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Encyclopedia > Abbasid
History of the Arab States
Arab Empire
Islamic Era
The Abbasid Caliphate
The Abbasid Caliphate

Abbasid (Arabic: العبّاسيّون, al-‘Abbāsīyūn) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. It was built by the descendant of Muhammad's youngest uncle, Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib. It seized power in 750 CE and shifted the capital from Damascus to Baghdad. It flourished for two centuries, but slowly went into decline with the rise to power of the Turkish army it had created, the Mamluks. Within 150 years of gaining power across Iran, they were forced to cede power to local dynastic amirs who only nominally acknowledged their power, and had to cede Al Andalus to an escaped Umayyad royal and the Maghreb and Ifriqiya to independent entities such as the Aghlabids and the Fatimids. Their rule was ended in 1258, when Hulagu Khan, the Mongol conqueror, sacked Baghdad. While they continued to claim authority in religious matters from their base in Egypt, the dynasty's secular authority had ended. Descendants of the Abbasids include the al-Abbasi tribe who live northeast of Tikrit in modern-day Iraq. The Arab Empire at its greatest extent The Arab Empire usually refers to the following Caliphates: Rashidun Caliphate (632 - 661) Umayyad Caliphate (661 - 750) - Successor of the Rashidun Caliphate Umayyad Emirate in Islamic Spain (750 - 929) Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in Islamic Spain (929 - 1031) Abbasid Caliphate (750-1258... The Arab Empire at its greatest extent The Arab Empire usually refers to the following Caliphates: Rashidun Caliphate (632 - 661) Umayyad Caliphate (661 - 750) - Successor of the Rashidun Caliphate Umayyad Emirate in Islamic Spain (750 - 929) Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in Islamic Spain (929 - 1031) Abbasid Caliphate (750-1258... The Arab Empire at its greatest extent The Arab Empire usually refers to the following Caliphates: Rashidun Caliphate (632 - 661) Umayyad Caliphate (661 - 750) - Successor of the Rashidun Caliphate Umayyad Emirate in Islamic Spain (750 - 929) Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in Islamic Spain (929 - 1031) Abbasid Caliphate (750-1258... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Islamic Empire (بلاد الإسلامية ) or Rashidun Empire or Rashidun Caliphate ( خلافت راشدہ)is the term conventionally used to describe the Islamic Arab Empire of the immediate successors of Muhammad the first four Caliphs who ruled after the death of Muhammad and are quoted as the Khulafah Rashidun. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-FātimiyyÅ«n (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ... Mashriq or Mashreq is the region of Arabic-speaking countries to the east of Egypt. ... “BCE” redirects here. ... The Tulunids were the first independent dynasty in Islamic Egypt (868-905). ... The Hamdanid dynasty was a Muslim Arab dynasty of northern Iraq (Al-Jazirah) and Syria (890-1004). ... The Ikhshidid dynasty of Egypt (sometimes transliterated other ways) ruled Egypt from 935 to 969. ... The Uqaylids (or Uqaylids) were a Muslim dynasty in what today is Iraq and Syria. ... The Zengid Dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Seljuk Turkish origin, which ruled parts of Northern Iraq and Syria during the 12th and 13th centuries. ... The Ayyubid or Ayyoubid Dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Kurdish[1] origins which ruled Egypt, Syria, Yemen (except for the Northern Mountains), Diyar Bakr, Mecca, Hejaz and northern Iraq in the 12th and 13th centuries. ... The Bahri dynasty or Bahriyya Sultanate المماليك البحرية was a Mamluk dynasty of Kipchak Turk origin that ruled Egypt from 1250 to 1382 when they were succeeded by the Burji dynasty, another group of Mamluks. ... The Burji dynasty ruled Egypt from 1382 until 1517. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Saadi Dynasty of Saadi Empire began with the reign of Sultan Mohammed I in 1554, and ended in 1659 with the end of the reign of Sultan Ahmad II. The Saadi family claimed descent from the Islamic prophet Muhammad, through the line of Ali ibn Abi Talib and Fatima... The Muhallabids were a dynasty of governers in Ifriqiya under the Abbasid Caliphate (771-793) Although subject to the Abbasids, they enjoyed a great deal of autonomy and were able to maintain Arab rule in the face of revolts by the Berbers. ... The Rustamid (or Rustumid, Rostemid) dynasty of Ibadi Kharijite imams ruled the central Maghreb for a century and a half from their capital Tahert, until destroyed by the Fatimids. ... The Idrisids were the first Arab dynasty in the western Maghreb, ruling from 788 to 985, and can be thought of as the originators of an independent Morocco. ... An Aghlabid cistern in Kairuan The Aghlabid dynasty of emirs, members of the Arab tribe of Bani Tamim, ruled Ifriqiya (northern Africa), nominally on behalf of the Abbasid Caliph, for about a century, until overthrown by the new power of the Fatimids. ... Almoravid Dynasty in its Greatest Extent The Almoravids (In Arabic المرابطون al-Murabitun, sing. ... Almohad Dynasty in its Greatest Extent, IN WRONG MAP The Almohad Dynasty (From Arabic الموحدون al-Muwahhidun, i. ... Hafsid dynasty in Ifriqiya (1229-1574) Significant Rulers: Abu Zakariyya Yahya I. (1229-1249) Muhammad I. al-Mustansir (1249-1277) Yahya II. al-Watiq (1277-1279) Ibrahim I. (1279-1283) Ibn Abi Umara (1283-1284) Abu Hafs Umar I. (1284-1295) Abu Bakr II. (1318-1346) Ishaq II. (1350-1369... Marinid Dynasty in its Greatest Extent, this map its wrong! The Anglicised name used for this article derives from the Arabic Banu Marin (also BenÄ« MerÄ«n, which is the source of the Spanish name). ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  This map its complete wrong! The Wattassids (وطاسيون waṭāsÄ«yÅ«n) or Banû Watâs (بنو الوطاس banÅ« al-waṭās) were a dynasty and Kingdom in the north of Morocco and part of Spain. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 429 pixelsFull resolution (821 × 440 pixel, file size: 36 KB, MIME type: image/png) {{CC-Layout}} {{Self|author=Arab League at en. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 429 pixelsFull resolution (821 × 440 pixel, file size: 36 KB, MIME type: image/png) {{CC-Layout}} {{Self|author=Arab League at en. ... Arabic redirects here. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, or global Islamic nation. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. ... The Arab Empire at its greatest extent The Arab Empire usually refers to the following Caliphates: Rashidun Caliphate (632 - 661) Umayyad Caliphate (661 - 750) - Successor of the Rashidun Caliphate Umayyad Emirate in Islamic Spain (750 - 929) Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in Islamic Spain (929 - 1031) Abbasid Caliphate (750-1258... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... al-Abbas ibn `Abd al-Muttalib, (566–652) was an uncle and Sahaba of Muhammad. ... Events Last Umayyad caliph Marwan II (744-750) overthrown by first Abbasid caliph, Abu al-Abbas al-Saffah Bold textItalic textLink title GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... A Mamluk cavalryman, drawn in 1810 A mamluk (Arabic: مملوك (singular), مماليك (plural), Turkish: Kölemen, owned; also transliterated mameluk, mameluke, or mamluke) was a slave soldier who was converted to Islam and served the Muslim caliphs and the Ayyubid sultans during the Middle Ages. ... Emir (also sometimes rendered as Amir or Ameer, Arabic commander) is a title of nobility historically used in Islamic nations of the Middle East and North Africa. ... Al-Andalus (Arabic: الأندلس al-andalus) was the Arabic name given to those parts of the Iberian Peninsula governed by Muslims at various times in the period between 711 and 1492. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... In medieval history, Ifriqiya or Ifriqiyah (Arabic: إفريقية) was the area comprising the coastal regions of what are today western Libya, Tunisia, and eastern Algeria. ... The Aghlabid dynasty of emirs ruled Ifriqiya (northern Africa), nominally on behalf of the Abbasid Caliph, for about a century, until overthrown by the new power of the Fatimids. ... The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-FātimiyyÅ«n (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ... Hulagu Khan, also known as Hulagu, Hülegü or Hulegu (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Chaghatay/Persian: ; Arabic:هولاكو; c. ... The name Mongols (Mongolian: Mongol) specifies one or several ethnic groups. ... Combatants Mongols Abbasid Caliphate Commanders Hulagu Khan Guo Kan Caliph Al-Mustasim Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown, but believed minimal Military, 50,000(est. ... Looking north along the Tigris towards Saddams Presidential palace in April 2003 Tikrit (تكريت, TikrÄ«t also transliterated as Takrit or Tekrit) is a town in Iraq, located 140 km northwest of Baghdad on the Tigris river (at 34. ...

