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Encyclopedia > Abadan

Coordinates: 30°21′N, 48°17′E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

Abadan
Abadan (Iran)
Abadan
Coordinates: 30°21′N 48°17′E / 30.35, 48.283
Population (2005)
 - Total 415,139
Time zone IRST (UTC+3:30)

Abadan (Persian: آبادان) is a city in the Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran (Persia). It lies on Abadan Island (68 km long, 3-19 km wide, the island is bounded in the west by the Arvand Rud river and to the east by the Bahmanshir outlet of the Karun River), on the Arvand Rud river 53 kilometers from the Persian Gulf[1], near the Iraqi-Iran border. It is the capital of Abadan County. In 2005, the population was estimated to be at 415,139. The civilian population of the city dropped to near zero during the eight-years Iran-Iraq war. In 1992, only 84,774 had returned to live in the city. By 2001, the population had jumped to 206,073, only to double in the past five years. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x849, 47 KB) Summary Blank locator map (orthographic projection) of Iran By Kaveh General SVG version: Sources Map of Iran - CIA - 2005 Provinces of Iran Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on... Image File history File links Red_pog2. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Iran Standard Time (IRST) is the time zone used in Iran. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Map showing Khuzestan in Iran Domes like this are quite common in Khuzestan province. ... Persia redirects here. ... Abadan Island is an island in Iran. ... The Shatt al-Arab (Arabic: شط العرب) or Arvand (called اروندرود: arvandrūd in Persian), also called the Shatt-al-Arab waterway, is a river in Southwest Asia of some 200 km in length, formed by the... Karun River passing the Iranian city of Ahvaz The Karun river is Irans longest, and only navigable river. ... The Shatt al-Arab (Arabic: شط العرب) or Arvand (called اروندرود: arvandrūd in Persian), also called the Shatt-al-Arab waterway, is a river in Southwest Asia of some 200 km in length, formed by the... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... Abadan County (Persian: شهرستان آبادان) is a county in Khuzestan Province in Iran. ...

Contents

Etymology

Beladori (d.892) quotes the story that the town was founded by 'Abbad bin Hosayn Khabethi, who established a garrison there during the governorship of Hajjaj in the Ummayad period. An Iranian etymology of the name (from the Persian word "ab" (water) and the root "pā" (guard, watch) thus "coastguard station"), was suggested by B. Farahvashi. Supporting evidence is the name "Apphana" which Ptolemy applies to an island off the mouth of the Tigris. The Persian version of the name had begun to come into general use before it was adopted by official decree in 1935.[2] The geographer Marcian also renders the name "Apphadana" and "Estoban Mendez" in his writings.[3] The Umayyad Dynasty (Arabic الأمويون / بنو أمية umawiyy; in Turkish, Emevi) was the first dynasty of caliphs of the Prophet Muhammad who were not closely related to Muhammad himself, though they were of the same Meccan tribe, the... This article is about the geographer, mathematician and astronomer Ptolemy. ...


History

Darkhuien oil field behind Abadan.
Darkhuien oil field behind Abadan.

Abadan is thought to have originally developed as a port city under the Abbasids' rule. Legendarily, it was founded by a holy man, 'Abbad[1]. In this time period, it was a commercial source of salt and woven mats[1]. The siltation of the river delta forced the town further away from water; Ibn Battutah described Abadan as a small city in a flat salty plain[1]. Politically, Abadan was often the subject of dispute between the nearby states; in 1847, Persia acquired it, in which state Abadan has remained since. From the 17th century onward, the island of Abadan was part of the lands of the Arab Ka'ab (Bani Kaab) tribe. One section of this tribe, Mohaysen, had its headquarters at Mohammara(present-day Khorramshahr), until the removal of Shaikh Khaz'al Khan in 1924.[2] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 720 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (898 × 748 pixel, file size: 41 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Large Natural Convection Plume, as effect of combustion of excess non-useable gases behind oilfield, Darkhuien, Abadan, Iran. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 720 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (898 × 748 pixel, file size: 41 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Large Natural Convection Plume, as effect of combustion of excess non-useable gases behind oilfield, Darkhuien, Abadan, Iran. ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... For other uses, see Salt (disambiguation). ... A mat is a generic term for a piece of fabric or flat material, generally placed on a floor or other flat surface, and serving a range of purposes including: providing a regular or flat surface, such as a mouse mat protecting that which is beneath the mat, such as... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Battuta (February 24, 1304 - 1377) was a Moroccan Berber traveller and explorer. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... The Bani Kaab are an Arab tribal group of Kuwaiti origin which settled in western Khuzestan, a province in southwestern Iran, during the 16th century CE. Categories: Ethnic group stubs | Arab groups ... Khorramshahr (Persian: خرمشهر) is a port city in Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran. ... Sheikh Khazal Khan Lieutenant-General Sheikh Khazal Khan ibn Haji Jabir Khan (1863?-1936), styled His Eminence, Muaz us-Sultana, and Sardar-e-Aqdas (Most Sacred Officer of the Imperial Order of the Aqdas), was the ruler of a virtually autonomous sheikhdom (officially called the Sheikhdom of Mohammerah...

