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Encyclopedia > Abassids
Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid
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Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid

Abbasid (Arabic: العبّاسيّون Abbāsīyūn) was the dynastic name generally given to the caliphs of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Islamic empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs. It seized power in 750, when it finally defeated the Umayyads in battle, and flourished for two centuries, but slowly went into decline with the rise to power of the Turkish army they had created, the Mamluks. Their rule was finally ended in 1258, when Hulagu Khan, the Mongol conqueror, sacked Baghdad. While they continued to claim authority in religious matters from their base in Egypt, the dynasty's secular authority had ended. Descendants of the Abbasids live in modern day Iraq. ( The copyright status of this work is difficult or impossible to determine. ... ( The copyright status of this work is difficult or impossible to determine. ... Persian miniature depicting HārÅ«n ar-RashÄ«d. ... The Arabic language (Arabic: ‎ transliterated: ), or simply Arabic (Arabic: ‎ transliterated: ), is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... Caliph is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... Location of Baghdad within Iraq Baghdad (Arabic: ‎ translit: , Kurdish: Bexda, from Persian Baagh-daad or Bag-Da-Du meaning “Garden of God” [1]) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( â–¶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... The Umayyad Dynasty (Arabic الأمويون / بنو أمية umawiyy; in Turkish, Emevi) was the first dynasty of caliphs of the Prophet Muhammad who were not closely related to Muhammad himself, though they were of the same Meccan tribe, the Quraish. ... Caliph is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... Events Last Umayyad caliph Marwan II (744-750) overthrown by first Abbasid caliph, Abu al-Abbas al-Saffah Bold textItalic textLink title GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM... An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (or Mameluks) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim Caliphs and the Ottoman Empire, and who on more than one occasion seized power for themselves. ... Hulagu Khan (also known as Hülegü, and Hulegu) (1217 – 8 February 1265) was a Mongol ruler who conquered much of Southwest Asia. ... The Mongols are an ethnic group that originated in what is now Mongolia, Russia, and China. ...

Contents


Revolt against the Umayyads

The Abbasid caliphs officially based their claim to the Caliphate on their descent from Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib (AD 566-652), one of the youngest uncles of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, by virtue of which descent they regarded themselves as the rightful heirs of Muhammad as opposed to the Umayyads. The Umayyads were descended from Umayya, and were a clan separate from Muhammad's in the Quraish tribe. Caliph is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... al-Abbas ibn `Abd al-Muttalib, (566–652) was an uncle and Sahaba of Muhammad. ... Events Births Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib, uncle of Muhammad Deaths Chen Wen Di, Chinese ruler of the Chen Dynasty Theodosius I, Patriarch of Alexandria. ... Events Khazaria becomes an independent state (approximate date) Rodoald succeeds his father Rothari as king of the Lombards Births Clotaire III, king of the Franks Deaths Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib, uncle of Muhammed, progenitor of the Abbasids Saint Ida of Nivelles, widow of Pippin of Landen, monastic foundress Rothari... For other people named Muhammad, see Muhammad (disambiguation). ... The Umayyad Dynasty (Arabic الأمويون / بنو أمية umawiyy; in Turkish, Emevi) was the first dynasty of caliphs of the Prophet Muhammad who were not closely related to Muhammad himself, though they were of the same Meccan tribe, the Quraish. ... This person is among the Sahabas ancestors Umayya ibn Abd Shams is whom the clan of Banu Umayyad is named. ... Quraish (Arabic: ‎ translit: ) is the Meccan tribe that the Islamic prophet Muhammad belonged to before he received the revelations of Islam. ...


The Abbasids also distinguished themselves from the Umayyads by attacking their secularism, moral character, and administration in general. The Abbasids also appealed to non-Arab Muslims, known as mawali, who remained outside the kinship-based society of Arab culture and were perceived of as a lower class within the Umayyad empire. Muhammad ibn 'Ali, a great-grandson of Abbas, began to campaign for the return of power to the family of the prophet Muhammad, the Hashimites, in Persia during the reign of Umar II, Muhammad ibn Ali. Mawali is a term in ancient Arabic used to address non-Arab Muslims. In the second half of the sixth century, the Malawi were considered the third class in society with the Sayyids at the top followed by the free tribesmen. ... Motto: Persian: Esteqlāl, āzādÄ«, jomhÅ«rÄ«-ye eslāmÄ« (English: Independence, freedom, (the) Islamic Republic) Anthem: SorÅ«d-e MellÄ«-e Īrān Capital Tehran Largest city Tehran Official language(s) Persian Government Islamic Republic  - Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei  - President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad Revolution Overthrew Mohammad Reza Pahlavi   - Declared... Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz (c. ...


