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Encyclopedia > ARD (TV)
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The Arbeitsgemeinschaft der öffentlich-rechtlichen Rundfunkanstalten der Bundesrepublik Deutschland ("Cooperative association of public-law broadcasting institutions of the Federal Republic of Germany"), or simply ARD, is a joint organization of Germany's regional public broadcasting agencies. It was founded in West Germany in 1950 to represent the common interests of the new post-war broadcasting services - mainly the introduction of a joint television network. Look at: http://de. ... Look at: http://de. ... 1950 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and video signals (programs) to a number of recipients (listeners or viewers) that belong to a large group. ...


Today ARD is one of the most powerful television and radio broadcasting organizations in Europe. It operates a national television network, Das Erste (The First), beamed directly into homes throughout Germany using its own, vast terrestrial transmitter network, and takes part in the production of cable/satellite channels Phoenix (news), KI.KA (children's), 3sat (cultural/traditional programming) and arte (European cultural programming). It also produces a digital package of three channels. A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is geologically and geographically a peninsula, forming the westernmost part of Eurasia. ... The principal German public national TV channel. ... Arte is a French-German TV network, which facilities are located in Strasbourg (headquarters) and Baden-Baden, that aims to promote quality programming related to the world of arts and culture. ...


Moreover, ARD's constituent member agencies WDR, NDR, BR, SWR, MDR, RBB, HR, SR, RB, and DeutschlandRadio operate around fifty regional and local radio stations and networks, two nationwide radio channels, and seven regional TV networks, some of which split further during certain times of the day. Associated member Deutsche Welle offers international radio and TV services. The Westdeutsche Rundfunk (WDR) is a public broadcaster in the German Bundesland North Rhine-Westphalia with its main office is in Köln. ... The Südwestrundfunk (SWR) is a public broadcasting company for the southwest of Germany belonging to the ARD group. ... Map of the nine regional broadcasting members of Germanys ARD radio/TV network. ... The new Deutsche Welle building in Bonn Deutsche Welle or DW is the international broadcaster of Germany, utilising shortwave and satellite for radio and television broadcasts. ...

Map of the nine regional broadcasting members of Germany's ARD radio/TV network.
Map of the nine regional broadcasting members of Germany's ARD radio/TV network.

Contents

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (516x612, 62 KB)Map of the nine regional broadcasting members of Germanys ARD radio/TV network. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (516x612, 62 KB)Map of the nine regional broadcasting members of Germanys ARD radio/TV network. ...


History

The allied victors were determined that German radio after the war would not show the same faults as the pre-war Reichsrundfunk ('Imperial Broadcast'). A federal structure, the renunciation of state influence and the avoidance of economic dependence were to be the key of the radio and TV institutions under public law (öffentlich-rechtliche Rundfunk- und Fernsehanstalten, public broadcasting and TV organizations). In 1947 the US military governor Lucius D. Clay declared diversity of public opinion as the main aim of post-war media policy. Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km (over 11 miles) into the air, August 9, 1945 after the Allied atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Public law is the area of the law governing the relationship between individuals (citizens, companies) and the state. ... 1947 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The armed forces of the United States of America consist of the United States Army United States Navy United States Air Force United States Marine Corps United States Coast Guard Note: The United States Coast Guard has both military and law enforcement functions. ... A governor is also a device that regulates the speed of a machine. ... General Lucius D. Clay (April 23, 1897 - April 16, 1978) was an American general. ... For the book by Walter Lippmann, see Public Opinion. ... A policy is a plan of action for tackling political issues. ...


After the creation of individual broadcasting agencies for most German federal states, these principles were further consolidated by Länder broadcasting laws, decisions of the Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht), and state treaties between the Länder. ARD members are thus (at least nominally) free of government influence, and rely for only a small part of their income on advertising (1995: ten percent). They are financed mainly from licence fees from radio and TV owners, the amount of which is determined in a complex political process. The proclaimed aim of the ARD corporations is not only to inform and to entertain, but also to encourage the integration of various parts of society, and let minorities have a say in the programming. Germany is a federation of 16 states commonly called Länder (singular Land, which may be translated as country) or officially Bundesländer (singular Bundesland, German federal state). ... The Federal Constitutional Court (in German: Bundesverfassungsgericht) is a special court established by the German constitution, the Grundgesetz (Basic Law). ... Generally speaking, advertising is the paid promotion of goods, services, companies and ideas by an identified sponsor. ... 1995 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Information is a term with many meanings depending on context, but is as a rule closely related to such concepts as meaning, knowledge, instruction, communication, representation, and mental stimulus. ... Entertainment is an amusement or diversion intended to hold the attention of an audience or its participants. ... Integration may be any of the following: In the most general sense, integration may be any bringing together of things: the integration of two or more economies, cultures, religions (usually called syncretism), etc. ... ... This article is about the concept of a minority. ...