Contents

The Rise

The Abbasid caliphs officially based their claim to the caliphate on their descent from Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib (AD 566662), one of the youngest uncles of Muhammad, by virtue of which descent they regarded themselves as the rightful heirs of Muhammad as opposed to the Umayyads. The Umayyads were descended from Umayya, and were a clan separate from Muhammad's in the Quraish tribe.
The Abbasids also distinguished themselves from the Umayyads by attacking their secularism, moral character, and administration in general. The Abbasids also appealed to non-Arab Muslims, known as mawali, who remained outside the kinship-based society of Arab culture and were perceived of as a lower class within the Umayyad empire. Muhammad ibn 'Ali, a great-grandson of Abbas, began to campaign for the return of power to the family of Muhammad, the Hashimites, in Persia during the reign of Umar II, Muhammad ibn Ali.
During the reign of Marwan II, this opposition culminated in the rebellion of Ibrahim the Imam, the fourth in descent from Abbas. Supported by the province of Khorasan, he achieved considerable successes, but was captured (AD 747) and died in prison — as some hold, assassinated. The quarrel was taken up by his brother Abdallah, known by the name of Abu al-'Abbas as-Saffah, who, with victory on the Greater Zab River (750), defeated the Umayyads and was proclaimed Caliph. A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... al-Abbas ibn `Abd al-Muttalib, (566–652) was an uncle and Sahaba of Muhammad. ... Events Births Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib, uncle of Muhammad Deaths Chen Wen Di, Chinese ruler of the Chen Dynasty Theodosius I, Patriarch of Alexandria. ... Events The regent Grimuald usurps the kingship of the Lombards, driving Perctarit into exile and killing Godepert Births Kakinomoto no Hitomaro, Japanese poet (approximate date) Deaths Maximus the Confessor, Byzantine theologian Godepert, king of the Lombards Categories: 662 ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... The Umayyad Dynasty (Arabic الأمويون / بنو أمية umawiyy; in Turkish, Emevi) was the first dynasty of caliphs of the Prophet Muhammad who were not closely related to Muhammad himself, though they were of the same Meccan tribe, the... This person is among the Sahabas ancestors Umayya ibn Abd Shams is whom the clan of Banu Umayyad is named. ... Quraish (Arabic: ‎ translit: ) is the Meccan tribe that the Islamic prophet Muhammad belonged to before he received the revelations of Islam. ... Mawali is a term in ancient Arabic used to address non-Arab Muslims. In the second half of the sixth century, the Malawi were considered the third class in society with the Sayyids at the top followed by the free tribesmen. ... Anthem SorÅ«d-e MellÄ«-e Īrān Â² Capital (and largest city) Tehran Official languages Persian Demonym Iranian Government Islamic Republic  -  Supreme Leader  -  President Unification  -  Unified by Cyrus the Great 559 BCE   -  Parthian (Arsacid) dynastic empire (first reunification) 248 BCE-224 CE   -  Sassanid dynastic empire 224–651 CE   -  Safavid dynasty... Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz (c. ... The Califate in 750 From The Historical Atlas by William R. Shepherd, 1923 Courtesy of The General Libraries, The University of Texas at Austin Marwan ibn Muhammad ibn Marwan or Marwan II (750-688) (Arabic: مروان ابن محمد ابن مروان) was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 744 until 750 when he was killed. ... Khorasan (Persian: خراسان) (also transcribed as Khurasan and Khorassan; Horasan in Turkish) is a region located in eastern Iran. ... Events Abu Muslim unites the Abbasid Empire against the Umayyads. ... Abu al-`Abbās `Abdullāh as-Saffāh ibn Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Abdullah ibn Abbas ibn Mutalib ibn Hashim (Arabic: أبو العباس عبد الله بن محمد السفاح, As-Saffah السفّاح literally means: the Slaughterer, in Arabic) ‎ (721 - 754) was the first Abbasid caliph. ... The Greater Zab River is a river found in northern Iraq and southeastern Turkey. ... Events Last Umayyad caliph Marwan II (744-750) overthrown by first Abbasid caliph, Abu al-Abbas al-Saffah Bold textItalic textLink title GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM...

Abbasid Caliphate (bright green) and contemporary states and empires in 820.
Abbasid Caliphate (bright green) and contemporary states and empires in 820.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x600, 41 KB) Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x600, 41 KB) Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid was the dynastic name generally given to the caliphs of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Muslim empire, that overthrew the Umayyid caliphs. ... Events Michael II succeeds Leo V as Byzantine Emperor The Historia Brittonum is written (approximate date) Births Rhodri Mawr (the Great), ruler of Gwynedd (Wales) (approximate date) Photius I, patriarch of Constantinople (approximate date) Deaths December 24: Leo V, Byzantine Emperor (assassinated) Shankara, Hinduist teacher Tang Xian Zong, emperor of...

The Fall

Political Situation

Consolidation and schisms


The first change the Abbasids made was to move the empire's capital from Damascus, in Syria, to Baghdad in Iraq. This was to both appease as well to be closer to the Persian mawali support base that existed in this region more influenced by Persian history and culture, and part of the Persian mawali demand for less Arab dominance in the empire. Baghdad was established on the Tigris River in 762 CE. A new position, that of the vizier, was also established to delegate central authority, and even greater authority was delegated to local emirs. Eventually, this meant that many Abbasid caliphs were eventually relegated to a more ceremonial role than under the Umayyads, as the viziers began to exert greater influence, and the role of the old Arab aristocracy was slowly replaced by a Persian bureaucracy.[1] Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... The Tigris (Old Persian: Tigr, Syriac Aramaic: Deqlath, Arabic: دجلة, Dijla, Turkish: Dicle; biblical Hiddekil) is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ... ik ben jaaapie A Vizier (Persian,وزير - wazÄ«r) (sometimes also spelled Vazir, Vizir, Vasir, Wazir, Vesir, or Vezir - grammatical vowel changes are common in many oriental languages), literally burden-bearer or helper, is a term, originally Persian, for a high-ranking political (and sometimes religious) advisor or minister, often to... ik ben jaaapie A Vizier (Persian,وزير - wazÄ«r) (sometimes also spelled Vazir, Vizir, Vasir, Wazir, Vesir, or Vezir - grammatical vowel changes are common in many oriental languages), literally burden-bearer or helper, is a term, originally Persian, for a high-ranking political (and sometimes religious) advisor or minister, often to...


