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Encyclopedia > Abdullah I of Jordan
Abdullah I of Jordan
Abdullah I of Jordan
Jordanian Royalty
Hashemite Dynasty

Abdullah I
Children
   Prince Talal
   Prince Nayef
   Princess Haya
   Princess Munera
   Princess Maqbouleh
Grandchildren
   Prince Asem
Great Grandchildren
   Princess Yasmine
   Princess Sarah
   Princess Noor
   Princess Salha
   Princess Nejla
   Prince Nayef
Talal
Children
   Prince Hussein
   Prince Mohammed
   Prince Hassan
   Princess Basma
Hussein
Children
   Princess Alia
   Prince Abdullah
   Prince Faisal
   Princess Aisha
   Princess Zein
   Princess Haya
   Prince Ali
   Prince Hamzah
   Prince Hashim
   Princess Iman
   Princess Raiyah
Abdullah II
Children
   Prince Hussein
   Princess Iman
   Princess Salma
   Prince Hashem
Edit

as-Sayyid Abdullah I, King of Jordan, GCMG, GBE, (1882July 20, 1951 by assassination) (Arabic: عبد الله الأول), also known as as-Sayyid Abdullah bin al-Husayn (Arabic: عبد الله بن الحسين `as=Sayyid Abd Allāh ibn al-Ḥusayn), was, successively, Emir of Transjordan (1921–1946) under a British Mandate, then King of Transjordan (May 25, 1946–1949), and King of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (1949–1951). He is also frequently called King Abdullah the Founder (عبدالله المؤسس), since he was the founder of Jordan. King Abdullah bin Hussein of Jordan This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... King Abdullah bin Hussein of Jordan This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Hashemite is the Anglicised version of the Arabic: هاشمي (transliteration: Hashemi) and traditionally refers to those belonging to the Banu Hashim, or clan of Hashem, a clan within the larger Quraish tribe. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Jordan. ... Talal I bin Abdullah, King of Jordan (Arabic: طلال بن عبد الله Ṭalāl ibn `Abd Allāh) (February 26, 1909 – July 7, 1972) was King of Jordan from July 20, 1951 until forced to abdicate due to health reasons (he suffered from schizophrenia) on August 11, 1952. ... Prince Asem Abu Bakr Bin Nayef (Arabic: عاصم بن ناي) was born in Alexandria, Egypt on the April 27, 1948 to Prince Nayef Bin Abdullah I (himself a younger son of Abdullah I of Jordan) and Princess Mihrimah Sultan grand-daughter of Sultan Mohammad Rashad of Turkey. ... Talal I bin Abdullah, King of Jordan (Arabic: طلال بن عبد الله Ṭalāl ibn `Abd Allāh) (February 26, 1909 – July 7, 1972) was King of Jordan from July 20, 1951 until forced to abdicate due to health reasons (he suffered from schizophrenia) on August 11, 1952. ... Hussein I bin Talal, King of Jordan (Arabic: ‎ ; November 14, 1935 – February 7, 1999). ... Prince Hassan bin Talal (Arabic: حصن بن طلال) (born on March 20, 1947 in Amman, Jordan) is the son of King Talal and Zeini sh-Sharaf bint Jamil. ... Princess Basma bint al-Talal of Jordan (born Amman, Jordan, on May 11, 1951) is a daughter of the late King Talal I bin Abdullah. ... Hussein I bin Talal, King of Jordan (Arabic: ‎ ; November 14, 1935 – February 7, 1999). ... Princess Alia of Jordan (born 13 February 1965) is the daughter of King Hussein and Princess Dina Al Hussein. ... King Abdullah II bin Al Hussein (Arabic: ‎, al-Malik Ê¿Abdullāh aṯ-ṯānÄ« bin al-Ḥusayn) is the King of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. ... Prince Faisal was born in October 1963 to King Hussein and Princess Muna Al Hussein. ... HRH Princess Aisha Bint Al Hussein (born on 23rd of April, 1968) is the sister of King Abdullah II of Jordan. ... HRH Princess Zein Bint Al Hussein (born April 23, 1968 in Amman, Jordan) is the sister of King Abdullah II of Jordan. ... Princess Haya of Jordan (Arabic: ھيا) (born May 3, 1974) is a daughter of late King Hussein I of Jordan and the current second wife of the Sheikh of Dubai. ... This article concerns the Jordanian prince. ... Prince Hamzah bin al Hussein of Jordan (Arabic: حمزة بن الحسين) (born March 29, 1980) is the eldest son of the late King Hussein of Jordan from his American-born fourth wife, Queen Noor al-Hussein. ... Prince Hashim (born 10 June 1987) is the son of King Hussein and Queen Noor. ... Princess Iman (born 24 April 1983) is the daughter of King Hussein and Queen Noor. ... Princess Raiyah (born 9 February 1986) is the daughter of King Hussein and Queen Noor. ... King Abdullah II bin Al Hussein (Arabic: ‎, al-Malik Ê¿Abdullāh aṯ-ṯānÄ« bin al-Ḥusayn) is the King of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. ... Prince Hussein is King Abdullahs first-born son, king of Jordan. ... ... Princess Salma (born September 26, 2000) is the second daughter and third child of King Abdullah II and Queen Rania al-Abdullah. ... Prince Hashem (born January 30, 2005) is the fourth child and second son of King Abdullah II and Queen Rania al-Abdullah. ... On the Orders insignia, St Michael is often depicted subduing Satan. ... The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry established on 4 June 1917 by King George V. The Order includes five classes in civil and military divisions; in decreasing order of seniority, these are Knight Grand Cross or Dame Grand Cross (GBE) Knight Commander... Year 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Entrance to the emirs palace in Bukhara. ... Map of the territory of the British Mandate of Palestine The Emirate of Transjordan was an autonomous political division of the British Mandate of Palestine, created as an administrative entity in April 1921 before the Mandate came into effect. ... Map of the territory of the British Mandate of Palestine The Emirate of Transjordan was an autonomous political division of the British Mandate of Palestine, created as an administrative entity in April 1921 before the Mandate came into effect. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents

Founding of the Emirate of "Trans-Jordan"

The son of the Hashemite as-Sayyid Husayn ibn Ali, he had two sons and three daughters: (1) H.M King Talal bin Abdulla; (2) H.R.H Prince Nayef bin Abdulla; (3) H.R.H Princess Hayd bint Abdulla; (4) H.R.H Princess Munera bint Abdullah; (5) H.R.H Princess Maqbouleh bint Abdulla. When the French forces captured Damascus at the battle of Maysloun, and expelled his brother Faisal, Abdullah moved his forces from Hejaz towards Syria to liberate Syria and dislodge the French from Damascus, where his brother was proclaimed King in 1918. Having heard of Abdullah's plans, Winston Churchill invited Abdullah to the infamous "tea party" where he convinced Abdullah to stay put and not attack Britain's allies, the French. Churchill told Abdullah that French forces were superior to his and that the British did not want any trouble with French. Abdullah acquiesced and was rewarded when the British created a protectorate for him, which later became a state; Transjordan. He embarked on negotiations with the British to gain independence, resulting in the announcement of the Emirate of Trans-Jordan’s independence on May 25, 1923. This date is Jordan’s official independence day. His brother Faisal became King of Iraq. Hashemite is the Anglicised version of the Arabic: هاشمي (transliteration: Hashemi) and traditionally refers to those belonging to the Banu Hashim, or clan of Hashem, a clan within the larger Quraish tribe. ... Hussein ibn Ali or Husayn ibn Ali was the Sherif of Mecca, and Emir of Mecca from 1908 until 1917, when he proclaimed himself king. ... Talal I bin Abdullah, King of Jordan (Arabic: طلال بن عبد الله Ṭalāl ibn `Abd Allāh) (February 26, 1909 – July 7, 1972) was King of Jordan from July 20, 1951 until forced to abdicate due to health reasons (he suffered from schizophrenia) on August 11, 1952. ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Churchill redirects here. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... After World War I and the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, the province of Iraq came under the control of the United Kingdom. ...


Prime Ministers under Abdullah formed 18 governments during the 23 years of the Emirate.