During the reign of Marwan II, this opposition culminated in the rebellion of Ibrahim the Imam, the fourth in descent from Abbas. Supported by the province of Khorasan, he achieved considerable successes, but was captured (AD 747) and died in prison (as some hold, assassinated). The quarrel was taken up by his brother Abdallah, known by the name of Abu al-'Abbas as-Saffah, who, after a decisive victory on the Greater Zab River (750), finally crushed the Umayyads and was proclaimed Caliph. The Califate in 750 From The Historical Atlas by William R. Shepherd, 1923 Courtesy of The General Libraries, The University of Texas at Austin Marwan ibn Muhammad ibn Marwan or Marwan II (750-688) (Arabic: مروان ابن محمد ابن مروان) was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 744 until 750 when he was killed. ... Khorasan (also spelled Khurasan and Khorassan; Xorasan or Xurasan in Kurdish; خراسان in Persian) is an area, located in eastern and northeastern Iran. ... Events Abu Muslim unites the Abbasid Empire against the Umayyads. ... Abu al-Abbas Abdullah ibn Muhammad as-Saffah (721 - 754) أبو العباس عبد الله بن محمد السفاح was the first Abbasid caliph. ... The Greater Zab River is a river found in northern Iraq and southeastern Turkey. ... Events Last Umayyad caliph Marwan II (744-750) overthrown by first Abbasid caliph, Abu al-Abbas al-Saffah Bold textItalic textLink title GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM...


Consolidation and schisms

The Abbasids had depended heavily on the support of Persians in their overthrow of the Umayyads. Abu al-'Abbas' successor, al-Mansur, moved their capital from Damascus to the new city of Baghdad and welcomed non-Arab Muslims to their court. While this helped integrate Arab and Persian cultures, it alienated many of their Arab supporters, particularly the Khorasanian Arabs who had supported them in their battles against the Umayyads. This article is about the Abbasid Caliph Al Mansur of Baghdad. ... Damascus by night, pictured from Jabal Qasioun; the green spots are minarets Damascus (Arabic: ‎ translit: Also commonly: الشام ash-Shām) is the capital and largest city of Syria. ... Location of Baghdad within Iraq Baghdad (Arabic: ‎ translit: , Kurdish: Bexda, from Persian Baagh-daad or Bag-Da-Du meaning “Garden of God” [1]) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Khorasan (also spelled Khurasan and Khorassan; Xorasan or Xurasan in Kurdish; خراسان in Persian) is an area, located in eastern and northeastern Iran. ...

Abbasid coins during Harun al-Rashid's reign
Abbasid coins during Harun al-Rashid's reign

These fissures in their support led to immediate problems. The Umayyads, while out of power, were not destroyed. The only surviving member of the Umayyad royal family, which had been all but annihilated, ultimately made his way to Spain where he established himself as an independent Emir (Abd ar-Rahman I, 756). In 929, Abd ar-Rahman III assumed the title of Caliph, establishing Córdoba as a rival to Baghdad as the legitimate capital of the Islamic Empire. This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. ... Persian miniature depicting HārÅ«n ar-RashÄ«d. ... Entrance to the emirs palace in Bukhara. ... Abd ar-Rahman I (Arabic: عبد الرحمان) (ruled 756-788) was the founder of a Muslim dynasty that ruled Spain for nearly three centuries. ... Abd-ar-Rahman III, Emir and Caliph of Cordoba (912 - 961) was the greatest and the most successful of the princes of the Ummayad dynasty in Spain. ... Location within Europe, Spain and Andalusia Córdoba, the Roman bridge and the Mosque-Cathedral View across the old Roman bridge towards the Mezquita Interior court of the Mezquita Córdoba is a city in Andalucía, southern Spain, and the capital of the province of Córdoba. ...


The Abbasids also found themselves at odds with the Shias, many of whom had supported their war against the Umayyads, since the Abbasids claimed legitimacy by their familial connection to Muhammed. Once in power, the Abbasids embraced Sunni Islam and disavowed any support for Shi'a beliefs. That led to numerous conflicts, culminating in an uprising in Mecca in 786, followed by widespread bloodshed and the flight of many Shi'a to the Maghreb, where the survivors established the Idrisid kingdom. Shortly thereafter Berber Kharijites set up an independent state in North Africa in 801. Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... Events September 14 - Harun al-Rashid becomes the Abbasid caliph upon the death of his brother al-Hadi, and appoints Salim Yunisi as the Abbasid governor of Sindh and the Indus Valley A council is organized in Constantinople, but disturbed by soldiers Beatus of Liébana, Spanish monk, publishes his... Marrakesh, Morocco, in front of Atlas Mountains in Maghreb The Maghreb (المغرب العربي ; also rendered Maghrib (or rarely Moghreb), meaning western in Arabic, is the region of Africa north of the Sahara Desert and west of the Nile — specifically, coinciding with the Atlas Mountains. ... The Idrisids were the first Arab dynasty in the western Maghreb, ruling from 788 to 985, and can be thought of as the originators of an independent Morocco. ... The Berbers (also called Imazighen, free men, singular Amazigh) are an ethnic group indigenous to Northwest Africa, speaking the Berber languages of the Afroasiatic family. ... Kharijites were members of an Islamic sect in late 7th and early 8th century AD, concentrated in todays southern Iraq. ... Events December 28 - Louis the Vrome occupies Barcelona. ...