Rift with the Arabs


The Abbasids had depended heavily on the support of Persians in their overthrow of the Umayyads. Abu al-'Abbas' successor, al-Mansur, moved their capital from Damascus to the new city of Baghdad and welcomed non-Arab Muslims to their court. While this helped integrate Arab and Persian cultures, it alienated many of their Arab supporters, particularly the Khorasanian Arabs who had supported them in their battles against the Umayyads.
This article is about the Abbasid Caliph Al Mansur of Baghdad. ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Khorasan (Persian: خراسان) (also transcribed as Khurasan and Khorassan; Horasan in Turkish) is a region located in eastern Iran. ...

Abbasid coins during Al-Mu'tamid's reign
Abbasid coins during Al-Mu'tamid's reign


These fissures in their support led to immediate problems. The Umayyads, while out of power, were not destroyed. The only surviving member of the Umayyad royal family, which had been all but annihilated, ultimately made his way to Spain where he established himself as an independent Emir (Abd ar-Rahman I, 756). In 929, Abd ar-Rahman III assumed the title of Caliph, establishing Al Andalus from Córdoba as a rival to Baghdad as the legitimate capital of the Islamic Empire. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about the Abbasid Caliph al-Mutamid of Baghdad. ... Entrance to the emirs palace in Bukhara. ... Abd ar-Rahman I Arabic: (عبد الرحمن الداخل), (known as the Falcon of Andalus or The Falcon of the Quraish)[1] (born 731; ruled from 756 through his death circa 788) was the founder of a Muslim dynasty that ruled the greater part of Iberia for nearly three centuries. ... Abd-ar-Rahman III, Emir and Caliph of Cordoba (912 - 961) was the greatest and the most successful of the princes of the Ummayad dynasty in Spain. ... Al-Andalus (Arabic: الأندلس al-andalus) was the Arabic name given to those parts of the Iberian Peninsula governed by Muslims at various times in the period between 711 and 1492. ... Location Coordinates : , , Time zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer : CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Córdoba (Spanish) Spanish name Córdoba Founded 8th century BC Postal code 140xx Website http://www. ...


Rift with the Shia


The Abbasids also found themselves at odds with the Shias, many of whom had supported their war against the Umayyads, since the Abbasids claimed legitimacy by their familial connection to Muhammed. Once in power, the Abbasids embraced Sunni Islam and disavowed any support for Shi'a beliefs. That led to numerous conflicts, culminating in an uprising in Mecca in 786, followed by widespread bloodshed and the flight of many Shi'a to the Maghreb, where the survivors established the Idrisid kingdom. Shortly thereafter, Berber Kharijites set up an independent state in North Africa in 801. Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... Events September 14 - Harun al-Rashid becomes the Abbasid caliph upon the death of his brother al-Hadi, and appoints Salim Yunisi as the Abbasid governor of Sindh and the Indus Valley A council is organized in Constantinople, but disturbed by soldiers Beatus of Liébana, Spanish monk, publishes his... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Idrisids were the first Arab dynasty in the western Maghreb, ruling from 788 to 985, and can be thought of as the originators of an independent Morocco. ... Kharijites were members of an Islamic sect in late 7th and early 8th century AD, concentrated in todays southern Iraq. ... Events December 28 - Louis the Vrome occupies Barcelona. ...


Loss of North Africa


Within 50 years the Idrisids in the Maghreb and Aghlabids of Ifriqiya and a little later the Tulunids and Ikshidids of Misr were effectively independent in Africa. The Idrisids were the first Arab dynasty in the western Maghreb, ruling from 788 to 985, and can be thought of as the originators of an independent Morocco. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... An Aghlabid cistern in Kairuan The Aghlabid dynasty of emirs, members of the Arab tribe of Bani Tamim, ruled Ifriqiya (northern Africa), nominally on behalf of the Abbasid Caliph, for about a century, until overthrown by the new power of the Fatimids. ... In medieval history, Ifriqiya or Ifriqiyah (Arabic: إفريقية) was the area comprising the coastal regions of what are today western Libya, Tunisia, and eastern Algeria. ... The Tulunids were the first independent dynasty in Islamic Egypt (868-905). ... The Ikhshidid dynasty of Egypt (sometimes transliterated other ways) ruled from 935 to 969. ...


Communication with Provinces


The Abbasid leadership had to work hard in the last half of the eighth century (750-800), under several competent caliphs and their viziers to overcome the political challenges created by the far flung nature of the empire, and the limited communication across it and usher in the administrative changes to keep order.[2] While the Byzantine Empire was fighting Abbasid rule in Syria and Anatolia, military operations during this period were minimal, as the caliphate focused on internal matters as local governors, who, as a matter of prodecure, operated mostly independently of central authority. The problem that the caliphs faced was that these governors had begun to exert greater autonomy, using their increasing power to make their positions hereditary.[1] Byzantine redirects here. ... Anatolia and Europe Anatolia (Turkish: from Greek: Ανατολία - Anatolia) is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ...


Fracture of Central Authority

Even by 820 CE, the Samanids had begun the process of exercising independent authority in Transoxiana and Greater Khorasan, the Shia Hamdanids in Northern Syria, and the successive Tahirid, Alid and Saffarid dynasties of Iran. By the early 10th century, the Abbasids almost lost control to the growing Persian faction known as the Buwayhids that replaced the Samanids as the Buwayhids were quietly able to assume real power in the bureaucracy at Baghdad.[1] The Samanids (875-999) (in Persian: Samanian) were a Persian dynasty in Central Asia and eastern Iran, named after its founder Saman Khoda. ... Map showing modern Transoxiana. ... Friday Mosque in Herat, a city which is known as The Pearl of Khorasan Greater Khorasan is a modern term for eastern territories of ancient Persia. ... Hamdanid Dynasty: Muslim Arab dynasty of northern Iraq (Al-Jazirah) and Syria (905-1004). ... The Tahirid dynasty ruled the northeastern Persian region of Khorasan between AD 821-873. ... The Alid dynasties descended from Ali ibn Abi Talib, son-in-law of Muhammad. ... The Saffarid dynasty of Persia ruled a short-lived empire centred on Seistan, a border district between modern-day Afghanistan and Iran, between AD 861-1003. ...