Expansionist aspirations

See also: 1948 Arab-Israeli War

Abdullah, alone among the Arab leaders of his generation, was a moderate with a modestly pro-Western outlook. He would actually have signed a separate peace agreement with Israel, but for the Arab League's militant opposition. Because of his dream for a Greater Syria comprising the borders of what was then Transjordan, Syria, Lebanon, and the British Mandate for Palestine under a Hashemite dynasty with "a throne in Damascus," many Arab countries distrusted Abdullah and saw him as both "a threat to the independence of their countries and they also suspected him of being in cahoots with the enemy" and in return, Abdullah distrusted the leaders of other Arab counties.[1][2][3] Combatants  Israel Haganah Irgun Lehi Palmach Foreign Volunteers Egypt, Syria, Transjordan,  Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen[2], Holy War Army, Arab Liberation Army Commanders Yaakov Dori, Yigael Yadin John Bagot Glubb, Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, Hasan Salama, Fawzi Al-Qawuqji, Ahmed Ali al-Mwawi Strength  Israel: 29,677 initially... Headquarters Cairo, Egypt1 Official languages Arabic Membership 22 Arab states 2 observer states Leaders  -  Secretary General Amr Moussa (since 2001)  -  Council of the Arab League Sudan  -  Speaker of the Arab Parliament Nabih Berri Establishment  -  Alexandria Protocol March 22, 1945  Area  -  Total 13,953,041 (Western Sahara Included) = 13,687,041... Map of the territory of the British Mandate of Palestine The Emirate of Transjordan was an autonomous political division of the British Mandate of Palestine, created as an administrative entity in April 1921 before the Mandate came into effect. ... Flag The approximate borders of the British Mandate circa 1922. ...


In 1946-1947, Abdullah had no intention to "resist or impede the partition of Palestine and creation of a Jewish state."[4] Historian Eugene L. Rogan wrote that Abdullah actually supported partition in order so that the allocated areas of the British Mandate for Palestine could be annexed into Transjordan. According to this thesis, Abdullah went so far as to have secret meetings with the Jewish Agency (future Israeli Prime Minister Golda Meir was among the delegates to these meetings) that came to a mutually agreed upon partition plan independently of the United Nations, and that the plan even had approval from British authorities.[5] This idea of secret Zionist-Hashemite negotiations in 1947 was in fact first proposed by New Historian Avi Shlaim in his book Collusion Across The Jordan: King Abdullah, the Zionist Movement, and the Partition of Palestine. The book Der Judenstaat (The Jewish State, 1896) by Theodor Herzl. ... The Jewish Agency for Israel also known as The Jewish Agency (or sochnut in Hebrew), was previously called the Jewish Agency for Palestine (during the British Mandate of Palestine) is an Israeli organisation that advocates for Israel and is composed mainly, but not entirely, of Jewish people. ... The Prime Minister of Israel is the elected head of the Israeli government. ... Golda Meir (‎, Arabic: , born Golda Mabovitz, May 3, 1898 - December 8, 1978, known as Golda Meyerson from 1917-1956) was one of the founders of the State of Israel. ... The New Historians are a loosely-defined group of Israeli historians who have declared as their goal the reexamination of the history of Israel and Zionism. ... Avi Shlaim was born in Baghdad in 1945 and grew up in Israel where he did national service from 1964 to 1966. ...


The claim has, however, been strongly disputed by Israeli historian Efraim Karsh. In an article in Middle East Quarterly, he alleged that "extensive quotations from the reports of all three Jewish participants [at the meetings] do not support Shlaim's account...the report of Golda Meir (the most important Israeli participant and the person who allegedly clinched the deal with Abdullah) is conspicuously missing from Shlaim's book, despite his awareness of its existence".[6] According to Karsh, the meetings in question concerned "an agreement based on the imminent U.N. Partition Resolution, [in Meir's words] "to maintain law and order until the UN could establish a government in that area"; namely, a short-lived law enforcement operation to implement the UN Partition Resolution, not obstruct it".[7] The State of Israel (Hebrew: מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, transliteration: ; Arabic: دَوْلَةْ اِسْرَائِيل, transliteration: ) is a country in the Middle East on the eastern edge of the Mediterranean Sea. ... Efraim Karsh is Professor and Head of Mediterranean Studies at Kings College London. ... Middle East Quarterly (MEQ) is a quarterly journal devoted to subjects relating to the Middle East. ...


