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Encyclopedia > ARPANET
ARPANET logical map, March 1977.
ARPANET logical map, March 1977.

The ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network) developed by DARPA of the United States Department of Defense, was the world's first operational packet switching network, and the predecessor of the global Internet. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x716, 46 KB)ARPANET logical map circa 1977 source:The Computer History Museum (fair use) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x716, 46 KB)ARPANET logical map circa 1977 source:The Computer History Museum (fair use) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is an agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the development of new technology for use by the military. ... The United States Department of Defense (DOD or DoD) is the federal department charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government relating directly to national security and the military. ... In computer networking and telecommunications, packet switching is a communications paradigm in which packets (messages or fragments of messages) are individually routed between nodes, with no previously established communication path. ...


Packet switching, now the dominant basis for both data and voice communication worldwide, was a new and important concept in data communications. Previously, data communication was based on the idea of circuit switching, as in the old typical telephone circuit, where a dedicated circuit is tied up for the duration of the call and communication is only possible with the single party on the other end of the circuit. In computer networking and telecommunications, packet switching is a communications paradigm in which packets (messages or fragments of messages) are individually routed between nodes, with no previously established communication path. ... In telecommunications, a circuit switching network is one that establishes a dedicated circuit (or channel) between nodes and terminals before the users may communicate. ...


With packet switching, a system could use one communication link to communicate with more than one machine by assembling data into packets. Not only could the link be shared (much as a single post box can be used to post letters to different destinations), but each packet could be routed independently of other packets. In information technology, a packet is a formatted block of data carried by a packet mode computer network. ... Post boxes in Australia The yellow box is for express mail. ...


This idea was thought up by Pete Townshend and also he wrote a philosophy paper on the matrix before anyone else did

Contents

Background of the ARPANET

The earliest ideas of a computer network intended to allow general communication between users of various computers were formulated by J.C.R. Licklider of Bolt, Beranek and Newman (BBN) in August 1962, in a series of memos discussing his "Intergalactic Computer Network" concept. These ideas contained almost everything that the Internet is today. Joseph Carl Robnett Licklider (March 11, 1915 - June 26, 1990), known simply as J.C.R. or Lick is one of the most important figures in computer science and general computing history. ... BBN Technologies (originally Bolt Beranek and Newman) is a high technology company that provides research and development services. ... Intergalactic Computer Network can be said to be the first conception of what would eventually become the Internet. ...


In October 1963, Licklider was appointed head of the Behavioral Sciences and Command and Control programs at ARPA (as it was then called), the United States Department of Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. He then convinced Ivan Sutherland and Bob Taylor that this was a very important concept, although he left ARPA before any actual work on his vision was performed. The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is an agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the development of new technology for use by the military. ... The United States Department of Defense (DOD or DoD) is the federal department charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government relating directly to national security and the military. ... Ivan Sutherland Ivan Sutherland, working at MIT (1963) Ivan Edward Sutherland (born 1938 in Hastings, Nebraska) is a computer programmer and Internet pioneer. ... Robert Taylor was director of ARPAs Information Processing Techniques Office (1965-69), founder and associate manager of Xerox PARCs Computer Science Laboratory (CSL [[1]]) (1970-77), manager of Xerox PARC CSL (1977-83), founder and manager of Digital Equipment Corporations Systems Research Center (1983-96). ...


ARPA and Taylor continued to be interested in creating a computer communication network, in part to allow ARPA-sponsored researchers in various locations to use various computers which ARPA was providing, and in part to quickly make new software and other results widely available. Taylor had three different terminals in his office, connected to three different computers which ARPA was funding: one for the SDC Q-32 in Santa Monica, one for Project Genie at the University of California, Berkeley, and one for Multics at MIT. Taylor later recalled: System Development Corporation, based in Los Angeles, California, was spun off from RAND Corporation in 1957. ... Q32 (ANFSQ-32) was a computer made by IBM (International Business Machines) in 1960 and 1961 for the United States Air Force Strategic Air Command (SAC). ... Santa Monica Pier Santa Monica is a coastal city located in Los Angeles County, California USA, by the Pacific Ocean, south of Pacific Palisades and Brentwood, west of Westwood, Los Angeles, and north of Venice. ... Project Genie was a computer research project started in 1964 at the University of California, Berkeley. ... Sather Tower (the Campanile) looking out over the San Francisco Bay and Mount Tamalpais. ... Multics (Multiplexed Information and Computing Service) was an extraordinarily influential early time-sharing operating system. ... “MIT” redirects here. ...