Independent Emirates rising in Abbasid Caliphate
Independent Emirates rising in Abbasid Caliphate


All these autonomous provinces slowly took on the characteristic of de facto states with hereditary rulers, armies, and revenues and operated under only nominal caliphal suzeranity, which may not necessarily be reflected by any contribution to the treasury.[2] The eventual rise of the Ghaznavid Empire and the Seljuks to displace all these factions marked the end of Abbasid political dominion over the area. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 390 pixelsFull resolution (1199 × 584 pixel, file size: 32 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 390 pixelsFull resolution (1199 × 584 pixel, file size: 32 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... The Ghaznavid Empire (سلسله غزنویان in Persian) was a state in the region of todays Afghanistan that existed from 962 to 1187. ... This article is about dynasty which ruled the political entity known as Great Seljuq Empire. ...


Loss of Power


Mahmud of Ghazni proclaimed the title of Sultan vs. the Emir that had been in more common usage, signifying the Ghaznavid Empire's independence from Caliphial authority even as a matter of form. By the 11th century, this was demonstrated by no longer mentioning the caliphs name in the Friday Khutba, or by striking it off from their coinage by the Seljuks, Sultanate of Rûm, Khwarezmshahs, Almoravids etc.[2] The Fatimids contested the Abbassids for even the titluar authority. The Buwayhids were then defeated in the mid-11th century by enlisting the aid of the Seljuks under Toghril Beg. The Seljuks however then themselves took over defacto lordship of the empire, and their leader bestowed the title by the caliph of the Sultan of the East and the West, reflecting his power, and exerted influence power over the Abbasids as a matter of form by publicly pledging allegiance to them leaving the Caliph in control of little actual territory beyond Baghdad.[2] Mahmud and Ayaz The Sultan is to the right, shaking the hand of the sheykh, with Ayaz standing behind him. ... Sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic title, with several historical meanings. ... The Ghaznavid Empire (سلسله غزنویان in Persian) was a state in the region of todays Afghanistan that existed from 962 to 1187. ... Khutba (خطبة) is an Arabic term referring to the Islamic sermon delivered either before the Friday Salah (see: Jumuah) and after the Eid Salat. ... This article is about dynasty which ruled the political entity known as Great Seljuq Empire. ... Sultanate controlling virtually all of Anatolia Capital Ä°znik Konya Political structure Empire Sultans  - 1060-1077 Kutalmish  - 1303-1308 Mesud II History  - Division from the Great Seljuk Empire 1077  - Internal struggles 1307 The Seljuk Sultanate of Rum was the Seljuk Turkish sultanate that ruled in direct lineage from 1077 to 1307... Shah is a Persian term for a monarch (king or emperor) that has been adopted in many other languages. ... Almoravides (From Arabic المرابطون sing. ... The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-FātimiyyÅ«n (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ... Toğrül (Tuğril or Toghrïl Beg; ca 990 - September 4, 1063) was the third ruler of the Seljuk dynasty. ...


The end of the dynasty


Hulagu Khan sacked Baghdad on (February 10, 1258), causing great loss of life. Hulagu, and many others feared the ensuing a shock of nature, if the blood of Al-Musta'sim, the last reigning Abbasid caliphate in Baghdad, a direct descendent of Muhammads's uncle, was spilled. Despite having taken advice from Learned Shiites of Persia that no such calamity had happened after the deaths of John the Baptist, Jesus Christ, or the Shiite saint Hosein, as a precaution, Hulagu had Al-Musta'sim wrapped in a carpet and then trodden to death by horses on February 20, 1258. Al-Musta'sim family was also executed, with the lone exceptions of his youngest son and a daughter who were sent to Mongolia to be slaves in the harem of Hulagu.[3]
The Abbasids still maintained a feeble show of authority, confined to religious matters, in Egypt under the Mamluks, but the dynasty finally disappeared with Al-Mutawakkil III, who was carried away as a prisoner of the palace to Constantinople by Selim I where he only had ceremonial role, until his death when the Caliphate title was transferred to Selim I. Hulagu Khan, also known as Hulagu, Hülegü or Hulegu (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Chaghatay/Persian: ; Arabic:هولاكو; c. ... Combatants Mongols Abbasid Caliphate Commanders Hulagu Khan Guo Kan Caliph Al-Mustasim Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown, but believed minimal Military, 50,000(est. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... Al-Mustasim (d. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (or Mameluks) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim Caliphs and the Ottoman Empire, and who on more than one occasion seized power for... Al-Mutawakkil III, reigned 1508 to 1516, and 1517, was the last caliph of the Abbasid dynasty. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Selim I (Ottoman: سليم الأول, Turkish:) (also known as the Grim or the Brave, Yavuz in Turkish, the long name is Yavuz Sultan Selim)(October 10, 1465 – September 22, 1520) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1512 to 1520. ... Selim I (Ottoman: سليم الأول, Turkish:) (also known as the Grim or the Brave, Yavuz in Turkish, the long name is Yavuz Sultan Selim)(October 10, 1465 – September 22, 1520) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1512 to 1520. ...


Golden Age

Julius Köckert's painting of Harun al-Rashid receiving the delegation of Charlemagne demonstrates diplomatic contacts between their respective domains.
Julius Köckert's painting of Harun al-Rashid receiving the delegation of Charlemagne demonstrates diplomatic contacts between their respective domains.
Main article: Islamic Golden Age

At the same time, the Abbasids faced challenges closer to home. Former supporters of the Abbasids had broken away to create a separate kingdom around Khorosan in northern Persia. Harun al-Rashid (786809) turned on the Barmakids, a Persian family that had grown significantly in power within the administration of the state. Image File history File links Harun-Charlemagne. ... Image File history File links Harun-Charlemagne. ... Charlemagne (left) and Pippin the Hunchback. ... Photo taken from medieval manuscript by Qotbeddin Shirazi (1236–1311), a Persian Astronomer. ... Bold textItalic text == Headline text ==He was born a 4 headed man but 3 of his 4 heads died along with all but one of his 90 hearts. ... Events September 14 - Harun al-Rashid becomes the Abbasid caliph upon the death of his brother al-Hadi, and appoints Salim Yunisi as the Abbasid governor of Sindh and the Indus Valley A council is organized in Constantinople, but disturbed by soldiers Beatus of Liébana, Spanish monk, publishes his... Events Saga succeeds Heizei as emperor of Japan. ... The Barmakids (Persian: برمكيان Barmakīyān; Arabic: البرامكة al-barāmika, also called Barmecides) were a noble Persian family which attained great power under the Abbasid caliphs. ...


The Mamluks

In the 9th century, the Abbasids created an army loyal only to their caliphate, drawn mostly from Turkish slaves, known as Mamluks, with some Slavs and Berbers participating as well. This force, created in the reign of al-Ma'mun (813833), and his brother and successor al-Mu'tasim (833842), prevented the further distintegration of the empire. An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (or Mameluks) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim Caliphs and the Ottoman Empire, and who on more than one occasion seized power for... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... Abu Jafar al-Mamun ibn Harun (also spelled Almanon and el-Mâmoûn) (786 – October 10, 833) (المأمون) was an Abbasid caliph who reigned from 813 until his death in 833. ... Events June 22 - Byzantine Emperor Michael I is defeated in a war against the Bulgarians. ... Events End of the reign of caliph Al-Mamun Nimmyo succeeds Junna as emperor of Japan Creation of Great Moravia Births Deaths October 10 - al-Mamun, Abbasid caliph of Baghdad Categories: 833 ... Abu Ishaq al-Mutasim ibn Harun (أبو إسحاق المعتصم بن هارون , 794 – January 5, 842) was an Abbasid caliph (833 - 842). ... Events End of the reign of caliph Al-Mamun Nimmyo succeeds Junna as emperor of Japan Creation of Great Moravia Births Deaths October 10 - al-Mamun, Abbasid caliph of Baghdad Categories: 833 ... Events Oaths of Strasbourg — alliance of Louis the German and Charles the Bald against emperor Lothar — sworn and recorded in vernacular languages. ...


