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Encyclopedia > Abbasid Caliphate
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Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid (Arabic هارون الرشيد also spelled Harun ar-Rashid, Haroun al-Rashid or Haroon al Rasheed; English: Aaron the Upright; ca. 763–809) was the fifth and most famous Abbasid Caliph. Ruling from 786 until 809, his reign... Harun al-Rashid

Abbasid was the dynastic name generally given to the An Anglicized/Latinized version of the Arabic word خليفة or Khalīfah, Caliph ( This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons. Please see its description page there. To play the audio file do not click on the -image. Look for a Listen-link near this... caliphs of A street map of Baghdad Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq and the Baghdad Province. It is the second largest city in Southwest Asia after Tehran, with the 2003 population estimated at 5,772,000. Situated on the Tigris River at 33°20 north and... Baghdad, the second of the two great This article forms part of the seriesIslam Vocabulary of Islam Five Pillars Profession of faith Prayer · Alms · Fasting Pilgrimage to Mecca Jihad (See Sixth pillar of Islam) People Muhammad Prophets of Islam Caliph · Shia Imam Companions of Muhammad Holy Cities Mecca · Medina · Jerusalem Najaf · Karbala · Kufa Kazimain · Mashhad · Samarra Events... Sunni dynasties of the This article forms part of the series This article forms part of the seriesIslam This article forms part of the seriesIslam Vocabulary of Islam Five Pillars Profession of faith Prayer · Alms · Fasting Pilgrimage to Mecca Jihad (See Sixth pillar of Islam) People Muhammad Prophets of Islam Caliph · Shia Imam Companions... Muslim empire, that overthrew the The Umayyad Dynasty (Arabic الأمويون / بنو أمية umawiyy; in Turkish, Emevi) was the first dynasty of caliphs of the Prophet Muhammad who were not closely related to Muhammad himself, though they were of the same Meccan tribe, the... Umayyid caliphs. It seized power in 758, when it finally defeated the Umayyads in battle, and flourished for two centuries, but slowly went into eclipse with the rise to power of the This is the disambiguation page for the terms Turk, Turkey, Turkic, and Turkish. Because these four terms are highly interrelated, they also refer to similar subjects, all gathered on this one disambiguation page. Contents // 1 Turk 2 Turkey 3 Turkic 4 Turkish Turk A Turk is someone from one of... Turkish army they had created, the An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (or Mameluks) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim Caliphs and the Ottoman Empire, and who on more than one occasion seized power for... Mamluks. Their claim to power was finally ended in Years: 1255 1256 1257 - 1258 - 1259 1260 1261 Decades: 1220s 1230s 1240s - 1250s - 1260s 1270s 1280s Centuries: 12th century - 13th century - 14th century 1258 state leaders Contents // 1 Events= 1.1 Births 1.2 Deaths 1.3 Monarchs/Presidents Events= February 10 - Mongols overrun Baghdad, burning it to the ground... 1258, when Hulagu Khan (also known as Hülegü, and Hulegu) (1217–8 February 1265) was a Mongol ruler who conquered much of Southwest Asia. The grandson of Genghis Khan and the brother of Arik Boke, Mongke and Kublai Khan, he became the first khan of the Ilkhanate of Persia. Hulagu... Hulagu Khan, the Honorary A guard is either a person or an organisation. It may be a person who looks after the safety of people or property, and/or make sure prisoners do not escape. It may also be a part of the military. It can also be an object, a fireguard for... Mongol general, sacked Baghdad. While they continued to claim authority in religious matters from their base in For other uses, see Egypt (disambiguation). The Arab Republic of Egypt, commonly known as Egypt, (in Arabic: مصر, romanized Mişr or Maşr, in Egyptian dialect) is a republic mostly located in northeastern Africa. Covering an area of about 1,020,000 km², it includes... Egypt, their dynasty was ended.

Contents

Revolt against the Umayyads

The Abbasid caliphs officially based their claim to the An Anglicized/Latinized version of the Arabic word خليفة or Khalīfah, Caliph ( This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons. Please see its description page there. To play the audio file do not click on the -image. Look for a Listen-link near this... Caliphate on their descent from al-Abbas ibn `Abd al-Muttalib (566 - 652) was an uncle of Muhammad. He was only born a few years before his nephew, and was one of Muahmmads fathers youngest brothers. He initially did not accept Islam, but did so later and got along well with his nephew... Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib (AD Years: 562 563 564 565 - 566 - 567 568 569 570 Decades: 530s 540s 550s - 560s - 570s 580s 590s Centuries: 5th century - 6th century - 7th century Events Births Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib, uncle of Muhammad Deaths Chen Wen Di, Chinese ruler of the Chen Dynasty Theodosius I, Patriarch of Alexandria... 566- Years: 648 649 650 651 - 652 - 653 654 655 656 Decades: 620s 630s 640s - 650s - 660s 670s 680s Centuries: 6th century - 7th century - 8th century Events Khazaria becomes an independent state (approximate date) Rodoald succeeds his father Rothari as king of the Lombards Births Clotaire III, king of the Franks... 652), one of the youngest uncles of the Prophet -1... Muhammad, by virtue of which descent they regarded themselves as the rightful heirs of the Prophet as opposed to the The Umayyad Dynasty (Arabic الأمويون / بنو أمية umawiyy; in Turkish, Emevi) was the first dynasty of caliphs of the Prophet Muhammad who were not closely related to Muhammad himself, though they were of the same Meccan tribe, the... Umayyads. The Umayyads were descended from Umayya, and were a clan separate from Muhammad's in the Quraish (sura) is also the name of a Surah in the Quran. Quraish refers to the Meccan tribe that Muhammad belonged to. Ironically, it was his own tribe that was his chief opponent for most of his life. Arab lineages allegedly originate from three groups: Perishing Arabs: These are... Quraish tribe.


The Abassids also distinguished themselves from the Umayyads by attacking their secularism, their moral character and their administration in general. The Abassids also appealed to non-Arab Muslims, known as mawali, who remained outside the kinship-based society of Arab culture and were at best second-class citizens within the Umayyad empire. Muhammad ibn 'Ali, a great-grandson of Abbas, began to campaign for the return of power to the family of the Prophet, the Hashimites, in Iran ( Persian ( Parsi پارسی ) Spoken in: Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and parts of Uzbekistan Region: Middle east Total speakers: 61.7 million Ranking: 29 Genetic classification: Indo-European  Indo-Iranian   Iranian    Western     Southwestern   ... Persia during the reign of Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz (c. 682 - 720) was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 717 to 720. Unlike previous Umayyad caliphs, he was not a hereditary successor to the former caliph, but was appointed. But he was also a cousin of the former caliph, being the son of Abd... Umar II, Muhammad ibn Ali.


During the reign of Marwan ibn Muhammad ibn Marwan or Marwan II ( Years: 684 685 686 687 - 688 - 689 690 691 692 Decades: 650s 660s 670s - 680s - 690s 700s 710s Centuries: 6th century - 7th century - 8th century Events Emperor Justinian II of the Bulgarians. King Caedwalla of Wessex abdicates the throne and goes on... Marwan II this opposition culminated in the rebellion of Ibrahim the Imam, the fourth in descent from Abbas, who, supported by the province of Khorasan (also spelled Khurasan and Khorassan; خراسان in Persian) is an area, located in eastern and northeastern Iran. The name Khorasan is Persian and is made up of parts which mean where the sun arrives from. The name was given to the eastern province of... Khorasan, achieved considerable successes, but was captured (AD Years: 743 744 745 746 - 747 - 748 749 750 751 Decades: 710s 720s 730s - 740s - 750s 760s 770s Centuries: 7th century - 8th century - 9th century This article is about the year 747 AD. For the aircraft, see Boeing 747 or 747A. Events Abu Muslim unites the Abbasid Empire against the... 747) and died in prison (as some hold, assassinated). The quarrel was taken up by his brother Abdallah, known by the name of Abu al-'Abbas Abu al-Abbas Abdullah ibn Muhammad as-Saffah أبو العباس عبد الله بن محمد السفاح (721 - 754) was the first Abbasid caliph. His dynasty ruled from 750 until 1258... as-Saffah, who, after a decisive victory on the Greater Zab river ( Years: 746 747 748 749 - 750 - 751 752 753 754 Decades: 720s 730s 740s - 750s - 760s 770s 780s Centuries: 7th century - 8th century - 9th century Events Last Umayyad caliph Marwan II (744-750) overthrown by first Abbasid caliph, Abu al-Abbas al-Saffah Categories: 750 | 750s ... 750), finally crushed the Umayyads and was proclaimed Caliph.


Consolidation and schisms

The Abassids had depended heavily on the support of Persians in their overthrow of the Umayyads. Abu al-'Abbas' successor, This article is about the Abbasid Caliph Al Mansur of Baghdad. There is also an article on the Spanish Muslim general and statesman Al Mansur. They were both known as Almanzor in the West Abu Jafar Abdullah ibn Muhammad Al Mansur (712 - 775) was the Abbasid Caliph who founded Baghdad... Mansur, moved their capital from This is about Damascus, the capital of Syria. There is also a Damascus, Maryland, a Damascus, Oregon, a Damascus, Pennsylvania, and a Damascus, Virginia. Damascus (Arabic: دمشق Dimašq, Dimašq al-Šam, al-Šam; Tiberian Hebrew דַּמֶּ... Damascus to the new city of A street map of Baghdad Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq and the Baghdad Province. It is the second largest city in Southwest Asia after Tehran, with the 2003 population estimated at 5,772,000. Situated on the Tigris River at 33°20 north and... Baghdad and welcomed non-Arab Muslims to their court. While this helped integrate Arab and Persian cultures, it alienated many of their Arab supporters, particularly the Khorosanian Arabs who had supported them in their battles against the Umayyads.