At the same time the Abbasids faced challenges closer to home. The Byzantine Empire was fighting Abbasid rule in Syria and Anatolia. Former supporters of the Abbasids had broken away to create a separate kingdom around Khorosan in northern Persia. Harun al-Rashid (786 - 809) turned on the Barmakids, a Persian family that had grown significantly in power within the administration of the state. Byzantine Empire (Greek: Βυζαντινή Αυτοκρατορία) is the term conventionally used since the 19th century to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... Asia Minor lies east of the Bosporus, between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. ... Persian miniature depicting Hārūn ar-Rashīd. ... Events September 14 - Harun al-Rashid becomes the Abbasid caliph upon the death of his brother al-Hadi, and appoints Salim Yunisi as the Abbasid governor of Sindh and the Indus Valley A council is organized in Constantinople, but disturbed by soldiers Beatus of Liébana, Spanish monk, publishes his... Events Saga succeeds Heizei as emperor of Japan. ... The Barmakids, also called Barmecides, of Persian extraction, had originally been Buddhists, but shortly before the arrival of the Arabs, they had converted to Zoroastrianism. ...


The Mamluks

In the 9th century, the Abbasids created an army loyal only to their caliphate, drawn mostly from Turkish slaves, known as Mamluks, with some Slavs and Berbers participating as well. This force, created in the reign of al-Ma'mun (813 - 833), and his brother and successor al-Mu'tasim (833 - 842), prevented the further distintegration of the empire. An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (or Mameluks) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim Caliphs and the Ottoman Empire, and who on more than one occasion seized power for themselves. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... Abu Jafar al-Mamun ibn Harun (786 - October 10, 833) (المأمون) was an Abbasid caliph who reigned from 813 until his death in 833. ... Events June 22 - Byzantine Emperor Michael I is defeated in a war against the Bulgarians. ... Events End of the reign of caliph Al-Mamun Nimmyo succeeds Junna as emperor of Japan Creation of Great Moravia Births Deaths October 10 - al-Mamun, Abbasid caliph of Baghdad Categories: 833 ... Abu Ishaq al-Mutasim ibn Harun (أبو إسحاق المعتصم بن هارون , 794 – January 5, 842) was an Abbasid caliph (833 - 842). ... Events End of the reign of caliph Al-Mamun Nimmyo succeeds Junna as emperor of Japan Creation of Great Moravia Births Deaths October 10 - al-Mamun, Abbasid caliph of Baghdad Categories: 833 ... Events Oaths of Strasbourg — alliance of Louis the German and Charles the Bald against emperor Lothar — sworn and recorded in vernacular languages. ...


The Mamluk army, though often viewed negatively, both helped and hurt the caliphate. Early on, it provided the government with a stable force to deal with domestic and foreign problems. However, creation of this foreign army and al-Mu'tasim's transfer of the capital from Baghdad to Samarra created a division between the caliphate and the peoples they claimed to rule. In addition, the power of the Mamluks steadily grew until al-Radi (934 - 941) was constrained to hand over most of the royal functions to Mahommed bin Raik. In the following years, the Buwayhids, who were Shi'ites, seized power over Baghdad, ruling central Iraq for more than a century before being overthrown by the Seljuq Turks. In the same period, the Hamdanids, another Shi'ite dynasty, came to power in northern Iraq, leading to a tremendous expansion of Shi'a influence. In the process, the Abbasid caliphs became no more than figureheads. Map showing Samarra near Baghdad Sāmarrā (سامراء) is a town in Iraq (, ). It stands on the east bank of the Tigris in the province of Salah ad Din, 125 km north of Baghdad and, in 2002, had an estimated population of 201,700. ... Ar-Radi (d. ... Events The Goryeo army defeats Hubaekje forces in present-day Hongseong County. ... Events Oda the Severe becomes Archbishop of Canterbury Births Charles dOutremer son of Louis IV of France Deaths Categories: 941 ... The Buwayhids or Buyyids or Ä€l-i Buyeh, were a Yazdani tribal confederation from Daylam, a region on the southern shore of the Caspian Sea. ... Shia Islam, also Shi`ite Islam or Shi`ism (Arabic: ‎ transliterated: Persian: ‎ ) is the second largest denomination of the religion of Islam. ... The Seljuk Turks (Turkish: Selçuk; Arabic: سلجوق Saljūq, السلاجقة al-Salājiqa; Persian: سلجوقيان Saljūqiyān; also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that occupied parts of Central Asia and the Middle East from the 11th to 14th centuries. ... Hamdanid Dynasty: Muslim Arab dynasty of northern Iraq (Al-Jazirah) and Syria (905-1004). ...


Learning under the Abbasid dynasty

Julius Köckert's painting of Harun al-Rashid receiving the delegation of Charlemagne demonstrates diplomatic contacts between their respective domains.
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Julius Köckert's painting of Harun al-Rashid receiving the delegation of Charlemagne demonstrates diplomatic contacts between their respective domains.

