**Abduction**, or **inference to the best explanation**, is a method of reasoning in which one chooses the hypothesis that would, if true, best explain the relevant evidence. Abductive reasoning starts from a set of accepted facts and infers to their most likely, or best, explanations. The term *abduction* is also sometimes used to just mean the generation of hypotheses to explain observations or conclusions, but the former definition is more common both in philosophy and computing. Image File history File links Mergefrom. ...
After obtaining results from an inference procedure, we may be left with multiple assumptions, some of which may be contradictory. ...
For other uses, see Reason (disambiguation). ...
For the trade organisation, see Federation Against Copyright Theft. ...
An explanation is a statement which points to causes, context, and consequences of some object, process, state of affairs, etc. ...
Look up Hypothesis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...
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## Deduction, induction, and abduction
(see also logical reasoning) The three methods for logical reasoning, deduction, induction, and abduction can be explained in the following way (taken from [1]): Given α, β, and the rule R1 : α ∴ β Deduction is using the rule and its preconditions to make a conclusion (α ∧ R1 ⇒ β). Induction is learning...
- Deduction
- allows deriving
*b* as a consequence of *a*. In other words, deduction is the process of deriving the consequences of what is assumed. Given the truth of the assumptions, a valid deduction guarantees the truth of the conclusion. - Induction
- allows inferring some
*a* from multiple instantiations of *b* when *a* entails *b*. Induction is the process of inferring probable antecedents as a result of observing multiple consequents. - Abduction
- allows inferring
*a* as an explanation of *b*. Because of this, abduction allows the precondition *a* of “*a* entails *b*” to be inferred from the consequence *b*. Deduction and abduction thus differ in the direction in which a rule like “*a* entails *b*” is used for inference. As such abduction is formally equivalent to the logical fallacy affirming the consequent. Therefore abductive reasoning is like Post hoc ergo propter hoc as the cause is questionable. Deductive reasoning is the kind of reasoning where the conclusion is necessitated or implied by previously known premises. ...
This article is about logical implication. ...
Affirming the consequent is a logical fallacy in the form of a hypothetical proposition. ...
The West Wing, see Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc (The West Wing). ...
## Logic-based abduction In logic, explanation is done from a logical theory *T* representing a domain and a set of observations *O*. Abduction is the process of deriving a set of explanations of *O* according to *T* and picking out one of those explanations. For *E* to be an explanation of *O* according to *T*, it should satisfy two conditions: Logic (from Classical Greek Î»ÏŒÎ³Î¿Ï‚ logos; meaning word, thought, idea, argument, account, reason, or principle) is the study of the principles and criteria of valid inference and demonstration. ...
An explanation is a statement which points to causes, context, and consequences of some object, process, state of affairs, etc. ...
In mathematics, the domain of a function is the set of all input values to the function. ...
In formal logic, *O* and *E* are assumed to be sets of literals. The two conditions for *E* being an explanation of *O* according to theory *T* are formalized as: - ;
- is consistent.
Among the possible explanations *E* satisfying these two conditions, some other condition of minimality is usually imposed to avoid irrelevant facts (not contributing to the entailment of *O*) being included in the explanations. Abduction is then the process that picks out some member of *E*. Criteria for picking out a member representing "the best" explanation include the simplicity, the prior probability, or the explanatory power of the explanation. Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Simplicity Simplicity is the property, condition, or quality of being simple or un-combined. ...
A prior probability is a marginal probability, interpreted as a description of what is known about a variable in the absence of some evidence. ...
Abductive logic programming is a computational framework that extends normal logic programming with abduction. It separates the theory *T* into two components, one of which is a normal logic program, used to generate *E* by means of backward reasoning, the other of which is a set of integrity constraints, used to filter the set of candidate explanations. Abductive Logic Programming is a high level knowledge-representation framework that allows us to solve problems declaratively based on abductive reasoning. ...
Logic programming (which might better be called logical programming by analogy with mathematical programming and linear programming) is, in its broadest sense, the use of mathematical logic for computer programming. ...
Backward reasoning (or goal-oriented inference) is an inference method used in artificial intelligence. ...
