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Encyclopedia > Ab urbe condita

Ab urbe condita (related with Anno urbis conditae: AUC or a.u.c.) is Latin for "from the founding of the City (Rome)"[1], traditionally set in 753 BC. It was used to identify the Roman year by a few Roman historians. Modern historians use it much more frequently than the Romans themselves did; the dominant method of identifying Roman years was to name the two consuls who held office that year. Before the advent of the modern critical edition of historical Roman works, AUC was indiscriminately added to them by earlier editors, making it appear more widely used than it actually was. The regnal year of the emperor was also used to identify years, especially in the Byzantine Empire after Justinian required its use in 537. Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Nickname: The Eternal City Motto: SPQR: Senatus PopulusQue Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area    - City 1285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban... Consul (abbrev. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... Justinian may refer to: Justinian I, a Roman Emperor; Justinian II, a Byzantine Emperor; Justinian, a storeship sent to the convict settlement at New South Wales in 1790. ...

Contents

Significance

This aureus by Hadrian celebrates the games held in honour of the 874th birthday of Rome (121).
This aureus by Hadrian celebrates the games held in honour of the 874th birthday of Rome (121).
A coin struck under Philip the Arab to celebrate Saeculum Novum.
A coin struck under Philip the Arab to celebrate Saeculum Novum.
Also Pacatianus, usurper against Philip, celebrated the Saeculum Novum. This antoninianus bears the legend ROMAE AETER AN MIL ET PRIMO, "To eternal Rome, in its one thousand and first year".
Also Pacatianus, usurper against Philip, celebrated the Saeculum Novum. This antoninianus bears the legend ROMAE AETER AN MIL ET PRIMO, "To eternal Rome, in its one thousand and first year".

From Emperor Claudius onwards, Varro's calculation (see below) superseded other contemporary calculations. Celebrating the anniversary of the city became part of imperial propaganda. Claudius was the first to hold magnificent celebrations in honor of the city's anniversary, in 47, eight hundred years after the founding of the city. Image File history File links Aureus_-_Adriano_-_RIC_0144. ... Image File history File links Aureus_-_Adriano_-_RIC_0144. ... Aureus minted in 193 by Septimius Severus to celebrate XIIII Gemina Martia Victrix, the legion that proclamed him emperor. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File links Antoninianus_Philip_the_Arab_-_Seculum_Novum. ... Image File history File links Antoninianus_Philip_the_Arab_-_Seculum_Novum. ... Marcus Iulius Philippus (about 204 - 249), known in English as Philip the Arab after the origin of his family, was a Roman emperor from 244 to 249. ... Image File history File links Pacatianus. ... Image File history File links Pacatianus. ... The obverse of this antoninianus celebrates Pacatianus as unconquered, while the reverse celebrates the 1001st birthday of Rome. ... Usurpers were a common feature of the late Roman Empire, especially from the so-called crisis of the third century onwards, when political instability became the rule. ... Row 1: Elagabalus (silver 218-222AD), Trajan Decius (silver 249-251AD), Gallienus (billon 253-268AD Asian mint) Row 2: Gallienus (copper 253-268AD), Aurelian (silvered 270-275AD), barbarous radiate (copper), barbarous radiate (copper) The antoninianus was a coin used during the Roman Empire that was valued at 2 denarii. ... For other persons named Claudius, see Claudius (disambiguation). ... Marcus Terentius Varro ([[116 BC]–27 BC), also known as Varro Reatinus to distinguish him from his contemporary Varro Atacinus, was a Roman scholar and writer, who the Romans came to call the most learned of all the Romans. ... An Australian anti-conscription propaganda poster from World War One U.S. propaganda poster, which warns against civilians sharing information on troop movements (National Archives) The much-imitated 1914 Lord Kitchener Wants You! poster Brochure of the Peoples Temple, portraying cult leader Jim Jones as the loving father of the... This article is about the year 47. ...


In 121, Hadrian, and in 147/8, Antoninus Pius held similar celebrations. Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus (January 24, 76 – July 10, 138), known as Hadrian in English, was a Stoic-Epicurean[] Roman emperor from 117 – 138, and a member of the gens Aelia. ... Titus Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antoninus Pius (September 19, 86–March 7, 161) was Roman emperor from 138 to 161. ...


In 248, Philip the Arab celebrated Rome's first millennium, together with Ludi saeculares for Rome's alleged tenth saeculum. Coins from his reign commemorate the celebrations. A coin by a contender for the imperial throne, Pacatianus, explicitly states "Year one thousand and first", which is an indication that the citizens of the Empire had a sense of the beginning of a new era, a Saeculum Novum. Marcus Iulius Philippus (about 204 - 249), known in English as Philip the Arab after the origin of his family, was a Roman emperor from 244 to 249. ... A millennium is a period of time, equal to one thousand years (from Latin mille, thousand, and annum, year). ... Coin of Philip the Arab celebrating the Ludi Saeculares. ... Nickname: The Eternal City Motto: SPQR: Senatus PopulusQue Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area    - City 1285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban... A saeculum is a length of time roughly equal to the lifetime of a person, or about 90 years. ... A coin is usually a piece of hard material, generally metal, usually in the shape of a disc, and most often issued by a government, to be used as a form of money in transactions. ... The obverse of this antoninianus celebrates Pacatianus as unconquered, while the reverse celebrates the 1001st birthday of Rome. ...


