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Encyclopedia > Abdication
Look up abdication in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Abdication (from the Latin abdicatio, disowning, renouncing, from ab, from, and dicare, to declare, to proclaim as not belonging to one) is the act of renouncing and resigning from a formal office, especially from the supreme office of state. (In Roman law the term was also applied to the disowning of a family member, as the disinheriting of a son.) A similar term for an elected or appointed official is resignation. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary is a Wikimedia Foundation project intended to be a free wiki dictionary (hence: Wiktionary) (including thesaurus and lexicon) in every language. ... It has been suggested that History of the Latin language be merged into this article or section. ... A state is an organized political community, occupying a territory, and possessing internal and external sovereignty, that enforces a monopoly on the use of force. ... Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome. ... A resignation occurs when a person holding a position gained by election or appointment steps down. ...

Contents


Abdications in Classical Antiquity

Among the most memorable abdications of antiquity were those of Lucius Cornelius Sulla the Dictator in 79 BC, Emperor Diocletian in AD 305, and Emperor Romulus Augustus in AD 476. Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (Latin: L·CORNELIVS·L·F·P·N·SVLLA·FELIX) ¹ (ca. ... Dictator was a political office of the Roman Republic. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC - 70s BC - 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC Years: 84 BC 83 BC 82 BC 81 BC 80 BC - 79 BC - 78 BC 77 BC 76... Roman Emperor is the term historians use to refer to rulers of the Roman Empire, after the epoch conventionally named the Roman Republic. ... Emperor Diocletian. ... Events May 1 - Diocletian and Maximian, emperors of Rome, retire from office. ... Tremissis of Romulus Augustus. ... Events August - The usurper Basiliscus is deposed and Zeno is restored as Eastern Roman Emperor. ...


The British Crown

Probably the most famous abdication in recent memory is that of King Edward VIII of the United Kingdom in 1936. Edward abdicated the British throne in order to marry American divorcée Wallis Simpson, over the objections of the British establishment, the governments of the Commonwealth, the royal family and the Church of England. (See Abdication Crisis of Edward VIII.) This was also the first time in history that the British crown was surrendered entirely voluntarily. Richard II of England, for example, was forced to abdicate after the throne was seized by his cousin, Henry Bolingbroke, while Richard was out of the country. Edward VIII (Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David Windsor), later The Prince Edward, Duke of Windsor (23 June 1894 – 28 May 1972), was the second British monarch of the House of Windsor. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Wallis, Duchess of Windsor and the Duke of Windsor on their wedding day Bessie Wallis Warfield, more widely known as Wallis Simpson and later The Duchess of Windsor (June 19, 1896–April 24, 1986) was the wife of Prince Edward, Duke of Windsor, the former King Edward VIII of the... The English noun Commonwealth dates originally from the fifteenth century. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... The Instrument of Abdication signed by Edward VIII Like King Henry VIII of England, whose wish to marry Anne Boleyn in the 1530s shook his kingdom, King Edward VIII created a crisis for the United Kingdom and the British Commonwealth in the 1930s when he wished to marry Wallis Simpson. ... Richard II (January 6, 1367 – February 14, 1400) was the son of Edward the Black Prince, Prince of Wales, and Joan The Fair Maid of Kent. He was born at Bordeaux and became his fathers heir when his elder brother died in infancy. ...