The reigns of Harun al-Rashid (786 - 809) and his successors fostered an age of great intellectual achievement. In large part this was the result of the schismatic forces that had undermined the Umayyad regime, which relied on the assertion of the superiority of Arab culture as part of its claim to legitimacy, and the Abbasids' welcoming of support from non-Arab Muslims. It is well established that the Abbasid caliphs modeled their administration on that of the Sassanids.[1] One Abbasid caliph is even quoted as saying: Image File history File links Harun-Charlemagne. ... Image File history File links Harun-Charlemagne. ... Charlemagne (742 or 747 – 28 January 814) (also Charles the Great[1]; from Latin, Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus), son of King Pippin the Short and Bertrada of Laon, was the king of the Franks from 768 to 814 and king of the Lombards from 774 to 814. ... Persian miniature depicting Hārūn ar-Rashīd. ... Events September 14 - Harun al-Rashid becomes the Abbasid caliph upon the death of his brother al-Hadi, and appoints Salim Yunisi as the Abbasid governor of Sindh and the Indus Valley A council is organized in Constantinople, but disturbed by soldiers Beatus of Liébana, Spanish monk, publishes his... Events Saga succeeds Heizei as emperor of Japan. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate...

"The Persians ruled for a thousand years and did not need us Arabs even for a day. We have been ruling them for one or two centuries and cannot do without them for an hour."[2]

A number of medieval thinkers and scientists living under Islamic rule played a role in transmitting Greek, Hindu, and other pre-Islamic knowledge to the Christian West. They contributed to making Aristotle known in Christian Europe. In addition, the period saw the recovery of much of the Alexandrian mathematical, geometric and astronomical knowledge, such as that of Euclides and Claudius Ptolemy. These recovered mathematical methods were later enhanced and developed by other Islamic scholars, notably by Al-Biruni, and Abu Nasr Mansur. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Media:Example. ... Euclid Euclid of Alexandria (Greek: ) (ca. ... Claudius Ptolemaeus (Greek: ; c. ... Biruni commemorated on a Soviet stamp for his millennial anniversary. ... Abu Nasr Mansur ibn Ali ibn Iraq (c. ...


Medicine was an area of science that advanced particularly during the Abbasids' reign. During the ninth century Baghdad contained over 800 doctors, and great discoveries in the understanding of anatomy and diseases were made. The clinical distinction between measles and smallpox was discovered during this time. Famous scientist Ibn Sina (known to the West as Avicenna) produced treatises and works that summarized the vast amount of knowledge that scientists had accumulated, and is often known as the father of modern medicine. The work of him and many others directly influenced the research of European scientists during the Renaissance and even later.


Three speculative thinkers, al-Kindi, al-Farabi, and Avicenna, combined Aristotelianism and Neoplatonism with other ideas introduced through Islam. Abū-Yūsuf Ya’qūb ibn Ishāq al-Kindī (c. ... Al Farabi (870-950) was born of a Turkish family and educated by a Christian physician in Baghdad, and was himself later considered a teacher on par with Aristotle. ... The works of Avicenna, the greatest of the medieval Persian physicians, played a crucial role in the European Renaissance. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is a school of philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century A.D. Based on the teachings of Plato and the Platonists, it contained enough unique interpretations of Plato that some view Neoplatonism as substantively different from what Plato wrote and believed. ...


The end of the caliphate

Hulagu Khan sacked Baghdad on (February 10, 1258), causing great loss of life. Hulagu and many others feared an earthquake or other shock to nature occurring if the blood of Al-Musta'sim, the last reigning Abbasid caliphate in Baghdad, a direct descendent of Mohammed's uncle, was spilled. Despite having taken advice from Learned Shiites that no such calamity had happened after the deaths of John the Baptist, Jesus Christ, or the Shiite saint Hosein, as a precaution Hulagu had Al-Musta'sim wrapped in a carpet and then trodden to death by horses on February 20, 1258. Al-Musta'sim family was also executed, with the lone exceptions of his youngest son and a daughter who was sent to Mongolia to be a slave in the harem of Hulagu.[3] Hulagu Khan (also known as Hülegü, and Hulegu) (1217 – 8 February 1265) was a Mongol ruler who conquered much of Southwest Asia. ... Combatants Mongols Abbasid Caliphate Commanders Hulagu Khan Caliph Al-Mustasim Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown, but believed minimal Military, 50,000(est. ... February 10 is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... Al-Mustasim (d. ... February 20 is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ...


The Abbasids still maintained a feeble show of authority, confined to religious matters, in Egypt under the Mamluks, but the dynasty finally disappeared with Al-Mutawakkil III, who was carried away as a prisoner to Constantinople by Selim I. An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (or Mameluks) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim Caliphs and the Ottoman Empire, and who on more than one occasion seized power for themselves. ... Al-Mutawakkil III, reigned 1508 to 1516, and 1517, was the last caliph of the Abbasid dynasty. ... Map of Constantinople. ... Sultan Selim I Selim I (1465 – September 22, 1520); also known as the Grim or the Brave, (Yavuz in Turkish; Arabic: سليم الأول) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1512 to 1520. ...