This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. See Copyright. Coins from the time of Harun al-Rashid (763–809), Abbasid Caliph File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version... Abbasid coins during reign
Abbasid coins during Harun al-Rashid (Arabic هارون الرشيد also spelled Harun ar-Rashid, Haroun al-Rashid or Haroon al Rasheed; English: Aaron the Upright; ca. 763–809) was the fifth and most famous Abbasid Caliph. Ruling from 786 until 809, his reign... Harun al-Rashid reign

These fissures in their support led to immediate problems. The Umayyads, while out of power, were not destroyed. Reestablishing themselves in Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). As the territory was slowly regained by Christians fighting from northern enclaves, in the long process known as the... Spain in Years: 752 753 754 755 - 756 - 757 758 759 760 Decades: 720s 730s 740s - 750s - 760s 770s 780s Centuries: 7th century - 8th century - 9th century Events Abd-ar-rahman I conquers Iberia and establishes a new Umayyad dynasty. Desiderius succeeds Aistulf as king of the Lombards. Vinekh succeeds Kormisosh as... 756, they not only declared a rival caliphate, but sponsored a For the terrain type see Moor Moors is used in this article to describe the medieval Muslim inhabitants of al-Andalus and the Maghreb, whose culture is often called Moorish. For other meanings look at Moors (Meaning) or Blackamoors. The name derives from the ancient Berber tribe of the Mauri... Moorish culture that was dramatically different from the fusion of Arab and Persian culture under the Abassids.


The Abassids also found themselves at odds with the This article forms part of the seriesIslam Vocabulary of Islam Five Pillars Profession of faith Prayer · Alms · Fasting Pilgrimage to Mecca Jihad (See Sixth pillar of Islam) People Muhammad Prophets of Islam Caliph · Shia Imam Companions of Muhammad Holy Cities Mecca · Medina · Jerusalem Najaf · Karbala · Kufa Kazimain · Mashhad · Samarra Events... Shia, many of whom had supported their war against the Umayyads, since the Abassids claimed legitimacy by their familial connection to Muhammed. Once in power, the Abassids embraced This article forms part of the seriesIslam Vocabulary of Islam Five Pillars Profession of faith Prayer · Alms · Fasting Pilgrimage to Mecca Jihad (See Sixth pillar of Islam) People Muhammad Prophets of Islam Caliph · Shia Imam Companions of Muhammad Holy Cities Mecca · Medina · Jerusalem Najaf · Karbala · Kufa Kazimain · Mashhad · Samarra Events... Sunni Islam and disavowed any support for Shi'a beliefs. That led to numerous conflicts, culminating in an uprising in This article forms part of the seriesIslam Vocabulary of Islam Five Pillars Profession of faith Prayer · Alms · Fasting Pilgrimage to Mecca Jihad (See Sixth pillar of Islam) People Muhammad Prophets of Islam Caliph · Shia Imam Companions of Muhammad Holy Cities Mecca · Medina · Jerusalem Najaf · Karbala · Kufa Kazimain · Mashhad · Samarra Events... Mecca in Years: 782 783 784 785 - 786 - 787 788 789 790 Decades: 750s 760s 770s - 780s - 790s 800s 810s Centuries: 7th century - 8th century - 9th century Events A council is organized in Constantinople, but disturbed by soldiers Beatus of Liebana, Spanish monk, publishes his Commentary on the Apocalypse. Births Emperor Saga... 786, followed by widespread bloodshed and the flight of many Shi'a to the (see also North Africa, Tamazgha, Arab Maghreb Union, Mashreq) The Maghreb (or Moghreb), meaning west in Arabic, is the region of the continent of Africa north of the Sahara desert and west of the Nile - specifically, the modern countries of Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and to a lesser extent Libya and... Maghreb, where the survivors established the Idrisid kingdom. Shortly thereafter The Berbers (also called Imazighen, free men, singular Amazigh) are a predominantly Muslim ethnic group indigenous to the Maghreb, speaking the Berber languages of the Afroasiatic family. There are between 14 and 25 million speakers of Berber languages in North Africa (see Berber languages#Population.) Through the centuries Berbers have... Berber Kharjites set up an independent state in North Africa in Years: 797 798 799 800 - 801 - 802 803 804 805 Decades: 770s 780s 790s - 800s - 810s 820s 830s Centuries: 8th century - 9th century - 10th century Events December 28 - Louis the Vrome occupies Barcelona. Births Deaths Categories: 801 ... 801.


At the same time the Abassids faced challenges closer to home. The The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the The Roman Empire is not the Holy Roman Empire (843-1806). Roman Empire between AD 60 and 400 with major cities. During this time only Dacia and Mesopotamia were added to the Empire but were lost before 300. The... Byzantine Empire was fighting Abassid rule in The Syrian Arab Republic is a country in the Middle East, bordering (from south to north) on Lebanon, Israel, Jordan, Iraq and Turkey. The borders with Israel and Turkey are subject to dispute, pending the resolution of outstanding conflicts over possession of the Golan Heights and the region of Iskenderun... Syria and Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... Anatolia. Former supporters of the Abassids had broken away to create a separate kingdom around Khorosan in northern Persia. Harun al-Rashid (Arabic هارون الرشيد also spelled Harun ar-Rashid, Haroun al-Rashid or Haroon al Rasheed; English: Aaron the Upright; ca. 763–809) was the fifth and most famous Abbasid Caliph. Ruling from 786 until 809, his reign... Harun al-Rashid ( Years: 782 783 784 785 - 786 - 787 788 789 790 Decades: 750s 760s 770s - 780s - 790s 800s 810s Centuries: 7th century - 8th century - 9th century Events A council is organized in Constantinople, but disturbed by soldiers Beatus of Liebana, Spanish monk, publishes his Commentary on the Apocalypse. Births Emperor Saga... 786 - Years: 805 806 807 808 - 809 - 810 811 812 813 Decades: 770s 780s 790s - 800s - 810s 820s 830s Centuries: 8th century - 9th century - 10th century Events Saga succeeds Heizei as emperor of Japan. Births Deaths March 24 - Harun al-Rashid, caliph Categories: 809 ... 809) added to these troubles by turning on the Barmakids, the Persian family that had supplied the caliphate with competent administrators, over a personal dispute.


The Mamluks

Faced with these challenges from within, the Abassids decided to create an army loyal only to their caliphate, drawn mostly from Turkish slaves, known as An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (or Mameluks) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim Caliphs and the Ottoman Empire, and who on more than one occasion seized power for... Mamluks, with some The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. They speak Slavic languages and reside chiefly in the east of that continent, but are also found in Asia. Contents // 1 Ethno-cultural subdivisions 2 The Slavic homeland debates 3 Naming and etymologies 4 Early... Slavs and Berbers participating as well. This force, created in the reign of al-Ma'mun ( Years: 809 810 811 812 - 813 - 814 815 816 817 Decades: 780s 790s 800s - 810s - 820s 830s 840s Centuries: 8th century - 9th century - 10th century Events June 22 - Byzantine Emperor Michael I is defeated in a war against the Bulgarians. July 12 - A revolt puts Leo V on the throne... 813 - Years: 829 830 831 832 - 833 - 834 835 836 837 Decades: 800s 810s 820s - 830s - 840s 850s 860s Centuries: 8th century - 9th century - 10th century Events End of the reign of caliph Mamun Nimmyo succeeds Junna as emperor of Japan Creation of Great Moravia Births Deaths Categories: 833 ... 833), and his brother and successor al-Mu'tasim ( Years: 829 830 831 832 - 833 - 834 835 836 837 Decades: 800s 810s 820s - 830s - 840s 850s 860s Centuries: 8th century - 9th century - 10th century Events End of the reign of caliph Mamun Nimmyo succeeds Junna as emperor of Japan Creation of Great Moravia Births Deaths Categories: 833 ... 833 - Years: 838 839 840 841 - 842 - 843 844 845 846 Decades: 810s 820s 830s - 840s - 850s 860s 870s Centuries: 8th century - 9th century - 10th century Events Oath of Strasbourg - alliance of Louis the German and Charles the Bald against emperor Lothar - sworn and recorded in vernacular languages. Ramiro I succeeds... 842), prevented the further distintegration of the empire.


