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Encyclopedia > AMD64
AMD64 Logo
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AMD64 (also x86-64 or x64) is a 64-bit microprocessor architecture and corresponding instruction set designed by Advanced Micro Devices. It is a superset of the x86 architecture, which it natively supports. The AMD64 instruction set is currently implemented in AMD's Athlon 64, Athlon 64 FX, Athlon 64 X2, Turion 64, Opteron and later Sempron processors. In an ironic twist of computing history, it has been adopted (under the name EM64T or IA-32e) by Intel—the original creators of the x86 processor line—in its newer Pentium 4, Pentium D, Pentium Extreme Edition, Celeron D, and Xeon processors. Microsoft's marketing instead used the term x64. Image File history File links 30436A_64_E_RGB.gif AMD64 Logo Source: [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links 30436A_64_E_RGB.gif AMD64 Logo Source: [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... In computing, a 64-bit component is one in which data are processed or stored in 64-bit units (words). ... To a large extent, the design of a CPU, or central processing unit, is the design of its control unit. ... An instruction set, or instruction set architecture (ISA), describes the aspects of a computer architecture visible to a programmer, including the native datatypes, instructions, registers, addressing modes, memory architecture, interrupt and exception handling, and external I/O (if any). ... For other possible meanings of AMD see AMD (disambiguation) Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. ... x86 or 80x86 is the generic name of a microprocessor architecture first developed and manufactured by Intel. ... The Athlon 64 (codenamed ClawHammer, Newcastle, Winchester, Venice, and San Diego) represents AMDs entry into the consumer 64-bit microprocessor market, released on September 23, 2003. ... The Athlon 64 (codenamed ClawHammer, Newcastle, Winchester, Venice, and San Diego) represents AMDs entry into the consumer 64-bit microprocessor market, released on September 23, 2003. ... Athlon 64 X2 Logo Athlon 64 X2 E6 3800+ The Athlon 64 X2 is the first dual-core desktop CPU manufactured by AMD. It is essentially a processor consisting of two Athlon 64 cores joined together on one die with some additional control logic. ... Turion 64 Logo Turion 64 is AMDs 64-bit mobile processor, intended to compete with Intels Pentium M. It is compatible with AMDs Socket 754 and is equipped with 512 or 1024 KB of L2 cache, a 64-bit single channel on-die memory controller, and an... The AMD Opteron is the first eighth-generation x86 processor (K8 core), and the first of AMDs AMD64 (x86-64) processors, released April 22, 2003. ... AMD Sempron Logo Socket-A Sempron 3000+ Sempron is, as of 2005-06, AMDs newest low-end CPU, replacing the seven year old Duron processor and competing against Intels Celeron D processor. ... Extended Memory 64-bit Technology (EM64T) is Intels implementation of AMD64, a 64-bit extension to the IA-32 architecture. ... Extended Memory 64-bit Technology (EM64T) is Intels implementation of AMDs AMD64 architecture, an extension to the IA-32 instruction set which adds 64 bit extensions to the x86 architecture. ... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is a U.S.-based multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... New Intel Pentium 4 with Hyper Threading logo The Pentium 4 is a seventh-generation x86 architecture microprocessor produced by Intel and is their first all-new CPU design, called the NetBurst architecture, since the Pentium Pro of 1995. ... Pentium D logo as of 2006. ... Pentium Extreme Edition brand logo // Smithfield Pentium Extreme Edition is the brand name given to a series of Intel microprocessors introduced during the 2nd Quarter 2005 Intel Developers Forum, not to be confused with the Pentium 4 Extreme Edition (an earlier, single-core processor occupying the same niche). ... 633MHz Celeron A Celeron is any of a large number of different budget x86 microprocessors produced by Intel and marketed as a second line to complement their more expensive but higher-performance Pentium CPUs. ... Xeon logo The Xeon is Intels name for its server-class PC microprocessors intended for multiple-processor machines. ... x64 is Microsoft Corporations marketing designation for the Advanced Micro Devices AMD64 and Intel EM64T 64-bit Instruction Set Extensions to the x86 architecture, which were substantially similar as of 2004. ...