"For each of these three terminals, I had three different sets of user commands. So if I was talking online with someone at S.D.C. and I wanted to talk to someone I knew at Berkeley or M.I.T. about this, I had to get up from the S.D.C. terminal, go over and log into the other terminal and get in touch with them. I said, oh, man, it's obvious what to do: If you have these three terminals, there ought to be one terminal that goes anywhere you want to go. That idea is the ARPAnet." [1].

Somewhat contemporaneously, a number of people had (mostly independently) worked out various aspects of what later became known as "packet switching"; the people who created the ARPANET would eventually draw on all these different sources.


Creation of the ARPANET

By the mid-1968, a complete plan had been prepared, and after approval at ARPA, a Request For Quotation (RFQ) was sent to 140 potential bidders. Most regarded the proposal as outlandish, and only 12 companies submitted bids, of which only four were regarded as in the top rank. By the end of the year, the field had been narrowed to two, and after negotiations, a final choice was made, and the contract was awarded to BBN on 7 April 1969. A Request for Quotation (referred to as RFQ) is a standard business process whose purpose is to invite suppliers into a bidding process to bid on specific products and/or services. ... BBN Technologies (originally Bolt Beranek and Newman) is a high-technology company that provides research and development services. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ...


BBN's proposal followed Roberts's plan closely; it called for the network to be composed of small computers known as Interface Message Processors (more commonly known as IMPs). The IMPs at each site performed store-and-forward packet switching functions, and were connected to each other using modems connected to leased lines (initially running at 50 kbit/second). Host computers connected to the IMPs via custom bit-serial interfaces to connect to ARPANET. Leonard Kleinrock and the first IMP. Taken from http://www. ... A modem (a portmanteau word constructed from modulator and demodulator) is a device that modulates an analog carrier signal (sound), to encode digital information, and that also demodulates such a carrier signal to decode the transmitted information. ... A leased line is a symmetric telecommunications line connecting two locations. ... A kilobit is a unit of information storage, abbreviated kbit or sometimes kb. ... In telecommunication, serial transmission or sequential transmission is the sequential transmission of the signal elements of a group representing a character or other entity of data. ...


BBN initially chose a ruggedized version of Honeywell's DDP-516 computer to build the first-generation IMP. The 516 was originally configured with 24 kB of core memory (expandable) and a 16 channel Direct Multiplex Control (DMC) direct memory access control unit. Custom interfaces were used to connect, via the DMC, to each of the hosts and modems. In addition to the lamps on the front panel of the 516 there was also a special set of 24 indicator lights to show the status of the IMP communication channels. Each IMP could support up to four local hosts and could communicate with up to six remote IMPs over leased lines. A rugged (or ruggedized) computer is a computer specifically designed to reliably operate in harsh usage environments and conditions, such as strong vibrations, extreme temperatures and wet or dusty conditions. ... Honeywell Heating Specialties Company Stock Certificate dated 1924 signed by Mark C. Honeywell - courtesy of Scripophily. ... A kilobyte (derived from the SI prefix kilo-, meaning 1,000) is a unit of information or computer storage equal to either 1,000 bytes or 1,024 bytes (210), depending on context. ... Direct memory access (DMA) is a feature of modern computers that allows certain hardware subsystems within the computer to access system memory for reading and/or writing independently of the central processing unit. ...


The small team at BBN (initially only seven people), helped considerably by the detail they had gone into to produce their response to the RFQ, quickly produced the first working units. The entire system, including both hardware and the world's first packet switching software, was designed and installed in nine months.