Abbasid Caliphs of Baghdad

An overview of the geneological history of the Abbasids. The names in bold are those of caliphs.
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An overview of the geneological history of the Abbasids. The names in bold are those of caliphs.

Anglicized/Latinized version of the Arabic word خليفة or Khalifah, is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... Abu al-Abbas Abdullah ibn Muhammad as-Saffah (721 - 754) أبو العباس عبد الله بن محمد السفاح was the first Abbasid caliph. ... Events Last Umayyad caliph Marwan II (744-750) overthrown by first Abbasid caliph, Abu al-Abbas al-Saffah Bold textItalic textLink title GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM... Events Pope Stephen III crowns Pepin the short King of the Franks at St. ... Abu Jafar Abdullah ibn Muhammad al-Mansur (712 - 775) (Arabic: ابو جعفر عبدالله ابن محمد المنصور) was the Abbasid Caliph who founded Baghdad in 762. ... Events Pope Stephen III crowns Pepin the short King of the Franks at St. ... Events Leo IV succeeds Constantine V as Byzantine Emperor. ... Muhammad ibn Mansur al-Mahdi (ruled 775–785), was the third Abbasid Caliph. ... Events Leo IV succeeds Constantine V as Byzantine Emperor. ... Events Widukind and many other Saxons are baptized. ... Abu Abdullah Musa ibn Mahdi al-Hadi (Arabic: أبو عبد اله موسى بن ألمهدى الهادى ) (d. ... Events Widukind and many other Saxons are baptized. ... Events September 14 - Harun al-Rashid becomes the Abbasid caliph upon the death of his brother al-Hadi, and appoints Salim Yunisi as the Abbasid governor of Sindh and the Indus Valley A council is organized in Constantinople, but disturbed by soldiers Beatus of Liébana, Spanish monk, publishes his... Persian miniature depicting HārÅ«n ar-RashÄ«d. ... Events September 14 - Harun al-Rashid becomes the Abbasid caliph upon the death of his brother al-Hadi, and appoints Salim Yunisi as the Abbasid governor of Sindh and the Indus Valley A council is organized in Constantinople, but disturbed by soldiers Beatus of Liébana, Spanish monk, publishes his... Events Saga succeeds Heizei as emperor of Japan. ... Muhammad ibn Harun al-Amin (787 - 813), Abbasid Caliph. ... Events Saga succeeds Heizei as emperor of Japan. ... Events June 22 - Byzantine Emperor Michael I is defeated in a war against the Bulgarians. ... Abu Jafar al-Mamun ibn Harun (786 - October 10, 833) (المأمون) was an Abbasid caliph who reigned from 813 until his death in 833. ... Events June 22 - Byzantine Emperor Michael I is defeated in a war against the Bulgarians. ... Events End of the reign of caliph Al-Mamun Nimmyo succeeds Junna as emperor of Japan Creation of Great Moravia Births Deaths October 10 - al-Mamun, Abbasid caliph of Baghdad Categories: 833 ... Abu Ishaq al-Mutasim ibn Harun (أبو إسحاق المعتصم بن هارون , 794 – January 5, 842) was an Abbasid caliph (833 - 842). ... Events End of the reign of caliph Al-Mamun Nimmyo succeeds Junna as emperor of Japan Creation of Great Moravia Births Deaths October 10 - al-Mamun, Abbasid caliph of Baghdad Categories: 833 ... Events Oaths of Strasbourg — alliance of Louis the German and Charles the Bald against emperor Lothar — sworn and recorded in vernacular languages. ... Al-Wathiq ibn Mutasim (d. ... Events Oaths of Strasbourg — alliance of Louis the German and Charles the Bald against emperor Lothar — sworn and recorded in vernacular languages. ... Events Succession of Pope Leo IV, (847 - 855) Births Alfred the Great (d. ... Al-Mutawakkil Ala Allah Jafar bin al-Mutasim (821–861) (Arabic: المتوكل على الله جعفر بن المعتصم) was an Abbasid caliph who reigned (in Samarra) from 847 until 861. ... Events Succession of Pope Leo IV, (847 - 855) Births Alfred the Great (d. ... Events Carloman revolts against his father Louis the German. ... Al-Muntasir ( d. ... Events Carloman revolts against his father Louis the German. ... Events Rurik gained control of Novgorod. ... Al-Mustain (d. ... Events Rurik gained control of Novgorod. ... Events Fujiwara no Yoshifusa becomes regent of Japan, starting the Fujiwara regentship. ... Al-Mutazz (d. ... Events Fujiwara no Yoshifusa becomes regent of Japan, starting the Fujiwara regentship. ... Events Western Emperor Louis II allies with eastern Emperor Basil I against the Saracens. ... Al-Muhtadi (d. ... Events Western Emperor Louis II