Contents


Architecture Features

AMD's x86-64 instruction set (later renamed AMD64) is an extension of Intel's IA-32 (x86) architecture. The primary defining characteristic of AMD64 is its support for 64-bit general purpose registers, 64-bit integer arithmetic and logical operations, and 64-bit virtual addresses. The designers took the opportunity to make other improvements as well. The most significant changes include: It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with X86 assembly language. ...

  • Full support for 64-bit integers: All general-purpose registers (GPRs) are expanded from 32 to 64 bits, and all arithmetic and logical operations, memory-to-register and register-to-memory operations, etc., are now directly supported for 64-bit integers. Pushes and pops on the stack are always in eight-byte strides, and pointers are eight bytes wide.
  • Additional registers: In addition to increasing the size of the general-purpose registers, their number is increased from 8 in x86 to 16. There is therefore less need to save registers, restore registers, and generally manage registers to cope with a shortage of register space, and most arguments to most procedures can be passed in registers rather than on the stack. This should be a significant area of speed improvement once optimized applications appear, especially for software with computationally-intensive deeply-nested loops. This addresses one of the most outstanding deficiencies of x86. However, AMD64 still has fewer registers than many common RISC processors which often have 32 registers, as well as the IA-64 architecture which has 128.
  • Additional XMM registers: Similarly, the number of 128-bit XMM registers (used for Streaming SIMD instructions) is also increased from 8 to 16.
  • Larger virtual address space: Current processor models implementing the AMD64 architecture can address up to 256 terabytes of virtual address space (248 bytes). This limit can be raised in future implementations to 16 exabytes (264 bytes). This is compared to just 4 gigabytes for 32-bit x86. This means that very large files can be operated on by mapping the entire file into the process's address space (which is generally faster than working with file read/write calls), rather than having to map regions of the file into and out of the address space.
  • Larger physical address space: Current implementations of the AMD64 architecture can address up to 1 terabyte of RAM (240 bytes); the architecture permits extending this to 4 petabytes (252 bytes) in the future (limited by the page table entry format). In legacy mode, Physical Address Extension (PAE) is supported, as it is on most current 32-bit x86 processors, allowing access to a maximum of 64 gigabytes.
  • Instruction pointer relative data access: Instructions can now reference data relative to the instruction pointer (RIP register). This makes position independent code, as is often used in shared libraries and code loaded at run time, more efficient.
  • SSE instructions: The original AMD64 architecture adopted Intel's SSE and SSE2 as core instructions. SSE3 instructions were added in April 2005. SSE2 replaces the x87 instruction set's IEEE 80-bit precision, with the choice of either IEEE 32-bit or 64-bit floating-point math. This provides floating-point operations compatible with many other modern CPUs. The SSE and SSE2 instructions have also been extended to support the eight new XMM registers. SSE and SSE2 are available in 32-bit mode in modern x86 processors; however, if they're used in 32-bit programs, those programs will only work on systems with processors that support them. This is not an issue in 64-bit programs, as all processors that support AMD64 support SSE and SSE2, so using SSE and SSE2 instructions instead of x87 instructions doesn't reduce the set of machines on which the programs will run. Since SSE and SSE2 are generally faster than, and duplicate most of the features of, the traditional x87 instructions, MMX, and 3DNow!, the latter are redundant under AMD64.
  • No-Execute bit: The “NX” bit (bit 63 of the page table entry) allows the operating system to specify which pages of virtual address space can contain executable code and which cannot. An attempt to execute code from a page tagged "no execute" will result in a memory access violation, similar to an attempt to write to a read-only page. This should make it more difficult for malicious code to take control of the system via "buffer overrun" or "unchecked buffer" attacks. A similar feature has been available on x86 processors since the 80286 as an attribute of segment descriptors, however this works only on an entire segment at a time. Segmented addressing has long been considered an obsolete mode of operation, and all current PC operating systems in effect bypass it, setting all segments to a base address of 0 and a size of 4 Gigabyte. AMD was the first x86-family vendor to support no-execute in linear addressing mode. The feature is also available in legacy mode on AMD64 processors, and recent Intel x86 processors, when PAE is used.
  • Removal of older features: A number of "system programming" features of the x86 architecture are not used in modern operating systems and are not available on AMD64 in long mode. These include segmented addressing (although the FS and GS segments remain in vestigial form, for compatibility with Windows code), the task state switch mechanism, and Virtual-8086 mode. These features do of course remain fully implemented in "legacy mode," thus permitting these processors to run 32-bit and 16-bit operating systems without modification. If, at some point in the future, 32-bit and 16-bit code using those features is no longer used, support for them might be removed from hardware to streamline processor design and save manufacturing costs. These features could be emulated in the operating system to preserve legacy application compatibility.