Initial ARPA deployment

First ARPANET IMP log - a record of the first message ever sent over the ARPANET; it took place at 10:30PM on October 29, 1969. This record is an excerpt from the "IMP Log" kept at UCLA, and describes setting up a message transmission to go from the UCLA SDS Sigma 7 Host computer to the SRI SDS 940 Host computer.
First ARPANET IMP log - a record of the first message ever sent over the ARPANET; it took place at 10:30PM on October 29, 1969. This record is an excerpt from the "IMP Log" kept at UCLA, and describes setting up a message transmission to go from the UCLA SDS Sigma 7 Host computer to the SRI SDS 940 Host computer.

The initial ARPANET consisted of four IMPs. They were installed at: Image File history File links first ARPANET imp log source:The Computer History Museum (fair use) The initials csk in the log stand for Charles S. Kline. ... Image File history File links first ARPANET imp log source:The Computer History Museum (fair use) The initials csk in the log stand for Charles S. Kline. ...

The first permanent ARPANET link was established on November 21, 1969, between the IMP at UCLA and the IMP at SRI. By December 5, 1969, the entire 4-node network was connected [2]. Binomial name Ucla xenogrammus Holleman, 1993 The largemouth triplefin, Ucla xenogrammus, is a fish of the family Tripterygiidae and only member of the genus Ucla, found in the Pacific Ocean from Viet Nam, the Philippines, Palau and the Caroline Islands to Papua New Guinea, Australia (including Christmas Island), and the... Leonard Kleinrock and the first IMP. source: (http://www. ... SRI International is one of the worlds largest contract research institutions. ... Stanford Research Institutes Augmentation Research Center (ARC) was founded by electrical engineer Douglas Engelbart to develop and experiment with new tools and techniques for collaboration and information processing. ... Dr. Douglas C. Engelbart (born January 30, 1925 in Oregon) is an American inventor of German descent. ... The NLS workstation showing the CRT display, keyboard, pushbuttons, and mouse NLS, or the oNLine System, was a revolutionary computer collaboration system designed by Douglas Engelbart and the researchers at the Augmentation Research Center (ARC) at the Stanford Research Institute (SRI) during the 1960s. ... In computing, hypertext is a user interface paradigm for displaying documents which, according to an early definition (Nelson 1970), branch or perform on request. ... Scientific Data Systems was a computer company started in 1961 by Max Palevsky, a veteran of Packard-Bell and Bendix. ... The University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB) is a coeducational public university located in Santa Barbara County, California. ... For other uses, see IBM (disambiguation) and Big Blue. ... The IBM System/360 (S/360) is a computer system family announced by International Business Machines on April 7, 1964. ... MVT is an acronym for Multiprogramming with a Variable number of Tasks. ... The University of Utah (also The U or the U of U or the UU), located in Salt Lake City, is the flagship public research university in the state of Utah, and one of 10 institutions that make up the Utah System of Higher Education. ... Ivan Sutherland Ivan Sutherland, working at MIT (1963) Ivan Edward Sutherland (born 1938 in Hastings, Nebraska) is a computer programmer and Internet pioneer. ... Digital Equipment Corporation was a pioneering American company in the computer industry. ... The PDP-10 was a computer manufactured by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) from the late 1960s on; the name stands for Programmed Data Processor model 10. It was the machine that made time-sharing common; it looms large in hacker folklore because of its adoption in the 1970s by many... The TOPS-20 operating system by DEC was the second proprietary OS for the PDP-10. ... is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ...


The first message ever to be sent over the ARPANET (sent over the first host-to-host connection) occurred at 10:30 PM on October 29, 1969. It was sent by UCLA student programmer Charley Kline and supervised by UCLA Professor Leonard Kleinrock. The message was sent from the UCLA SDS Sigma 7 Host computer to the SRI SDS 940 Host computer. The message itself was simply the word "login." The "l" and the "o" transmitted without problem but then the system crashed. Hence, the first message on the ARPANET was "Lo." They were able to do the full login about an hour later.