allies with eastern Emperor Basil I against the Saracens. ... Events February 28 - End of the Fourth Council of Constantinople. ... This article is about the Abbasid Caliph al-Mutamid of Baghdad. ... Events February 28 - End of the Fourth Council of Constantinople. ... Events Poppo of Thuringia, count of the march in Thuringia,is deposed by the German Carolingian king Arnulf of Carinthia Arnulf of Carinthia invades Great Moravia Duke Guido of Spoleto crowned Roman Emperor in April The former Silla general Gyeonhwon attacks the city of Gwangju and declares himself king. ... Al-Mutadid (d. ... Events Poppo of Thuringia, count of the march in Thuringia,is deposed by the German Carolingian king Arnulf of Carinthia Arnulf of Carinthia invades Great Moravia Duke Guido of Spoleto crowned Roman Emperor in April The former Silla general Gyeonhwon attacks the city of Gwangju and declares himself king. ... Events Births Deaths Categories: 902 ... Al-Muktafi (d. ... Events Births Deaths Categories: 902 ... Events Battle of Belach Mugna Births Deaths Categories: 908 ... Al-Muqtadir (d. ... Events Battle of Belach Mugna Births Deaths Categories: 908 ... Events Foundation of the St. ... Al-Qahir was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 932 to 934. ... Events Foundation of the St. ... Events The Goryeo army defeats Hubaekje forces in present-day Hongseong County. ... Ar-Radi (d. ... Events The Goryeo army defeats Hubaekje forces in present-day Hongseong County. ... Events Births Brian Boru, high king of Ireland Abul-Wafa, iranian mathematician Deaths ar-Radi (Caliph of Baghdad) Athelstan, who was succeeded by his half-brother, Edmund Categories: 940 ... Al-Muttaqi was the Abbasid caliph in Baghdad from 940 to 944. ... Events Births Brian Boru, high king of Ireland Abul-Wafa, iranian mathematician Deaths ar-Radi (Caliph of Baghdad) Athelstan, who was succeeded by his half-brother, Edmund Categories: 940 ... Events City of Algiers (re)founded by the Zirid king Buluggin ibn Ziri Abu Yazid launches a rebellion against the Fatimids in the Aures mountains. ... Al-Mustakfi was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 944 to 946. ... Events City of Algiers (re)founded by the Zirid king Buluggin ibn Ziri Abu Yazid launches a rebellion against the Fatimids in the Aures mountains. ... Events Eadred I succeeds his brother as king of England End of the reign of Emperor Suzaku of Japan Emperor Murakami ascends the throne of Japan Births Deaths May 26 - King Edmund I of England Abu-Bakr Muhammad ben Yahya as-Suli Categories: 946 ... Al-Muti (or Obedient to the Lord) (Arabic: المطيع) was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 946 to 974. ... Events Eadred I succeeds his brother as king of England End of the reign of Emperor Suzaku of Japan Emperor Murakami ascends the throne of Japan Births Deaths May 26 - King Edmund I of England Abu-Bakr Muhammad ben Yahya as-Suli Categories: 946 ... Events Antipope Boniface VII succeeds Pope Benedict VI. The Byzantine Empire retakes Syria including Aleppo from the Abbasids. ... Al-Tai was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 974 to 991. ... Events Antipope Boniface VII succeeds Pope Benedict VI. The Byzantine Empire retakes Syria including Aleppo from the Abbasids. ... Events Battle of Maldon Sweyn I of Denmark recovers his throne Births Deaths Theophanu, empress, mother of Otto III Emperor Enyu of Japan Categories: 991 ... Al-Qadir (d. ... Events Battle of Maldon Sweyn I of Denmark recovers his throne Births Deaths Theophanu, empress, mother of Otto III Emperor Enyu of Japan Categories: 991 ... Events Collapse of the Moorish Caliphate of Córdoba. ... Al-Qaim (Arabic: القائم) (d. ... Events Collapse of the Moorish Caliphate of Córdoba. ... Events Revolt of the Earls. ... Al-Muqtadi (d. ... Events Revolt of the Earls. ... // Events May - El Cid completes his Christian reconquest of Valencia, Spain from the Muslims. ... Al-Mustazhir (d. ... // Events May - El Cid completes his Christian reconquest of Valencia, Spain from the Muslims. ... Events Knights Templar founded Baldwin of Le Bourg succeeds his cousin Baldwin I as king of Jerusalem John II Comnenus succeeds Alexius I as Byzantine emperor Gelasius II succeeds Paschal II as pope Births November 28 - Manuel I Comnenus, Byzantine Emperor (died 1180) Andronicus I