When the Roman Empire turned Christian in the following century, this imagery came to be used in a more metaphysical sense. // Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Plato and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome). ...


Calculation by Varro

The traditional date for the founding of Rome of April 21, 753 BC was initiated by Varro. Varro may have used the consular list with its mistakes, and called the year of the first consuls "245 ab urbe condita", accepting the 244-year interval from Dionysius of Halicarnassus for the kings after the foundation of Rome. The correctness of Varro's calculation has not been proved scientifically but is still used worldwide. April 21 is the 111th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (112th in leap years). ... Centuries: 9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC Decades: 800s BC 790s BC 780s BC 770s BC 760s BC - 750s BC - 740s BC 730s BC 720s BC 710s BC 700s BC Events and Trends 756 BC - Founding of Cyzicus. ... Marcus Terentius Varro ([[116 BC]–27 BC), also known as Varro Reatinus to distinguish him from his contemporary Varro Atacinus, was a Roman scholar and writer, who the Romans came to call the most learned of all the Romans. ... Dionysius Halicarnassensis (of Halicarnassus), Greek historian and teacher of rhetoric, flourished during the reign of Augustus. ...


Calculation by Dionysius Exiguus

The Anno Domini system was developed by a monk named Dionysius Exiguus in Rome in 525, as an outcome of his work on calculating the date of Easter. In his Easter table Dionysius equates the year AD 532 with the regnal year 248 of Emperor Diocletian. He invented a new system of numbering years to replace the Diocletian years that had been used in an old Easter table because he did not wish to continue the memory of a tyrant who persecuted Christians. At the beginning, his time calculation was limited on a small circle in Rome. It counted the years no longer after the accession of the emperor and Christian pursuer Diocletian (20 November 284), but starting from "incarnatione Domini", the birth of Christ. Exiguus is writing: "sed magis elegimus ab incarnatione Domini nostri Jesu Christi annorum tempora praenotare..." Because Dionysius did not place the Incarnation in an explicit year, competent scholars have deduced both AD 1 and 1 BC. Later it was calculated by scholars that the year AD 1 corresponds to the Roman year DCC.LIV ab urbe condita. Although many scholars generally believe that Christ was born some years before A.D.. Emperor Augustus was called Imperator Caesar Divi filius in the years 30 - 27 BC. This time could be forgotten. And a "year zero" does not exist in the Christian calendar: Dionysius Exiguus invented Anno Domini years to date Easter. ... Dionysius Exiguus (Dennis the Little, meaning humble) (c. ... Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus ( 245– 312), born Diocles (Greek Διοκλής) and known in English as Diocletian,[1] was Roman Emperor from November 20, 284 to May 1, 305. ... Augustus (Latin: IMP•CAESAR•DIVI•F•AVGVSTVS;[1] September 23, 63 BC–August 19, AD 14), known as Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (English Octavian; Latin: C•IVLIVS•C•F•CAESAR•OCTAVIANVS) for the period of his life prior to 27 BC, was the first and among the most important of... For the upcoming Nine Inch Nails album, see Year Zero (album). ...


...1 ab urbe condita = 753 before Christ


...2 ab urbe condita = 752 BC


...3 ab urbe condita = 751 BC ...


750 ab urbe condita = 4 BC (Death of Herod the Great; Christ was born before the death of Herod) Hordes (Hebrew: הוֹרְדוֹס, ; Greek: , ; trad. ...


751 ab urbe condita = 3 BC


752 ab urbe condita = 2 BC


753 ab urbe condita = 1 BC


754 ab urbe condita = 1 after Christ was born (AD) Dionysius Exiguus invented Anno Domini years to date Easter. ...


755 ab urbe condita = 2 AD


Alternative calculations

According to Velleius Paterculus (VIII, 5) the foundation of Rome took place 437 years after the capture of Troy (1182 BC). It took place shortly before an eclipse of the Sun that was observed at Rome on June 25, 745 BC and had a magnitude of 50.3%. Its beginning occurred at 16:38, its middle at 17:28, and its end at 18:16. Marcus Velleius Paterculus (c. ... Total eclipse redirects here. ... June 25 is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 189 days remaining. ... Centuries: 9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC Decades: 790s BC 780s BC 770s BC 760s BC 750s BC - 740s BC - 730s BC 720s BC 710s BC 700s BC 690s BC Events and Trends February 26 747 BC - Nabonassar becomes king of Assyria 747 BC - Meles becomes king...


