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Encyclopedia > Abdomen
The abdomen in a human and an ant.
The abdomen in a human and an ant.

In mammals and other vertebrates the abdomen (belly) constitutes the part of the body between the thorax (chest) and pelvis. The region enclosed by the abdomen is termed the abdominal cavity. In arthropods it is the most distal section of the body which lies behind the thorax or cephalothorax[1][2]. The human abdomen (from the Latin word meaning belly) is the part of the body between the pelvis and the thorax. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including milk producing sweat glands, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Diagram of a tsetse fly, showing the head, thorax and abdomen The thorax is a division of an animals body that lies between the head and the abdomen. ... The pelvis (pl. ... The abdominal cavity is the cavity of the human body (and other animal bodies) that holds the bulk of the viscera and which is located below (or inferior to) the thoracic cavity, and above the pelvic cavity. ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - spiders,scorpions, etc. ... The cephalothorax is an anatomical term used of arachnid and malacostracan arthropods for the first major body section. ...

Contents

Vertebrates

In vertebrates the abdomen is a large cavity enclosed by the abdominal muscles ventraly and lateraly and by vertebral column dorsally. Lower ribs can also enclose ventral and lateral walls. Abdominal cavity is continuous with pelvic cavity. It is separated from thoracic cavity by diaphragm. Structures such as the aorta, inferior vena cava and esophagus pass through the diaphragm. Both abdominal cavity and pelvic cavity are lined by a serous membrane known as parietal peritoneum. This membrane is continuous with visceral peritoneum lining the organs[3]. Abdomen in vertebrates contains a number of organs belonging for instance to digestive tract and urinary system. In zootomy, several terms are used to describe the location of organs and other structures in the body of bilateral animals. ... The term lateral can refer to: an anatomical definition of direction. ... The vertebral column seen from the side Different regions (curvatures) of the vertebral column The vertebral column (backbone or spine) is a column of vertebrae situated in the dorsal aspect of the abdomen. ... The thoracic cavity is the chamber of the human body (and other animal bodies) that is enclosed by the ribcage and the diaphragm. ... Look up diaphragm in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The aorta (generally pronounced [eɪˈɔːtə] or ay-orta) is the largest artery in the human body, originating from the left ventricle of the heart and bringing oxygenated blood to all parts of the body in the systemic circulation. ... The superior and inferior venae cavae are the veins that return the blood from the body into the heart. ... The esophagus or oesophagus (see American and British English spelling differences), sometimes known as the gullet, is an organ in vertebrates which consists of a muscular tube through which food passes from the pharynx to the stomach. ... In higher vertebrates, the peritoneum is the membrane that forms the lining of the abdominal cavity - it covers most of the intra-abdominal organs. ... In higher vertebrates, the peritoneum is the membrane that forms the lining of the abdominal cavity - it covers most of the intra-abdominal organs. ... This article is about the biological unit. ... For the Physics term GUT, please refer to Grand unification theory The gastrointestinal or digestive tract, also referred to as the GI tract or the alimentary canal or the gut, is the system of organs within multicellular animals which takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and... The urinary system is the organ system that produces, stores, and eliminates urine. ...


Abdominal organs

Abdominal organs can be highly specialized in some animals. For example the stomach of ruminants (a suborder of mammals) is divided into four chambers - rumen, reticulum, omasum and abomasum.[4] In anatomy, the stomach is a bean-shaped hollow muscular organ of the gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication. ... In biology the small intestine is the part of the gastrointestinal tract (gut) between the stomach and the large intestine and includes the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. ... The large intestine, an organ which is now more commonly referred to by its Greek name, the colon, is the last part of the digestive system: the final stage of the alimentary canal in vertebrate animals. ... The cecum or caecum (from the Latin caecus meaning blind) is a pouch connected to the ascending colon of the large intestine and the ileum. ... In human anatomy, the vermiform appendix (or appendix, pl. ... The liver is the largest internal organ in the human body, and is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ... The gallbladder (or cholecyst, sometimes gall bladder) is a pear-shaped organ that can accomodate up to 60 ml of bile (or gall) until the body needs it for digestion. ... The pancreas is a gland organ in the digestive and endocrine systems of vertebrates. ... The kidneys are the organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... Transverse section of ureter. ... The spleen is an organ located in the abdomen, where it functions in the destruction of old red blood cells and holding a reservoir of blood. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Ruminantia. ... Scientific classification or biological classification refers to how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... The rumen, also known as the fardingbag or paunch forms the larger part of the reticulorumen, which is the first chamber in the alimentary canal of ruminant animals. ... Reticulum (Latin for reticle), is one of the minor southern (declination -60 degrees) constellations. ... The omasum, also known as the manyplies, is the third compartment of the stomach in ruminants. ... The abomasum is the fourth and final stomach compartment of the stomach in ruminants. ...