In computer architecture, a processor register is a small amount of very fast computer memory used to speed the execution of computer programs by providing quick access to commonly used values—typically, the values being in the midst of a calculation at a given point in time. ... x86 or 80x86 is the generic name of a microprocessor architecture first developed and manufactured by Intel. ... x86 or 80x86 is the generic name of a microprocessor architecture first developed and manufactured by Intel. ... In computing, IA-64 (Intel Architecture-64) is a 64-bit processor architecture developed in cooperation by Intel and Hewlett-Packard, implemented by processors such as Itanium and Itanium 2. ... SSE (Streaming SIMD Extensions) is a SIMD (Single Instruction, Multiple Data) instruction set designed by Intel, and introduced in 1999 in their Pentium III series processors as a reply to AMDs 3DNow! (which had debuted a year earlier). ... A terabyte (derived from the SI prefix tera-) is a measurement term for data storage capacity equal to approximately 1000 gigabytes. ... An exabyte (derived from the SI prefix exa-, and abbreviated as EB) is a unit of information or computer storage equal to approximately one quintillion bytes. ... A gigabyte (derived from the SI prefix giga-) is a unit of information or computer storage equal to one billion bytes. ... x86 or 80x86 is the generic name of a microprocessor architecture first developed and manufactured by Intel. ... A petabyte (derived from the SI prefix peta- ) is a unit of information or computer storage equal to one quadrillion (one long scale billiard) bytes. ... In computing, Physical Address Extension (PAE) allows for up to 64 gigabytes of memory to be used in 32 bit systems, given appropriate operating system support. ... In computing, position independent code (PIC) is object code that can execute at different locations in memory. ... SSE (Streaming SIMD Extensions) is a SIMD (Single Instruction, Multiple Data) instruction set designed by Intel, and introduced in 1999 in their Pentium III series processors as a reply to AMDs 3DNow! (which had debuted a year earlier). ... SSE2 is one of the IA-32 SIMD instruction sets, first introduced by Intel with the initial version of the Pentium 4 in 2001. ... SSE3, also known by its Intel code name Prescott New Instructions (PNI), is the third iteration of the SSE instruction set for the IA-32 architecture. ... Referrs to math-related instruction subset of Intel X86 family line of processors. ... MMX is a SIMD instruction set designed by Intel, introduced in their Pentium MMX microprocessors. ... The first 3DNow! CPU 3DNow! is the name of a multimedia extension created by AMD for its processors, starting with the K6-2 in 1998. ... NX stands for No eXecute. ... x86 or 80x86 is the generic name of a microprocessor architecture first developed and manufactured by Intel. ... The Intel 80286 is an x86-family 16-bit microprocessor that was introduced by Intel on February 1, 1982. ... A gigabyte (derived from the SI prefix giga-) is a unit of information or computer storage equal to one billion bytes. ...

Operating modes

Operating mode Operating system required Application recompile required Default address size Default operand size Register extensions Typical GPR width
Long mode 64-bit mode New 64-bit (x86-64) OS (e.g.WinXPx64, Linux x86-64) yes 64 32 yes 64
Compatibility mode no 32 32 no 32
16 16 16
Legacy Mode Protected Mode Legacy 16-bit or 32-bit OS no 32 32 no 32
16 16 16
Virtual 8086 mode 16 16 16
Real mode Legacy 16-bit OS

An operating system (OS) is an essential software program that manages the hardware and software resources of a computer. ... In computer architecture, a processor register is a small amount of very fast computer memory used to speed the execution of computer programs by providing quick access to commonly used values—typically, the values being in the midst of a calculation at a given point in time. ... In the x86-64 CPU architecture Long mode, is the mode where an application (or operating system) can access the 64-bit instructions and registers, while 32-bit programs are executed in a compatibility mode. ... Microsoft Windows XP Professional x64 Edition released on April 25, 2005 by Microsoft is a variation of the typical 32-bit Windows XP operating system for x86 personal computers. ... In the 80386 and later, Virtual 8086 mode, also called virtual real mode, allows the execution of real mode applications that violated the rules mentioned here under the control of a protected mode operating system. ...