In the 1950s the ARD radio services became the major factor of the mass media system in West Germany. As early as 1952 the ARD radio stations had ten million listeners. However, the radio stations operated on a regional level, and it was only the development of a television umbrella that helped the ARD to establish itself nationwide. The broadcasting of a countrywide television service was the goal of the ARD from the outset, and the go-ahead for this was given at the end of 1952. The first daily news feature, the Tagesschau went on the air from Hamburg in 1956. The eight o'clock announcement of the Tagesschau newsreader: "Hier ist das Erste Deutsche Fernsehen mit der Tagesschau" ("This is the first German television channel with the Daily Review") continues to be the ARD's trademark, currently attracting eight million viewers every day. Millennia: 1st millennium - 2nd millennium - 3rd millennium // Events and trends The 1950s in Western society was marked with a sharp rise in the economy for the first time in almost 30 years and return to the 1920s-type consumer society built on credit and boom-times, as well as the... 1952 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... News is essentially new information or current events. ... The Tagesschau (View of the Day) is a news show which is broadcast several times every day on German language television stations. ... Position of Hamburg in Germany Hamburgs central broadway Jungfernstieg at the Alster lake, between 1900 and 1914 This article is about the city in Germany. ... 1956 was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


After starting with a schedule of a mere two-hours per night, television became more and more widespread during the 1960s. Color broadcasts were introduced in 1967. Without competition from commercial broadcasters -- only national public TV service ZDF was around yet -- the ARD stations made considerable progress in becoming modern and respected broadcasters. They have also been a significant force in German politics: Investigative news magazines (for example Monitor, Panorama) still reach millions of viewers every week. The environmental movement of the 1980s increased in popularity not least as a result of the disclosures made by the ARD. The 1960s, or The Sixties, in its most obvious sense refers to the decade between 1960 and 1969, but the expression has taken on a wider meaning over the past twenty years. ... Competition is the act of striving against another force for the purpose of achieving dominance or attaining a reward or goal, or out of a biological imperative such as survival. ... Zweites Deutsches Fernsehen (ZDF), loosely translated to Second German Television Service, is a public service German language television network based in Mainz. ... The Federal Republic of Germany (in German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is a federal representative democracy. ... Investigative journalism is a branch of journalism that usually concentrates on a very specific topic, and typically requires a lot of work to yield results. ... This article is about the artistic term Panorama. ... Environmental movement is a term often used for any social or political movement directed towards the preservation, restoration, or enhancement of the natural environment. ... // Events and trends The 1980s marked an abrupt shift towards more conservative lifestyles after the momentous cultural revolutions which took place in the 1960s and 1970s and the definition of the AIDS virus in 1981. ...

A woman alerting viewers to the programming schedule during an on-air continuity announcement on Das Erste in the 1980s.
A woman alerting viewers to the programming schedule during an on-air continuity announcement on Das Erste in the 1980s.

When commercial broadcasters were licensed in Germany in the mid-1980s, ARD television adapted somewhat by producing more accessible programming for their national networks and shifting cultural and news programs to the regional networks and newly-created niche channels. In-vision continuity on ARD (Das Erste) from the 1980s. ... In-vision continuity on ARD (Das Erste) from the 1980s. ... // Events and trends The 1980s marked an abrupt shift towards more conservative lifestyles after the momentous cultural revolutions which took place in the 1960s and 1970s and the definition of the AIDS virus in 1981. ... // Events and trends The 1980s marked an abrupt shift towards more conservative lifestyles after the momentous cultural revolutions which took place in the 1960s and 1970s and the definition of the AIDS virus in 1981. ...


Information programs on television and the orientation of Deutschlandfunk programs towards the GDR were of crucial importance to the eventual collapse of the GDR. Established in 1974, the ARD bureau in East Berlin made ARD television the most important source of information for GDR citizens (eighty per cent of them could watch what they referred to as Westfernsehen). Notwithstanding obstruction on the part of GDR authorities and the repeated expulsion of their correspondents, the ARD-Tagesschau and Deutschland-Funk broadcast reports about the Leipzig Monday demonstrations as early as September 1989. This article needs to be wikified. ... Disambiguation Page Global Depositary Receipt East Germany ... 1974 is a common year starting on Tuesday (click on link for calendar). ... East Berlin consisted of the Soviet Sector of Berlin and was the capital of East Germany from 1949 to 1990. ... Map of Germany showing Leipzig   Leipzig? [ˈlaiptsɪç] (Polish; Sorbian/Lusatian: Lipsk) is the largest city in the federal state (Bundesland) of Saxony in Germany. ... Monday Demonstrations 1989 Monday demonstration in Leipzig The Monday demonstrations started in 1989 in the Eastern German city of Leipzig after prayers for peace in the Nikolai Church with parson Christian Führer. ... 1989 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


After unification and the closure of the GDR television service, two new regional broadcasters were established in the East, becoming ARD members in 1992. These were originally the Mitteldeutscher Rundfunk (MDR, English: "Central German Broadcasting"), and Ostdeutscher Rundfunk Brandenburg (ORB, English: "East German Broadcasting, Brandenburg"). The existing NDR service expanded into the north-east, where it also covers Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. The ORB service has since merged with the former Sender Freies Berlin (SFB, English "Broadcaster Free Berlin") to become Rundfunk Berlin-Brandenburg (RBB, English: "Broadcasting Berlin-Brandenburg"). 1992 is a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Map of the nine regional broadcasting members of Germanys ARD radio/TV network. ... Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (German: Mecklenburg-Vorpommern) is a Bundesland (federal state) in northern Germany. ...