It also, however, led to the ultimate eclipse of Abassid rule. The creation of this foreign army and al-Mu'tasim's transfer of the capital from Baghdad to The two Shiite mosques in Samarra A soldier descends a Minaret in Samarra, Iraq. Sāmarrā (سامراء) is a town in Iraq. It stands on the east bank of the Tigris in the province of Salah ad Din, 125 km north of Baghdad... Samarra created a division between the caliphate and the peoples they claimed to rule. In addition, the power of the Mamluks steadily grew until Ar-Radi (d. 940) was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 934 to 940. The seven years reign of ar-Radi, son of al-Muqtadir, was but a succession of misfortune. Praised for his piety, he became the mere tool of the chief minister of the day. The authority of... al-Radi ( Years: 930 931 932 933 - 934 - 935 936 937 938 Decades: 900s 910s 920s - 930s - 940s 950s 960s Centuries: 9th century - 10th century - 11th century Events The Goryeo army defeats Hubaekje forces in present-day Hongseong County. Births Deaths Categories: 934 ... 934 - Years: Years: 933 934 935 936 - 937 - 938 939 940 941 Decades: 900s 910s 920s - 930s - 940s 950s 960s Centuries: 9th century - 10th century - 11th century Events Athelstan wins the Battle of Brunanburh September 21 - Magdeburg is now the capital of the Holy Roman Empire, after a Diet held by... 941) was constrained to hand over most of the royal functions to Mahommed bin Raik. In the following years the The Buyid confederation existed within the Islamic empire from 945 to 1055. They were originally part of the Daylamite peoples of Gilan and Daylam in northern Iran. In pre_Islamic times they had served as mercenaries for the Sasanian kings of Iran, but were independent from their rule. They were considered... Buyids, who were Shi'ites, seized power over Baghdad, ruling central Iraq for more than a century before being overthrown by the The Seljuk Turks (Turkish: Selçuk; Arabic: سلجوق Saljūq, السلاجقة al-Salājiqa; Persian: سلجوقيان Saljūqiyān; also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq) were a major branch of... Seljuq Turks. In the same period, the Hamdanid Dynasty: Muslim Arab dynasty of northern Iraq (Al-Jazirah) and Syria (905-1004). Categories: Substubs ... Hamdanids, another Shi'ite dynasty, came to power in northern Iraq, leading to a tremendous expansion of Shi'a influence. In the process the Abassid caliphs became no more than figureheads.


Learning under the Abassid dynasty

The reigns of Harun al-Rashid (Arabic هارون الرشيد also spelled Harun ar-Rashid, Haroun al-Rashid or Haroon al Rasheed; English: Aaron the Upright; ca. 763–809) was the fifth and most famous Abbasid Caliph. Ruling from 786 until 809, his reign... Harun al-Rashid ( Years: 782 783 784 785 - 786 - 787 788 789 790 Decades: 750s 760s 770s - 780s - 790s 800s 810s Centuries: 7th century - 8th century - 9th century Events A council is organized in Constantinople, but disturbed by soldiers Beatus of Liebana, Spanish monk, publishes his Commentary on the Apocalypse. Births Emperor Saga... 786 - Years: 805 806 807 808 - 809 - 810 811 812 813 Decades: 770s 780s 790s - 800s - 810s 820s 830s Centuries: 8th century - 9th century - 10th century Events Saga succeeds Heizei as emperor of Japan. Births Deaths March 24 - Harun al-Rashid, caliph Categories: 809 ... 809) and his successors fostered an age of great intellectual achievement. In large part this was the result of the schismatic forces that had undermined the Umayyad regime, which relied on the assertion of the superiority of Arab culture as part of its claim to legitimacy, and the Abassids' welcoming of support from non-Arab Muslims.


A number of medieval thinkers and scientists living under Islamic rule, many of them non-Muslims or heretical Muslims, played a role in transmitting At the moment this page contains a list of links. This list itself does not provide the information that this article should include. Please help wikipedia by expanding this article (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Greek_literature&action=edit), once a sufficent amount of information has... Greek, This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). Aum, the most sacred syllable and quintessential symbol of Hinduism, represents the first manifestation of the unmanifest Brahman. Hinduism (सनातन धर्म; commonly called Sanātana Dharma... Hindu, and other pre-Islamic knowledge to the Christian West. They contributed to making This article needs cleanup. Please edit this article to conform to a higher standard of article quality. Aristotle (sculpture) Aristotle (Greek Αριστοτέλης Aristotelēs) (384 BC – March 7, 322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher. Along with Plato... Aristotle known in Christian Europe. In addition the period saw the recovery of much of the Alexandrian mathematical, geometric and astronomical knowledge, such as that of For other uses, see Euclid (disambiguation). Euclid of Alexandria (Greek: Eukleides) (circa 365–275 BC) was a Greek mathematician, now known as the father of geometry. His most famous work is Elements, widely considered to be historys most successful textbook. Within it, the properties of geometrical objects and... Euclides and Claudius This article is about the geographer and astronomer Ptolemy. For Alexander the Greats general, see Ptolemy I of Egypt. For others named Ptolemy or Ptolemaeus, see Ptolemy (disambiguation). Claudius Ptolemaeus, given contemporary German styling, in a 16th century engraved book frontispiece Claudius Ptolemaeus (Greek: Κλαύδ... Ptolemy, and these recovered mathematical methods were later enhanced and developed by other Islamic scholars, notably by Abu Raihan Al-Biruni (also, Biruni, Alberuni Persian: ابوریحان بیرونی) ; Arabic: أبو الريحان البيروني; (September 15, 973 - December 13, 1048) was a... Al-Biruni, and Abu Nasr Mansur ibn Ali (c. 970 - 1036) was a Persian mathematician. He is well known for discovering the sine law. Abu Nasr Mansur was born in Khwarazm to a ruling family of the region. He was thus a prince within the political sphere. He was a teacher of Al... Abu Nasr Mansur, who are thought to have first derived the Cosine rule and applied it to spherical geometry.


Three speculative thinkers, the This article is about the Persians, an ethnic group. For the ancient empire, see Persia. The Persians are an ethnic group that lives mainly in Iran, in Afghanistan, Tajikstan, and Uzbekistan. In Central Asia they are called Tajiks. Their language, called Persian (local name: Farsi), is from the Indo-Iranian... Persians Al-Kindi (Arabic: أبو يعقوب يوسف بن إسحاق الكندي) was a Arabn philosopher, scientist and ophthalmologist. He was born in Kufa around 800. His father was an official of Caliph Harun... al-Kindi, Al Farabi (870-950) was born of a Turkish family and educated by a Christian physician in Baghdad, and was himself later considered a teacher on par with Aristotle. His treatise On the Agreement of the Philosophy of Plato and Aristotle showed how he saw their ideas to be the... al-Farabi, and This article needs cleanup. Please edit this article to conform to a higher standard of article quality. Avicenna Contents // 1 Overview 2 See also 3 External links 4 Ibn Sina 5 External links Overview Avicenna, or, in Persian, Abu Ali Husain ebn Abdallah Ebn-e Sina or simply Ibn Sina... Avicenna, combined This article needs cleanup. Please edit this article to conform to a higher standard of article quality. Aristotle (sculpture) Aristotle (Greek Αριστοτέλης Aristotelēs) (384 BC – March 7, 322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher. Along with Plato... Aristotelianism and Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is an ancient school of philosophy beginning in the 3rd century A.D. It was based on the teachings of Plato and Platonists; but it interpreted Plato in many new ways, such that Neoplatonism was quite different from what Plato taught, though not many Neoplatonists would... Neoplatonism with other ideas introduced through Islam.


The end of the caliphate

Hulagu Khan (also known as Hülegü, and Hulegu) (1217–8 February 1265) was a Mongol ruler who conquered much of Southwest Asia. The grandson of Genghis Khan and the brother of Arik Boke, Mongke and Kublai Khan, he became the first khan of the Ilkhanate of Persia. Hulagu... Hulagu Khan sacked Baghdad on ( February 10 is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. There are 324 days remaining, 325 in leap years. February Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19... February 10, Years: 1255 1256 1257 - 1258 - 1259 1260 1261 Decades: 1220s 1230s 1240s - 1250s - 1260s 1270s 1280s Centuries: 12th century - 13th century - 14th century 1258 state leaders Contents // 1 Events= 1.1 Births 1.2 Deaths 1.3 Monarchs/Presidents Events= February 10 - Mongols overrun Baghdad, burning it to the ground... 1258), causing great loss of life. Al-Musta'sim, the last reigning Abbasid caliphate in Baghdad was then executed on February 20 is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. There are 314 days remaining, 315 in leap years. February Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19... February 20, 1258. The Abbasids still maintained a feeble show of authority, confined to religious matters, in For other uses, see Egypt (disambiguation). The Arab Republic of Egypt, commonly known as Egypt, (in Arabic: مصر, romanized Mişr or Maşr, in Egyptian dialect) is a republic mostly located in northeastern Africa. Covering an area of about 1,020,000 km², it includes... Egypt under the An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (or Mameluks) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim Caliphs and the Ottoman Empire, and who on more than one occasion seized power for... Mamelukes, but the dynasty finally disappeared with Motawakkil III, who was carried away as a prisoner to Map of Constantinople. Constantinople (Roman name: Constantinopolis; This article needs cleanup. Please edit this article to conform to a higher standard of article quality. The neutrality of this article is disputed. Please see the relevant discussion on the talk page. Modern Greek is the present vernacular language of Greece (also... Constantinople by Selim I Selim I (1465 – September 22, 1520; also known as the Grim, nicknamed Yavuz, the Brave in Turkish) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1512 to 1520. He succeeded in 1512 his father Beyazid II, whom he dethroned, and whose death followed immediately afterwards. He signalled... Selim I.