Invertebrates

In the worker ant, the abdomen consists of the propodeum fused to the thorax and the metasoma, itself divided into the narrow petiole and bulbous gaster.
In the worker ant, the abdomen consists of the propodeum fused to the thorax and the metasoma, itself divided into the narrow petiole and bulbous gaster.

The invertebrate abdomen is built up of a series of concave upper plates known as tergites and convex lower plates known as sternites, the whole being held together by a tough yet stretchable membrane. The propodeum is the first abdominal segment in Apocrita Hymenoptera (wasps, bees and ants). ... Diagram of a tsetse fly, showing the head, thorax and abdomen The thorax is a division of an animals body that lies between the head and the abdomen. ... Scorpion anatomy: 1 = Prosoma; 2 = Mesosoma; 3 = Metasoma The metasoma is clearly visible on this ant: it is the posterior section, including the petiole The metasoma is the posterior part of the body, or tagma, of arthropods whose body is composed of three parts, the other two being the prosoma... The petiole of this ant consists of two segments In entomology, the term petiole is most commonly used to refer to the constricted first (and sometimes second) metasomal segment of members of the Hymenopteran suborder Apocrita; it may be used to refer to other insects with similar body shapes, where... Theodor Herzl Gaster (1906 - 1992) was an American Biblical scholar known for work on comparative religion, mythology and the history of religions. ... A tergum (pl. ... The sternum (pl. ...


The abdomen contains the insect's digestive tract and reproductive organs, it consists of eleven segments in most orders of insects though the eleventh segment is absent in the adult of most higher orders. The number of these segments does vary from species to species with the number of segments visible reduced to only seven in the common honeybee. In the Collembola (Springtails) the abdomen has only six segments. Species Apis andreniformis Apis cerana, or eastern honey bee Apis dorsata, or giant honey bee Apis florea Apis koschevnikovi Apis laboriosa Apis mellifera, or western honey bee Apis nigrocincta Apis nuluensis Honey bees are a subset of bees which represent a far smaller fraction of bee diversity than most people... Families Suborder Arthropleona   Superfamily Entomobryoidea    Entomobryidae - slender springtails    Isotomidae - smooth springtails    Oncopoduridae    Paronellidae    Tomoceridae   Superfamily Poduroidea    Brachystomellidae    Hypogastruridae - elongate-bodied springtails    Neanuridae    Odontellidae    Onychiuridae - blind springtails    Poduridae - water springtails Suborder Symphypleona    Dicyrtomidae    Katiannidae    Sminthuridae - globular springtails    Sminthurididae    Bourletiellidae    Arrhopalitidae Springtails (Order Collembola) form the largest of the three orders of...