Exploded tank, remains as symbol of Iran-Iraq war (1980-1988).
Exploded tank, remains as symbol of Iran-Iraq war (1980-1988).
Ruins of a building in Abadan. Abadan had suffered serious damages during Iran-Iraq war (1980-88), including Saddam's deadly chemical weapons.
Ruins of a building in Abadan. Abadan had suffered serious damages during Iran-Iraq war (1980-88), including Saddam's deadly chemical weapons.

It was not until the 20th century that rich oil fields were discovered in the area. In 1910, the population had been around 400. The Anglo-Persian Oil Company built their first pipeline terminus oil refinery in Abadan, starting in 1909 and completing it in 1913. By 1938, it was the largest in the world. To this day it remains a vast facility for refining petroleum. The facilities necessitated an equally vast population: more than 220,000 people in 1956[1]. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 393 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (779 × 1189 pixels, file size: 751 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Exploded tank, remains as symbol of Iran-Iraq war (1980-1988). ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 393 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (779 × 1189 pixels, file size: 751 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Exploded tank, remains as symbol of Iran-Iraq war (1980-1988). ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 394 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1283 × 1950 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 394 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1283 × 1950 pixels, file size: 1. ... The Anglo-Persian Oil Company (APOC) was founded in 1909 following the discovery of a large oil field in Masjed Soleiman, Iran. ... View of Shell Oil Refinery in Martinez, California. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ...


Only a low 9% of managers (of the oil company) were from Khuzestan. The proportion of natives of Tehran, the Caspian, Azarbaijan and Kurdistan rose from 4% of blue collar workers to 22% of white collar workers to 45% of managers. Thus while Arabic speakers were concentrated on the lower rungs of the work force, managers tended to be brought in from some distance.[2] For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ... For Caspian Sea, go to: Caspian Sea CASPIAN Consumers Against Supermarket Privacy Invasion and Numbering (CASPIAN) is a national grass-roots consumer group dedicated to fighting supermarket loyalty or frequent shopper cards. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Iranian Azerbaijan. ... Map showing Iranian province of Kurdistan. ... A blue-collar worker is a working class employee who performs manual or technical labor, such as in a factory or in technical maintenance trades, in contrast to a white-collar worker, who does non-manual work generally at a desk. ... White-collar workers perform tasks which are less laborious yet often more highly paid than blue-collar workers, who do manual work. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ...


On August 19, 1978-the anniversary of the US backed pro-Shah coup d'etat which overthrew the nationalists and popular Iranian prime minister, Dr. Mohammed Mossadegh — the Cinema Rex, a movie theatre in Abadan, Iran, was set ablaze by four Islamic Revolution sympathizers in an attempt to help the cause of Iran's Islamic Revolution. The local Abadan police had taken notice, and became suspicious of Hossein Takbali-zadeh and his accomplices, and had started following the arsonists as they were entering Cinema Rex. The police decided to continue their surveillance and track the group after they left the movie theater. This incident ended up causing the Cinema Rex Fire, where over 350 people perished. At the trial, Hossein Takbali-zadeh stated that his three accomplices by the names of Faraj, Falah, and Yadollah had all burned in the fire. is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... Cinema Rex after the fire On August 20, 1978, Cinema Rex in Abadan, Iran, was set ablaze by Islamist militants killing approximately 430 individuals. ...


In September 1980, Abadan was almost overrun during a surprise attack on Khuzestan by Iraq, marking the beginning of the Iran-Iraq War. For 18 months Abadan was besieged, but never captured, by Iraqi forces. Much of the city, including the oil refinery which was the world's largest refinery with capacity of 680,000 barrels per day, was badly damaged or destroyed by the siege and by bombing. Previous to the war, the city's civilian population was about 300,000, but before it was over, most of the populous had sought refuge elsewhere in Iran. Combatants  Iran Kurdish Peshmerga Iraq Peoples Mujahedin of Iran Commanders Ruhollah Khomeini Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani Ali Shamkhani Mostafa Chamran â€  Saddam Hussein Ali Hassan al-Majid Strength 305,000 soldiers 500,000 Pasdaran and Basij militia 900 tanks 1,000 armored vehicles 3,000 artillery pieces 470 aircraft 750 helicopters...