Operating mode explanation

There are two primary modes of operation for this architecture:

Long Mode 
The intended primary mode of operation of the architecture; it is a combination of the processor's native 64-bit mode and a 32-bit/16-bit compatibility mode. It is used by 64-bit operating systems. Under a 64-bit operating system, 64-bit, 32-bit and 16-bit (or 80286) protected mode applications may be supported.
Since the basic instruction set is the same, there is no major performance penalty for executing x86 code. This is unlike Intel's IA-64, where differences in the underlying ISA means that running 32-bit code is like using an entirely different processor. However, on AMD64, 32 bit x86 applications may still benefit from a 64-bit recompile, due to the additional registers in 64-bit code, which a high-level compiler can use for optimization.
Legacy Mode 
The mode used by 16-bit (protected mode or real mode) and 32-bit operating systems. In this mode, the processor acts just like an x86 processor, and only 16-bit or 32-bit code can be executed. 64-bit programs will not run.

In the x86-64 CPU architecture Long mode, is the mode where an application (or operating system) can access the 64-bit instructions and registers, while 32-bit programs are executed in a compatibility mode. ... The Intel 80286 is an x86-family 16-bit microprocessor that was introduced by Intel on February 1, 1982. ... Protected mode is an operational mode of x86-compatible CPUs of the 80286 series or later. ... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is a U.S.-based multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... In computing, IA-64 (Intel Architecture-64) is a 64-bit processor architecture developed in cooperation by Intel and Hewlett-Packard, implemented by processors such as Itanium and Itanium 2. ... An instruction set, or instruction set architecture (ISA), describes the aspects of a computer architecture visible to a programmer, including the native datatypes, instructions, registers, addressing modes, memory architecture, interrupt and exception handling, and external I/O (if any). ... A diagram of the operation of a typical multi-language compiler. ... A diagram of the operation of a typical multi-language compiler. ... x86 or 80x86 is the generic name of a microprocessor architecture first developed and manufactured by Intel. ...

Market analysis

AMD64 represents a break with AMD's past behavior of following Intel's standards, but repeats Intel's earlier behavior of extending the x86 architecture, from the 16-bit 8086 to the 32-bit 80386 and beyond, without ever removing backwards compatibility. Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is a U.S.-based multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... x86 or 80x86 is the generic name of a microprocessor architecture first developed and manufactured by Intel. ... An Intel 8086 Microprocessor The 8086 is a 16-bit microprocessor chip designed by Intel in 1978, which gave rise to the x86 architecture. ... An Intel 80386 Microprocessor. ...


It was believed at one point that 64-bit RISC chips such as the DEC Alpha would eventually replace the outdated and quirky x86 architecture. Part of the reason this did not happen was the vast investment in application software for x86 systems. AMD64 effectively migrates the x86 architecture into a fully 64-bit environment, while maintaining legacy compatibility with x86 applications. Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC), is a microprocessor CPU design philosophy that favors a smaller and simpler set of instructions that all take about the same amount of time to execute. ... DEC Alpha AXP 21064 Microprocessor The DEC Alpha, also known as the Alpha AXP, is a 64-bit RISC microprocessor originally developed and fabricated by Digital Equipment Corp. ... x86 or 80x86 is the generic name of a microprocessor architecture first developed and manufactured by Intel. ...


Operating System Support

The following operating systems and releases support the AMD64 architecture in long mode.


DOS

It is possible to enter Long mode under DOS with a DOS Extender similar to DOS4GW. DOS itself is not aware of that and no benefits should be expected unless running DOS in an emulation with an adequate virtualization driver backend e.g. for the mass storage interface. In the x86-64 CPU architecture Long mode, is the mode where an application (or operating system) can access the 64-bit instructions and registers, while 32-bit programs are executed in a compatibility mode. ... ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... DOS/4GW is the most widely used 32-bit DOS extender, designed to allow DOS programs to eliminate the inherent DOS 640KB memory limit by addressing all the extended memory on Intel 80386 and above machines in MS-DOS, PC-DOS, DR-DOS, the DOS boxes of OS/2, Windows...


