father Sebastian Rasle, killed in 1724, many more emigrated to the settlement on the St. Francis River where other refugees from the New England tribes had come to earlier. As of the early 1900s, they were represented by the Wolastoqiyik ("People of the good river" – Maliseet) on the St. John River, New Brunswick, and Quebec (, on the bay of that name, in Maine (300); the Penobscots, at Old Town, Maine (400), and the Abnakis at St. Francis and Bécancour, Quebec (430).[citation needed] The Norridgewock were a People of the Dawn, an Eastern tribe of the United States. ... Events January 14 - King Philip V of Spain abdicates the throne February 20 - The premiere of Giulio Cesare, an Italian opera by George Frideric Handel, takes place in London June 23 - Treaty of Constantinople signed. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... The Maliseet (also known as Wolastoqiyik and Malecite and in French also as Malécites or Étchemins (the latter collectively referring to the Maliseet and Passamaquoddy)) are a Native American/First Nations people who inhabit the Saint John River valley and its tributaries, roughly overlapping the International Boundary between New... The Saint John River is a river, approximately 418 mi (673 km) long, located in the U.S. state of Maine and the Canadian province of New Brunswick. ...


Abenakis are not a federally recognized tribe in the United States, like many other eastern tribes. This may change: Vermont officially recognized the Abenaki in 2006. This is in recognition of the annihilation or assimilation of the Abenaki and subsequent isolation of each small remnant of the greater whole onto reservations during and after the French and Indian War well before the US government began acknowledging the sovereignty of native tribes in the late twentieth century. Facing annihilation, the Abenakis began emigrating to Canada, then under French control, around 1669 where they were granted two seigneuries. The first seigneurie was established on the Saint-François river and is now known as the Odanak Indian Reserve; the second was established on the river Bécancour and is now known as the Wôlinak Indian Reserve.[citation needed] This is a list of the 563 Native American Tribal Entities which are recognized by the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs. ... Combatants France Indian allies: * Algonquin * Huron * Ojibwa * Ottawa * Shawnee Great Britain Indian allies: * Iroquois Strength 3,900 regulars 7,900 militia 2,200 natives (1759) 50,000 regulars and militia (1759) The French and Indian War was the nine-year North American chapter of the Seven Years War. ... Odanak, Quebec is an Indian reserve in the Centre-du-Québec region, Quebec, Canada. ... Bécancour is a town in central Quebec, Canada; it is the seat of the Regional County Municipality Bécancour. ... Wôlinak, Quebec is an Indian reserve in the Centre-du-Québec region, Quebec, Canada. ...


A tribal council was organized in 1976 at Swanton, Vermont as the Sokoki-St. Francis Band of the Abenaki Nation. State recognition of the council was granted that same year but was later withdrawn for unknown reasons. In 1982, they applied for nation recognition which is still pending.[1]{{Fact|date=February 2007} 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Swanton, Vermont Swanton is a town located in Franklin County, Vermont. ... 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Culture

An Abenaki Indian man in traditional clothing.
An Abenaki Indian man in traditional clothing.

There are a dozen variations of the name Abenakis, such as Abenaquiois, Abakivis, Quabenakionek, Wabenakies and others. Image File history File links Abenaki_Tribe. ... Image File history File links Abenaki_Tribe. ...


They were described in the Jesuit Relations as not cannibals, and as docile, ingenious, temperate in the use of liquor, and not profane.[2]


All Abenaki tribes lived a lifestyle similar to the Algonquin of southern New England. They largely relied on agriculture when it came to their diet, which is why villages often were located on or near river floodplains. Other less major, but still important parts of their diet include hunting, fishing, and wild plant gathering.[1]


They lived in scattered bands of extended families for most of the year. Each man had different hunting territories inherited through his father. The Abenaki were patrilineal, unlike the Iroquois. Bands would come together during the spring and summer at temporary villages near rivers, or somewhere along the seacoast for planting and fishing. These villages occasionally had to be fortified, depending on the alliances and enemies of other tribes or of Europeans near the village. Abenaki villages were quite small when compared to the Iroquois', the average number of people only being 100.[1] Patrilineality is a system in which one belongs to ones fathers lineage; it generally involves the inheritance of property, names or titles through the male line as well. ... The Iroquois Confederacy (Haudenosaunee, also known as the League of Peace and Power, Five Nations, or Six Nations) is a group of First Nations/Native Americans. ...