Software and protocol development

The starting point for host-to-host communication on the ARPANET was the 1822 protocol which defined the way that a host sent messages to an ARPANET IMP. The message format was designed to work unambiguously with a broad range of computer architectures. Essentially, an 1822 message consisted of a message type, a numeric host address, and a data field. To send a data message to another host, the sending host would format a data message containing the destination host's address and the data to be sent, and transmit the message through the 1822 hardware interface. The IMP would see that the message was delivered to its destination, either by delivering it to a locally connected host or by delivering it to another IMP. When the message was ultimately delivered to the destination host, the IMP would send an acknowledgment message (called Ready for Next Message or RFNM) to the sending host. BBN Report 1822 specifies the method for connecting a host computer to an ARPANET router, called an Interface Message Processor (IMP). ...


Unlike modern Internet datagrams, the ARPANET was designed to transmit all 1822 messages reliably, or at least to be able to tell the host when a message was lost. Nonetheless, the 1822 protocol did not prove to be adequate by itself for juggling multiple connections between different applications residing on a single host. This problem was addressed with the Network Control Program or NCP, which provided a standard method to establish reliable, flow-controlled, bidirectional communications links between different processes on different hosts. The NCP interface allowed application software to connect across the ARPANET implementing higher-level communication protocols. This was an early example of the protocol layering concept incorporated into the OSI model. The Network Control Program (sometimes the abbreviation NCP is mistakenly expanded to Network Control Protocol, but this term is not found in the contemporary documentation) was the original protocol suite of the ARPANET. In NCP, the physical layer, the data link layer, and the network layer were all specified by... Application software is a subclass of computer software that employs the capabilities of a computer directly to a task that the user wishes to perform. ... In networking, a communications protocol or network protocol is the specification of a set of rules for a particular type of communication. ... The Open Systems Interconnection Basic Reference Model (OSI Reference Model or OSI Model for short) is a layered, abstract description for communications and computer network protocol design. ...


In 1983, TCP/IP protocols replaced NCP as the principal protocol of the ARPANET, and the ARPANET became just one component of the fledgling Internet. The Internet protocol suite is the set of communications protocols that implement the protocol stack on which the Internet runs. ...


Network Applications

NCP provided a standard set of network services that could be shared by several applications running on a single host computer. This led to the evolution of application protocols that operated more or less independently of the underlying network service. When the ARPANET migrated to the Internet protocols in 1983, the major application protocols migrated along with it.

  • File transfer: By 1973, the File Transfer Protocol (FTP) specification had been defined and implemented, enabling file transfers over the ARPANET.
  • Voice traffic: A Network Voice Protocol (NVP) specifications was also defined (RFC 741) and then implemented, but conference calls over the ARPANET never worked well, for technical reasons; packet voice would not become a workable reality for a few decades.

Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... you mom(born 1941) is a programmer who implemented an email system in 1971. ... BBN Technologies (originally Bolt Beranek and Newman) is a high technology company that provides research and development services. ... E-mail, or email, is short for electronic mail and is a method of composing, sending, and receiving messages over electronic communication systems. ... This article is about the File Transfer Protocol standardised by the IETF. For other file transfer protocols, see File transfer protocol (disambiguation). ... The Network Voice Protocol (NVP) was a pioneering computer network protocol for transporting human speech over packetized communications networks. ... An overview of how VoIP works A typical analog telephone adapter for connecting an ordinary phone to a VoIP network A Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) is a protocol optimized for transmission of voice through the Internet or other packet switched networks. ...

Growth of the network

In March, 1970, the ARPANET reached the U.S. East Coast, when an IMP at BBN itself was joined up to the network. Thereafter, the network grew quickly: 9 IMPs by June of 1970, and 13 by December; 18 by September, 1971 (at which point twenty-three hosts, at universities and government research centers, were connected to the ARPANET); 29 by August, 1972, and 40 by September, 1973. For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ...