See also The Suleiman Mosque (Süleymaniye Camii) in Istanbul was built on the order of sultan Suleiman the Magnificent by the great Ottoman architect Sinan in 1557 The History of Islam is the history of the Islamic faith and the world it shaped as a social, cultural, and political phenomenon. Its... History of Islam


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Abbasid Caliphs of Baghdad

  • Abu'l Abbas Abu al-Abbas Abdullah ibn Muhammad as-Saffah أبو العباس عبد الله بن محمد السفاح (721 - 754) was the first Abbasid caliph. His dynasty ruled from 750 until 1258... As-Saffah Years: 746 747 748 749 - 750 - 751 752 753 754 Decades: 720s 730s 740s - 750s - 760s 770s 780s Centuries: 7th century - 8th century - 9th century Events Last Umayyad caliph Marwan II (744-750) overthrown by first Abbasid caliph, Abu al-Abbas al-Saffah Categories: 750 | 750s ... 750 - Years: 750 751 752 753 - 754 - 755 756 757 758 Decades: 720s 730s 740s - 750s - 760s 770s 780s Centuries: 7th century - 8th century - 9th century Events Pope Stephen III crowns Pepin the short King of the Franks at St.-Denis outside Paris; also dedicates the foundations of the new abbey... 754
  • This article is about the Abbasid Caliph Al Mansur of Baghdad. There is also an article on the Spanish Muslim general and statesman This article is about the Spanish Muslim general and statesman Al-Mansur. There is also an article on the Abbasid Caliph Al Mansur of Baghdad Al Mansur... Al-Mansur Years: 750 751 752 753 - 754 - 755 756 757 758 Decades: 720s 730s 740s - 750s - 760s 770s 780s Centuries: 7th century - 8th century - 9th century Events Pope Stephen III crowns Pepin the short King of the Franks at St.-Denis outside Paris; also dedicates the foundations of the new abbey... 754 - Years: 771 772 773 774 - 775 - 776 777 778 779 Decades: 740s 750s 760s - 770s - 780s 790s 800s Centuries: 7th century - 8th century - 9th century Events Leo IV succeeds Constantine V as Byzantine Emperor. Battle of Otford between Mercia and Kent. Alpin II succeeds Ciniod as king of the Picts... 775
  • Muhammad ibn Mansur al-Mahdi (ruled 775–785), was the third Abbasid Caliph. He succeeded his father, al-Mansur. Al-Mahdi, whose name means Rightly-guided or Redeemer, was proclaimed caliph when his father was on his deathbed. His peaceful reign continued the policies of his predecessors. Rapprochement with... Al-Mahdi Years: 771 772 773 774 - 775 - 776 777 778 779 Decades: 740s 750s 760s - 770s - 780s 790s 800s Centuries: 7th century - 8th century - 9th century Events Leo IV succeeds Constantine V as Byzantine Emperor. Battle of Otford between Mercia and Kent. Alpin II succeeds Ciniod as king of the Picts... 775 - Years: 781 782 783 784 - 785 - 786 787 788 789 Decades: 750s 760s 770s - 780s - 790s 800s 810s Centuries: 7th century - 8th century - 9th century Events Widukind and many other Saxons are baptized. Harun al-Rashid becomes caliph. The Frankish empire conquers Girona from the Moors. Cologne becomes an archbishopry... 785
  • Abu Abdullah Musa ibn Mahdi al-Hadi (d. September 14, 786) was an Abbasid caliph who succeeded his father Al-Mahdi and who ruled from 785 until his death in 786. Al-Hadi was the eldest son of Al-Mahdi, like his father he was very open to the people... Al-Hadi Years: 781 782 783 784 - 785 - 786 787 788 789 Decades: 750s 760s 770s - 780s - 790s 800s 810s Centuries: 7th century - 8th century - 9th century Events Widukind and many other Saxons are baptized. Harun al-Rashid becomes caliph. The Frankish empire conquers Girona from the Moors. Cologne becomes an archbishopry... 785 - Years: 782 783 784 785 - 786 - 787 788 789 790 Decades: 750s 760s 770s - 780s - 790s 800s 810s Centuries: 7th century - 8th century - 9th century Events A council is organized in Constantinople, but disturbed by soldiers Beatus of Liebana, Spanish monk, publishes his Commentary on the Apocalypse. Births Emperor Saga... 786
  • Harun al-Rashid (Arabic هارون الرشيد also spelled Harun ar-Rashid, Haroun al-Rashid or Haroon al Rasheed; English: Aaron the Upright; ca. 763–809) was the fifth and most famous Abbasid Caliph. Ruling from 786 until 809, his reign... Harun al-Rashid Years: 782 783 784 785 - 786 - 787 788 789 790 Decades: 750s 760s 770s - 780s - 790s 800s 810s Centuries: 7th century - 8th century - 9th century Events A council is organized in Constantinople, but disturbed by soldiers Beatus of Liebana, Spanish monk, publishes his Commentary on the Apocalypse. Births Emperor Saga... 786 - Years: 805 806 807 808 - 809 - 810 811 812 813 Decades: 770s 780s 790s - 800s - 810s 820s 830s Centuries: 8th century - 9th century - 10th century Events Saga succeeds Heizei as emperor of Japan. Births Deaths March 24 - Harun al-Rashid, caliph Categories: 809 ... 809
  • Muhammad ibn Harun al-Amin (787 - 813), Abbasid Caliph. He succeeded his father, Harun al-Rashid in 809 and ruled until he was killed in 813. Harun al-Rashid had decided the succession to his sons during a pilgrimage to Mecca. Al-Amin, would receive the Caliphate and al-Ma... Al-Amin Years: 805 806 807 808 - 809 - 810 811 812 813 Decades: 770s 780s 790s - 800s - 810s 820s 830s Centuries: 8th century - 9th century - 10th century Events Saga succeeds Heizei as emperor of Japan. Births Deaths March 24 - Harun al-Rashid, caliph Categories: 809 ... 809 - Years: 809 810 811 812 - 813 - 814 815 816 817 Decades: 780s 790s 800s - 810s - 820s 830s 840s Centuries: 8th century - 9th century - 10th century Events June 22 - Byzantine Emperor Michael I is defeated in a war against the Bulgarians. July 12 - A revolt puts Leo V on the throne... 813
  • Al-Ma'mun Years: 809 810 811 812 - 813 - 814 815 816 817 Decades: 780s 790s 800s - 810s - 820s 830s 840s Centuries: 8th century - 9th century - 10th century Events June 22 - Byzantine Emperor Michael I is defeated in a war against the Bulgarians. July 12 - A revolt puts Leo V on the throne... 813 - Years: 829 830 831 832 - 833 - 834 835 836 837 Decades: 800s 810s 820s - 830s - 840s 850s 860s Centuries: 8th century - 9th century - 10th century Events End of the reign of caliph Mamun Nimmyo succeeds Junna as emperor of Japan Creation of Great Moravia Births Deaths Categories: 833 ... 833
  • Al-Mu'tasim Years: 829 830 831 832 - 833 - 834 835 836 837 Decades: 800s 810s 820s - 830s - 840s 850s 860s Centuries: 8th century - 9th century - 10th century Events End of the reign of caliph Mamun Nimmyo succeeds Junna as emperor of Japan Creation of Great Moravia Births Deaths Categories: 833 ... 833 - Years: 838 839 840 841 - 842 - 843 844 845 846 Decades: 810s 820s 830s - 840s - 850s 860s 870s Centuries: 8th century - 9th century - 10th century Events Oath of Strasbourg - alliance of Louis the German and Charles the Bald against emperor Lothar - sworn and recorded in vernacular languages. Ramiro I succeeds... 842
  • Al-Wathiq ibn Mutasim (d. 847) was an Abbasid caliph who reigned from 842 until 847. He succeeded his father, Syria and Palestine. These revolts were the result of an increasingly large gap between Arab populations and the Turkish armies that had been formed by Wathiqs father, al-Mutasim... Al-Wathiq Years: 838 839 840 841 - 842 - 843 844 845 846 Decades: 810s 820s 830s - 840s - 850s 860s 870s Centuries: 8th century - 9th century - 10th century Events Oath of Strasbourg - alliance of Louis the German and Charles the Bald against emperor Lothar - sworn and recorded in vernacular languages. Ramiro I succeeds... 842 - Years: 843 844 845 846 - 847 - 848 849 850 851 Decades: 810s 820s 830s - 840s - 850s 860s 870s Centuries: 8th century - 9th century - 10th century Events Succession of Pope Leo IV, (847 - 855) Births Alfred the Great Deaths Pope Sergius II, (844 - 847) Categories: 847 ... 847