When James II of England, after throwing the Great Seal of the Realm into the Thames, fled to France in 1688, he did not formally resign the crown, and the question was discussed in Parliament whether he had forfeited the throne or had abdicated. The latter designation was agreed upon, for in a full assembly of the Lords and Commons, met in convention, it was resolved in spite of James's protest "that King James II having endeavoured to subvert the constitution of the kingdom, by breaking the original contract between king and people, and, by the advice of Jesuits and other wicked persons, having violated the fundamental laws, and having withdrawn himself out of this kingdom, has abdicated the government, and that the throne is thereby vacant." The Scottish parliament pronounced a decree of forfeiture and deposition. James II of England and VII of Scotland (14 October 1633–16 September 1701) became King of England, King of Scots, and King of Ireland from 6 February 1685. ... The Great Seal of the Realm is a British institution by which the monarch can authorise official documents without having to sign each document individually. ... Several places exist with the name Thames, and the word is also used as part of several brand and company names Most famous is the River Thames in England, on which the city of London stands Other Thames Rivers There is a Thames River in Canada There is a Thames... // Events A high-powered conspiracy of notables, the Immortal Seven, invite William and Mary to depose James II of England. ... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... The parliament of Scotland, officially the Estates of Parliament, was the legislature of the independent Kingdom of Scotland. ... Search and seizure is a legal tool whereby police who suspect that a crime has been committed may do a search of the property. ... Deposition is a word used in many fields to describe different processes: In law, deposition is the taking of testimony outside of court. ...


Because the title to the Crown depends upon statute, particularly the Act of Settlement 1701, a Royal Abdication can only be effected by an Act of Parliament. To give legal effect to the abdication of King Edward VIII of the United Kingdom, His Majesty's Declaration of Abdication Act 1936 was passed. A statute is a formal, written law of a country or state, written and enacted by its legislative authority, perhaps to then be ratified by the highest executive in the government, and finally published. ... The Electress Sophia The Act of Settlement (12 & 13 Wm 3 c. ... In Westminster System parliaments, an Act of Parliament is a part of the law passed by the Parliament. ... Edward VIII (Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David Windsor), later The Prince Edward, Duke of Windsor (23 June 1894 – 28 May 1972), was the second British monarch of the House of Windsor. ... His Majestys Declaration of Abdication Act 1936 was the Act of the British Parliament that allowed King Edward VIII to abdicate the throne, and passed succession to Prince Albert, Duke of York. ...


Modern abdications

Historically, if a monarch abdicated it was seen as a profound and shocking abandonment of royal duty. As a result, abdications usually only occurred in the most extreme circumstances of political turmoil or violence. This has changed in a small number of countries: the monarchs of the Netherlands, Luxembourg and Cambodia have abdicated as a result of old age. Prince Hans-Adam II of Liechtenstein recently made his son regent, an act which amounted to an abdication in fact if not in law. His Serene Highness Hans-Adam II (Johannes Hans Adam Ferdinand Aloys Josef Maria Marko dAviano Pius), styled HSH The Sovereign Prince of Liechtenstein (born February 14, 1945), is the son of Franz Josef II of Liechtenstein (1906-1989) and his wife Gina von Wilczek (1921-1989). ... // High public office A regent, from the Latin regens who reigns is anyone who acts as head of state, especially if not the monarch (who has higher titles). ...


List

The following is a list of important abdications:

Lucius Cornelius Sulla 79 BC
Diocletian AD 305
Pope Benedict IX 1048
Isaac I Comnenus 1059
Emperor Huizong of Song China January 18, 1126
Stephen II of Hungary 1131
Albert I of Brandenburg 1169
Ladislaus III of Poland 1206
Pope Celestine V December 13, 1294
John Baliol of Scotland 1296
John Cantacuzene, emperor of the East 1355
Richard II of England September 29, 1399
Baldassare Cossa, Antipope John XXIII 1415
Eric VII of Denmark or Erik XIII of Sweden 1439
Amadeus VIII of Savoy 1440
Murad II, Ottoman Sultan 1444 and 1445
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor 1 1555-1556
Christina of Sweden June 6, 1654
Mary Queen of Scots July 24, 1567
John Casimir of Poland 1668
James II of England 1688
Frederick Augustus of Poland 1706
Philip V of Spain 1724
Victor Amadeus of Sardinia 1730
Ahmed III, Ottoman Sultan 1730
Charles of Naples (on accession to throne of Spain) 1759
Stanislaus II of Poland 1795
Qianlong Emperor of China February 9, 1796
Charles Emanuel IV of Sardinia June 4, 1802
Charles IV of Spain March 19, 1808
Joseph Bonaparte of Naples June 6, 1808
Gustav IV of Sweden March 29, 1809
Louis Bonaparte of Holland July 2, 1810
Napoleon I, French Emperor April 4, 1814, and June 22, 1815
Victor Emanuel of Sardinia March 13, 1821
Charles X of France August 2, 1830
Pedro IV of Portugal 2 May 28, 1826
Pedro I of Brazil 2 April 7, 1831
Miguel of Portugal May 26, 1834
William I of the Netherlands October 7, 1840
Louis Philippe, King of the French February 24, 1848
Louis Charles of Bavaria March 21, 1848
Ferdinand of Austria December 2, 1848
Charles Albert of Sardinia March 23, 1849
Leopold II of Tuscany July 21, 1859
Isabella II of Spain June 25, 1870
Amadeus I of Spain February 11, 1873
Alexander of Bulgaria September 7, 1886
Milan of Serbia March 6, 1889
Lili'uokalani of Hawai'i January 17, 1893 (monarchy abolished)
Xuantong Emperor of China February 12, 1912 (monarchy abolished)
Nicholas II of Russia March 15, 1917 (monarchy abolished)
Wilhelm II of Germany November 9, 1918 (monarchy abolished)
Prajadhipok of Siam March 2, 1935
Edward VIII of the United Kingdom December 11, 1936
Carol II of Romania September 6, 1940
Victor Emmanuel III of Italy May 9, 1946
Wilhelmina of the Netherlands September 4, 1948
Léopold III, King of the Belgians July 16, 1951
Farouk I of Egypt July 26, 1952
Talal of Jordan August 11, 1952
Fuad II of Egypt June 18, 1953 (Monarchy abolished)
Juliana of the Netherlands April 30, 1980
Jean of Luxembourg October 7, 2000
Hans-Adam II of Liechtenstein3 August 15, 2004 (Made his son regent)
Norodom Sihanouk of Cambodia October 7, 2004
Saad Al-Abdullah Al-Salim Al-Sabah of Kuwait January 23, 2006

Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (Latin: L·CORNELIVS·L·F·P·N·SVLLA·FELIX) ¹ (ca. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC - 70s BC - 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC Years: 84 BC 83 BC 82 BC 81 BC 80 BC - 79 BC - 78 BC 77 BC 76... Emperor Diocletian. ... Events May 1 - Diocletian and Maximian, emperors of Rome, retire from office. ... Benedict IX, né Theophylactus (Rome, c. ... Isaac coin. ... Emperor Huizong (November 2, 1082 – June 4, 1135) was the eighth and one of the most famous emperors of the Song Dynasty of China, with a personal life spent amidst luxury, sophistication, and art, and ending in tragedy. ... January 18 is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Rutherglen becomes one of the first Royal Burghs in Scotland. ... Stephen II (Hungarian: , Slovak: Å tefan II) (1101 – March 1, 1131) was a King of Hungary of the Arpad dynasty from 1116 until his death. ... Albert I (c. ... ... Saint Celestine V, né Pietro Angelerio (according to some sources Angelario or Angelieri or Angelliero or Angeleri), also known as Pietro del Morrone (1215 – May 19, 1296) was Pope in the year 1294. ... December 13 is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For broader historical context, see 1290s and 13th century. ... John Balliol, the son of Devorguilla Balliol and John, 5th Baron de Balliol, was the king of Scotland from November 17, 1292-1296. ... John VI Cantacuzenus (c. ... Richard II (January 6, 1367 – February 14, 1400) was the son of Edward the Black Prince, Prince of Wales, and Joan The Fair Maid of Kent. He was born at Bordeaux and became his fathers heir when his elder brother died in infancy. ... September 29 is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years). ... Events September 30 - Accession of Henry IV of England October 13 - Coronation of Henry IV of England November 1 - Accession of John VI, Duke of Brittany Births William Canynge, English merchant (approximate date; died 1474) Zara Yaqob, Emperor of Ethiopia (died 1468) Deaths January 4 - Nicolau Aymerich, Catalan theologian and... Antipope John XXIII Antipope John XXIII, antipope of the Pisan party (1410–1415), (about 1370 – November 22, 1419), was born as Baldassare Cossa. ... Eric of Pomerania, Erik af Pommern (Danish title), Erik av Pommern (Erik III) (Norwegian title) or Erik av Pommern (Eric XIII) (Swedish title), was adopted by Margaret I of Denmark and became king of Norway (1389-1442), of Denmark (1412-1439), and of Sweden and the Kalmar Union (1396-1439). ... Antipope Felix V, the last historical Antipope. ... Murad II Murad II (1404 – February 3, 1451) (Arabic: مراد الثاني) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1421 to 1451 (except for a period from 1444 to 1446). ... It has been suggested that Lifestyle of the Ottoman Empire be merged into this article or section. ... Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Aragon and Castile. ... Events January 16 - Abdication of Emperor Charles V. His son, Philip II becomes King of Spain, while his brother Ferdinand becomes Holy Roman Emperor January 23 - The Shaanxi earthquake, the deadliest earthquake in history, occurs with its epicenter in Shaanxi province, China. ... Christina (Kristina) (December 8, 1626 – April 19, 1689), later known as Maria Christina Alexandra and sometimes Count Dohna, was Queen regnant of Sweden from 1632 to 1654. ... June 6 is the 157th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (158th in leap years), with 208 days remaining. ... Events April 5 - Signing of the Treaty of Westminster, ending the First Anglo-Dutch War. ... Mary I of Scotland (Mary Stuart) (December 8, 1542 – February 8, 1587), better known as Mary, Queen of Scots, was Queen of Scots, monarch of the Kingdom of Scotland from December 14, 1542 to July 24, 1567, and Queen Consort of France from July 10, 1559 to December 5, 1560. ... July 24 is the 205th day (206th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 160 days remaining. ... Events The Duke of Alva arrives in the Netherlands with Spanish forces to suppress unrest there. ... Reign From November, 1648 until September 16, 1668 Elected In November 1648 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Coronation On January 19, 1649 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Royal House Vasa Parents Zygmunt III Waza Anna Austriaczka Consorts Ludwika Maria Children with Ludwika Maria Maria Anna Teresa... James II of England and VII of Scotland (14 October 1633–16 September 1701) became King of England, King of Scots, and King of Ireland from 6 February 1685. ... ... King Philip V of Spain (December 19, 1683 – July 9, 1746) or Philippe of Anjou was king of Spain from 1700 to 1746, the first of the Bourbon dynasty in Spain. ... Victor Amadeus II (b. ... Sardinia [[]] (Sardegna in Italian, Sardigna, Sardinna or Sardinnia in the Sardinian language, is the second largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (Sicily is the largest), between Italy, Spain and Tunisia, south of Corsica. ... For other persons named Stanisław Poniatowski, see Stanisław Poniatowski. ... The Qianlong Emperor (September 25, 1711–February 7, 1799) was the fifth emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and the fourth Qing emperor to rule over China. ... February 9 is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1796 was a leap year starting on Friday. ... Charles Emmanuel IV, King of Sardinia from 1796 to 1802. ... Sardinia [[]] (Sardegna in Italian, Sardigna, Sardinna or Sardinnia in the Sardinian language, is the second largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (Sicily is the largest), between Italy, Spain and Tunisia, south of Corsica. ... June 4 is the 155th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (156th in leap years), with 210 days remaining. ... --69. ... Charles IV (November 11, 1748 - January 20, 1819) was King of Spain from December 14, 1788 until his abdication on March 19, 1808. ... March 19 is the 78th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (79th in leap years). ... 