The Mamluk army, though often viewed negatively, both helped and hurt the caliphate. Early on, it provided the government with a stable force to deal with domestic and foreign problems. However, creation of this foreign army and al-Mu'tasim's transfer of the capital from Baghdad to Samarra created a division between the caliphate and the peoples they claimed to rule. In addition, the power of the Mamluks steadily grew until al-Radi (934941) was constrained to hand over most of the royal functions to Mahommed bin Raik. In the following years, the Buwayhids, who were Shi'ites, seized power over Baghdad, ruling central Iraq for more than a century. Map showing Samarra near Baghdad Sāmarrā (سامراء) is a town in Iraq ( ). It stands on the east bank of the Tigris in the Salah ad Din Governorate, 125 km north of Baghdad and, in 2002, had an estimated population of 201,700. ... Ar-Radi (d. ... Events The Goryeo army defeats Hubaekje forces in present-day Hongseong County. ... Events Oda the Severe becomes Archbishop of Canterbury Births Charles dOutremer son of Louis IV of France Deaths Categories: 941 ... The Buwayhids or Buyyids or Āl-i Buyeh, were a Yazdani tribal confederation from Daylam, a region on the southern shore of the Caspian Sea. ... Shī‘a Islam, also Shi‘ite Islam, or Shi‘ism (Arabic ) is the second largest denomination of the Islamic faith. ...


Science under the Abbasids

Further information: Alchemy (Islam)Islamic astronomyIslamic mathematics, and Islamic medicine
See also: Early Islamic philosophy, Inventions in the Muslim world, and Timeline of science and technology in the Islamic world

The reigns of Harun al-Rashid (786809) and his successors fostered an age of great intellectual achievement. In large part, this was the result of the schismatic forces that had undermined the Umayyad regime, which relied on the assertion of the superiority of Arab culture as part of its claim to legitimacy, and the Abbasids' welcoming of support from non-Arab Muslims. It is well established that the Abbasid caliphs modeled their administration on that of the Sassanids.[4] One Abbasid caliph is even quoted as saying:
Photo taken from medieval manuscript by Qotbeddin Shirazi (1236–1311), a Persian Astronomer. ... In the history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under the Islamic civilisation between the 8th and 15th centuries (the Islamic Golden Age). ... Alchemy in Islam differs from the general alchemy in certain ways, one of which is that Muslim alchemists didnt believe in the creation of life in the laboratory. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic science and astronomy. ... Islamic mathematics is the profession of Muslim Mathematicians. ... Umar Naeem SUCKS. In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine or Arabic medicine refers to medicine developed in the medieval Islamic civilisation. ... Early Muslim philosophy is considered influential in the rise of modern philosophy. ... A significant number of inventions were produced in the Muslim world, many of them with direct implications for Fiqh related issues. ... This timeline of science and technology in the Islamic world covers the development of science and technology in the Islamic world. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1680 × 2240 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1680 × 2240 pixel, file size: 2. ... Mustansiriya University is one of the oldest Islamic universities in the world, established in 1233 by the Abbasid Caliph al-Mustansir. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Bold textItalic text == Headline text ==He was born a 4 headed man but 3 of his 4 heads died along with all but one of his 90 hearts. ... Events September 14 - Harun al-Rashid becomes the Abbasid caliph upon the death of his brother al-Hadi, and appoints Salim Yunisi as the Abbasid governor of Sindh and the Indus Valley A council is organized in Constantinople, but disturbed by soldiers Beatus of Liébana, Spanish monk, publishes his... Events Saga succeeds Heizei as emperor of Japan. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate...

"The Persians ruled for a thousand years and did not need us Arabs even for a day. We have been ruling them for one or two centuries and cannot do without them for an hour."[5]


A number of medieval thinkers and scientists living under Islamic rule played a role in transmitting Islamic science to the Christian West. They contributed to making Aristotle known in Christian Europe. In addition, the period saw the recovery of much of the Alexandrian mathematical, geometric, and astronomical knowledge, such as that of Euclides and Claudius Ptolemy. These recovered mathematical methods were later enhanced and developed by other Islamic scholars, notably by Al-Biruni, and Abu Nasr Mansur.
Medicine was an area of science that advanced particularly during the Abbasids' reign. During the ninth century, Baghdad contained over 800 doctors, and great discoveries in the understanding of anatomy and diseases were made. The clinical distinction between measles and smallpox was discovered during this time. Famous scientist Ibn Sina (known to the West as Avicenna) produced treatises and works that summarized the vast amount of knowledge that scientists had accumulated, and is often known as the father of modern medicine. The work of him and many others directly influenced the research of European scientists during the Renaissance and even later.
Three speculative thinkers, al-Kindi, al-Farabi, and Avicenna, combined Aristotelianism and Neoplatonism with other ideas introduced through Islam. In the history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under the Islamic civilisation between the 8th and 15th centuries (the Islamic Golden Age). ... This article is about the philosopher. ... For other uses, see Euclid (disambiguation). ... This article is about the geographer, mathematician and astronomer Ptolemy. ... A statue of Biruni adorns the southwest entrance of Laleh Park in Tehran. ... Abu Nasr Mansur ibn Ali ibn Iraq (c. ... This article needs cleanup. ... (Persian: ابن سينا) (c. ... Abū-Yūsuf Ya’qūb ibn Ishāq al-Kindī (c. ... Al Farabi (870-950) was born of a Turkish family and educated by a Christian physician in Baghdad, and was himself later considered a teacher on par with Aristotle. ... (Persian: ابن سينا) (c. ... Aristotelianism is a tradition of philosophy that takes its defining inspiration from the work of Aristotle. ... Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is the modern term for a school of religious and mystical philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century AD, founded by Plotinus and based on the teachings of Plato and earlier Platonists. ...


List of Abbasid Caliphs

Abbasid Caliphs in Baghdad

An overview of the geneological history of the Abbasids. The names in bold are those of caliphs.