At that point, two satellite links, across the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans to Hawaii and Norway (NORSAR, see Norwegian Seismic Array) respectively, had been added to the network. From Norway, a terrestrial circuit added an IMP in London to the growing network. This article is about the U.S. State. ... NORSAR or Norwegian Seismic Array was established in 1968 as part of the Norwegian-US agreement for the detection of earthquakes and nuclear explosions. ...


By June 1974, there were 46 IMPs, and the network reached 57 in July, 1975. By 1981, the number of hosts had grown to 213, with a new host being added approximately every twenty days.


After the ARPANET had been up and running for several years, ARPA looked for another agency to hand off the network to; ARPA's primary business was funding cutting-edge research and development, not running a communications utility. Eventually, in July 1975, the network was turned over to the Defense Communications Agency, also part of the Department of Defense. The Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA), formerly known as the Defense Communications Agency is a combat support agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for planning, developing, fielding, operating, and supporting command, control, communications, and information systems that serve the needs of the President, the Secretary of Defense...


In 1983, the U.S. military portion of the ARPANet was broken off as a separate network, the MILNET. Prior to this there were 113 nodes on the ARPANet. After the split, that number was 68 nodes with the remainder moving to MILNET. MILNET was the name given to the part of ARPANET, the forerunner of the Internet, that was designated for nonclassified US Military use. ...


Later hardware developments

Support for inter-IMP circuits of up to 230.4 kbit/s was added in 1970, although considerations of cost and IMP processing power meant this capability was not much used.


1971 saw the start of the use of the non-ruggedized (and therefore significantly lighter) Honeywell 316 as an IMP. It could also be configured as a Terminal IMP (TIP), which added support for up to 63 ASCII serial terminals through a multi-line controller in place of one of the hosts. The 316 featured a greater degree of integration than the 516, which made it less expensive and easier to maintain. The 316 was configured with 40 kB of core memory for a TIP. The size of core memory was later increased, to 32 kB for the IMPs, and 56 kB for TIPs, in 1973. The Honeywell 316 was a popular 16-bit minicomputer built by Honeywell starting in 1969. ... Image:ASCII fullsvg There are 95 printable ASCII characters, numbered 32 to 126. ...


In 1975, BBN introduced IMP software running on the Pluribus multi-processor. These appeared in a small number of sites. In 1981, BBN introduced IMP software running on its own C/30 processor product. The Pluribus multiprocessor was an early multi-processor computer designed by BBN for use as a packet switch in the ARPANET. Its design later influenced the BBN Butterfly computers. ... Parallel computing is the simultaneous execution of the same task (split up and specially adapted) on multiple processors in order to obtain faster results. ...


The original IMPs and TIPs were phased out as the ARPANET was shut down after the introduction of the NSFNet, but some IMPs remained in service as late as 1989. National Science Foundation Network (NSFNet) was a major part of early 1990s Internet backbone. ...


The ARPANET and nuclear attacks

A common semi-myth about the ARPANET states that it was designed to be resistant to nuclear attack. The Internet Society writes about the merger of technical ideas that produced the ARPANET in A Brief History of the Internet, and states in a note: The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... The Internet Society or ISOC is an international organization that promotes Internet use and access. ...

It was from the RAND study that the false rumor started claiming that the ARPANET was somehow related to building a network resistant to nuclear war. This was never true of the ARPANET, only the unrelated RAND study on secure voice considered nuclear war. However, the later work on Internetting did emphasize robustness and survivability, including the capability to withstand losses of large portions of the underlying networks.

The ARPANET was designed to survive network losses, but the main reason was actually that the switching nodes and network links were not highly reliable, even without any nuclear attacks. Charles Herzfeld, ARPA director from 1965 to 1967, speaks about limited computer resources helping to spur ARPANET's creation:

The ARPANET was not started to create a Command and Control System that would survive a nuclear attack, as many now claim. To build such a system was clearly a major military need, but it was not ARPA's mission to do this; in fact, we would have been severely criticized had we tried. Rather, the ARPAnet came out of our frustration that there were only a limited number of large, powerful research computers in the country, and that many research investigators who should have access to them were geographically separated from them.