The abdomen is sometimes highly modified. In ants, the first segment of the abdomen is fused to the thorax and called the propodeum. The second segment forms the narrow petiole. Some ants have an additional postpetiole segment, and the remaining segments form the bulbous gaster.[1] The petiole and gaster (abdominal segments 2 and onward) are collectively called the metasoma. For other uses, see Ant (disambiguation). ... Diagram of a tsetse fly, showing the head, thorax and abdomen The thorax is a division of an animals body that lies between the head and the abdomen. ... The propodeum is the first abdominal segment in Apocrita Hymenoptera (wasps, bees and ants). ... The petiole of this ant consists of two segments In entomology, the term petiole is most commonly used to refer to the constricted first (and sometimes second) metasomal segment of members of the Hymenopteran suborder Apocrita; it may be used to refer to other insects with similar body shapes, where... Theodor Herzl Gaster (1906 - 1992) was an American Biblical scholar known for work on comparative religion, mythology and the history of religions. ... Scorpion anatomy: 1 = Prosoma; 2 = Mesosoma; 3 = Metasoma The metasoma is clearly visible on this ant: it is the posterior section, including the petiole The metasoma is the posterior part of the body, or tagma, of arthropods whose body is composed of three parts, the other two being the prosoma...


Unlike other Arthropods, insects possess no legs on the abdomen in adult form, though the Protura do have rudimentary leg-like appendages on the first three abdominal segments, and Archaeognatha possess small, articulated "styli" which are sometimes considered to be rudimentary appendages. Many larval insects including the Lepidoptera and the Symphyta (Sawflies) have fleshy appendages called prolegs on their abdominal segments (as well as their more familiar thoracic legs), which allow them to grip onto the edges of plant leaves as they walk around. Families [1] Acerentomata Hesperentomidae Protentomidae Acerentomidae Eosentomata Antelientomidae Eosentomidae Sinentomata Sinentomidae The Protura, or proturans, are an order of hexapods previously treated as insects, and sometimes treated as a class [2]. They are very small (<2 mm long) soil-dwelling animals and are unique among arthropods for showing anamorphic development... Families Machilidae Meinertellidae The Archaeognatha are known as the bristletails, so named because of their three-pronged tails. ... Subdivisions See Taxonomy of Lepidoptera and Lepidopteran diversity. ... Families (Cephoidea)   Cephidae-stem sawflies (Megalodontoidea)   Megalodontidae   Pamphilidae-leaf-rolling      & web-spinning sawflies (Orussoidea)   Orussidae-parasitic wood wasps (Siricoidea)   Siricidae- horntails (Tenthredinoidea)   Argidae-argid sawflies   Blasticotomidae   Cimbicidae-cimbicid sawflies   Diprionidae-conifer sawflies   Pergidae-pergid sawflies   Tenthredinidae-common sawflies (Xyeloidea)   Anaxyelidae-cedar sawflies   Xyelidae-xyelid sawflies   Xiphydriidae-wood wasps Symphyta is... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


See also

The human abdomen (from the Latin word meaning belly) is the part of the body between the pelvis and the thorax. ... The opisthosoma is the posterior portion of the arachnids body behind the prosoma. ... Scorpion anatomy: 1 = Prosoma; 2 = Mesosoma; 3 = Metasoma The metasoma is clearly visible on this ant: it is the posterior section, including the petiole The metasoma is the posterior part of the body, or tagma, of arthropods whose body is composed of three parts, the other two being the prosoma...

References

  1. ^ Abdomen. (n.d.). Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1). URL: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/abdomen [Accessed: 22 Oct 2007]
  2. ^ Abdomen. Dictionary.com. The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition. URL: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/abdomen [Accessed: 22 October 2007].
  3. ^ Peritoneum. The Veterinary Dictionary. Elsevier, 2007. http://www.answers.com/topic/peritoneum [Accessed: 22 Oct 2007)
  4. ^ "Ruminant." The Veterinary Dictionary. Elsevier, 2007. http://www.answers.com/topic/ruminant [Accessed: 22 Oct 2007].

  Results from FactBites:
 
Abdomen - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (420 words)
In fully developed insects, the abdomen is the third (or posterior) segment, after the head and thorax.
The abdomen also contains some of the largest and most easily accessible blood vessels in many animals, and is often used in medicine and experimentation for catheterisation.
The invertebrate abdomen is built up of a series of concave upper plates known as 'tergites' and convex lower plates known as 'sternites', the whole being held together by a tough yet stretchable membrane.
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