Abbasid Caliphs in Cairo Image File history File links Download high resolution version (690x812, 9 KB) Summary Author:Sameer Zaheer Source: ISBN 0521225523, (A History of Islamic Societies, by Ira Lapidus) used as guide. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (690x812, 9 KB) Summary Author:Sameer Zaheer Source: ISBN 0521225523, (A History of Islamic Societies, by Ira Lapidus) used as guide. ... Anglicized/Latinized version of the Arabic word خليفة or Khalifah, is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... Abu al-`Abbās `Abdullāh as-Saffāh ibn Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Abdullah ibn Abbas ibn Mutalib ibn Hashim (Arabic: أبو العباس عبد الله بن محمد السفاح, As-Saffah السفّاح literally means: the Slaughterer, in Arabic) ‎ (721 - 754) was the first Abbasid caliph. ... Events Last Umayyad caliph Marwan II (744-750) overthrown by first Abbasid caliph, Abu al-Abbas al-Saffah Bold textItalic textLink title GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM... Events February - Hildeprand succeeds Liutprand as king of the Lombards. ... pooperson he was the first bisexual man to have a heshe baby This article is abliph Al Mansur of Baghdad. ... Events Pope Stephen III crowns Pepin the short King of the Franks at St. ... Estimation: Baghdad, capital of the Abbasid Empire, becomes the largest city of the world, taking the lead from Changan, capital of China. ... Muhammad ibn Mansur al-Mahdi (ruled 775–785), was the third Abbasid Caliph. ... Estimation: Baghdad, capital of the Abbasid Empire, becomes the largest city of the world, taking the lead from Changan, capital of China. ... Events Widukind and many other Saxons are baptized. ... Abu Abdullah Musa ibn Mahdi al-Hadi (Arabic: أبو عبد الله موسى بن المهدي الهادي) (d. ... Events Widukind and many other Saxons are baptized. ... Events September 14 - Harun al-Rashid becomes the Abbasid caliph upon the death of his brother al-Hadi, and appoints Salim Yunisi as the Abbasid governor of Sindh and the Indus Valley A council is organized in Constantinople, but disturbed by soldiers Beatus of Liébana, Spanish monk, publishes his... Bold textItalic text == Headline text ==He was born a 4 headed man but 3 of his 4 heads died along with all but one of his 90 hearts. ... Events September 14 - Harun al-Rashid becomes the Abbasid caliph upon the death of his brother al-Hadi, and appoints Salim Yunisi as the Abbasid governor of Sindh and the Indus Valley A council is organized in Constantinople, but disturbed by soldiers Beatus of Liébana, Spanish monk, publishes his... Events Saga succeeds Heizei as emperor of Japan. ... Muhammad al-Amin ibn Harun al-Rashid (787–813) (Arabic: محمد الأمين بن هارون الرشيد), Abbasid Caliph. ... Events Saga succeeds Heizei as emperor of Japan. ... Events June 22 - Byzantine Emperor Michael I is defeated in a war against the Bulgarians. ... Abu Jafar al-Mamun ibn Harun (also spelled Almanon and el-Mâmoûn) (786 – October 10, 833) (المأمون) was an Abbasid caliph who reigned from 813 until his death in 833. ... Events June 22 - Byzantine Emperor Michael I is defeated in a war against the Bulgarians. ... Events End of the reign of caliph Al-Mamun Nimmyo succeeds Junna as emperor of Japan Creation of Great Moravia Births Deaths October 10 - al-Mamun, Abbasid caliph of Baghdad Categories: 833 ... Abu Ishaq al-Mutasim ibn Harun (أبو إسحاق المعتصم بن هارون , 794 – January 5, 842) was an Abbasid caliph (833 - 842). ... Events End of the reign of caliph Al-Mamun Nimmyo succeeds Junna as emperor of Japan Creation of Great Moravia Births Deaths October 10 - al-Mamun, Abbasid caliph of Baghdad Categories: 833 ... Events Oaths of Strasbourg — alliance of Louis the German and Charles the Bald against emperor Lothar — sworn and recorded in vernacular languages. ... Al-Wathiq ibn Mutasim (d. ... Events Oaths of Strasbourg — alliance of Louis the German and Charles the Bald against emperor Lothar — sworn and recorded in vernacular languages. ... Events Succession of Pope Leo IV, (847 - 855) Births Alfred the Great (d. ... Al-Mutawakkil Ala Allah Jafar bin al-Mutasim (821–861) (Arabic: المتوكل على الله جعفر بن المعتصم) was an Abbasid caliph who reigned (in Samarra) from 847 until 861. ... Events Succession of Pope Leo IV, (847 - 855) Births Alfred the Great (d. ... Events Carloman revolts against his father Louis the German. ... Al-Muntasir ( d. ... Events Carloman revolts against his father Louis the German. ... Events Rurik gained control of Novgorod. ... Al-Mustain (d. ... Events Rurik gained control of Novgorod. ... Events Fujiwara no Yoshifusa becomes regent of Japan, starting the Fujiwara regentship. ... Al-Mutazz (d. ... Events Fujiwara no Yoshifusa becomes regent of Japan, starting the Fujiwara regentship. ... Events Western Emperor Louis II allies with eastern Emperor Basil I against the Saracens. ... Al-Muhtadi (d. ... Events Western Emperor Louis II allies with eastern Emperor Basil I against the Saracens. ... Events February 28 - End of the Fourth Council of Constantinople. ... This article is about the Abbasid Caliph al-Mutamid of Baghdad. ... Events February 28 - End of the Fourth Council of Constantinople. ... Events Poppo of Thuringia, count of the march in Thuringia,is deposed by the German Carolingian king Arnulf of Carinthia Arnulf of Carinthia invades Great Moravia Duke Guido of Spoleto crowned Roman Emperor in April The former Silla general Gyeonhwon attacks the city of Gwangju and declares himself king. ... Al-Mutadid (857-902) (Arabic: المعتضد بالله) was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 892 to 902. ... Events Poppo of Thuringia, count of the march in Thuringia,is deposed by the German Carolingian king Arnulf of Carinthia Arnulf of Carinthia invades Great Moravia Duke Guido of Spoleto crowned Roman Emperor in April The former Silla general Gyeonhwon attacks the city of Gwangju and declares himself king. ... Events Births Deaths Categories: 902 ... Al-Muktafi (d. ... Events Births Deaths Categories: 902 ... Events Battle of Belach Mugna Births Deaths Categories: 908 ... Al-Muqtadir (Arabic: المقتدر ) (died 932) was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 908 to 932. ... Events Battle of Belach Mugna Births Deaths Categories: 908 ... Events Foundation of the St. ... Al-Qahir was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 932 to 934. ... Events Foundation of the St. ... Events The Goryeo army defeats Hubaekje forces in present-day Hongseong County. ... Ar-Radi (d. ... Events The Goryeo army defeats Hubaekje forces in present-day Hongseong County. ... Events Births Brian Boru, high king of Ireland Abul-Wafa, iranian mathematician Deaths ar-Radi (Caliph of Baghdad) Athelstan, who was succeeded by his half-brother, Edmund Categories: 940 ... Al-Muttaqi (Arabic: المتقي) was the Abbasid caliph in Baghdad from 940 to 944. ... Events Births Brian Boru, high king of Ireland Abul-Wafa, iranian mathematician Deaths ar-Radi (Caliph of Baghdad) Athelstan, who was succeeded by his half-brother, Edmund Categories: 940 ... Events City of Algiers (re)founded by the Zirid king Buluggin ibn Ziri Abu Yazid launches a rebellion against the Fatimids in the Aures mountains. ... Al-Mustakfi was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 944 to 946. ... Events City of Algiers (re)founded by the Zirid king Buluggin ibn Ziri Abu Yazid launches a rebellion against the Fatimids in the Aures mountains. ... Events Eadred I succeeds his brother as king of England End of the reign of Emperor Suzaku of Japan Emperor Murakami ascends the throne of Japan Births Deaths May 26 - King Edmund I of England Abu-Bakr Muhammad ben Yahya as-Suli Categories: 946 ... Al-Muti (or Obedient to the Lord) (Arabic: المطيع) was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 946 to 974. ... Events Eadred I succeeds his brother as king of England End of the reign of Emperor Suzaku of Japan Emperor Murakami ascends the throne of Japan Births Deaths May 26 - King Edmund I of England Abu-Bakr Muhammad ben Yahya as-Suli Categories: 946 ... Events Antipope Boniface VII succeeds Pope Benedict VI. The Byzantine Empire retakes Syria including Aleppo from the Abbasids. ... Al-Tai was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 974 to 991. ... Events Antipope Boniface VII succeeds Pope Benedict VI. The Byzantine Empire retakes Syria including Aleppo from the Abbasids. ... Events Battle of Maldon Sweyn I of Denmark recovers his throne Births Deaths Theophanu, empress, mother of Otto III Emperor Enyu of Japan Categories: 991 ... Al-Qadir (d. ... Events Battle of Maldon Sweyn I of Denmark recovers his throne Births Deaths Theophanu, empress, mother of Otto III Emperor Enyu of Japan Categories: 991 ... Events Collapse of the Moorish Caliphate of Córdoba. ... Al-Qaim (Arabic: القائم) (d. ... Events Collapse of the Moorish Caliphate of Córdoba. ... Events Revolt of the Earls. ... Al-Muqtadi (d. ... Events Revolt of the Earls. ... // May - El Cid completes his conquest of Valencia, Spain, and begins his rule of Valencia. ... Al-Mustazhir (d. ... // May - El Cid completes his conquest of Valencia, Spain, and begins his rule of Valencia. ... Events Knights Templar founded Baldwin of Le Bourg succeeds his cousin Baldwin I as king of Jerusalem John II Comnenus succeeds Alexius I as Byzantine emperor Gelasius II succeeds Paschal II as pope Births November 28 - Manuel I Comnenus, Byzantine Emperor (died 1180) Andronicus I Comnenus, Byzantine Emperor (died 1185... Al-Mustarshid (d. ... Events Knights Templar founded Baldwin of Le Bourg succeeds his cousin Baldwin I as king of Jerusalem John II Comnenus succeeds Alexius I as Byzantine emperor Gelasius II succeeds Paschal II as pope Births November 28 - Manuel I Comnenus, Byzantine Emperor (died 1180) Andronicus I Comnenus, Byzantine Emperor (died 1185... Events January - Byland Abbey founded Stephen of Blois succeeds King Henry I. Empress Maud, daughter of Henry I and widow of Henry V opposed Stephen and claims the throne as her own Owain Gwynedd of Wales defeats the Normans at Crug Mawr. ... Caliph Harun al-Rashid (Arabic: الرشيد ) was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 1135 to 1136. ... Events January - Byland Abbey founded Stephen of Blois succeeds King Henry I. Empress Maud, daughter of Henry I and widow of Henry V opposed Stephen and claims the throne as her own Owain Gwynedd of Wales defeats the Normans at Crug Mawr. ... Events Completion of the Saint Denis Basilica in Paris Peter Abelard writes the Historia Calamitatum, detailing his relationship with Heloise People of Novgorod rebel against the hereditary prince Vsevolod and depose him Births Amalric I of Jerusalem William of Newburgh, English historian (died 1198) Deaths November 15 - Margrave Leopold III... Al-Muqtafi (Arabic: المكتفى) (d. ... Events Completion of the Saint Denis Basilica in Paris Peter Abelard writes the Historia Calamitatum, detailing his relationship with Heloise People of Novgorod rebel against the hereditary prince Vsevolod and depose him Births Amalric I of Jerusalem William of Newburgh, English historian (died 1198) Deaths November 15 - Margrave Leopold III... Events Eric IX of Sweden is succeeded by Karl Sverkersson. ... Al-Mustanjid (d. ... Events Eric IX of Sweden is succeeded by Karl Sverkersson. ... December 29: Assassination of Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, in Canterbury cathedral City of Dublin captured by the Normans According to folklore, the Welsh prince Madoc sailed to North America and founded a colony. ... Al-Mustadi (d. ... December 29: Assassination of Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, in Canterbury cathedral City of Dublin captured by the Normans According to folklore, the Welsh prince Madoc sailed to North America and founded a colony. ... Events April 13 - Frederick Barbarossa issues the Gelnhausen Charter November 18 - France Emperor Antoku succeds Emperor Takakura as emperor of Japan Afonso I of Portugal is taken prisoner by Ferdinand II of Leon Artois is annexed by France Prince Mochihito amasses a large army and instigates the Genpei War between... An-Nasir (d. ... Events April 13 - Frederick Barbarossa issues the Gelnhausen Charter November 18 - France Emperor Antoku succeds Emperor Takakura as emperor of Japan Afonso I of Portugal is taken prisoner by Ferdinand II of Leon Artois is annexed by France Prince Mochihito amasses a large army and instigates the Genpei War between... // The Teutonic Order is expelled from Transylvania. ... Az-Zahir was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 1225 to 1226. ... // The Teutonic Order is expelled from Transylvania. ... Events Carmelite Order approved by Pope Honorius III Frederick II calls Imperial Diet of Cremona Births June 21 - King Boleslaus V of Poland (died 1279) Abul-Faraj, Syriac scholar (died 1286) Bar-Hebraeus, Syriac historian and bishop (died 1286) Deaths March 7 - William de Longespee, 3rd Earl of Salisbury, English... Al-Mustansir was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 1226 to 1242. ... Events Carmelite Order approved by Pope Honorius III Frederick II calls Imperial Diet of Cremona Births June 21 - King Boleslaus V of Poland (died 1279) Abul-Faraj, Syriac scholar (died 1286) Bar-Hebraeus, Syriac historian and bishop (died 1286) Deaths March 7 - William de Longespee, 3rd Earl of Salisbury, English... // Events April 5 - During a battle on the ice of Chudskoye Lake, Russian forces rebuff an invasion attempt by the Teutonic Knights. ... Al-Mustasim (d. ... // Events April 5 - During a battle on the ice of Chudskoye Lake, Russian forces rebuff an invasion attempt by the Teutonic Knights. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ...