FreeBSD

FreeBSD/amd64 is a Tier 1 platform, being first added as an experimental architecture in 5.1-RELEASE. The 6.0-RELEASE version cleaned up some quirks with running 32-bit executables under AMD64, and most drivers work just as they do on i386 architectures. Work is currently being done to fully integrate the i386 ABI, in the same manner as the Linux ABI currently works. FreeBSD is a Unix-like free software operating system descended from AT&T UNIX via the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) branch through 386BSD and 4. ...


Linux

Recent releases of the Linux kernel (v2.6 as of this writing) can be built natively in long mode, supporting AMD64 and EM64T, with backwards compatibility for loading 32-bit executables and emulating the 32-bit system call API. This permits programs to be recompiled into long mode while retaining the use of 32-bit programs. Gentoo, Novell, SuSE, Fedora, Mandriva, Red Hat, CentOS, Ubuntu and PLD Linux distributions currently ship with AMD64-native kernels and userlands. Debian currently has an unofficial "stable" version, as well as "testing" and "unstable" flavours. This article is about the operating system which uses the Linux kernel. ... It has been suggested that Gentoo Foundation be merged into this article or section. ... SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop (rebranded from Novell Linux Desktop) is a desktop-oriented Linux distribution supplied by Novell, Inc. ... SUSE (properly pronounced , but frequently and incorrectly pronounced /suzi/) is a major retail Linux distribution, produced in Germany. ... Fedora Core is an RPM-based Linux distribution, developed by the community-supported Fedora Project, sponsored by Red Hat. ... Mandriva Linux (formerly Mandrakelinux or Mandrake Linux, and an acquisition of Conectiva and Lycoris) is a GNU/Linux distribution created by Mandriva, SA (formerly Mandrakesoft, SA). ... Red Hat Linux was one of the most popular Linux distributions, assembled by Red Hat. ... CentOS is a freely available Linux distribution which is based on Red Hats commercial Red Hat Enterprise Linux product, and with which it aims to be 100% compatible. ... Ubuntu is a desktop Linux distribution, based on Debian GNU/Linux. ... PLD is a free, RPM-based Linux distribution, aimed at the more advanced users and administrators, who accept the tradeoffs of using a system, that might require manual tweaking in exchange for much flexibility. ... For information on the company called UserLand, see UserLand Software. ... Debian, created by the Debian Project, is a widely used distribution of free software developed through the collaboration of volunteers from around the world. ...


Mac OS X

AMD64 CPUs are recognized by hacked versions of Mac OS X "for Intel." A patch is needed to emulate SSE3 instructions on the earlier AMD64 chips that support only SSE2. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


MenuetOS

The AMD64 version of MenuetOS was released in June 2005. Although Menuet was originally written for 32-bit x86 architectures and released under the GPL, the AMD64 version is proprietary. It is distributed as freeware with the source code for some components. 64 bit MenuetOS MenuetOS (also known as MeOS) is an operating system written in assembly language (FASM) by Ville Mikael Turjanmaa for the 64-bit and 32-bit x86 architecture computers. ... Freeware is copyrighted computer software which is made available free of charge, as opposed to shareware where the user is required to pay. ...


NetBSD

Support for AMD64 was first committed to the NetBSD source tree on June 19th, 2001. As of NetBSD 2.0, released on December 9th, 2004, NetBSD/amd64 is a fully integrated and supported port. NetBSD is a freely redistributable, open source version of the Unix-like BSD computer operating system. ...


OpenBSD

OpenBSD has supported AMD64 since OpenBSD 3.5, released on May 1st, 2004. Complete in-tree support for the platform was achieved prior to the hardware's initial release due to AMD's loaning of several machines for the project's hackathon that year. OpenBSD developers have taken to the platform because of its use of the NX bit, which allowed for an easy implementation of the W^X feature. OpenBSD is a freely available Unix-like computer operating system descended from Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD), a Unix derivative created by the University of California, Berkeley. ... It has been suggested that codefest be merged into this article or section. ... OpenBSD has developers from around the world. ... NX stands for No eXecute. ... W^X (pronounced W xor X[1]) is the name of a security feature present in the OpenBSD operating system. ...