## Set-cover abduction A different formalization of abduction is based on inverting the function that calculates the visible effects of the hypotheses. Formally, we are given a set of hypotheses *H* and a set of manifestations *M*; they are related by the domain knowledge, represented by a function *e* that takes as an argument a set of hypotheses and gives as a result the corresponding set of manifestations. In other words, for every subset of the hypotheses , their effects are known to be *e*(*H*'). Abduction is performed by finding a set such that . In other words, abduction is performed by finding a set of hypotheses *H*' such that their effects *e*(*H*') include all observations *M*. A common assumption is that the effects of the hypotheses are independent, that is, for every , it holds that . If this condition is met, abduction can be seen as a form of set covering. The set cover problem (also set covering) is a classical question in computer science and complexity theory. ...
## History of the concept | **This section does not cite any references or sources.** Please improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unverifiable material may be challenged and removed. (tagged since **February 2007**) | Historically, Aristotle's use of the term epagoge has referred to a syllogism in which the major premise is known to be true, but the minor premise is only probable. A syllogism (Greek: â€” conclusion, inference), usually the categorical syllogism, is a kind of logical argument in which one proposition (the conclusion) is inferred from two others (the premises) of a certain form. ...
The philosopher Charles Peirce introduced abduction into modern logic. In his works before 1900, he mostly uses the term to mean the use of a known rule to explain an observation, e.g., “if it rains the grass is wet” is a known rule used to explain that the grass is wet. In other words, it would be more technically correct to say, "If the grass is wet, the most probable explanation is that it recently rained." Charles Sanders Peirce (IPA: /pÉs/), (September 10, 1839 â€“ April 19, 1914) was an American polymath, physicist, and philosopher, born in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ...
Äž: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ...
He later used the term to mean creating new rules to explain new observations, emphasizing that abduction is the only logical process that actually creates anything *new*. Namely, he described the process of science as a combination of abduction, deduction and implication, stressing that new knowledge is only created by abduction. This is contrary to the common use of *abduction* in the social sciences and in artificial intelligence, where the old meaning is used. Contrary to this use, Peirce stated that the actual process of generating a new rule is not “hampered” by logic rules. Rather, he pointed out that humans have an innate ability to infer correctly; possessing this ability is explained by the evolutionary advantage it gives. Peirce's second use of 'abduction' is most similar to induction. The social sciences are groups of academic disciplines that study the human aspects of the world. ...
AI redirects here. ...
This article is about evolution in biology. ...
Induction or inductive reasoning, sometimes called inductive logic, is the process of reasoning in which the premises of an argument support the conclusion, but do not ensure it. ...
Norwood Russell Hanson, a philosopher of science, wanted to grasp a logic explaining how scientific discoveries take place. He used Peirce's notion of abduction for this ^{[1]}. Norwood Russell Hanson (1925 â€“ 1967) was a philosopher of science. ...
The philosophy of science is the branch of philosophy which studies the philosophical foundations, presumptions and implications of science both of the natural sciences like physics and biology and the social sciences such as psychology and economics. ...
Further development of the concept can be found in Peter Lipton's "Inference to the Best Explanation" (Lipton, 1991).
## Applications | **This section does not cite any references or sources.** Please improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unverifiable material may be challenged and removed. (tagged since **February 2007**) | Applications in artificial intelligence include fault diagnosis, belief revision, and automated planning. The most direct application of abduction is that of automatically detecting faults in systems: given a theory relating faults with their effects and a set of observed effects, abduction can be used to derive sets of faults that are likely to be the cause of the problem. AI redirects here. ...
Diagnosis (from the Greek words dia = by and gnosis = knowledge) is the process of identifying a disease by its signs, symptoms and results of various diagnostic procedures. ...
Belief revision is the process changing beliefs to take into account a new piece of information. ...
Automated planning is a subfield of Artificial Intelligence concerned with developing computer algorithms to generate plans, typically for execution by a robot or other agent. ...
Abduction can also be used to model automated planning ^{[2]}. Given a logical theory relating action occurrences with their effects (for example, a formula of the event calculus), the problem of finding a plan for reaching a state can be modeled as the problem of abducting a set of literals implying that the final state is the goal state. Automated planning is a subfield of Artificial Intelligence concerned with developing computer algorithms to generate plans, typically for execution by a robot or other agent. ...
The event calculus is a logical language for representing and reasoning about actions and their effects first presented by Robert Kowalski and Marek Sergot in 1986. ...