Another merger took place between two member organizations of the ARD in 1998. The former Süddeutschen Rundfunk (SDR, English: "Southern German Broadcasting") and Südwestfunk (SWF, English: "Southwest Radio") became Südwestrundfunk (SWR, English: "Southwest Broadcasting") on 1 October 1998. The Südwestrundfunk (SWR) is a public broadcasting company for the southwest of Germany belonging to the ARD group. ... October 1 is the 274th day of the year (275th in Leap years). ... 1998 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ...


Institutions

ARD operates some thirty correspondents' offices in foreign cities (from Mexico City to Tokyo) - a world-wide reporters network second only to that of CNN. ARD and most of the regional broadcasters are also represented on the World Wide Web. Mexico City (Spanish: Ciudad de México) is the name of a megacity located in the Valley of Mexico (Valle de México), a large valley in the high plateaus (altiplano) at the center of Mexico, about 2,240 metres (7,349 feet) above sea-level, surrounded on most sides... The modern skyline of Tokyo is highly decentralized. ... CNN or Cable News Network is a cable television network that was founded in 1980 by Ted Turner & Reese Schonfeld [1] [2] (although he currently is not recognized in CNNs official history). ... Graphic representation of the World Wide Web around Wikipedia The World Wide Web (WWW, W3, or simply Web) is an information space in which the items of interest, referred to as resources, are identified by global identifiers called Uniform Resource Locators (URLs). ...


ARD operates several other companies and institutions, sometimes jointly with ZDF: Degeto Film, a television rights trader; German National Broadcasting Archives (DRA),the Institute for Broadcasting Technology ,responsible for research and development; the Fee Collection Center (GEZ), and others.


Current controversy

The fact that ARD (and also ZDF) uses license fees to subsidize their World Wide Web sites, and also the intransparency of their license fee expenditure, is the topic of an ongoing controversy with the European Union.


External links

  • ARD
  • Official information about ARD in English (PDF document)

See also

Logo of the ARD Member organizations of the ARD

Bayerischer Rundfunk (BR; Bavarian Broadcasting) 
Hessischer Rundfunk (HR; Hessian Broadcasting) 
Mitteldeutscher Rundfunk (MDR; Central German Broadcasting) 
Norddeutscher Rundfunk (NDR; North German Broadcasting) 
Radio Bremen (RB) 
Rundfunk Berlin-Brandenburg (RBB; Broadcasting Berlin-Brandenburg) 
Saarländischer Rundfunk (SR; Saarland Broadcasting) 
Südwestrundfunk (SWR; Southwest Broadcasting) 
Westdeutscher Rundfunk (WDR; West German Broadcasting)
Zweites Deutsches Fernsehen (ZDF), loosely translated to Second German Television Service, is a public service German language television network based in Mainz. ... German language television channels include the following : // Germany ARD (Arbeitsgemeinschaft der öffentlich-rechtlichen Rundfunkanstalten Deutschlands, Consortium of German public broadcasting services) — public, consisting of the following local public stations (which also provide regional programming in separate channels): Das Erste (ARD) EinsExtra (Digital only via Satellite or Cable) EinsFestival (Digital only... Look at: http://de. ... Map of the nine regional broadcasting members of Germanys ARD radio/TV network. ... The Südwestrundfunk (SWR) is a public broadcasting company for the southwest of Germany belonging to the ARD group. ... The Westdeutsche Rundfunk (WDR) is a public broadcaster in the German Bundesland North Rhine-Westphalia with its main office is in Köln. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
ARD (broadcaster) at AllExperts (1453 words)
ARD (Arbeitsgemeinschaft der ̦ffentlich-rechtlichen Rundfunkanstalten der Bundesrepublik Deutschland Рthe "Consortium of public-law broadcasting institutions of the Federal Republic of Germany"), is a joint organization of Germany's regional public broadcasting agencies.
ARD members are thus (at least nominally) free of government influence, and rely for only a small part of their income on advertising (1995: ten percent).
Among commercial television ventures, ARD is involved with KI.KA, a children's channel, arte, a "high culture"-esque station in conjunction with France Télévisions (the French public broadcaster), and 3sat, a cultural station.
RAI - Social Action Department (2794 words)
The presence in ARD’s programming of themes which fall under the category of social programming, as we have said, is not pre-determined, but is guaranteed by the role and membership of the Broadcasting Counsel.
Within ARD itself, there are a number of well known models which clearly show how the public defence of children’s rights and the responsibility of a public broadcaster are very possible.
Some programmes are particularly famous on ARD’s national network, such as the "Josè Carreras Gala" organised by the Carreras Foundation to raise funds for leukaemia, or "Stars 98", the TV pop/rock gala concert designed to "bring the taboo subject of AIDS into the German living room”.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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