Most Abenaki settlements used dome-shaped, bark covered wigwams for housing, though a few preferred oval-shaped long houses. During the winter, the Abenaki lived in small groups farther inland. The homes there were bark-covered wigwams shaped in a way similar to the teepees of the Great Plains Indians.[1] == The Band == Wigwam are Alex James, the bassist from Blur and Betty Boo. ... Categories: Stub | Buildings and structures | Survival skills ... The Great Plains covers much of the central United States, portions of Canada and Mexico. ...


Mythology

See also: Abenaki mythology

The Abenaki (also Wabanaki) are a Native American tribe located in the northeastern United States. ...

Government

The Abenaki were ruled by elected chiefs called Sagamores, who usually served for life but could be impeached. They had little actual power, but European colonizers still treated them like monarchs, resulting in many miscommunications and oversimplifications.[citation needed] Image File history File links Wiki_letter_w. ... A sagamore is the head of a Native American tribe. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... Pith helmet of the Second French Empire. ... Look up monarch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Language

Main article: Abenaki language

There are two primary dialects of Abenaki: Western Abenaki, the language of the Abenaki community at Odanak, and Eastern Abenaki, which is represented by the modern language of the Penobscot tribe, as well as in the Abenaki linguistic materials of the colonial French missionaries.[citation needed] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Abenakis. ... ¢ Seal of the Penobscot Indian Nation of Maine For other uses, see Penobscot (disambiguation). ...


The Abenaki language is closely related to those of their neighboring tribes such as the Mi'kmaq, Wolastoqiyik (Maliseet), and Pestomuhkati (Passamaquoddy). There were numerous cultural differences between the Algonquian tribes and those of the Five Nations with linguistic and spiritual differences being the most noticeable.[citation needed] It has been suggested that Lnu be merged into this article or section. ... The Maliseet (also known as Wolastoqiyik and Malecite and in French also as Malécites or Étchemins (the latter collectively referring to the Maliseet and Passamaquoddy)) are a Native American/First Nations people who inhabit the Saint John River valley and its tributaries, roughly overlapping the International Boundary between New... Passamaquoddy Territory The Passamaquoddy (Peskotomuhkati or Pestomuhkati in the Passamaquoddy language) are a Native American/First Nations people who live in northeastern North America, primarily in Maine and New Brunswick. ... The Iroquois Confederacy (Haudenosaunee, also known as the League of Peace and Power, Five Nations, or Six Nations) is a group of First Nations/Native Americans. ...


There are very few native speakers of the original Abenaki language still alive. There are active Abenaki communities in Quebec, Vermont, Maine, and New Hampshire.[citation needed]


Their language has been preserved in the monumental dictionary of Sebastian Rasle, in Joseph Laurent's 1884 grammar, and in the 1994 dictionary by Gordon Day.[citation needed]