Belief revision, the process of adapting beliefs in view of new information, is another field in which abduction has been applied. The main problem of belief revision is that the new information may be inconsistent with the corpus of beliefs, while the result of the incorporation cannot be inconsistent. This process can be done by the use of abduction: once an explanation for the observation has been found, integrating it does not generate inconsistency. This use of abduction is not straightforward, as adding propositional formulae to other propositional formulae can only make inconsistencies worse. Instead, abduction is done at the level of the ordering of preference of the possible worlds. Belief revision is the process changing beliefs to take into account a new piece of information. ...
In the philosophy of science, abduction has been the key inference method to support scientific realism, and much of the debate about scientific realism is focused on whether abduction is an acceptable method of inference. Philosophy of science is the study of assumptions, foundations, and implications of science, especially in the natural sciences and social sciences. ...
Scientific realism is a view in the philosophy of science about the nature of scientific success, an answer to the question what does the success of science involve? The debate over what the success of science involves centers primarily on the status of unobservable entities (objects, process and events) apparently...
In historical linguistics, abduction during language acquisition is often taken to be an essential part of processes of language change such as reanalysis and analogy ^{[3]}. Historical linguistics (also diachronic linguistics or comparative linguistics) is primarily the study of the ways in which languages change over time. ...
Language change is the manner in which the phonetic, morphological, semantic, syntactic, and other features of a language are modified over time. ...
Analogy is both the cognitive process of transferring information from a particular subject (the analogue or source) to another particular subject (the target), and a linguistic expression corresponding to such a process. ...
## References - Awbrey, Jon, and Awbrey, Susan (1995), "Interpretation as Action: The Risk of Inquiry",
*Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines*, 15, 40-52. Eprint - Edwards, Paul (1967, eds.), "The Encyclopedia of Philosophy," Macmillan Publishing Co, Inc. & The Free Press, New York. Collier Macmillan Publishers, London.
- Eiter, T., and Gottlob, G. (1995), "The Complexity of Logic-Based Abduction,
*Journal of the ACM*, 42.1, 3-42. - Harman, Gilbert (1965). "The Inference to the Best Explanation,"
*The Philosophical Review* 74:1, 88-95. - Josephson, John R., and Josephson, Susan G. (1995, eds.),
*Abductive Inference: Computation, Philosophy, Technology*, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. - Lipton, Peter. (2001).
*Inference to the Best Explanation*, London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-24202-9. - Menzies, T. (1996), "Applications of Abduction: Knowledge-Level Modelling,
*International Journal of Human-Computer Studies*, 45.3, 305-335. - Yu, Chong Ho (1994), "Is There a Logic of Exploratory Data Analysis?",
*Annual Meeting of American Educational Research Association*, New Orleans, LA, April, 1994. :Eprint ## Notes **^** Schwendtner, Tibor and Ropolyi, László and Kiss, Olga (eds): Hermeneutika és a természettudományok. Áron Kiadó, Budapest, 2001. It is written in Hungarian. Meaning of the title: Hermeneutics and the natural sciences. **^** Kave Eshghi. Abductive planning with the event calculus. In Robert A. Kowalski, Kenneth A. Bowen editors: Logic Programming, Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference and Symposium, Seattle, Washington, August 15-19, 1988. MIT Press 1988, ISBN 0-262-61056-6 **^** April M. S. McMahon (1994): Understanding language change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-44665-1 ## See also Analogy is both the cognitive process of transferring information from a particular subject (the analogue or source) to another particular subject (the target), and a linguistic expression corresponding to such a process. ...
Charles Sanders Peirce (IPA: /pÉs/), (September 10, 1839 â€“ April 19, 1914) was an American polymath, physicist, and philosopher, born in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ...
Charles Peirce (Bibliography). ...
Deductive reasoning is the kind of reasoning where the conclusion is necessitated or implied by previously known premises. ...
Defeasible reasoning (sometimes called defeasible logic) is the study of forms of reasoning that, while convincing, are not as formal and rigorous as deductive reasoning. ...
Gregory Bateson (9 May 1904â€“4 July 1980) was a British anthropologist, social scientist, linguist and cyberneticist whose work intersected that of many other fields. ...
Aristotle appears first to establish the mental behaviour of induction as a category of reasoning. ...
Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...
Logic (from Classical Greek Î»ÏŒÎ³Î¿Ï‚ logos; meaning word, thought, idea, argument, account, reason, or principle) is the study of the principles and criteria of valid inference and demonstration. ...