By 1948, the neighboring Arab states pressured Abdullah into joining them in an "all-Arab military intervention" against the newly created State of Israel, which he used to restore his prestige in the Arab world, which had grown suspicious of his relatively good relationship with Western and Jewish leaders.[4] Abdullah's role in this war became substantial. He saw himself as the "supreme commander of the Arab forces" and "persuaded the Arab League to appoint him" to this position.[8] His forces under their British commander Glubb Pasha did not approach the area set aside for the new Israel, though they clashed with the Yishuv forces around Jerusalem, intended to be the International Zone. The State of Israel (Hebrew: מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, transliteration: ; Arabic: دَوْلَةْ اِسْرَائِيل, transliteration: ) is a country in the Middle East on the eastern edge of the Mediterranean Sea. ... Headquarters Cairo, Egypt1 Official languages Arabic Membership 22 Arab states 2 observer states Leaders  -  Secretary General Amr Moussa (since 2001)  -  Council of the Arab League Sudan  -  Speaker of the Arab Parliament Nabih Berri Establishment  -  Alexandria Protocol March 22, 1945  Area  -  Total 13,953,041 (Western Sahara Included) = 13,687,041... Sir John Bagot Glubb, better known as Glubb Pasha (16 April 1897 – 17 March 1986), was a British soldier best known for commanding Transjordans Arab Legion 1939-1956. ...


Assassination

On July 20, 1951, Abdullah, while visiting Al Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem, was shot dead by Mustapha Shukri Usho, "a Palestinian from the Husseini clan."[4] On July 16, Riad Bey al-Solh, a former Prime Minister of Lebanon, had been assassinated in Amman, where rumors were circulating that Lebanon and Jordan were discussing a joint separate peace with Israel. The assassin passed through apparently heavy security. Abdullah was in Jerusalem to give a eulogy at the funeral and was shot while attending Friday prayers at the Dome of the Rock in the company of his grandson, Prince Hussein.[citation needed] The Palestinian gunman, motivated by fears that the old king would make a separate peace with Israel, fired three fatal bullets into the King's head and chest. Abdullah's grandson, Prince Hussein Ibn Talal was at his side and was hit too. A medal that had been pinned to Hussein's chest at his grandfather's insistence deflected the bullet and saved his life.[citation needed] is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem is not to be confused with the Dome of the Rock The Al-Aqsa Mosque (Arabic: المسجد الاقصى, Masjid Al-Aqsa, literally farthest mosque) is part of the complex of religious buildings in Jerusalem known as either the Majed Mount or Al-Haram ash... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... A statue of Riad as-Solh stands in Beiruts Downtown district Riad as-Solh (1894 - 1951) (Arabic: رياض الصلح) was the first Prime Minister of Lebanon (1943–1945), after the countrys independence. ... The Dome of the Rock in the center of the Temple Mount The Dome of the Rock, (Arabic: مسجد قبة الصخرة, translit. ... Hussein bin Talal (Arabic: حسين بن طلال) (November 14, 1935 - February 7, 1999) was the King of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan from 1952 to 1999. ... Hussein bin Talal (Arabic: حسين بن طلال) (November 14, 1935 - February 7, 1999) was the King of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan from 1952 to 1999. ...


The assassin was a 21-year-old tailor's apprentice Mustafa Ashu,[9] who according to Alec Kirkbride, the British Resident in Amman, was a "former terrorist".[10] Ten conspirators were accused of plotting the assassination and were brought to trial in Amman. The prosecution named Colonel Abdullah Tell, ex-Military Governor of Jerusalem, and Dr. Musa Abdullah Husseini as the chief plotters of "the most dastardly crime Jordan ever witnessed."[citation needed] The Jordanian prosecutor asserted that Col. Tell had given instructions that the killer, made to act alone, be slain at once thereafter to shield the instigators of the crime. Tell and Husseini fled to protection in Egypt and four local co-conspirators were sentenced to death in Amman. Jerusalem sources added that Col. Tell had been in close contact with the former "Grand Mufti of Jerusalem", Amin al-Husayni, and his adherents in Arab Palestine. Sir Alec Seath Kirkbride (1897 - 1978) was a British diplomat. ... The title Grand Mufti of Jerusalem is predominantly used to refer to Mohammad Amin al-Husayni. ... Mohammad Amin al-Husayni Mohammad Amin al-Husayni (ca. ...