Al-Mustansir II of Cairo was an Abbasid Caliph of Cairo, Egypt for the Mamluk Sultans between 1261 and 1262. ... Events July 25 - Constantinople re-captured by Nicaean forces under the command of Michael VIII Palaeologus, Byzantine Empire re-formed August 29 - Urban IV becomes Pope, the last man to do so without being a Cardinal first Bela IV of Hungary repels Tatar invasion Charles of Anjou given rule of... Events Strasbourg becomes a Free City of the Holy Roman Empire First Visconti become the lord of Iceland swear fealty to the king of Norway, bringing an end to the Icelandic Commonwealth Births Ladislaus IV of Hungary Deaths Monarchs/Presidents Aragon - James I King of Aragon and count of Barcelona... Al-Hakim I of Cairo was an Abbasid Caliph of Cairo, Egypt for the Mamluk Sultans between 1262 and 1302. ... Events Strasbourg becomes a Free City of the Holy Roman Empire First Visconti become the lord of Iceland swear fealty to the king of Norway, bringing an end to the Icelandic Commonwealth Births Ladislaus IV of Hungary Deaths Monarchs/Presidents Aragon - James I King of Aragon and count of Barcelona... Events July 11 - Battle of the Golden Spurs (Guldensporenslag in Dutch), major victory of Flanders over the French occupier. ... Al-Mustakfi I of Cairo was an Abbasid Caliph of Cairo, Egypt for the Mamluk Sultans between 1303 and 1340. ... // Events 24 February: Battle of Roslin 20 April: Pope Boniface VIII founds the University of Rome La Sapienza Edward I of England reconquers Scotland (see also: William Wallace, Wars of Scottish Independence) The Khilji Dynasty conquers time travel Births Saint Birgitta, Swedish saint (died 1373) Gegeen Khan, Mongol emperor of... Events Europe has about 74 million inhabitants. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Events Europe has about 74 million inhabitants. ... Events The Queens College, a constituent college of the University of Oxford, is founded. ... Al-Hakim II (died 1352) was the Abbasid Caliph in Cairo from 1341 to 1352. ... Events The Queens College, a constituent college of the University of Oxford, is founded. ... Events June 4 - Glarus joins the Swiss Confederation. ... Al-Mutadid I of Cairo was an Abbasid Caliph of Cairo, Egypt for the Mamluk Sultans between 1352 and 1362. ... Events June 4 - Glarus joins the Swiss Confederation. ... Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Decades: 1310s 1320s 1330s 1340s 1350s - 1360s - 1370s 1380s 1390s 1400s 1410s Years: 1357 1358 1359 1360 1361 - 1362 - 1363 1364 1365 1366 1367 See also: 1362 state leaders Events Under Edward III, English replaces French as Englands national language, for the... Al-Mutawakkil I of Cairo was an Abbasid Caliph of Cairo, Egypt for the Mamluk Sultans between 1362 and 1383. ... Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Decades: 1310s 1320s 1330s 1340s 1350s - 1360s - 1370s 1380s 1390s 1400s 1410s Years: 1357 1358 1359 1360 1361 - 1362 - 1363 1364 1365 1366 1367 See also: 1362 state leaders Events Under Edward III, English replaces French as Englands national language, for the... Year 1383 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Al-Watiq II of Cairo was an Abbasid Caliph of Cairo, Egypt for the Mamluk Sultans between 1383 and 1386. ... Year 1383 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Year 1386 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Al-Mutasim of Cairo was an Abbasid Caliph of Cairo, Egypt for the Mamluk Sultans between 1386 and 1389. ... Year 1386 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Events February 24 - Margaret I defeats Albert in battle, thus becoming ruler of Denmark, Norway and Sweden June 28 - Battle of Kosovo between Serbs and Ottomans. ... Al-Mutawakkil I of Cairo was an Abbasid Caliph of Cairo, Egypt for the Mamluk Sultans between 1362 and 1383. ... Events Construction of Forbidden City begins in Beijing. ... Al-Mustain of Cairo was an Abbasid Caliph of Cairo, Egypt for the Mamluk Sultans between 1406 and 1414. ... Events Construction of Forbidden City begins in Beijing. ... // Events Council of Constance begins. ... Al-Mutadid II of Cairo was an Abbasid Caliph of Cairo, Egypt for the Mamluk Sultans between 1414 and 1441. ... // Events Council of Constance begins. ... This page is about the year 1441. ... Al-Mustakfi II of Cairo was an Abbasid Caliph of Cairo, Egypt for the Mamluk Sultans between 1441 and 1451. ... This page is about the year 1441. ... // Events February 3 - Murad II, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire dies and is succeeded by his son Mehmed II. April 11 - Celje acquires market-town status and town rights by orders from the Celje count Frederic II. June 30 - French troops under the Comte de Dunois invade Guyenne and capture... Al-Qaim of Cairo was an Abbasid Caliph of Cairo, Egypt for the Mamluk Sultans between 1451 and 1455. ... // Events February 3 - Murad II, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire dies and is succeeded by his son Mehmed II. April 11 - Celje acquires market-town status and town rights by orders from the Celje count Frederic II. June 30 - French troops under the Comte de Dunois invade Guyenne and capture... ... no changes . ... Al-Muatanjid of Cairo was an Abbasid Caliph of Cairo, Egypt for the Mamluk Sultans between 1455 and 1479. ... ... no changes . ... Events January 20 - Ferdinand II ascends the throne of Aragon and rules together with his wife Isabella, queen of Castile over most of the Iberian peninsula. ... Al-Mutawakkil II of Cairo was an Abbasid Caliph of Cairo, Egypt for the Mamluk Sultans between 1479 and 1497. ... Events January 20 - Ferdinand II ascends the throne of Aragon and rules together with his wife Isabella, queen of Castile over most of the Iberian peninsula. ... 1497 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Al-Mustamsik of Cairo was an Abbasid Caliph of Cairo, Egypt for the Mamluk Sultans between 1497 and 1508. ... 1497 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1508 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Al-Mutawakkil III, reigned 1508 to 1516, and 1517, was the last caliph of the Abbasid dynasty. ... 1508 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1517 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Applied History Research Group , University of Calagary, "[http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/islam/fractured/ The Islamic World to 1600", Last accessed August 26, 2006
  2. ^ a b c d Brauer, Ralph W, Boundaries and Frontiers in Medieval Muslim Geography, Diane Publishing Co., Dec 1, 1995, ISBN 0-87169-856-0, pg 7-10.
  3. ^ Annals of history: Invaders: Destroying Baghdad by Ian Frazier, in The New Yorker 25 April 2005
  4. ^ Hamilton Gibb. Studies on the civilization of Islam. Princeton University Press. 1982. ISBN 0-691-05354-5 p.66
  5. ^ Bertold Spuler. The Muslim World. Vol.I The Age of the Caliphs. Leiden. E.J. Brill. 1960 ISBN 0-685-23328-6 p.29