  • Al-Mutawakkil Ala Allah Jafar bin al-Mutasim (821 - 861) was an Abbasid caliph who reigned (in Samarra) from 847 until 861. He succceeded his brother al-Wathiq. Al-Mutawakkil was unlike his brother and father in that he was not known for having a thirst for knowledge, but... Al-Mutawakkil Years: 843 844 845 846 - 847 - 848 849 850 851 Decades: 810s 820s 830s - 840s - 850s 860s 870s Centuries: 8th century - 9th century - 10th century Events Succession of Pope Leo IV, (847 - 855) Births Alfred the Great Deaths Pope Sergius II, (844 - 847) Categories: 847 ... 847 - Years: Years: 853 854 855 856 - 857 - 858 859 860 861 Decades: 820s 830s 840s - 850s - 860s 870s 880s Centuries: 8th century - 9th century - 10th century Events Viking raid of Dorestad. Michael III of Byzantium, under influences of his uncle Bardas, banishes his mother Theodora. Bardas becomes the most powerful... 861
  • Al-Muntasir ( d. 862) was the Abbasid caliph in Baghdad from 861 to 862. His pious title means He that triumpheth in the Lord. He succeeded smoothly to the throne of the Caliphate in the year 861, due to support from the Turkish faction, after the murder of his father... Al-Muntasir Years: Years: 853 854 855 856 - 857 - 858 859 860 861 Decades: 820s 830s 840s - 850s - 860s 870s 880s Centuries: 8th century - 9th century - 10th century Events Viking raid of Dorestad. Michael III of Byzantium, under influences of his uncle Bardas, banishes his mother Theodora. Bardas becomes the most powerful... 861 - Years: 858 859 860 861 - 862 - 863 864 865 866 Decades: 830s 840s 850s - 860s - 870s 880s 890s Centuries: 8th century - 9th century - 10th century Events Rurik gained control of Novgorod. Fan Chuo finishes his Manchu (book of the southern tribes). Lothair, king of Lotharia divorces Teutberga and marries Waldrada... 862
  • Al-Musta'in Years: 858 859 860 861 - 862 - 863 864 865 866 Decades: 830s 840s 850s - 860s - 870s 880s 890s Centuries: 8th century - 9th century - 10th century Events Rurik gained control of Novgorod. Fan Chuo finishes his Manchu (book of the southern tribes). Lothair, king of Lotharia divorces Teutberga and marries Waldrada... 862 - Years: 862 863 864 865 - 866 - 867 868 869 870 Decades: 830s 840s 850s - 860s - 870s 880s 890s Centuries: 8th century - 9th century - 10th century Events Fujiwara no Yoshifusa becomes regent of Japan, starting the Fujiwara regentship. Alfonso III succeeds as king of Asturias. Louis II beats the Saracen invaders... 866
  • Al-Mu'tazz Years: 862 863 864 865 - 866 - 867 868 869 870 Decades: 830s 840s 850s - 860s - 870s 880s 890s Centuries: 8th century - 9th century - 10th century Events Fujiwara no Yoshifusa becomes regent of Japan, starting the Fujiwara regentship. Alfonso III succeeds as king of Asturias. Louis II beats the Saracen invaders... 866 - Years: 865 866 867 868 - 869 - 870 871 872 873 Decades: 830s 840s 850s - 860s - 870s 880s 890s Centuries: 8th century - 9th century - 10th century Events Western Emperor Louis II allies with eastern Emperor Basil I against the Saracens. Charles the Bald tries to take the kingdom of Lothair II... 869
  • Al-Muhtadi (d. June, 870) was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 869 to 870. After the death of al-Mutazz, the Turks chose his cousin, al-Muhtadi, son of al-Wathiq by a Grecian slave-girl, as the new Caliph. Al-Muhtadi turned out be firm and virtuous... Al-Muhtadi Years: 865 866 867 868 - 869 - 870 871 872 873 Decades: 830s 840s 850s - 860s - 870s 880s 890s Centuries: 8th century - 9th century - 10th century Events Western Emperor Louis II allies with eastern Emperor Basil I against the Saracens. Charles the Bald tries to take the kingdom of Lothair II... 869 - Years: 866 867 868 869 - 870 - 871 872 873 874 Decades: 840s 850s 860s - 870s - 880s 890s 900s Centuries: 8th century - 9th century - 10th century Events February 28 - End of the Fourth Council of Constantinople. The Danes invade England and conquer East Anglia. Among the buildings destroyed by the Danish... 870
  • Al-Mu'tamid Years: 866 867 868 869 - 870 - 871 872 873 874 Decades: 840s 850s 860s - 870s - 880s 890s 900s Centuries: 8th century - 9th century - 10th century Events February 28 - End of the Fourth Council of Constantinople. The Danes invade England and conquer East Anglia. Among the buildings destroyed by the Danish... 870 - Years: 888 889 890 891 - 892 - 893 894 895 896 Decades: 860s 870s 880s - 890s - 900s 910s 920s Centuries: 8th century - 9th century - 10th century Events Poppo of Thuringia, count of the march in Thuringia,is deposed by the German Carolingian king Arnulf of Carinthia Arnulf of Carinthia invades Great... 892
  • Al-Mu'tadid Years: 888 889 890 891 - 892 - 893 894 895 896 Decades: 860s 870s 880s - 890s - 900s 910s 920s Centuries: 8th century - 9th century - 10th century Events Poppo of Thuringia, count of the march in Thuringia,is deposed by the German Carolingian king Arnulf of Carinthia Arnulf of Carinthia invades Great... 892 - Years: 898 899 900 901 - 902 - 903 904 905 906 Decades: 870s 880s 890s - 900s - 910s 920s 930s Centuries: 9th century - 10th century - 11th century Events Births Deaths Categories: 902 ... 902
  • Al-Muktafi (d. 908) was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 902 to 908. He was the son of previous Caliph, al-Mutadid, by a Turkish slave-girl. In command of ar Raqqah at the time of his fathers death, he at once returned to the Capital, where... Al-Muktafi Years: 898 899 900 901 - 902 - 903 904 905 906 Decades: 870s 880s 890s - 900s - 910s 920s 930s Centuries: 9th century - 10th century - 11th century Events Births Deaths Categories: 902 ... 902 - Years: 904 905 906 907 - 908 - 909 910 911 912 Decades: 870s 880s 890s - 900s - 910s 920s 930s Centuries: 9th century - 10th century - 11th century Events Births Deaths Categories: 908 ... 908
  • Al-Muqtadir (d. 932) was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 908 to 932. After the previous Caliph, al-Muktafi, was confined for several months to his sick-bed, intrigue was made for some time as to his successor. The choice was between al-Muktafis minor brother whom the... Al-Muqtadir Years: 904 905 906 907 - 908 - 909 910 911 912 Decades: 870s 880s 890s - 900s - 910s 920s 930s Centuries: 9th century - 10th century - 11th century Events Births Deaths Categories: 908 ... 908 - Years: 928 929 930 931 - 932 - 933 934 935 936 Decades: 900s 910s 920s - 930s - 940s 950s 960s Centuries: 9th century - 10th century - 11th century Events Foundation of the St. Ursenstift by the Burgundian queen Bertha in Solothurn. Wildeck castle built by the Emperor Henry I in Zschopau. Births Deaths... 932
  • Al-Qahir was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 932 to 934. On the death of the previous Caliph, al-Muqtadir, the courtiers afraid that his son might revenge his fathers death upon them, chose instead the late Caliphs brother al-Qahir; and he proved even worse ruler... Al-Qahir Years: 928 929 930 931 - 932 - 933 934 935 936 Decades: 900s 910s 920s - 930s - 940s 950s 960s Centuries: 9th century - 10th century - 11th century Events Foundation of the St. Ursenstift by the Burgundian queen Bertha in Solothurn. Wildeck castle built by the Emperor Henry I in Zschopau. Births Deaths... 932 - Years: 930 931 932 933 - 934 - 935 936 937 938 Decades: 900s 910s 920s - 930s - 940s 950s 960s Centuries: 9th century - 10th century - 11th century Events The Goryeo army defeats Hubaekje forces in present-day Hongseong County. Births Deaths Categories: 934 ... 934
  • Ar-Radi (d. 940) was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 934 to 940. The seven years reign of ar-Radi, son of al-Muqtadir, was but a succession of misfortune. Praised for his piety, he became the mere tool of the chief minister of the day. The authority of... Ar-Radi Years: 930 931 932 933 - 934 - 935 936 937 938 Decades: 900s 910s 920s - 930s - 940s 950s 960s Centuries: 9th century - 10th century - 11th century Events The Goryeo army defeats Hubaekje forces in present-day Hongseong County. Births Deaths Categories: 934 ... 934 - Years: 936 937 938 939 - 940 - 941 942 943 944 Decades: 910s 920s 930s - 940s - 950s 960s 970s Centuries: 9th century - 10th century - 11th century Events Births Brian Boru, high king of Ireland Abul-Wafa, iranian mathematician Deaths ar-Radi (Caliph of Baghdad) Athelstan, who was succeeded by his... 940