1808 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... June 6 is the 157th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (158th in leap years), with 208 days remaining. ... 1808 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Gustav IV Adolf (1778-1837), king of Sweden, of the house Holstein-Gottorp, was the son of Gustav III of Sweden and Sophia Magdalena of Denmark, and born at Stockholm on November 1, 1778. ... March 29 is the 88th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (89th in Leap years). ... 1809 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The Kingdom of Holland 1806 - 1810 (Koninkrijk Holland in Dutch, Royaume dHollande in French) was set up by Napoleon Bonaparte as a puppet kingdom for his third brother, Louis Bonaparte, in order to better control the Netherlands. ... July 2 is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 182 days remaining. ... 1810 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Napoleon I of France, by Jacques-Louis David. ... April 4 is the 94th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (95th in leap years). ... 1814 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 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August 2 is the 214th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (215th in leap years), with 151 days remaining. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Pedro I, Emperor of Brazil; Pedro IV of Portugal Pedro I of Brazil, known as Dom Pedro (October 12, 1798 - September 24, 1834), proclaimed Brazil independent from Portugal and became Brazils first Emperor. ... May 28 is the 148th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (149th in leap years). ... The oldest surviving photograph, Nicéphore Niépce, circa 1826 1826 (MDCCCXXVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Pedro I, Emperor of Brazil; Pedro IV of Portugal Pedro I of Brazil, known as Dom Pedro (October 12, 1798 - September 24, 1834), proclaimed Brazil independent from Portugal and became Brazils first Emperor. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Leopold I 1831 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Miguel of Portugal (English: Michael), the Traditionalist (Port. ... May 26 is the 146th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (147th in leap years). ... 1834 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... King William I of the Netherlands was born as Willem Frederik on 25 August 1772 in The Hague, and died December 12, 1843 in Berlin, Germany. ... October 7 is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years). ... 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Louis-Philippe of France (October 6, 1773–August 26, 1850) reigned as the Orléanist king of the French from 1830 to 1848. ... February 24 is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1848 is a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... King Louis I of Bavaria. ... March 21 is the 80th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (81st in leap years). ... 1848 is a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Emperor Ferdinand Ferdinand I Karl Leopold Joseph Franz Marchlin Emperor of Austria King of Hungary and Bohemia (April 19, 1793 – June 29, 1875) succeeded his father (Franz II Holy Roman Emperor/Franz I of Austria) as Emperor and King in 1835 and was forced to abdicate in 1848. ... December 2 is the 336th day (337th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1848 is a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Charles Albert (October 2, 1798_July 28, 1849) was the Duke of Savoy, Piedmont, Aosta and King of Sardinia from 1831 to 1849. ... Sardinia [[]] (Sardegna in Italian, Sardigna, Sardinna or Sardinnia in the Sardinian language, is the second largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (Sicily is the largest), between Italy, Spain and Tunisia, south of Corsica. ... March 23 is the 82nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (83rd in Leap years). ... 1849 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Tuscany (Italian Toscana) is a region in central Italy, bordering on Latium to the south, Umbria and Marche to the east, Emilia-Romagna and Liguria to the north, and the Tyrrhenian Sea to the west. ... July 21 is the 202nd day (203rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 163 days remaining. ... 1859 (MDCCCLIX) is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ... Isabella II (October 10, 1830 – April 10, 1904), Isabel II in Spanish, was queen of Spain. ... June 25 is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 189 days remaining. ... 1870 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Amadeo I (sometimes Latinized to Amadeus) (May 30, 1845 - January 18, 1890), Duke of Aosta and King of Spain, was born in Turin, Italy. ... February 11 is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1873 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calaber). ... Alexander Joseph of Battenburg (April 5, 1857 - November 17, 1893), the first prince of modern Bulgaria, reigned from April 29, 1879 to September 7, 1886). ... September 7 is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years). ... 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) is a common year starting on Friday (click on link to calendar) // Events January 18 - Modern field hockey is born with the formation of The Hockey Association in England. ... Milan I, born Milan Obrenovich IV, (August 22, 1854 – February 11, 1901), was the king of Serbia from 1882 to 1889. ... March 6 is the 65th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (66th in Leap years). ... 