After the war, the biggest concern was the rebuilding of Abadan's oil refinery. In 1993, the refinery began limited operation & and the port reopened. By 1997, the refinery reached the same rate of production it was at before the war.


Recent events

To honor the 100th anniversary of the refining of oil in Abadan, city officials are planning an "oil museum"[4] The Louvre Museum in Paris, one of the largest and most famous museums in the world. ...


Places of interest

Taj cinema in Abadan
Taj cinema in Abadan

The Abadan Institute of Technology was established in Abadan in 1939. The school specialized in engineering and petroleum chemistry, and was designed to train staff for the refinery in town. The school's name has since changed several times, but since 1989 has been considered a branch campus of the Petroleum University of Technology, centered in Tehran. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x289, 233 KB) (All user names refer to en. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x289, 233 KB) (All user names refer to en. ... Engineering is the discipline of acquiring and applying knowledge of design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... The Petroleum University of Technology was established in 1939 in Abadan, Iran under the name Abadan Institute of Technology. ... For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ...


There is an international airport in Abadan. It is represented by the IATA airport code ABD. An IATA airport code, also known an IATA location identifier or simply a location identifier [1], is a three-letter code designating many airports around the world, defined by the International Air Transport Association (IATA). ...


Trivia

* The Abadan oil refinery was featured on the reverse side of Iran's 100-rial banknotes printed in 1965 and from 1971 to 1973. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ...

Culture of Abadan

The people of Abadan have acquired an almost legendary status throughout Iran for various reasons. During the start of the Iran-Iraq War, the neighboring city of Khorramshahr was taken over by the invading Iraqi forces. Since Iran had just gone through a revolution, the armed forces were not adequately prepared so the Iranian military was not able to mobilize efficiently to challenge the invading Iraqis. Instead, the Abadanis (people of Abadan), the extent of which is debated, took up arms and defended their city themselves. How many Abadanis actually fought and how effective they were depends on who you ask, but the Abadanis have not been shy about retelling their war stories which has led people from other parts of the country to claim their war stories are exaggerated since they seem so far-fetched.


Abadan and the Khuzestan provice is also known for producing many talented soccer players who have gone on to play for the Iranian national team. The local team, Sanat Naft Abadan (Oil Company of Abadan) is called the 'Brazil of Iran' because when the team was formed they tried to imitate the Brazilian style of soccer. They also share the same team colors as the Brazilian national team.


Before the Iranian Revolution the city of Abadan was a popular tourist destination. Abadan was the main place for Iranian Singers concert's and many international one. While the whole country of Iran mostly were from religious people, Abadanian people had their own music genre which is called Bandari and that's why all people of Iran in memory of Abadan before iraq-iran war say:'آبادان گلستان' "Abadan is Garden" , 'گلستان آبادانه' "Garden is Abadan". After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Iranian Revolution (also known as the Islamic Revolution,[1][2][3][4][5][6] Persian: انقلاب اسلامی, Enghelābe Eslāmi) was the revolution that transformed Iran from a monarchy under Shah Mohammad Reza... Bandari is a style in the Persian music which stems from Irans south, around the Persian Gulf region and was used by sailors and harbour-workers for centuries. ... Iranian troops in the northern front. ...


See also

The Abadan Crisis occurred from 1951 to 1954, after Iran nationalized the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, and expelled Western companies from oil refineries in the city of Abadan. ... Combatants  Iraq  Iran Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown Unknown The Siege of Abadan was a major action during the early part of the Iran-Iraq War. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c d e "Abadan." Encyclopædia Britannica. 18 February 2007
  2. ^ a b c Abadan, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, pp.51-52
  3. ^ Geographia Marciani Heracleotae, ed. David Hoeschel, Augsburg 1600 p48
  4. ^ Southern Iran Craves for an Oil Museum. Retrieved on 20 October, 2005.

Sunrise at Abadan The British and Soviet Invasion of Iran, 1941 http://www.greenwood.com/catalog/C2793.aspx Prince Abadan http://www.allposters.com/-sp/Prince-Abadan-Posters_i1258868_.htm The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ... Encyclopædia Iranica is a project in Columbia Universitys Center for Iranian studies, to create an English language encyclopedia about Iran and Persia. ...


External links

  • Abadan Oil Refinery - Home page (Farsi only)
  • Abadan Photo Gallery from the Khuzestan Governorship

  Results from FactBites:
 
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Abadan (آبادان in Persian) is a city in the Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran (Persia).
As of 2004 the population was estimated to be 327,300.
Abadan is thought to have originally developed as a port city under the Abbasids' rule, but it was not until the 20th century that rich oil fields were discovered in the area.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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