  • Al-Muttaqi was the Abbasid caliph in Baghdad from 940 to 944. Of such little importance the Caliphate had become by now that when the previous Caliph al_Radi died, Bajkam, Amir al-Umara (Amir of Amirs), contented himself with despatching to Baghdad his secretary, who assembled the chief men to... Al-Muttaqi Years: 936 937 938 939 - 940 - 941 942 943 944 Decades: 910s 920s 930s - 940s - 950s 960s 970s Centuries: 9th century - 10th century - 11th century Events Births Brian Boru, high king of Ireland Abul-Wafa, iranian mathematician Deaths ar-Radi (Caliph of Baghdad) Athelstan, who was succeeded by his... 940 - Years: 940 941 942 943 - 944 - 945 946 947 948 Decades: 910s 920s 930s - 940s - 950s 960s 970s Centuries: 9th century - 10th century - 11th century Events City of Algiers (re)founded by the Zirid king Buluggin ibn Ziri Abu Yazid launches a rebellion against the Fatimids in the Aures mountains... 944
  • Al-Mustakfi was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 944 to 946. He was installed by Tuzun, a Turkish general who disposed and blinded the previous Caliph al_Muttaqi. Buwayhid dynasty began threatening the Capital. Tuzun, with the Caliph, marched to Wasit and defeated them. The tribute due from Mosul being... Al-Mustakfi Years: 940 941 942 943 - 944 - 945 946 947 948 Decades: 910s 920s 930s - 940s - 950s 960s 970s Centuries: 9th century - 10th century - 11th century Events City of Algiers (re)founded by the Zirid king Buluggin ibn Ziri Abu Yazid launches a rebellion against the Fatimids in the Aures mountains... 944 - Years: 942 943 944 945 - 946 - 947 948 949 950 Decades: 910s 920s 930s - 940s - 950s 960s 970s Centuries: 9th century - 10th century - 11th century Events Eadred I succeeds his brother as king of England End of the reign of Emperor Suzaku of Japan Emperor Murakami ascends the throne of... 946
  • Al-Muti (or Obedient to the Lord) was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 946 to 974. He had long aspired to the office. Between him and the previous Caliph, al-Mustakfi, bitter enmity existed, which led him to retire into hiding. When the Buwayhids entered Baghdad, al-Muti came... Al-Muti Years: 942 943 944 945 - 946 - 947 948 949 950 Decades: 910s 920s 930s - 940s - 950s 960s 970s Centuries: 9th century - 10th century - 11th century Events Eadred I succeeds his brother as king of England End of the reign of Emperor Suzaku of Japan Emperor Murakami ascends the throne of... 946 - Years: 970 971 972 973 - 974 - 975 976 977 978 Decades: 940s 950s 960s - 970s - 980s 990s 1000s Centuries: 9th century - 10th century - 11th century Events Antipope Boniface VII succeeds Pope Benedict VI. The Byzantine Empire retakes Syria including Aleppo from the Abbasids. Al-Tai succeeds Al-Muti as... 974
  • At-Ta'i Years: 970 971 972 973 - 974 - 975 976 977 978 Decades: 940s 950s 960s - 970s - 980s 990s 1000s Centuries: 9th century - 10th century - 11th century Events Antipope Boniface VII succeeds Pope Benedict VI. The Byzantine Empire retakes Syria including Aleppo from the Abbasids. Al-Tai succeeds Al-Muti as... 974 - Years: 987 988 989 990 - 991 - 992 993 994 995 Decades: 960s 970s 980s - 990s - 1000s 1010s 1020s Centuries: 9th century - 10th century - 11th century Events Battle of Maldon Sweyn I of Denmark recovers his throne Births Deaths Theophanu, empress, mother of Otto III Emperor Enyu of Japan Categories... 991
  • Al-Qadir (d. 1031) was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 991 to 1031. Grandson of al_Muqtadir, he was chosen in place of the deposed Caliph, at_Tai, his cousin. Banished from the Capital earlier, he was now recalled and appointed to the office he had long desired. He held... Al-Qadir Years: 987 988 989 990 - 991 - 992 993 994 995 Decades: 960s 970s 980s - 990s - 1000s 1010s 1020s Centuries: 9th century - 10th century - 11th century Events Battle of Maldon Sweyn I of Denmark recovers his throne Births Deaths Theophanu, empress, mother of Otto III Emperor Enyu of Japan Categories... 991 - Years: 1028 1029 1030 - 1031 - 1032 1033 1034 Decades: 1000s 1010s 1020s - 1030s - 1040s 1050s 1060s Centuries: 10th century - 11th century - 12th century 1031 state leaders Events Collapse of the Moorish Caliphate of Córdoba. Byzantine general George Maniaces captures Edessa. Births Matilda of Flanders (approximate date) Deaths July 20... 1031
  • Al-Qa'im Years: 1028 1029 1030 - 1031 - 1032 1033 1034 Decades: 1000s 1010s 1020s - 1030s - 1040s 1050s 1060s Centuries: 10th century - 11th century - 12th century 1031 state leaders Events Collapse of the Moorish Caliphate of Córdoba. Byzantine general George Maniaces captures Edessa. Births Matilda of Flanders (approximate date) Deaths July 20... 1031 - Years: 1072 1073 1074 - 1075 - 1076 1077 1078 Decades: 1040s 1050s 1060s - 1070s - 1080s 1090s 1100s Centuries: 10th century - 11th century - 12th century Events Revolt of the Earls. Rebellion of three earls against William I of England (William the Conqueror). Last serious act of resistance in the Norman Conquest. Births... 1075
  • Al-Muqtadi (d. 1094) was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 1075 to 1094. He was honored by the Seljuk Sultan Malik Shah, during whose reign the Caliphate was recognized throughout the extending range of Seljuk conquest. Arabia, with the Holy Cities now recovered from the Fatimids, acknowledged again the... Al-Muqtadi Years: 1072 1073 1074 - 1075 - 1076 1077 1078 Decades: 1040s 1050s 1060s - 1070s - 1080s 1090s 1100s Centuries: 10th century - 11th century - 12th century Events Revolt of the Earls. Rebellion of three earls against William I of England (William the Conqueror). Last serious act of resistance in the Norman Conquest. Births... 1075 - Years: 1091 1092 1093 - 1094 - 1095 1096 1097 Decades: 1060s 1070s 1080s - 1090s - 1100s 1110s 1120s Centuries: 10th century - 11th century - 12th century Events May - the siege of Valencia ends Duncan III of Scotland succeeds Duncan II of Scotland as King of Scotland The first mention of the city of... 1094
  • Al-Mustazhir (d. 1118) was the Abbasid caliph in Baghdad from 1094 to 1118. He succeeded his father al-Muqtadi. During his twenty-four years incumbency he was politically irrelevant, despite the civil strife at home and the appearance of the First Crusade in Syria. An attempt was even made... Al-Mustazhir Years: 1091 1092 1093 - 1094 - 1095 1096 1097 Decades: 1060s 1070s 1080s - 1090s - 1100s 1110s 1120s Centuries: 10th century - 11th century - 12th century Events May - the siege of Valencia ends Duncan III of Scotland succeeds Duncan II of Scotland as King of Scotland The first mention of the city of... 1094 - Years: 1115 1116 1117 - 1118 - 1119 1120 1121 Decades: 1080s 1090s 1100s - 1110s - 1120s 1130s 1140s Centuries: 11th century - 12th century - 13th century Events Knights Templar founded Baldwin of Le Bourg succeeds his cousin Baldwin I as king of Jerusalem John II Comnenus succeeds Alexius I as Byzantine emperor Gelasius... 1118
  • Al-Mustarshid (d. 1135) was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 1118 to 1135. Son of the preceding Caliph, he once more tried independence while the Seljuks were engaged in war in the East. They had left Baghdad much to itself. Risings in Iraq at this time were common. One... Al-Mustarshid Years: 1115 1116 1117 - 1118 - 1119 1120 1121 Decades: 1080s 1090s 1100s - 1110s - 1120s 1130s 1140s Centuries: 11th century - 12th century - 13th century Events Knights Templar founded Baldwin of Le Bourg succeeds his cousin Baldwin I as king of Jerusalem John II Comnenus succeeds Alexius I as Byzantine emperor Gelasius... 1118 - Years: 1132 1133 1134 - 1135 - 1136 1137 1138 Decades: 1100s 1110s 1120s - 1130s - 1140s 1150s 1160s Centuries: 11th century - 12th century - 13th century Events Stephen of Blois succeeds King Henry I. Empress Maud, daughter of Henry I and widow of Henry V opposed Stephen and claims the throne as her... 1135