Population and epidemics

Before the Abenaki — except the Pennacook and Micmac — had contact with the European world, their population may have numbered as many as 40,000. Around 20,000 would have been Eastern Abenaki, another 10,000 would have been Western Abenaki, and the last 10,000 would have been Maritime Abenaki. Early contacts with European fisherman resulted in two major epidemics that affected Abenaki during the 1500s. The first epidemic was an unknown sickness occurring sometime between 1564 and 1570, and the second one was typhus in 1586. Multiple epidemics arrived a decade prior to the English settlement of Massachusetts in 1620, when three separate sicknesses swept across New England and the Canadian Maritimes. Maine was hit very hard during the year of 1617, with a fatality rate of 75%, and the population of the Eastern Abenaki fell to about 5,000. Fortunately, the Western Abenaki were a more isolated group of people and suffered far less, losing only about half of their original population of 10,000.[1] Image File history File links Information_icon. ... Shortcut: WP:-( Vandalism is indisputable bad-faith addition, deletion, or change to content, made in a deliberate attempt to compromise the integrity of the encyclopedia. ... Events March 27 — Naples bans kissing in public under the penalty of death June 22 — Fort Caroline, the first French attempt at colonizing the New World September 10 — The Battle of Kawanakajima Ottoman Turks invade Malta Modern pencil becomes common in England Conquistadors crossed the Pacific Spanish founded a colony... Events January 23 - The assassination of regent James Stewart, Earl of Moray throws Scotland into civil war February 25 - Pope Pius V excommunicates Queen Elizabeth I of England with the bull Regnans in Excelsis May 20 - Abraham Ortelius issues the first modern atlas. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Epidemic typhus. ... 1586 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. ... Year 1620 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Events Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Ahmed I (1603-1617) to Mustafa I (1617-1623). ...


The new diseases continued to cause more disaster, starting with smallpox in 1631, 1633, and 1639. Seven years later, an unknown epidemic struck, with influenza passing through the following year. Smallpox affected the Abenaki again in 1649, and diphtheria came through 10 years later. Once again, smallpox struck in 1670, and influenza again in 1675. Smallpox affected the Native Americans again in 1677, 1679, 1687, along with measles, 1691, 1729, 1733, 1755, and finally in 1758.[1] Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a highly contagious disease unique to humans. ... // Events February 5 - Roger Williams emigrates to Boston. ... Events February 13 - Galileo Galilei arrives in Rome for his trial before the Inquisition. ... Events January 14 - Connecticuts first constitution, the Fundamental Orders, is adopted. ... Influenza, commonly known as the flu, is an infectious disease of birds and mammals caused by an RNA virus of the family Orthomyxoviridae (the influenza viruses). ... // Events January 30 - King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland is beheaded. ... 1670 was a common year beginning on a Saturday in countries using the Julian calendar and a Wednesday in countries using the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 5 - The Battle of Turckeim June 18 - Battle of Fehrbellin August 10 - King Charles II of England places the foundation stone of the Royal Greenwich Observatory in London - construction begins November 11 - Guru Gobind Singh becomes the Tenth Guru of the Sikhs. ... 1677 (MDCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Events January 24 - King Charles II of England disbands Parliament August 7 - The brigantine Le Griffon, which was commissioned by René Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, is towed to the southern end of the Niagara River, to become the first ship to sail the upper Great Lakes. ... Events March 19 - The men under explorer Robert Cavelier de La Salle murder him while searching for the mouth of the Mississippi River. ... Events March 5 - French troops under Marshal Louis-Francois de Boufflers besiege the Spanish-held town of Mons March 20 - Leislers Rebellion - New governor arrives in New York - Jacob Leisler surrenders after standoff of several hours March 29 - Siege of Mons ends to the city’s surrender May 6... Events July 30 - Baltimore, Maryland is founded. ... Events February 12 - British colonist James Oglethorpe founds Savannah, Georgia. ... 1755 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1758 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


The Abenaki population continued to decline, but in 1676, they took in thousands of refugees from many southern New England tribes displaced by settlement and King Philip's War. Because of this, descendents of nearly every southern New England Algonquin can be found among the Abenaki people. Another century later, there were fewer than 1,000 Abenaki remaining after the American Revolution. Events January 29 - Feodor III becomes Tsar of Russia First measurement of the speed of light, by Ole Rømer Bacons Rebellion Russo-Turkish Wars commence. ... Attack King Philips War was an armed conflict between Native American inhabitants of present-day southern New England and English colonists and their Native American allies from 1675–1676. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress The American Revolution was a political movement during the last half of the 18th century that ended British control of the...


The population recovered to almost 12,000 in both the United States and Canada.