However, according to Lucius Tarrutius of Firmum, Romulus and Remus were conceived in the womb on the 23rd day of the Egyptian month Choiac, at the time of a total eclipse of the Sun. (This eclipse occurred on June 15, 763 BC, with a magnitude of 62.5% at Rome. Its beginning took place at 6:49, its middle at 7:47 and its end at 8:51.) He was born on the 21st day of the month Thoth. The first day of Thoth fell on March 2 in that year (Prof. E.J. Bickerman, 1980: 115). It means that Rhea Silvia's pregnancy lasted for 281 days. Rome was founded on the ninth day of the month Pharmuthi, which was the April 21, as universally agreed. The Romans add that about the time Romulus started to build the city, an eclipse of the Sun was observed by Antimachus, the Teian poet, on the 30th day of the lunar month. This eclipse on June 25, 745 BC (see above) had a magnitude of 54.6% at Teos, Asia Minor. It started at 17:49; it was still eclipsed at sunset, at 19:20. Romulus vanished in the 54th year of his life, on the Nones of Quintilis (July), on a day when the Sun was darkened. The day turned into night, which sudden darkness was believed to be an eclipse of the Sun. It occurred on July 17, 709 BC, with a magnitude of 93.7%, beginning at 5:04 and ending at 6:57. (All these eclipse data have been calculated by Prof. Aurél Ponori-Thewrewk, retired director of the Planetarium of Budapest.) Plutarch placed it in the 37th year from the foundation of Rome, on the fifth of our July, then called Quintilis, on "Caprotine Nones," Livy (I, 21) also states that Romulus ruled for 37 years. He was slain by the senate or disappeared in the 38th year of his reign. Most of these have been recorded by Plutarch (Lives of Romulus, Numa Pompilius and Camillus), Florus (Book I, I), Cicero (The Republic VI, 22: Scipio's Dream), Dio (Dion) Cassius and Dionysius of Halicarnassus (L. 2). Dio in his Roman History (Book I) confirms our data by telling that Romulus was in his 18th year of age when he had founded Rome. Thus, three eclipse calculations may support the suggestion that Romulus reigned from 746 BC to 709 BC, and Rome was founded in 745 BC. This page describes the ancient heroes that founded the city of Rome. ... The ancient civil Egyptian Calendar, known as the Annus Vagus or Wandering Year, had a year that was 365 days long, consisting of 12 months of 30 days each, plus 5 extra days at the end of the year. ... June 15 is the 166th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (167th in leap years), with 199 days remaining. ... Centuries: 9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC Decades: 810s BC 800s BC 790s BC 780s BC 770s BC - 760s BC - 750s BC 740s BC 730s BC 720s BC 710s BC Events and Trends June 15 763 BC - A solar eclipse at this date is used to fix... March 2 is the 61st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (62nd in leap years). ... Rhea Sylvia (also written as Rea Silvia), and also known as Ilia, was the mythical mother of the twins Romulus and Remus, who founded the city of Rome. ... April 21 is the 111th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (112th in leap years). ... June 25 is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 189 days remaining. ... Centuries: 9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC Decades: 790s BC 780s BC 770s BC 760s BC 750s BC - 740s BC - 730s BC 720s BC 710s BC 700s BC 690s BC Events and Trends February 26 747 BC - Nabonassar becomes king of Assyria 747 BC - Meles becomes king... The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System. ... July 17 is the 198th day (199th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 167 days remaining. ... Centuries: 9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC Decades: 750s BC 740s BC 730s BC 720s BC 710s BC - 700s BC - 690s BC 680s BC 670s BC 660s BC 650s BC Events and Trends 708 BC - Spartan immigrants found Taras (Tarentum, the modern Taranto) colony in southern Italy. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was an Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ...


Q. Fabius Pictor (c. 250 BC) tells that Roman consuls started for the first time 239 years after Rome's foundation (Enciclopedia Italiana, XIV, 1951: 173). Livy (I, 60) gives almost the same, 240 years for that interval. Polybius, The Histories (III, 22. 1-2) tells that 28 years after the expulsion of the last Roman king (or, in the 28th year, we believe), Xerxes crossed over to Greece, and that event is fixed to 478 BC by two solar eclipses. Quintus Fabius Pictor (c. ... Polybius (c. ... Xerxes I (خشایارشاه), was a Persian king (reigned 485 - 465 BC) of the Achaemenid dynasty. ... Photo taken during the 1999 eclipse. ...


According to all these, the a.u.c. system should be handled accordingly, with due precaution. If Rome had been founded in 753 BC, then 2007 is 2760 AUC.


See also

This page lists direct English translations of common Latin phrases, such as veni vidi vici and et cetera. ... For the upcoming Nine Inch Nails album, see Year Zero (album). ... Dionysius Exiguus invented Anno Domini years to date Easter. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Literally translated as "From the city having been founded".

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Book VI of Livy’s Ab urbe condita covers the history of Rome from 390 to 367 BC, a period during which the city, while in the process of recovering from being sacked by the Gauls, faced serious civil disturbance, the resolution of which fundamentally changed the structure of Roman society.
Special attention is paid to the role of the reader, and to the relationship between the style and the kind of history being written.
Ab urbe condita VI; TITI LIVI AB VRBE CONDITA LIBER SEXTVS; Commentary.
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