  • Al-Rashid was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 1135 to 1136. Like his father, al-Mustarshid, ar-Rashid made another failed attempt at independence from Seljuk Turks. To avenge his fathers death, he insulted the Sultans envoy who came to demand a heavy largess, incited the mob... Ar-Rashid Years: 1132 1133 1134 - 1135 - 1136 1137 1138 Decades: 1100s 1110s 1120s - 1130s - 1140s 1150s 1160s Centuries: 11th century - 12th century - 13th century Events Stephen of Blois succeeds King Henry I. Empress Maud, daughter of Henry I and widow of Henry V opposed Stephen and claims the throne as her... 1135 - Years: 1133 1134 1135 - 1136 - 1137 1138 1139 Decades: 1100s 1110s 1120s - 1130s - 1140s 1150s 1160s Centuries: 11th century - 12th century - 13th century Events Completion of the Saint Denis Basilica in Paris Peter Abelard writes the Historia Calamitatum, detailing his relationship with Heloise Births William of Newburgh, British historian and... 1136
  • Al-Muqtafi (d. 1160) was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 1136 to 1160. The continued disunion and contests between Seljuk Turks afforded al-Muqtafi opportunity of not only maintaining his authority in Baghdad, but also extending it throughout Iraq. Al_Muqtafi was able to defend the Capital from various attacks... Al-Muqtafi Years: 1133 1134 1135 - 1136 - 1137 1138 1139 Decades: 1100s 1110s 1120s - 1130s - 1140s 1150s 1160s Centuries: 11th century - 12th century - 13th century Events Completion of the Saint Denis Basilica in Paris Peter Abelard writes the Historia Calamitatum, detailing his relationship with Heloise Births William of Newburgh, British historian and... 1136 - Years: 1157 1158 1159 - 1160 - 1161 1162 1163 Decades: 1130s 1140s 1150s - 1160s - 1170s 1180s 1190s Centuries: 11th century - 12th century - 13th century Contents // 1 Events 2 Births 3 Deaths 4 Heads of states Events Erik den helige is succeeded by Karl Sverkersson. See Swedish monarchs. Heiji Rebellion in Japan... 1160
  • Al-Mustanjid (d. 1170) was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 1160 to 1170. He was the son of previous Caliph al-Muqtafi. One of al-Muqtafis wives wanted her own son to succeed. She gained over many Amirs to her side, and had their slave-girls armed with... Al-Mustanjid Years: 1157 1158 1159 - 1160 - 1161 1162 1163 Decades: 1130s 1140s 1150s - 1160s - 1170s 1180s 1190s Centuries: 11th century - 12th century - 13th century Contents // 1 Events 2 Births 3 Deaths 4 Heads of states Events Erik den helige is succeeded by Karl Sverkersson. See Swedish monarchs. Heiji Rebellion in Japan... 1160 - Years: 1167 1168 1169 - 1170 - 1171 1172 1173 Decades: 1140s 1150s 1160s - 1170s - 1180s 1190s 1200s Centuries: 11th century - 12th century - 13th century Events December 29: Assassination of Thomas Beckett, Archbishop of Canterbury, in Canterbury cathedral Eleanor of Aquitaine leaves the court of Henry II because of a string of... 1170
  • Al-Mustadi (d. 1180) was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 1170 to 1180. Like his predecessor, he continued to occupy a more or less independent position, with a Vazir and courtly surroundings, and supported by only a small force sufficient for an occasional local campaign. Preceded by: al-Mustanjid... Al-Mustadi Years: 1167 1168 1169 - 1170 - 1171 1172 1173 Decades: 1140s 1150s 1160s - 1170s - 1180s 1190s 1200s Centuries: 11th century - 12th century - 13th century Events December 29: Assassination of Thomas Beckett, Archbishop of Canterbury, in Canterbury cathedral Eleanor of Aquitaine leaves the court of Henry II because of a string of... 1170 - Years: 1177 1178 1179 - 1180 - 1181 1182 1183 Decades: 1150s 1160s 1170s - 1180s - 1190s 1200s 1210s Centuries: 11th century - 12th century - 13th century Events April 13 - Frederick Barbarossa issues the Gelnhausen Charter November 18 - France Emperor Antoku succeds Emperor Takakura as emperor of Japan Afonso I of Portugal is taken... 1180
  • An-Nasir (d. 1225) was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 1180 to 1225. His pious title means Defender of the Faith. He attempted to restore the Caliphate to its ancient dominant role. He not only held the Capital in strength, but extended his dominion into Mesopotamia and Persia. In... An-Nasir Years: 1177 1178 1179 - 1180 - 1181 1182 1183 Decades: 1150s 1160s 1170s - 1180s - 1190s 1200s 1210s Centuries: 11th century - 12th century - 13th century Events April 13 - Frederick Barbarossa issues the Gelnhausen Charter November 18 - France Emperor Antoku succeds Emperor Takakura as emperor of Japan Afonso I of Portugal is taken... 1180 - Years: 1222 1223 1224 - 1225 - 1226 1227 1228 Decades: 1190s 1200s 1210s - 1220s - 1230s 1240s 1250s Centuries: 12th century - 13th century - 14th century Contents // 1 Events 2 Births 3 Deaths 4 Monarchs/Presidents Events Births Thomas Aquinas, Christian philosopher and theologian. Deaths Monarchs/Presidents Aragon - James I King of Aragon... 1225
  • Az-Zahir was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 1225 to 1226. He was the son of an-Nasir. There is little said of him (and the next Caliph) beyond that he was mild and virtuous. The Crusades still dragged on, while the heirs of Saladin were contending bitterly among... Az-Zahir Years: 1222 1223 1224 - 1225 - 1226 1227 1228 Decades: 1190s 1200s 1210s - 1220s - 1230s 1240s 1250s Centuries: 12th century - 13th century - 14th century Contents // 1 Events 2 Births 3 Deaths 4 Monarchs/Presidents Events Births Thomas Aquinas, Christian philosopher and theologian. Deaths Monarchs/Presidents Aragon - James I King of Aragon... 1225 - Years: 1223 1224 1225 - 1226 - 1227 1228 1229 Decades: 1190s 1200s 1210s - 1220s - 1230s 1240s 1250s Centuries: 12th century - 13th century - 14th century 1226 state leaders Events Carmelite Order approved by Pope Honorius III Frederick II calls Imperial Diet of Cremona Births Deaths October 3 Saint Francis of Assisi founder... 1226
  • Al-Mustansir was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 1226 to 1242. He was the son of az-Zahir and the grandson of an-Nasir. There is little said of him beyond that he was mild and virtuous. Like his father, he remained a symbolic Caliph with little political influence... Al-Mustansir Years: 1223 1224 1225 - 1226 - 1227 1228 1229 Decades: 1190s 1200s 1210s - 1220s - 1230s 1240s 1250s Centuries: 12th century - 13th century - 14th century 1226 state leaders Events Carmelite Order approved by Pope Honorius III Frederick II calls Imperial Diet of Cremona Births Deaths October 3 Saint Francis of Assisi founder... 1226 - Years: 1239 1240 1241 - 1242 - 1243 1244 1245 Decades: 1210s 1220s 1230s - 1240s - 1250s 1260s 1270s Centuries: 12th century - 13th century - 14th century Events April 5 - During a battle on the ice of Russian forces rebuff an invasion attempt by the Teutonic Knights. Emperor Go-Saga ascends to the throne... 1242
  • Al-Musta'sim Years: 1239 1240 1241 - 1242 - 1243 1244 1245 Decades: 1210s 1220s 1230s - 1240s - 1250s 1260s 1270s Centuries: 12th century - 13th century - 14th century Events April 5 - During a battle on the ice of Russian forces rebuff an invasion attempt by the Teutonic Knights. Emperor Go-Saga ascends to the throne... 1242 - Years: 1255 1256 1257 - 1258 - 1259 1260 1261 Decades: 1220s 1230s 1240s - 1250s - 1260s 1270s 1280s Centuries: 12th century - 13th century - 14th century 1258 state leaders Contents // 1 Events= 1.1 Births 1.2 Deaths 1.3 Monarchs/Presidents Events= February 10 - Mongols overrun Baghdad, burning it to the ground... 1258