Retrospective

Support and style of management by ARPA was crucial to the success of ARPANET. The ARPANET Completion Report, published jointly by BBN and ARPA, concludes by stating:

...it is somewhat fitting to end on the note that the ARPANET program has had a strong and direct feedback into the support and strength of computer science, from which the network itself sprung. [4]

References in film and media

  • The Doctor Who Past Doctor Adventures novel Blue Box, written in 2003 but set in 1981, includes a character predicting that by the year 2000 there will be four hundred machines connected to ARPANET.
  • There is an electronic music artist known as Arpanet. The name is formatted as a word instead of an acronym, but is still a clear nod to ARPANET. The artist's 2002 album Wireless Internet features commentary on the expansion of the internet via wireless communication, with songs such as NTT DoCoMo, dedicated to the mobile communications giant based in Japan.

Metal Gear Solid 3: Snake Eater (commonly abbreviated MGS3) is a stealth-based game directed by Hideo Kojima, developed and published by Konami for the PlayStation 2. ... This is a list of characters appearing in Metal Gear Solid 3: Snake Eater. ... This article is about the television series. ... The Past Doctor Adventures (sometimes known by the abbreviation PDA or PDAs) are a series of spin-off novels based on the long running BBC science fiction television series Doctor Who and published under the BBC Books imprint. ... Blue Box is a BBC Books original novel written by Kate Orman and based on the long-running British science fiction television series Doctor Who. ... For other uses, see Electronic music (disambiguation). ... A building of NTT DoCoMo in Shinagawa, Tokyo. ... X-Files intro from first 8 seasons The X-Files was a popular 1990s American science fiction television series created by Chris Carter. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... The Lone Gunmen, a spin-off of the popular series The X-Files, was a television show that aired on FOX. The show first aired in March 2001, and it was soon canceled with its last episode airing in June 2001. ... Unusual Suspects is the third episode of the fifth season of The X-Files. ...

See also

  • History of the Internet
  • Computer Networks: The Heralds of Resource Sharing - 1972 documentary
  • AMPRNet
  • Project Cybersyn First Chilean national net in 1970
  • .arpa

Prior to the widespread inter-networking that led to the Internet, most communication networks were limited by their nature to only allow communications between the stations on the network, and the prevalent computer networking method was based on the central mainframe method. ... The AMPRNet (AMateur Packet Radio Network) is an effort by Amateur radio operators to build a computer network connected over amateur radio. ... Project Cybersyn was a Chilean attempt at real-time computer-controlled planned economy in the years 1970-1973 (during the government of president Salvador Allende). ... .arpa is an Internet top-level domain (TLD) used exclusively for Internet-infrastructure purposes. ...

Notes

  • 1 Abbate, Inventing the Internet, pp. 8
  • 2 Norberg, O'Neill, Transforming Computer Technology, pp. 166
  • 3 Hafner, Where Wizards Stay Up Late, pp. 69, 77
  • 4 A History of the ARPANET, Chapter III, pg.132, Section 2.3.4

Further reading

  • Arthur Norberg, Judy E. O'Neill, Transforming Computer Technology: Information Processing for the Pentagon, 1962-1982 (Johns Hopkins University, 1996) pp. 153-196
  • A History of the ARPANET: The First Decade (Bolt, Beranek and Newman, 1981)
  • Katie Hafner, Where Wizards Stay Up Late: The Origins of the Internet (Simon and Schuster, 1996)
  • Janet Abbate, Inventing the Internet (MIT Press, Cambridge, 1999) pp. 36-111
  • Peter H. Salus, Casting the Net: from ARPANET to Internet and Beyond (Addison-Wesley, 1995)
  • M. Mitchell Waldrop, The Dream Machine: J. C. R. Licklider and the Revolution That Made Computing Personal (Viking, New York, 2001)

