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Encyclopedia > ATPase

ATPases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the decomposition of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) into adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and a free phosphate ion. This dephosphorylation reaction releases energy, which the enzyme (in most cases) harnesses to drive other chemical reactions that would not otherwise occur. This process is widely used in all known forms of life. Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM. TIM is catalytically perfect, meaning its conversion rate is limited, or nearly limited to its substrate diffusion rate. ... Generic graph showing the effect of a catalyst in an hypotetical exothermic chemical reaction. ... Rotting fruit Decomposition is a phenomenon common in the sciences of biology and chemistry. ... Adenosine 5-triphosphate (ATP) is a multifunctional nucleotide primarily known in biochemistry as the molecular currency of intracellular energy transfer. ... Adenosine diphosphate, abbreviated ADP, is a nucleotide. ... In inorganic chemistry, a phosphate is a salt of phosphoric acid. ... It has been suggested that Negative atomic ion be merged into this article or section. ... The process of removing phosphate groups from an organic compound (as ATP) by hydrolysis ... A chemical reaction is a process that results in the interconversion of chemical substances [1]. The substance or substances initially involved in a chemical reaction are called reactants. ... Look up life, living in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Some such enzymes are integral membrane proteins (anchored within biological membranes), and move solutes across the membrane. (These are called transmembrane ATPases). Integral membrane protein of the transmembrane type An Integral Membrane Protein (IMP) is a protein molecule (or assembly of proteins) that in most cases spans the biological membrane with which it is associated (especially the plasma membrane) or which, in any case, is sufficiently embedded in the membrane to remain... A biological membrane or biomembrane is a membrane which acts as a barrier within or around a cell. ... A substance is soluble in a fluid if it dissolves in the fluid. ...

Transmembrane ATPases import many of the metabolites necessary for cell metabolism and export toxins, wastes, and solutes that can hinder cellular processes. An important example is the sodium-potassium exchanger (or Na+/K+ATPase), which establishes the ionic concentration balance that maintains the cell potential. Another example is the hydrogen potassium ATPase (H+/K+ATPase or gastric proton pump) that acidifies the contents of the stomach. Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green). ... Santorio Santorio (1561-1636) in his steelyard balance, from Ars de statica medecina, first published 1614 Metabolism (from μεταβολισμος (metabolismos)) is the biochemical modification of chemical compounds in living organisms anggjgjhnd cell (b). ... Na+/K+-ATPase (also known as the Na+/K+ pump or Na+/K+ exchanger) is an enzyme (EC 3. ... In biological cells that are electrically at rest, the cytosol possesses a uniform electric potential or voltage compared to the extracellular solution. ... Gastric hydrogen potassium ATPase also know as H+/K+ ATPase // Function and location The gastric hygrogen potassium ATPase or H+/K+ ATPase is the proton pump of the stomach and as such is the enzyme primarily responsible for the acidification of the stomach contents. ...

Besides exchangers, other categories of transmembrane ATPase include co-transporters and pumps (however, some exchangers are also pumps). Some of these, like the Na+/K+ATPase, cause a net flow of charge, but others do not. These are called "electrogenic" and "nonelectrogenic" transporters, respectively. Co-transport, also known as coupled transport, refers to the simultaneous or sequential transfer of molecules across biological membranes. ...

The coupling between ATP hydrolysis and transport is more or less a strict chemical reaction, in which a fixed number of solute molecules are transported for each ATP molecule that is hydrolyzed; for example, 3 Na+ ions out of the cell and 2 K+ ions inward per ATP hydrolyzed, for the Na+/K+ exchanger.

Transmembrane ATPases harness the chemical potential energy of ATP, because they perform mechanical work: they transport solutes in a direction opposite to their thermodynamically preferred direction of movement—that is, from the side of the membrane where they are in low concentration to the side where they are in high concentration. This process is considered active transport. Work (abbreviated W) is the energy transferred by a force to a moving object. ... Thermodynamics (Greek: thermos = heat and dynamic = change) is the physics of energy, heat, work, entropy and the spontaneity of processes. ... Active transport is the mediated transport of biochemicals, and other atomic/molecular substances, across membranes. ...

ATP synthase

The ATP synthase of mitochondria and chloroplasts is an anabolic enzyme that harnesses the energy of a transmembrane proton gradient as an energy source for adding an inorganic phosphate group to a molecule of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) to form a molecule of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). This enzyme works when a proton moves down the concentration gradient, giving the enzyme a spinning motion. This unique spinning motion bonds ADP and P together to create ATP. ATP synthase can also function in reverse, that is, use energy released by ATP hydrolysis to pump protons against their thermodynamic gradient. An ATP synthase (EC 3. ... In cell biology, a mitochondrion is an organelle found in the cells of most eukaryotes. ... The inside of a chloroplast Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells and eukaryotic algae that conduct photosynthesis. ... It has been suggested that Catabolisis be merged into this article or section. ... In physics, the proton (Greek proton = first) is a subatomic particle with an electric charge of one positive fundamental unit (1. ... In chemistry, a phosphate is a polyatomic ion or radical consisting of one phosphorus atom and four oxygen. ... Adenosine diphosphate, abbreviated ADP, is a nucleotide. ...

See also

V-ATPase V-ATPase schematic Vacuolar type H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) is a highly conserved evolutionarily ancient enzyme with remarkably diverse functions in eukaryotic organisms. ...

F-ATPase Introduction F-ATPase is a protein found in bacterial plasma membranes, mitochondrial inner membranes and in chloroplast thylakoid membranes. ...

External links

  • "ATP synthase - a splendid molecular machine"

  Results from FactBites:
--< SYnaptic SYstems >--Uncoating ATPase antibody (112 words)
Uncoating ATPase (UA), also referred to as hsc70, has been shown to be functionally involved in this process.
Uncoating ATPase belongs to the heatshock protein (hsp70) family.
Most proteins of this family are molecular chaperones and the uncoating ATPase shares the ability to refold proteins in several cellular processes.
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