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Her Majesty Liliuokalani, Queen of Hawaii Queen Liliuokalani of Hawaii (September 2, 1838 – November 11, 1917), originally named Lydia Kamakaeha, also known as Lydia Kamakaeha Paki, with the chosen royal name of Liliuokalani, and later named Lydia K. Dominis, was the last monarch of the Kingdom of Hawaii. ... January 17 is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Aisin-Gioro Puyi¹ (February 7, 1906 - October 17, 1967) was the Xuantong Emperor (宣統皇帝) of China between 1908 and 1924 (ruling emperor between 1908 and 1912, and non-ruling emperor between 1912 and 1924), the tenth (and last) emperor of the Manchu Qing Dynasty to rule over China. ... February 12 is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Nicholas II of Russia (18 May 1868 - 17 July 1918) (in Russian Николай II (Nikolai II)) was the last Emperor of Russia, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Finland. ... March 15 is the 74th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (75th in Leap years). ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... German Emperor Wilhelm (born Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albrecht, Prince of Prussia 27 January 1859–4 June 1941), was the last German Emperor and King of Prussia (de: Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen), ruling from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918. ... November 9 is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 52 days remaining. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... His Majesty King Prajadhipok (Rama VII, royal name พระปกเกล้าเจ้าอยู่หัว Phra Pokklao Chaoyuhua) (November 8, 1893 - May 30, 1941) was the seventh king of the Chakri dynasty. ... March 2 is the 61st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (62nd in leap years). ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Edward VIII (Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David Windsor), later The Prince Edward, Duke of Windsor (23 June 1894 – 28 May 1972), was the second British monarch of the House of Windsor. ... December 11 is the 345th day (346th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Carol II of Romania, (15 October 1893 – 4 April 1953) reigned as King of Romania from June 8, 1930 until September 6, 1940. ... This article is about the day of the year. ... 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ... Victor Emmanuel III of Italy , Vittorio Emanuele III in Italian (11 November 1869 – 28 December 1947), was the King of Italy (29 July 1900 – 9 May 1946), Emperor of Ethiopia (1936 - 1943) and King of Albania (1939 - 1943). ... May 9 is the 129th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (130th in leap years). ... 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... For other uses, see Wilhelmina (disambiguation). ... September 4 is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years). ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... Léopold III, Léopold Philippe Charles Albert Meinrad Hubertus Marie Miguel (November 3, 1901 – September 25, 1983) reigned as King of the Belgians from 1934 until 1951, when he abdicated in favour of his Heir Apparent, his son Baudouin. ... July 16 is the 197th day (198th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 168 days remaining. ... 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... King Farouk of Egypt (February 11, 1920 - March 18, 1965) was the penultimate King of Egypt, succeeding his father Fuad I in 1936. ... July 26 is the 207th day (208th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 158 days remaining. ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... King Talal bin Abdullah (February 26, 1909 – July 7, 1972) was King of Jordan from July 20, 1951 until forced to abdicate due to health reasons (he suffered from schizophrenia) on August 11, 1952. ... August 11 is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... King Fuad II of Egypt and the Sudan (Ahmed Fuad) (Arabic: الملك أحمد فؤاد الثاني) was born on 16 January 1952. ... June 18 is the 169th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (170th in leap years), with 196 days remaining. ... 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link is to a full 1953 calendar). ... Juliana Queen of the Netherlands Queen Juliana of the Netherlands (Juliana Emma Louise Wilhelmina van Oranje-Nassau) (April 30, 1909 – March 20, 2004), Princess of Orange-Nassau, Duchess of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Princess of Lippe-Biesterfeld, was Queen of the Netherlands from her mothers abdication in 1948 to her own... April 30 is the 120th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (121st in leap years), with 245 days remaining, as the last day in April. ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... His Royal Highness Jean, Grand Duke of Luxembourg, Jean Benoit Guillaume Robert Antoine Louis Marie Adolphe Marc dAviano (born on January 5, 1921) ruled Luxembourg from 1964 to 2000. ... October 7 is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years). ... This article is about the year 2000. ... His Serene Highness Hans-Adam II (Johannes Hans Adam Ferdinand Aloys Josef Maria Marko dAviano Pius), styled HSH The Sovereign Prince of Liechtenstein (born February 14, 1945), is the son of Franz Josef II of Liechtenstein (1906-1989) and his wife Gina von Wilczek (1921-1989). ... August 15 is the 227th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (228th in leap years), with 138 days remaining. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Time in office: Apr. ... October 7 is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years). ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sheikh Saad Al-Abdullah Al-Salim Al-Sabah (Arabic: سعد العبد الله السالم الصباح SaÊ¿d al-Ê¿Abd Allāh as-Sālim as-Sabāh), born 1930, was the Emir of Kuwait during a short reign of ten days from January 15 to January 24, 2006, succeeding the late Sheikh Jaber. ... January 23 is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Notes