Comnenus, Byzantine Emperor (died 1185... Al-Mustarshid (d. ... Events Knights Templar founded Baldwin of Le Bourg succeeds his cousin Baldwin I as king of Jerusalem John II Comnenus succeeds Alexius I as Byzantine emperor Gelasius II succeeds Paschal II as pope Births November 28 - Manuel I Comnenus, Byzantine Emperor (died 1180) Andronicus I Comnenus, Byzantine Emperor (died 1185... Events January - Byland Abbey founded Stephen of Blois succeeds King Henry I. Empress Maud, daughter of Henry I and widow of Henry V opposed Stephen and claims the throne as her own Owain Gwynedd of Wales defeats the Normans at Crug Mawr. ... Al-Rashid was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 1135 to 1136. ... Events January - Byland Abbey founded Stephen of Blois succeeds King Henry I. Empress Maud, daughter of Henry I and widow of Henry V opposed Stephen and claims the throne as her own Owain Gwynedd of Wales defeats the Normans at Crug Mawr. ... Events Completion of the Saint Denis Basilica in Paris Peter Abelard writes the Historia Calamitatum, detailing his relationship with Heloise People of Novgorod rebel against the hereditary prince Vsevolod and depose him Births Amalric I of Jerusalem William of Newburgh, English historian (died 1198) Deaths November 15 - Margrave Leopold III... Al-Muqtafi (Arabic: ألمكتفى ) (d. ... Events Completion of the Saint Denis Basilica in Paris Peter Abelard writes the Historia Calamitatum, detailing his relationship with Heloise People of Novgorod rebel against the hereditary prince Vsevolod and depose him Births Amalric I of Jerusalem William of Newburgh, English historian (died 1198) Deaths November 15 - Margrave Leopold III... Events Erik den helige is succeeded by Karl Sverkersson. ... Al-Mustanjid (d. ... Events Erik den helige is succeeded by Karl Sverkersson. ... Events December 29: Assassination of Thomas Beckett, Archbishop of Canterbury, in Canterbury cathedral City of Dublin captured by the Normans Wang Anshi of Song China started to carried out reforms in three main structures, education, economy and political system. ... Al-Mustadi (d. ... Events December 29: Assassination of Thomas Beckett, Archbishop of Canterbury, in Canterbury cathedral City of Dublin captured by the Normans Wang Anshi of Song China started to carried out reforms in three main structures, education, economy and political system. ... Events April 13 - Frederick Barbarossa issues the Gelnhausen Charter November 18 - France Emperor Antoku succeds Emperor Takakura as emperor of Japan Afonso I of Portugal is taken prisoner by Ferdinand II of Leon Artois is annexed by France Prince Mochihito amasses a large army and instigates the Genpei War between... An-Nasir (d. ... Events April 13 - Frederick Barbarossa issues the Gelnhausen Charter November 18 - France Emperor Antoku succeds Emperor Takakura as emperor of Japan Afonso I of Portugal is taken prisoner by Ferdinand II of Leon Artois is annexed by France Prince Mochihito amasses a large army and instigates the Genpei War between... Events Births Thomas Aquinas, Christian philosopher and theologian (d. ... Az-Zahir was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 1225 to 1226. ... Events Births Thomas Aquinas, Christian philosopher and theologian (d. ... Events Carmelite Order approved by Pope Honorius III Frederick II calls Imperial Diet of Cremona Births June 21 - King Boleslaus V of Poland (died 1279) Abul-Faraj, Syriac scholar (died 1286) Bar-Hebraeus, Syriac historian and bishop (died 1286) Deaths March 7 - William de Longespee, 3rd Earl of Salisbury, English... Al-Mustansir was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 1226 to 1242. ... Events Carmelite Order approved by Pope Honorius III Frederick II calls Imperial Diet of Cremona Births June 21 - King Boleslaus V of Poland (died 1279) Abul-Faraj, Syriac scholar (died 1286) Bar-Hebraeus, Syriac historian and bishop (died 1286) Deaths March 7 - William de Longespee, 3rd Earl of Salisbury, English... // Events April 5 - During a battle on the ice of Chudskoye Lake, Russian forces rebuff an invasion attempt by the Teutonic Knights. ... Al-Mustasim (d. ... // Events April 5 - During a battle on the ice of Chudskoye Lake, Russian forces rebuff an invasion attempt by the Teutonic Knights. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ...