Detailed technical reference works

  • Larry Roberts and Tom Merrill, Toward a Cooperative Network of Time-Shared Computers (Fall AFIPS Conference, October 1966)
  • Larry Roberts, Multiple computer networks and intercomputer communication (ACM Symposium on Operating System Principles. October 1967)
  • D. W. Davies, K. A. Bartlett, R. A. Scantlebury, and P. T. Wilkinson. A digital communications network for computers giving rapid response at remote terminals (ACM Symposium on Operating Systems Principles. October 1967)
  • Larry Roberts and Barry Wessler, Computer Network Development to Achieve Resource Sharing (Proceedings of the Spring Joint Computer Conference, Atlantic City, New Jersey - May 1970 )
  • Frank Heart, Robert Kahn, Severo Ornstein, William Crowther, David Walden, The Interface Message Processor for the ARPA Computer Network (1970 Spring Joint Computer Conference, AFIPS Proc. Vol. 36, pp. 551-567, 1970)
  • Stephen Carr, Stephen Crocker, Vinton Cerf. Host-Host Communication Protocol in the ARPA Network (1970 Spring Joint Computer Conference, AFIPS Proc. Vol 36, pp. 589-598, 1970)
  • Severo Ornstein, Frank Heart, William Crowther, S. B. Russell, H. K. Rising, and A. Michel, The Terminal IMP for the ARPA Computer Network (1972 Spring Joint Computer Conference, AFIPS Proc. Vol. 40, pp. 243-254, 1972)
  • John McQuillan, William Crowther, Bernard Cosell, David Walden, and Frank Heart, Improvements in the Design and Performance of the ARPA Network (1972 Fall Joint Computer Conference, AFIPS Proc. Vol. 41, Pt. 2, pp. 741-754, 1972)
  • Feinler, Elizabeth J.; Postel, Jonathan B. ARPANET Protocol Handbook, NIC 7104 (Network Information Center (NIC), SRI International, Menlo Park, January, 1978)
  • Lawrence Roberts, The Evolution of Packet Switching (Proceedings of the IEEE, November, 1978)
  • Larry Roberts, The ARPANET & Computer Networks (Sept 1986 ACM )

External links

  • ARPANET Maps 1967 to 1977
  • Looking back at the ARPANET effort
  • The Computer History Museum Images of ARPANET from 1964 onwards.
  • A Brief History of the Internet
  • Paul Baran and the Origins of the Internet
  • Leonard Kleinrock's Personal History/Biography
  • Personal anecdote of the first message ever sent over the ARPANET
  • Len Kleinrock on the Origins (subscribers only)
  • Internet Chronology by Larry Roberts
  • The Faces in Front of the Monitors
  • Computer Networks: The Heralds of Resource Sharing (1972 ARPANET documentary film
    • Computer Networks: The Heralds of Resource Sharing at Google Video)
Google Video logo Google Video is a free video sharing and video search engine service from Google that allows anyone to upload video clips to Googles web servers as well as make their own media available free of charge; some videos are also offered for sale through the Google...

  Results from FactBites:
 
ARPANET - MSN Encarta (178 words)
The ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network) developed by DARPA of the United States Department of Defense, was the world's first operational packet switching network...
ARPANET, in computer science, the network of about 60,000 medium-to-large-scale computers developed by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) of the United States Department of Defense and established in the 1960s to enable universities and research organizations to exchange information freely.
ARPANET, although part of the Department of Defense, was never classified as a government or military network.
Arpanet (2576 words)
The Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) developed by ARPA of the U.S. Department Of Defense was the world's first operational Packet Switching network, and the progenitor of the global Internet.
The Myth that the ARPANET was built to withstand nuclear attacks however remains such a strong and apparently appealing idea — and of course "a good story" — that many people refuse to believe it is not true.
The ARPANET was designed to survive network losses, but the main reason was actually that the switching nodes and network links were not highly reliable, even without any nuclear attacks.
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