For other uses, see New Yorker. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sir Hamilton Alexander Rosskeen Gibb, (2 January 1895 - 22 October 1971), also commonly referred to as H. A. R. Gibb, was a Scottish scholar of Islam and the Middle East. ...

References

Wikisource has an original article from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica about:
Abbasids
  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

External links

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Rashidun Caliphate The Umayyads of Damascus The Abbasids of Baghdad Abbasid branch of Cairo The Ottoman Caliphs
Umayyad branch of Córdoba
The Fatimids of Cairo

  Results from FactBites:
 
Abbasid. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (412 words)
The head of the Abbasid family became caliph as Abu al-Abbas as-Saffah late in 749.
The early years of Abbasid rule were brilliant, rising to true splendor under Harun al-Rashid, the fifth caliph, and to intellectual brilliance under his son al-Mamun (see Mamun, al-), the seventh caliph.
The conquests of Jenghiz Khan further lowered the prestige of the Abbasids, and in 1258 his grandson Hulagu Khan sacked Baghdad and overthrew the Abbasid caliphate.
Abbasids (403 words)
The Abbasids were all of one big family that claimed to descend from Abbas, an uncle of Muhammad.
The Shi'is of the period rejected the legitimacy of the Abbasid leadership.
In political terms, the Abbasid Caliphs became puppets in the hands of the Turkish military troops, and in 935 the title Emiru l-Umara was transferred to the chief of the Turkish soldiers.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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