The code for the AMD64 port of OpenBSD also runs on the Intel processors with EM64T support which contain cloned support for the AMD64 extensions, but since Intel left out support for the page table NX bit in early EM64T processors, there is no W^X support on those Intel CPUs; later Intel EM64T processors added support for the NX bit under the name "XD bit". SMP is supported on OpenBSD's AMD64 port, starting with release 3.6 on November 1st, 2004. Extended Memory 64-bit Technology (EM64T) is Intels implementation of AMD64, a 64-bit extension to the IA-32 architecture. ... Symmetric Multiprocessing, or SMP, is a multiprocessor computer architecture where two or more identical processors are connected to a single shared main memory. ...


Solaris

Solaris has supported AMD64 since Solaris 10. This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ...


Windows

x64 editions of Windows client and server, Windows XP Professional x64 Edition and Windows Server 2003 SP1 x64 Edition, were released in March 2005. Internally they are actually the same build (5.2.3790.1830 SP1), as they share the same source base and operating system binaries, so even system updates are released in unified packages, much in the manner of Windows 2000 Professional and Server editions for x86. Windows for x64 has the following characteristics: Microsoft Windows XP Professional x64 Edition released on April 25, 2005 by Microsoft is a variation of the typical 32-bit Windows XP operating system for x86 personal computers. ...

  • 8 terabytes (243 bytes) of user mode virtual address space per process. A 64-bit program can use all of this, subject of course to backing store limits on the system. This is a 4096-fold increase over the default 2 gigabyte user-mode virtual address space offered by 32-bit Windows.
  • 8 terabytes (243 bytes) of kernel mode virtual address space for the operating system. Again, this is a 4096-fold increase over 32-bit Windows versions. The increased space is primarily of benefit to the file system cache and kernel mode "heaps" (nonpaged pool and paged pool).
  • Support for up to 128 GB (Windows XP) or 1 TB (Windows Server 2003) of RAM.
  • LLP64 data model: "int" and "long" types are still 32 bits wide, while pointers and types derived from pointers are 64 bits wide.
  • Device drivers and system services must be 64-bit versions; there is no support for running 32-bit kernel-mode executables within the 64-bit OS.
  • Support for running existing 32-bit applications (.exe's) and dynamic link libraries (.dll's). A 32-bit program, if linked with the "large address aware" option, can use up to 4 gigabytes of virtual address space, as compared to the default 2 gigabytes (optional 3 gigabytes with /3GB boot.ini option and "large address aware" link option) offered by 32-bit Windows.
  • 16-bit DOS and Windows (Win16) applications will not run on x64 versions of Windows due to removal of NTVDM.
  • Full implementation of the NX (No Execute) page protection feature. This is also implemented on recent 32-bit versions of Windows when they are started in PAE mode.
  • As in x86 versions of the Windows NT family, the FS and GS segment descriptors are used to point to two operating-system defined structures: the Thread Information Block and Processor Control Region, respectively. Thus, for example, [FS]:0 is the address of the first member of the TIB. Maintaining this convention made the x64 port easier, but required AMD to retain the function of the FS and GS segments in long mode— even though segmented addressing per se is not really used by any modern operating system.
  • Early reports claimed that the operating system scheduler would not save and restore the x87 FPU machine state across thread context switches. Observed behavior shows that this is not the case: the x87 state is saved and restored, except for kernel-mode-only threads. Nevertheless, the most recent documentation available from Microsoft states that the x87/MMX/3DNow! instructions may not be used in long mode.