Abbasid Caliphs in Cairo

  • Al-Mustansir Years: 1258 1259 1260 - 1261 - 1262 1263 1264 Decades: 1230s 1240s 1250s - 1260s - 1270s 1280s 1290s Centuries: 12th century - 13th century - 14th century 1261 state leaders Contents // 1 Events 2 Births 3 Deaths 4 Monarchs/Presidents Events July 25 - Constantinople re-captured by Nicaean forces under the command of Michael... 1261
  • Al-Hakim I Years: 1259 1260 1261 - 1262 - 1263 1264 1265 Decades: 1230s 1240s 1250s - 1260s - 1270s 1280s 1290s Centuries: 12th century - 13th century - 14th century 1262 state leaders Contents // 1 Events 2 Births 3 Deaths 4 Monarchs/Presidents Events Strasbourg becomes a Free City of the Holy Roman Empire First Visconti become... 1262- Years: 1299 1300 1301 - 1302 - 1303 1304 1305 Decades: 1270s 1280s 1290s - 1300s - 1310s 1320s 1330s Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century 1302 state leaders Events July 11 - Battle of the Golden Spurs (Guldensporenslag in Dutch), major victory of Flanders over the French occupier. September 24 - Charles II of... 1302
  • Al-Mustakfi I Years: 1299 1300 1301 - 1302 - 1303 1304 1305 Decades: 1270s 1280s 1290s - 1300s - 1310s 1320s 1330s Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century 1302 state leaders Events July 11 - Battle of the Golden Spurs (Guldensporenslag in Dutch), major victory of Flanders over the French occupier. September 24 - Charles II of... 1302- Years: 1337 1338 1339 - 1340 - 1341 1342 1343 Decades: 1310s 1320s 1330s - 1340s - 1350s 1360s 1370s Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Events January 26 - King France June 24 - The Battle of Sluys is fought between the naval fleets of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of France... 1340
  • Al-Wathiq I Years: 1337 1338 1339 - 1340 - 1341 1342 1343 Decades: 1310s 1320s 1330s - 1340s - 1350s 1360s 1370s Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Events January 26 - King France June 24 - The Battle of Sluys is fought between the naval fleets of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of France... 1340- Years: 1338 1339 1340 - 1341 - 1342 1343 1344 Decades: 1310s 1320s 1330s - 1340s - 1350s 1360s 1370s Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Events Petrarch becomes famous Beginning of the Breton War of Succession over the control of the Duchy of Brittany Margarete Maultasch, Countess of Tyrol, expells her husband... 1341
  • Al-Hakim II Years: 1338 1339 1340 - 1341 - 1342 1343 1344 Decades: 1310s 1320s 1330s - 1340s - 1350s 1360s 1370s Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Events Petrarch becomes famous Beginning of the Breton War of Succession over the control of the Duchy of Brittany Margarete Maultasch, Countess of Tyrol, expells her husband... 1341- Years: 1349 1350 1351 - 1352 - 1353 1354 1355 Decades: 1320s 1330s 1340s - 1350s - 1360s 1370s 1380s Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Events June 4 - Glarus joins the Swiss Confederation. June 27 - Zug joins the Swiss Confederation. December 18 - Innocent VI is elected Pope. Morroccan traveller Ibn Battuta reports... 1352
  • Al-Mu'tadid I Years: 1349 1350 1351 - 1352 - 1353 1354 1355 Decades: 1320s 1330s 1340s - 1350s - 1360s 1370s 1380s Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Events June 4 - Glarus joins the Swiss Confederation. June 27 - Zug joins the Swiss Confederation. December 18 - Innocent VI is elected Pope. Morroccan traveller Ibn Battuta reports... 1352- Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Decades: 1310s 1320s 1330s 1340s 1350s - 1360s - 1370s 1380s 1390s 1400s 1410s Years: 1357 1358 1359 1360 1361 - 1362 - 1363 1364 1365 1366 1367 See also: 1362 state leaders Events Under Edward III, French as Englands national language, for the first time... 1362
  • Al-Mutawakkil I Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Decades: 1310s 1320s 1330s 1340s 1350s - 1360s - 1370s 1380s 1390s 1400s 1410s Years: 1357 1358 1359 1360 1361 - 1362 - 1363 1364 1365 1366 1367 See also: 1362 state leaders Events Under Edward III, French as Englands national language, for the first time... 1362- Years: 1380 1381 1382 - 1383 - 1384 1385 1386 Decades: 1350s 1360s 1370s - 1380s - 1390s 1400s 1410s Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Events End of the reign of Emperor Chokei of Japan Emperor Go-Kameyama ascends to the throne of Japan Births Pope Eugenius IV Deaths March 1 - Amadeus... 1383
  • Al-Wathiq II Years: 1380 1381 1382 - 1383 - 1384 1385 1386 Decades: 1350s 1360s 1370s - 1380s - 1390s 1400s 1410s Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Events End of the reign of Emperor Chokei of Japan Emperor Go-Kameyama ascends to the throne of Japan Births Pope Eugenius IV Deaths March 1 - Amadeus... 1383- Years: 1383 1384 1385 - 1386 - 1387 1388 1389 Decades: 1350s 1360s 1370s - 1380s - 1390s 1400s 1410s Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Events Battle of Sempach: Swiss safeguard independence from Hapsburg rule End of reign of Poland by Lithuania and Poland. Dan I is succeeded as ruler of Wallachia... 1386
  • Al-Mu'tasim Years: 1383 1384 1385 - 1386 - 1387 1388 1389 Decades: 1350s 1360s 1370s - 1380s - 1390s 1400s 1410s Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Events Battle of Sempach: Swiss safeguard independence from Hapsburg rule End of reign of Poland by Lithuania and Poland. Dan I is succeeded as ruler of Wallachia... 1386- Years: 1386 1387 1388 - 1389 - 1390 1391 1392 Decades: 1350s 1360s 1370s - 1380s - 1390s 1400s 1410s Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Events February 24 - Margaret I seizes Albert, thus becoming ruler of Denmark, Norway and Sweden June 15 - Battle of Kosovo between Serbs and Ottomans. Both the Serbian... 1389
  • Al-Mutawakkil I (restored) Years: 1386 1387 1388 - 1389 - 1390 1391 1392 Decades: 1350s 1360s 1370s - 1380s - 1390s 1400s 1410s Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Events February 24 - Margaret I seizes Albert, thus becoming ruler of Denmark, Norway and Sweden June 15 - Battle of Kosovo between Serbs and Ottomans. Both the Serbian... 1389- Years: 1403 1404 1405 - 1406 - 1407 1408 1409 Decades: 1370s 1380s 1390s - 1400s - 1410s 1420s 1430s Centuries: 14th century - 15th century - 16th century Events Construction of Forbidden City begins in Beijing. Richard Whittington becomes Lord Mayor of London. December 25 - John II becomes King of Castile. Eric of Pomerania marries... 1406
  • Al-Musta'in Years: 1403 1404 1405 - 1406 - 1407 1408 1409 Decades: 1370s 1380s 1390s - 1400s - 1410s 1420s 1430s Centuries: 14th century - 15th century - 16th century Events Construction of Forbidden City begins in Beijing. Richard Whittington becomes Lord Mayor of London. December 25 - John II becomes King of Castile. Eric of Pomerania marries... 1406- Years: 1411 1412 1413 - 1414 - 1415 1416 1417 Decades: 1380s 1390s 1400s - 1410s - 1420s 1430s 1440s Centuries: 14th century - 15th century - 16th century Events Council of Constance begins. The Habsburg Duke Ernest the Iron (1377-1424) thrones according to the ancient Karantanian ritual of installing dukes on the Dukes... 1414
  • Al-Mu'tadid II Years: 1411 1412 1413 - 1414 - 1415 1416 1417 Decades: 1380s 1390s 1400s - 1410s - 1420s 1430s 1440s Centuries: 14th century - 15th century - 16th century Events Council of Constance begins. The Habsburg Duke Ernest the Iron (1377-1424) thrones according to the ancient Karantanian ritual of installing dukes on the Dukes... 1414- This page is about the year 1441. See UN Security Council Resolution 1441 for the 2002 call for Iraq to disclose its WMD Years: 1438 1439 1440 - 1441 - 1442 1443 1444 Decades: 1410s 1420s 1430s - 1440s - 1450s 1460s 1470s Centuries: 14th century - 15th century - 16th century Events June 24 - Eton... 1441
  • Al-Mustakfi II This page is about the year 1441. See UN Security Council Resolution 1441 for the 2002 call for Iraq to disclose its WMD Years: 1438 1439 1440 - 1441 - 1442 1443 1444 Decades: 1410s 1420s 1430s - 1440s - 1450s 1460s 1470s Centuries: 14th century - 15th century - 16th century Events June 24 - Eton... 1441- Years: 1448 1449 1450 - 1451 - 1452 1453 1454 Decades: 1420s 1430s 1440s - 1450s - 1460s 1470s 1480s Centuries: 14th century - 15th century - 16th century Events February 3 - Murad II, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire dies and is succeeded by his son Mehmed II. April 11 - Celje acquires market-town status and... 1451
  • Al-Qa'im Years: 1448 1449 1450 - 1451 - 1452 1453 1454 Decades: 1420s 1430s 1440s - 1450s - 1460s 1470s 1480s Centuries: 14th century - 15th century - 16th century Events February 3 - Murad II, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire dies and is succeeded by his son Mehmed II. April 11 - Celje acquires market-town status and... 1451- Years: 1452 1453 1454 - 1455 - 1456 1457 1458 Decades: 1420s 1430s 1440s - 1450s - 1460s 1470s 1480s Centuries: 14th century - 15th century - 16th century Contents // 1 Events 2 Year in topics 3 Births 4 Deaths Events February 9 - Wars of the Roses: Richard, Duke of York dismissed as Protector February 23... 1455
  • Al-Mustanjid Years: 1452 1453 1454 - 1455 - 1456 1457 1458 Decades: 1420s 1430s 1440s - 1450s - 1460s 1470s 1480s Centuries: 14th century - 15th century - 16th century Contents // 1 Events 2 Year in topics 3 Births 4 Deaths Events February 9 - Wars of the Roses: Richard, Duke of York dismissed as Protector February 23... 1455- Years: 1476 1477 1478 - 1479 - 1480 1481 1482 Decades: 1440s 1450s 1460s - 1470s - 1480s 1490s 1500s Centuries: 14th century - 15th century - 16th century Events January 20 - Ferdinand II ascends the throne of Aragon and rules together with his wife Isabella, queen of Castile over most of the Iberian peninsula. Together... 1479
  • Al-Mutawakkil II Years: 1476 1477 1478 - 1479 - 1480 1481 1482 Decades: 1440s 1450s 1460s - 1470s - 1480s 1490s 1500s Centuries: 14th century - 15th century - 16th century Events January 20 - Ferdinand II ascends the throne of Aragon and rules together with his wife Isabella, queen of Castile over most of the Iberian peninsula. Together... 1479- Years: 1494 1495 1496 - 1497 - 1498 1499 1500 Decades: 1460s 1470s 1480s - 1490s - 1500s 1510s 1520s Centuries: 14th century - 15th century - 16th century Events May 10 - Amerigo Vespucci allegedly leaves Cádiz for his first voyage to the New World. May 13 - Pope Alexander VI excommunicates Girolamo Savonarola. May 20... 1497
  • Al-Mustamsik Years: 1494 1495 1496 - 1497 - 1498 1499 1500 Decades: 1460s 1470s 1480s - 1490s - 1500s 1510s 1520s Centuries: 14th century - 15th century - 16th century Events May 10 - Amerigo Vespucci allegedly leaves Cádiz for his first voyage to the New World. May 13 - Pope Alexander VI excommunicates Girolamo Savonarola. May 20... 1497- Years: 1505 1506 1507 - 1508 - 1509 1510 1511 Decades: 1470s 1480s 1490s - 1500s - 1510s 1520s 1530s Centuries: 15th century - 16th century - 17th century Events February - Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor attacks Venice June 6 - Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor is defeated in Friulia by Venetian forces; he is forced to... 1508
  • Al-Mutawakkil III Years: 1505 1506 1507 - 1508 - 1509 1510 1511 Decades: 1470s 1480s 1490s - 1500s - 1510s 1520s 1530s Centuries: 15th century - 16th century - 17th century Events February - Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor attacks Venice June 6 - Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor is defeated in Friulia by Venetian forces; he is forced to... 1508- Years: 1514 1515 1516 - 1517 - 1518 1519 1520 Decades: 1480s 1490s 1500s - 1510s - 1520s 1530s 1540s Centuries: 15th century - 16th century - 17th century Events January 22 - Battle of Ridanieh. The Turkish forces of Selim I defeat the main Mamluk army in Egypt under Touman Bey. February 3 - Capture of Cairo... 1517

External link

  • http://www.princeton.edu/~batke/itl/denise/abbasids.htm
  • http://www.deremilitari.org/RESOURCES/sources/baghdad.htm
  • Abbasids the 2nd dynasty of caliphs (http://www.islamicarchitecture.org/dynasties/abbasids.html)

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Abbasids (2390 words)
The office of the caliph was nonetheless maintained as a symbol of the unity of Islam, and several later Abbasid caliphs tried to revive the power of the office.
Abbasid was the dynastic name generally given to the caliphs of Baghdad, the second of the two great dynasties of the Muslim empire.
The Abbasid caliphs officially based their claim to the throne on their descent from Abbas (AD 566-652), the eldest uncle of Muhammad, in virtue of which descent they regarded themselves as the rightful heirs of the Prophet as opposed to the Umayyads, the descendants of Umar.
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