Abdullah was succeeded by his son Talal; however, since Talal was mentally ill, Talal's son – the aforementioned Prince Hussein – became the effective ruler as King Hussein at the age of seventeen. Hussein was in turn succeeded by his son, King Abdullah II. Talal I bin Abdullah, King of Jordan (Arabic: طلال بن عبد الله Ṭalāl ibn `Abd Allāh) (February 26, 1909 – July 7, 1972) was King of Jordan from July 20, 1951 until forced to abdicate due to health reasons (he suffered from schizophrenia) on August 11, 1952. ... Hussein bin Talal (Arabic: حسين بن طلال) (November 14, 1935 - February 7, 1999) was the King of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan from 1952 to 1999. ... King Abdullah and Queen Rania King Abdullah appears here at a summit in Mexico. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Shlaim, 2001, 82.
  2. ^ Tripp, 2001, 136.
  3. ^ Landis, 2001, 179-184
  4. ^ a b c Sela, 2002, 14.
  5. ^ Rogan, 2001, 109-110.
  6. ^ [1] Karsh, 1996
  7. ^ [2] Karsh, 1996
  8. ^ Tripp, 2001, 137.
  9. ^ Michael T. Thornhill, ‘Abdullah ibn Hussein (1882–1951)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 accessed 24 November 2006
  10. ^ Wilson, 1990, p. 211.

http://www.palestinefacts.org/pf_1948to1967_abdulla.php


References

  • Rogan, Eugene L., ed., and Avi Shlaim, ed. The War for Palestine: Rewriting the History of 1948. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2001.
    • Landis, Joshua. "Syria and the Palestine War: fighting King 'Abdullah's 'Greater Syria plan.'" Rogan and Shlaim. The War for Palestine. 178-205.
    • Rogan, Eugene L. "Jordan and 1948: the persistence of an official history." Rogan and Shlaim. The War for Palestine. 104-124.
    • Shlaim, Avi. "Israel and the Arab coalition in 1948." Rogan and Shlaim. The War for Palestine. 79-103.
    • Tripp, Charles. "Iraq and the 1948 War: mirror of Iraq's disorder." Rogan and Shlaim. The War for Palestine. 125-150.
  • Sela, Avraham. "Abdallah Ibn Hussein." The Continuum Political Encyclopedia of the Middle East. Ed. Avraham Sela. New York: Continuum, 2002. pp. 13-14.
  • Shlaim, Avi (1990). The Politics of Partition; King Abdullah, the Zionists and Palestine 1921-1951 . Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-07365-8.
  • Wilson, Mary Chrstina (1990). King Abdullah, Britain and the Making of Jordan. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-39987-4.

Avi Shlaim was born in Baghdad in 1945 and grew up in Israel where he did national service from 1964 to 1966. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Charles R. H. Tripp, Ph. ... Avraham Sela is an Israeli authority on the politics of the Middle East and international relations. ...

External links

Preceded by
New creation
Emir of Transjordan under the British Mandate
1923 – 1946
Succeeded by
Kingdom
Preceded by
The Emirate
King of Transjordan
1946–1949
Succeeded by
King of Jordan
Preceded by
King of Transjordan
King of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
1949–1951
Succeeded by
H.M King Talal bin Abdulla
Map of the territory of the British Mandate of Palestine The Emirate of Transjordan was an autonomous political division of the British Mandate of Palestine, created as an administrative entity in April 1921 before the Mandate came into effect. ... Map of the territory of the British Mandate of Palestine The Emirate of Transjordan was an autonomous political division of the British Mandate of Palestine, created as an administrative entity in April 1921 before the Mandate came into effect. ... Map of the territory of the British Mandate of Palestine The Emirate of Transjordan was an autonomous political division of the British Mandate of Palestine, created as an administrative entity in April 1921 before the Mandate came into effect. ... Talal I bin Abdullah, King of Jordan (Arabic: طلال بن عبد الله Ṭalāl ibn `Abd Allāh) (February 26, 1909 – July 7, 1972) was King of Jordan from July 20, 1951 until forced to abdicate due to health reasons (he suffered from schizophrenia) on August 11, 1952. ...

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Abdullah is married to a Kuwait-born, Jordan-bred Palestinian, Rania Al-Yassin (now Queen Rania al-Abdullah), who is as praised for her philanthropic work as she is criticized for her frequent interviews to the Western press and her fondness for haute couture.
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