Location

Abenaki wigwam with birch bark covering
Abenaki wigwam with birch bark covering

The homeland of the Abenaki, known to them as Ndakinna, which means "our land", extended across most of northern New England and into the southern Canadian Maritimes. The Eastern Abenaki's population was concentrated in portions of Maine east of New Hampshire's White Mountains, while the other major tribe, the Western Abenaki, lived in areas west of the mountains across Vermont and New Hampshire to the eastern shores of Lake Champlain. The southern limits of the Abenaki's homeland were near the present northern border of Massachusetts, excluding the Pennacook country along the Merrimack River in southern New Hampshire. The maritime Abenaki lived around St. Croix and the Wolastoq (St. John River) Valleys near the boundary line between Maine and New Brunswick. Image File history File links Information_icon. ... Shortcut: WP:-( Vandalism is indisputable bad-faith addition, deletion, or change to content, made in a deliberate attempt to compromise the integrity of the encyclopedia. ... Abenaki wigwam with birch bark covering Source: NPS File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Abenaki wigwam with birch bark covering Source: NPS File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... == The Band == Wigwam are Alex James, the bassist from Blur and Betty Boo. ... Species Many species; see text and classification Birch is the name of any tree of the genus Betula, in the family Betulaceae, closely related to the beech/oak family, Fagaceae. ... For other meanings of bark, see Bark (disambiguation). ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... The Maritimes or Maritime provinces are a region of Canada on the Atlantic coast, consisting of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. ... Official language(s) None (English de facto; French is also an administrative language) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Looking south on the Franconia Ridge Trail. ... Official language(s) None[1] Capital Montpelier Largest city Burlington Area  Ranked 45th  - Total 9,620 sq mi (24,923 km²)  - Width 80 miles (130 km)  - Length 160 miles (260 km)  - % water 3. ... Landsat photo Lake Champlain (French: lac Champlain) is a large lake in North America, mostly within the borders of the United States (states of Vermont and New York) but partially situated across the US-Canada border in the province of Quebec. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... The Pennacook or Pawtucket are a Native American group who once had villages in the Merrimack River valley in southern and central New Hampshire, northeastern Massachusetts, and southern Maine. ... The Merrimack River, formed by the confluence of the Pemigewasset River (left) and Winnipesaukee River (right) is shown on a map of the northeastern United States The Merrimack River (or Merrimac River, an earlier spelling that is sometimes still used) is a 110-mile-long (177-kilometer-long) river in... The St. ... The Saint John River is a river, approximately 418 mi (673 km) long, located in the U.S. state of Maine and the Canadian province of New Brunswick. ... Motto: Spem reduxit (Hope restored) Official languages English, French Flower Purple Violet Tree Balsam Fir Bird Black-capped Chickadee Capital Fredericton Largest city Saint John Lieutenant-Governor Herménégilde Chiasson Premier Shawn Graham (Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 10 10 Area Total  - Land  - Water  (% of total)  Ranked...


The settlement of New England and frequent wars caused many Abenakis to resort to retreating to Quebec. Two large tribal communities formed near St-Francois-du-Lac and Bécancour. These settlements continue to exist to this day. Three reservations also exist in northern Maine, and seven Wolastoqiyik (Maliseet) reserves are located in New Brunswick and Quebec. Other groups of Abenaki, without reservations, are scattered across northern New Hampshire and Vermont.[1] This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Pierreville, Quebec is a community in Nicolet-Yamaska Regional County Municipality, Quebec, located at the confluence of the Saint Lawrence and Saint-François rivers, at the edge of Lac Saint-Pierre. ... Bécancour is a town in central Quebec, Canada; it is the seat of the Regional County Municipality Bécancour. ... The Maliseet (also known as Wolastoqiyik and Malecite and in French also as Malécites or Étchemins (the latter collectively referring to the Maliseet and Passamaquoddy)) are a Native American/First Nations people who inhabit the Saint John River valley and its tributaries, roughly overlapping the International Boundary between New...