Abbasid Caliphs on behalf of Mamluk Sultans of Cairo

Al-Mustansir (July 2, 1029 – January 10, 1094), was born in Cairo on 16th Jamada II, 420/ and eight months afterwards was declared to succeed his father. ... Events July 25 - Constantinople re-captured by Nicaean forces under the command of Michael VIII Palaeologus, Byzantine Empire re-formed August 29 - Urban IV becomes Pope, the last man to do so without being a Cardinal first Bela IV of Hungary repels Tatar invasion Charles of Anjou given rule of... Events Strasbourg becomes a Free City of the Holy Roman Empire First Visconti become the lord of Iceland swear fealty to the king of Norway, bringing an end to the Icelandic Commonwealth Births Ladislaus IV of Hungary Deaths Monarchs/Presidents Aragon - James I King of Aragon and count of Barcelona... Events July 11 - Battle of the Golden Spurs (Guldensporenslag in Dutch), major victory of Flanders over the French occupier. ... Al-Mustakfi was an Abbasid caliph from (944 - 946 ) The text below comes from Quick Facts about: William Muir Quick Summary not found for this subjectWilliam Muirs public domain, THE CALIPHATE: ITS RISE, DECLINE, AND FALL . ... Events Europe has about 74 million inhabitants. ... Events Europe has about 74 million inhabitants. ... Events The Queens College, a constituent college of the University of Oxford, is founded. ... Al-Hakim II (died 1352) was the Abbasid Caliph in Cairo from 1341 to 1352. ... Events The Queens College, a constituent college of the University of Oxford, is founded. ... Events June 4 - Glarus joins the Swiss Confederation. ... Events June 4 - Glarus joins the Swiss Confederation. ... Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Decades: 1310s 1320s 1330s 1340s 1350s - 1360s - 1370s 1380s 1390s 1400s 1410s Years: 1357 1358 1359 1360 1361 - 1362 - 1363 1364 1365 1366 1367 See also: 1362 state leaders Events Under Edward III, English replaces French as Englands national language, for the... Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Decades: 1310s 1320s 1330s 1340s 1350s - 1360s - 1370s 1380s 1390s 1400s 1410s Years: 1357 1358 1359 1360 1361 - 1362 - 1363 1364 1365 1366 1367 See also: 1362 state leaders Events Under Edward III, English replaces French as Englands national language, for the... Events End of the reign of Emperor Chokei of Japan Emperor Go-Kameyama ascends to the throne of Japan Births Pope Eugenius IV Deaths March 1 - Amadeus VI of Savoy, Count of Savoy (b. ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Chokei of Japan Emperor Go-Kameyama ascends to the throne of Japan Births Pope Eugenius IV Deaths March 1 - Amadeus VI of Savoy, Count of Savoy (b. ... Events Battle of Sempach: Swiss safeguard independence from Habsburg rule End of reign of Poland by Capet-Anjou family. ... Events Battle of Sempach: Swiss safeguard independence from Habsburg rule End of reign of Poland by Capet-Anjou family. ... Events February 24 - Margaret I seizes Albert, thus becoming ruler of Denmark, Norway and Sweden June 28 - Battle of Kosovo between Serbs and Ottomans. ... Events Construction of Forbidden City begins in Beijing. ... Events Construction of Forbidden City begins in Beijing. ... // Events Council of Constance begins. ... // Events Council of Constance begins. ... This page is about the year 1441. ... This page is about the year 1441. ... // Events February 3 - Murad II, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire dies and is succeeded by his son Mehmed II. April 11 - Celje acquires market-town status and town rights by orders from the Celje count Frederic II. June 30 - French troops under the Comte de Dunois invade Guyenne and capture... // Events February 3 - Murad II, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire dies and is succeeded by his son Mehmed II. April 11 - Celje acquires market-town status and town rights by orders from the Celje count Frederic II. June 30 - French troops under the Comte de Dunois invade Guyenne and capture... ... no changes . ... ... no changes . ... Events January 20 - Ferdinand II ascends the throne of Aragon and rules together with his wife Isabella, queen of Castile over most of the Iberian peninsula. ... Events January 20 - Ferdinand II ascends the throne of Aragon and rules together with his wife Isabella, queen of Castile over most of the Iberian peninsula. ... 1497 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1497 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1508 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Al-Mutawakkil III, reigned 1508 to 1516, and 1517, was the last caliph of the Abbasid dynasty. ... 1508 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... // 1517 Nothing Actuall 1517 1517 1517 ==== 1517 1517 ==== 1517 ==== 1517 1517 1517 1517 151== 1517 1517 ==== 1517 1517 ==== 1517 ==== 1517 1517 1517 1517 1517 1517 ==== 1517 ==== 1517 1517 1517 1517 1517 1517 ==== 1517 1517 ==== 1517 1517 ==== 1517 ==== 1517 1517 1517 1517 1517 1517 ==== 1517 ==== 1517 1517 1517 1517 1517 1517...

Notes

  1. ^ Hamilton Gibb. Studies on the civilization of Islam. Princeton University Press. 1982. ISBN 0691053545 p.66
  2. ^ Bertold Spuler. The Muslim World. Vol.I The Age of the Caliphs. Leiden. E.J. Brill. 1960 ISBN 0685233286 p.29
  3. ^ Annals of history: Invaders: Destroying Baghdad by Ian Frazier, in The New Yorker 25 April 2005

The New Yorkers first cover, which is reprinted most years on the magazines anniversary. ... April 25 is the 115th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (116th in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

  • History of Islam

The History of Islam involves the history of the Islamic faith as a religion and as a social institution. ...

References

Wikisource has an original article from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica about:
Abbasids
  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikisource – The Free Library – is a Wikimedia project to build a free, wiki library of source texts, along with translations into any language and other supporting materials. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

External links

  • http://www.princeton.edu/~batke/itl/denise/abbasids.htm
  • http://www.deremilitari.org/RESOURCES/sources/baghdad.htm
  • Abbasids the 2nd dynasty of caliphs
  • BBC Podcast on the subject of the Abbasid Caliphs (In Our Time, Radio 4)

 
 

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