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Encyclopedia > ASDEX Upgrade

The ASDEX Upgrade divertor tokamak (Axially Symmetric Divertor EXperiment) went into operation at the Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching in 1991. At present, it is Germany's largest fusion device. A split image of the largest tokamak in the world, the JET, showing hot plasma in the right image during a shot. ... The Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik (IPP) is a physics institute for the investigation of plasma physics, with the aim of working towards fusion power. ... Garching is the name of several places in Bavaria, Germany: Garching bei München, in Munich district Garching an der Alz, in Altötting district This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reaction is considered the most promising for producing fusion power. ...

To make experiments under reactor-like conditions possible, essential plasma properties, particularly the plasma density and pressure and the wall load, have been adapted in ASDEX Upgrade to the conditions that will be present in a future fusion power plant. A Plasma lamp, illustrating some of the more complex phenomena of a plasma, including filamentation A solar coronal mass ejection blasts plasma throughout the solar system. ...

ASDEX Upgrade is, compared to other international tokamaks, a midsize tokamak experiment. It began operation in 1991 and it succeeds the ASDEX experiment, which was in operation from 1980 until 1990.

One innovative feature of the ASDEX Upgrade experiment is its all-tungsten first wall; tungsten is a good choice for the first wall of a tokamak because of its very high melting point (over 3000 degrees Celsius) which enables it to stand up to the very high heat fluxes emanating from the hot plasma at the heart of the tokamak; however there are also problems associated with a tungsten first wall, such as tungsten's tendency to ionise at high temperatures, "polluting" the plasma and diluting the deuterium-tritium fuel mix. Furthermore, as a high Z material, radiation from fully ionized tungsten in the plasma is several orders of magnitude higher than that of other propesed first wall components such as carbon fibre composites (CFCs) or beryllium. This result allows for far less tungsten to "contaminate" a proposed break-even plasma. ASDEX-U will examine ways to overcome this problem, in preparation for the construction of ITER's first wall. General Name, Symbol, Number tungsten, W, 74 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 6, d Appearance grayish white, lustrous Atomic mass 183. ... The melting point of a solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale. ... An ion is an elementary particle or system of elementary particles with a net electric charge. ... Deuterium, also called heavy hydrogen, is a stable isotope of hydrogen with a natural abundance in the oceans of one atom in 6400 of hydrogen (see VSMOW; the abundance changes slightly from one kind of natural water to another). ... Tritium (symbol T or 3H) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen. ... Cutaway of the ITER Tokamak Torus in casing. ...

The experiment has an overall radius of 5 metres, a gross weight of 800 tonnes, a maximum magnetic field strength of 3.9 tesla, a maximum plasma current of 2 mega-amps and maximum heating power of up to 27 megawatts. Plasma heating and current drive in the ASDEX-U is derived from several sources, namely 1MW of ohmic heating, 20MW of neutral beam injection, 6MW via ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) at frequencies between 30 and 120 megahertz, and 2 x 2MW of electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) at 140 gigahertz. It has 16 toroidal field coils and 12 poloidal field coils. A tonne (also called metric ton) is a non-SI unit of mass, accepted for use with SI, defined as: 1 tonne = 103 kg (= 106 g). ... The tesla (symbol T) is the SI derived unit of magnetic flux density (or magnetic induction). ... A multimeter can be used to measure current The ampere (symbol: A) is the SI base unit of electric current. ... The watt (symbol: W) is the SI derived unit of power, equal to one joule per second. ... In electronics, and in physics more broadly, Joule heating or ohmic heating refers to the increase in temperature of a conductor as a result of resistance to an electrical current flowing through it. ... An ion is an atom or group of atoms that normally are electrically neutral and achieve their status as an ion by loss (or addition) of an electron(s). ... A pair of Dee electrodes with loops of coolant pipes on their surface at the Lawrence Hall of Science. ... The Tacoma Narrows Bridge (shown twisting) in Washington collapsed spectacularly, under moderate wind, in part because of resonance. ... The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the SI unit of frequency. ... The electron is a fundamental subatomic particle that carries an electric charge. ... A pair of Dee electrodes with loops of coolant pipes on their surface at the Lawrence Hall of Science. ... The Tacoma Narrows Bridge (shown twisting) in Washington collapsed spectacularly, under moderate wind, in part because of resonance. ... The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the SI unit of frequency. ...

See also

Experiments directed toward developing fusion power are invariably done with dedicated machines which can be classified according to the principles they use to confine the plasma fuel and keep it hot. ...

External links

  • ASDEX Upgrade homepage
  • ASDEX Upgrade techical specs



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