The three methods for logical reasoning, deduction, induction, and abduction can be explained in the following way (taken from [1]): Given α, β, and the rule R1 : α ∴ β Deduction is using the rule and its preconditions to make a conclusion (α ∧ R1 ⇒ β). Induction is learning...
An inference procedure is a key component of the knowledge engineering process, sometimes known as abduction. ...
A sign relation is the basic construct in the theory of signs, or semiotic theory, as developed by Charles Sanders Peirce (1839-1914). ...
## External links - Josephson, John, "Abductive Inference in Reasoning and Perception", Webpage
- Ryder, Martin,
*Instructional Technology Connections: Abduction*, Webpage - Magnani, Lorenzo,
*Abduction, Reason, and Science. Processes of Discovery and Explanation*, Webpage - [it] Magnani, Lorenzo
- Chapter 3. Deduction, Induction, and Abduction in article Charles Sanders Peirce of the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
*This article was originally based on material from the Free On-line Dictionary of Computing, which is licensed under the GFDL.* Lorenzo Magnani (born 1952), is an Italian philosopher. ...
This article does not cite any references or sources. ...
â€œGFDLâ€ redirects here. ...
Logic | Main articles | Reason · History of logic · Philosophical logic · Philosophy of logic · Mathematical logic · Metalogic · Logic in computer science Image File history File links Portal. ...
Logic (from Classical Greek Î»ÏŒÎ³Î¿Ï‚ logos; meaning word, thought, idea, argument, account, reason, or principle) is the study of the principles and criteria of valid inference and demonstration. ...
For other uses, see Reason (disambiguation). ...
The history of logic documents the development of logic as it occurs in various rival cultures and traditions in history. ...
Philosophical logic is the application of formal logical techniques to problems that concern philosophers. ...
Philosophy of logic is the branch of philosophy that is concerned with the nature and justification of systems of logic. ...
Mathematical logic is a major area of mathematics, which grew out of symbolic logic. ...
The metalogic of a system of logic is the formal proof supporting its soundness. ...
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| Key concepts and logics | Reasoning | Deduction · Induction · **Abduction** Reasoning is the mental (cognitive) process of looking for reasons to support beliefs, conclusions, actions or feelings. ...
Deductive reasoning is the kind of reasoning where the conclusion is necessitated or implied by previously known premises. ...
Aristotle appears first to establish the mental behaviour of induction as a category of reasoning. ...
| Informal | Proposition · Inference · Argument · Validity · Cogency · Term logic · Critical thinking · Fallacies · Syllogism Informal logic is the study of arguments as presented in ordinary language, as contrasted with the presentations of arguments in an artificial (technical) or formal language (see formal logic). ...
This article is about the word proposition as it is used in logic, philosophy, and linguistics. ...
Inference is the act or process of deriving a conclusion based solely on what one already knows. ...
In logic, an argument is a set of statements, consisting of a number of premises, a number of inferences, and a conclusion, which is said to have the following property: if the premises are true, then the conclusion must be true or highly likely to be true. ...
In logic, the form of an argument is valid precisely if it cannot lead from true premises to a false conclusion. ...
An argument is cogent if and only if the truth of the arguments premises would render the truth of the conclusion probable (i. ...
Traditional logic, also known as term logic, is a loose term for the logical tradition that originated with Aristotle and survived broadly unchanged until the advent of modern predicate logic in the late nineteenth century. ...
are you kiddin ? i was lookin for it for hours ...
Look up fallacy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...
A syllogism (Greek: â€” conclusion, inference), usually the categorical syllogism, is a kind of logical argument in which one proposition (the conclusion) is inferred from two others (the premises) of a certain form. ...
| Mathematical | Set · Syntax · Semantics · Wff · Axiom · Theorem · Consistency · Soundness · Completeness · Decidability · Formal system · Set theory · Proof theory · Model theory · Recursion theory Mathematical logic is a major area of mathematics, which grew out of symbolic logic. ...
In mathematics, a set can be thought of as any collection of distinct objects considered as a whole. ...
Syntax in logic is a systematic statement of the rules governing the properly formed formulas (WFFs) of a logical system. ...
The truth conditions of various sentences we may encounter in arguments will depend upon their meaning, and so conscientious logicians cannot completely avoid the need to provide some treatment of the meaning of these sentences. ...
In logic, WFF is an abbreviation for well-formed formula. ...
This article is about a logical statement. ...
Look up theorem in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...