1Charles abdicated as lord of the Netherlands (October 25, 1555) and king of Spain (January 16, 1556), in favor of his son Philip II of Spain. Also in 1556 he separately voluntarily abdicated his German possessions and the title of Holy Roman Emperor.
2Pedro IV of Portugal and Pedro I of Brazil were the same person. He was already Emperor of Brazil when he succeeded to the throne of Portugal in 1826, but abdicated it at once in favour of his daughter Maria II of Portugal. Later he abdicated the throne of Brazil in favor of his son Pedro II.
3Hans-Adam II made his son Alois regent, effectively abdicating; however, he still remains the formal Head of State. October 25 is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 67 days remaining. ... Events Russia breaks 60 year old truce with Sweden by attacking Finland February 2 - Diet of Augsburg begins February 4 - John Rogers becomes first Protestant martyr in England February 9 - Bishop of Gloucester John Hooper is burned at the stake May 23 - Paul IV becomes Pope. ... January 16 is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 16 - Abdication of Emperor Charles V. His son, Philip II becomes King of Spain, while his brother Ferdinand becomes Holy Roman Emperor January 23 - The Shaanxi earthquake, the deadliest earthquake in history, occurs with its epicenter in Shaanxi province, China. ... This article or section is missing needed references or citation of sources. ... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... Maria II da Glória, (pron. ... Emperor Pedro II in full regalia, in the opening of the annual session of the Brazilian Imperial Parliament (General Assembly), 1873 Dom Pedro IIs family Dom Pedro II of Brazil Dom Pedro II (pron. ... HSH Hereditary Prince Alois of Liechtenstein His Serene Highness Hereditary Prince Alois Philipp Maria von und zu Liechtenstein (born 11 June 1968) has been Regent of Liechtenstein (Stellvertreter des Fürsten) since 15 August 2004. ...


See also

Wikisource has an original article from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica about:

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikisource – The Free Library – is a Wikimedia project to build a free, wiki library of source texts, along with translations into any language and other supporting materials. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... These are lists of incumbents, i. ... The following monarchs either lost their thrones through deposition by a coup détat, by a referendum which abolished their throne, or chose to abdicate during the 20th century. ... Papal abdication occurs in the Roman Catholic Church when the Pope resigns his office. ... The Great Abdication Term used for the abdication of Edward VIII in 1936, forced to choose between the throne and Wallis Simpson, a divorcee he wished to marry A time when, according to the Christian faith, Jesus will come to rule the earth but will relinquish his power in favour...

References

  • Public domain 1911 edition of The New Century Book of Facts published by the King-Richardson Company, Springfield, Massachusetts.

 
 

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