The Penawapskewi (Penobscot) have a reservation with 2,000 people on Indian Island at Old Town, Maine. The Pestomuhkati (Passamaquoddy) currently [citation needed] number about 2,500 across three different Maine reservations, Pleasant Point, Peter Dana Point, and Indian Township. The Houlton Band of Maliseet Indians have close to 600 tribesmembers, whereas there are seven Wolastoqiyik (Maliseet) bands in Canada, 470 in Quebec and 2,000 in New Brunswick. Four hundred Wôlinak Abenakis live on a reserve near Bécancour, Quebec (across the river from Trois-Rivières), and almost 1,500 live at Odanak, only 30 miles to the southwest of Trois-Rivières. The remaining Abenaki people are scattered within Quebec, New Brunswick, and northern New England, living in multi-race towns and cities. There are currently [citation needed] about 2,500 Vermont Abenaki in both Vermont and New Hampshire, mainly around Lake Champlain.[1] ¢ Seal of the Penobscot Indian Nation of Maine For other uses, see Penobscot (disambiguation). ... Indian Island can refer to several places: Indian Island, Washington Penobscot_Indian_Island_Reservation, near Old Town, Maine, known colloqially in Maine as Indian Island. ... Main Street in Old Town Old Town is a city located in Penobscot County, Maine. ... Passamaquoddy Territory The Passamaquoddy (Peskotomuhkati or Pestomuhkati in the Passamaquoddy language) are a Native American/First Nations people who live in northeastern North America, primarily in Maine and New Brunswick. ... Pleasant Point is a small country town in southern Canterbury, New Zealand, some 19km inland from Timaru. ... The Maliseet (also known as Wolastoqiyik and Malecite and in French also as Malécites or Étchemins (the latter collectively referring to the Maliseet and Passamaquoddy)) are a Native American/First Nations people who inhabit the Saint John River valley and its tributaries, roughly overlapping the International Boundary between New... Wôlinak, Quebec is an Indian reserve in the Centre-du-Québec region, Quebec, Canada. ... Bécancour is a town in central Quebec, Canada; it is the seat of the Regional County Municipality Bécancour. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Location City Information Established: January 1, 2002 Area: 228. ... Odanak, Quebec is an Indian reserve in the Centre-du-Québec region, Quebec, Canada. ...


References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h http://www.tolatsga.org/aben.html
  2. ^ (1900) in Reuben Gold Thwaites: Travels and Explorations of the Jesuit Missionaries in New France, 1610—1791. The Burrows Company. Retrieved on 2006-11-07. 

For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... November 7 is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 54 days remaining. ...

See also

Bibliography

  • Maurault, Joseph-Anselme; Histoire des Abénakis, depuis 1605 jusqu'à nos jours, 1866
  • Laurent, Joseph. 1884. New Familiar Abenakis and English Dialogues. Quebec: Joseph Laurent. Reprinted 2006: Vancouver: Global Language Press, ISBN 0-9738924-7-1

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Abenaki - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (384 words)
The Abenakis inhabited the area that includes parts of Quebec and the Maritime Provinces in Canada, and portions of the states of Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine in the United States.
Abenakis are not a federally recognized tribe in the United States, unlike almost all of the other eastern tribes.
This is due to the decimation or assimilation of the Abenaki and subsequent isolation of each small remnant of the greater whole onto reservations during and after the French and Indian War, well before the US government began acknowledging the sovereignty of native tribes in the late twentieth century.
Abenaki (533 words)
Abenaki take their name from a word in their own language meaning "dawn land people" or "easterners." In 1600 the Eastern Abenaki occupied what is now the state of Maine, except for its northern and easternmost portions.
All Abenaki were part of the Eastern Algonquian cultures and were separated from other Algonquians to the west and north by an intrusion of Iroquoian-speaking cultures around 1000 years ago.
The Abenaki are prominent in the journals of CHAMPLAIN and other explorers and missionaries.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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