In mathematical logic, a formal system is consistent if it does not contain a contradiction, or, more precisely, for no proposition Ï† are both Ï† and Â¬Ï† provable. ...
(This article discusses the soundess notion of informal logic. ...
In mathematical logic, a theory is complete, if it contains either or as a theorem for every sentence in its language. ...
A logical system or theory is decidable if the set of all well-formed formulas valid in the system is decidable. ...
In logic and mathematics, a formal system consists of two components, a formal language plus a set of inference rules or transformation rules. ...
Set theory is the mathematical theory of sets, which represent collections of abstract objects. ...
Proof theory is a branch of mathematical logic that represents proofs as formal mathematical objects, facilitating their analysis by mathematical techniques. ...
In mathematics, model theory is the study of the representation of mathematical concepts in terms of set theory, or the study of the structures that underlie mathematical systems. ...
Recursion theory, or computability theory, is a branch of mathematical logic dealing with generalizations of the notion of computable function, and with related notions such as Turing degrees and effective descriptive set theory. ...
| Zeroth-order | Boolean functions · Monadic predicate calculus · Propositional calculus · Logical connectives · Truth tables Zeroth-order logic is a term in popular use among practitioners for the subject matter otherwise known as boolean functions, monadic predicate logic, propositional calculus, or sentential calculus. ...
A Boolean function describes how to determine a Boolean value output based on some logical calculation from Boolean inputs. ...
In logic, the monadic predicate calculus is the fragment of predicate calculus in which all predicate letters are monadic (that is, they take only one argument), and there are no function letters. ...
In logic and mathematics, a propositional calculus (or a sentential calculus) is a formal system in which formulas representing propositions can be formed by combining atomic propositions using logical connectives, and a system of formal proof rules allows to establish that certain formulas are theorems of the formal system. ...
In logic, a logical connective is a syntactic operation on sentences, or the symbol for such an operation, that corresponds to a logical operation on the logical values of those sentences. ...
Truth tables are a type of mathematical table used in logic to determine whether an expression is true or whether an argument is valid. ...
| Predicate | First-order · Quantifiers · Second-order ...
First-order logic (FOL) is a formal deductive system used by mathematicians, philosophers, linguists, and computer scientists. ...
In language and logic, quantification is a construct that specifies the extent of validity of a predicate, that is the extent to which a predicate holds over a range of things. ...
In mathematical logic, second-order logic is an extension of first-order logic, which itself is an extension of propositional logic. ...
| Modal | Deontic · Epistemic · Temporal · Doxastic In formal logic, a modal logic is any logic for handling modalities: concepts like possibility, existence, and necessity. ...
Deontic logic is the field of logic that is concerned with obligation, permission, and related concepts. ...
Michaels the greatest boyfriend in the whole wide world, and Id love to call him in a phonebooth sometime. ...
In logic, the term temporal logic is used to describe any system of rules and symbolism for representing, and reasoning about, propositions qualified in terms of time. ...
doxastic logic is a modal logic that is concerned with reasoning about beliefs. ...
| Other non-classical | Computability · Fuzzy · Linear · Relevance · Non-monotonic Classical logic identifies a class of formal logics that have been most intensively studied and most widely used. ...
Introduced by Giorgi Japaridze in 2003, Computability logic is a research programme and mathematical framework for redeveloping logic as a systematic formal theory of computability, as opposed to classical logic which is a formal theory of truth. ...
Fuzzy logic is derived from fuzzy set theory dealing with reasoning that is approximate rather than precisely deduced from classical predicate logic. ...
In mathematical logic, linear logic is a type of substructural logic that denies the structural rules of weakening and contraction. ...
Relevance logic, also called relevant logic, is any of a family of non-classical substructural logics that impose certain restrictions on implication. ...
A non-monotonic logic is a formal logic whose consequence relation is not monotonic. ...
| | Controversies | Paraconsistent logic · Dialetheism · Intuitionistic logic · Paradoxes · Antinomies · Is logic empirical? A paraconsistent logic is a logical system that attempts to deal nontrivially with contradictions. ...
Dialetheism is a paraconsistent logic typified by its tolerance of at least some contradictions. ...
Intuitionistic logic, or constructivist logic, is the logic used in mathematical intuitionism and other forms of mathematical constructivism. ...
Look up paradox in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...
Antinomy (Greek anti-, against, plus nomos, law) is a term used in logic and epistemology, which, loosely, means a paradox or unresolvable contradiction. ...
Is logic empirical? is the title of two articles that discuss the idea that the algebraic properties of logic may, or should, be empirically determined; in particular, they deal with the question of whether empirical facts about quantum phenomena may provide grounds for revising classical logic as a consistent logical...
| Key figures | Aristotle · Boole · Cantor · Carnap · Church · Frege · Gentzen · Gödel · Hilbert · Kripke · Peano · Peirce · Putnam · Quine · Russell · Skolem · Tarski · Turing · Whitehead This article is about the philosopher. ...
George Boole [], (November 2, 1815 â€“ December 8, 1864) was a British mathematician and philosopher. ...
Georg Ferdinand Ludwig Philipp Cantor (March 3, 1845[1] â€“ January 6, 1918) was a German mathematician. ...
Rudolf Carnap (May 18, 1891, Ronsdorf, Germany â€“ September 14, 1970, Santa Monica, California) was an influential philosopher who was active in central Europe before 1935 and in the United States thereafter. ...
â€¹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ...
Friedrich Ludwig Gottlob Frege (8 November 1848, Wismar â€“ 26 July 1925, IPA: ) was a German mathematician who became a logician and philosopher. ...
Gerhard Karl Erich Gentzen (November 24, 1909 â€“ August 4, 1945) was a German mathematician and logician. ...
Kurt GÃ¶del (IPA: ) (April 28, 1906 BrÃ¼nn, Austria-Hungary (now Brno, Czech Republic) â€“ January 14, 1978 Princeton, New Jersey) was an Austrian American mathematician and philosopher. ...
David Hilbert (January 23, 1862, KÃ¶nigsberg, East Prussia â€“ February 14, 1943, GÃ¶ttingen, Germany) was a German mathematician, recognized as one of the most influential and universal mathematicians of the 19th and early 20th centuries. ...
Saul Aaron Kripke (born in November 13, 1940 in Bay Shore, New York) is an American philosopher and logician now emeritus from Princeton and teaches as distinguished professor of philosophy at CUNY Graduate Center. ...
Giuseppe Peano Giuseppe Peano (August 27, 1858 â€“ April 20, 1932) was an Italian mathematician and philosopher best known for his contributions to set theory. ...
Charles Sanders Peirce (IPA: /pÉs/), (September 10, 1839 â€“ April 19, 1914) was an American polymath, physicist, and philosopher, born in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ...
Hilary Whitehall Putnam (born July 31, 1926) is an American philosopher who has been a central figure in Western philosophy since the 1960s, especially in philosophy of mind, philosophy of language, and philosophy of science. ...
For people named Quine, see Quine (surname). ...
Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS, (18 May 1872 â€“ 2 February 1970), was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, advocate for social reform, and pacifist. ...
Albert Thoralf Skolem (May 23, 1887 - March 23, 1963) was a Norwegian mathematician. ...
// Alfred Tarski (January 14, 1902, Warsaw, Russian-ruled Poland â€“ October 26, 1983, Berkeley, California) was a logician and mathematician who spent four decades as a professor of mathematics at the University of California, Berkeley. ...
Alan Mathison Turing, OBE, FRS (23 June 1912 â€“ 7 June 1954) was an English mathematician, logician, and cryptographer. ...
Alfred North Whitehead, OM (February 15, 1861 Ramsgate, Kent, England â€“ December 30, 1947 Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA) was an English-born mathematician who became a philosopher. ...
| Lists | Topics (basic • mathematical logic • basic discrete mathematics • set theory) · Logicians · Rules of inference · Paradoxes · Fallacies · Logic symbols This is a list of topics in logic. ...
For a more comprehensive list, see the List of logic topics. ...
This is a list of mathematical logic topics, by Wikipedia page. ...
This is a list of basic discrete mathematics topics, by Wikipedia page. ...
Set theory Axiomatic set theory Naive set theory Zermelo set theory Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory Kripke-Platek set theory with urelements Simple theorems in the algebra of sets Axiom of choice Zorns lemma Empty set Cardinality Cardinal number Aleph number Aleph null Aleph one Beth number Ordinal number Well...
A logician is a person, such as a philosopher or mathematician, whose topic of scholarly study is logic. ...
This is a list of rules of inference. ...
This is a list of paradoxes, grouped thematically. ...
This is a list of fallacies. ...
In logic, a set of symbols is frequently used to express logical constructs. ...
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