A terabyte (derived from the SI prefix tera-) is a measurement term for data storage capacity equal to approximately 1000 gigabytes. ... A gigabyte (derived from the SI prefix giga-) is a unit of information or computer storage equal to one billion bytes. ... A terabyte (derived from the SI prefix tera-) is a measurement term for data storage capacity equal to approximately 1000 gigabytes. ... GB may stand for: GB (supermarket) in Belgium GB Glace, a Swedish ice cream company Game Boy line Games behind, in sports scores Gigabit (Gb) Gigabyte (GB) Girls Brigade Government and binding theory by Noam Chomsky Gravity bong Great Britain, or the United Kingdom (country code GB) GunBound Guobiao, Chinese... TB or tb can stand for: Terbium (Tb, chemical symbol for the chemical element) Tuberculosis Terabyte (TB) Trombone Thunderbird news and email client Hyundai TB Tony Blair Terry Bradshaw TrackBack Thoroughbred Taco Bell Tomboy, Hong Kong slang Teen Baby (A common term relating to infantilism) Turbo Basic, computer language Toledo... In computing, a 64-bit component is one in which data are processed or stored in 64-bit units (words). ... Virtual DOS machine (VDM) is the name of Microsofts technologies allowing to run MS-DOS programs on Intel 80386 or higher computers when there is already another operating system running and controlling the hardware. ... Windows NT is a family of operating systems produced by Microsoft, the first version of which was released in July 1993. ... The Microsoft Jet Database Engine is a database engine on which several Microsoft products were built. ... Data Access Objects (DAO) were an object oriented interface created by Microsoft which allowed early versions of Microsoft Access and Visual Basic the Jet database engine. ...

Implementations

The following processors implement the AMD64 architecture:

An AMD Athlon 64 processor
An AMD Athlon 64 processor

The following future processors will implement the AMD64 architecture: Image File history File links Athlon64. ... Image File history File links Athlon64. ... The Athlon 64 (codenamed ClawHammer, Newcastle, Winchester, Venice, and San Diego) represents AMDs entry into the consumer 64-bit microprocessor market, released on September 23, 2003. ... Athlon 64 X2 Logo Athlon 64 X2 E6 3800+ The Athlon 64 X2 is the first dual-core desktop CPU manufactured by AMD. It is essentially a processor consisting of two Athlon 64 cores joined together on one die with some additional control logic. ... The Athlon 64 (codenamed ClawHammer, Newcastle, Winchester, Venice, and San Diego) represents AMDs entry into the consumer 64-bit microprocessor market, released on September 23, 2003. ... The AMD Opteron is the first eighth-generation x86 processor (K8 core), and the first of AMDs AMD64 (x86-64) processors, released April 22, 2003. ... Turion 64 Logo Turion 64 is AMDs 64-bit mobile processor, intended to compete with Intels Pentium M. It is compatible with AMDs Socket 754 and is equipped with 512 or 1024 KB of L2 cache, a 64-bit single channel on-die memory controller, and an... AMD Sempron Logo Socket-A Sempron 3000+ Sempron is, as of 2005-06, AMDs newest low-end CPU, replacing the seven year old Duron processor and competing against Intels Celeron D processor. ... The NetBurst Microarchitecture is the name given to the new architecture that succeded the P6 microarchitecture in the x86 family of CPUs made by Intel. ... Extended Memory 64-bit Technology (EM64T) is Intels implementation of AMD64, a 64-bit extension to the IA-32 architecture. ... The Xeon is Intels current generation of server-class microprocessors for PCs. ... 633MHz Celeron A Celeron is any of a large number of different budget x86 microprocessors produced by Intel and marketed as a second line to complement their more expensive but higher-performance Pentium CPUs. ... New Intel Pentium 4 with Hyper Threading logo The Pentium 4 is a seventh-generation x86 architecture microprocessor produced by Intel and is their first all-new CPU design, called the NetBurst architecture, since the Pentium Pro of 1995. ... Pentium D logo as of 2006. ... Pentium Extreme Edition brand logo // Smithfield Pentium Extreme Edition is the brand name given to a series of Intel microprocessors introduced during the 2nd Quarter 2005 Intel Developers Forum, not to be confused with the Pentium 4 Extreme Edition (an earlier, single-core processor occupying the same niche). ...

The Intel Next Generation Microarchitecture is Intels new processor architecture, to be released in the second half of 2006, and is intended to replace the current NetBurst microarchitecture. ... Intel Core 2 Duo brand logo This article is about Intel processors branded as Intel Core 2. ...

See also

NX stands for No eXecute. ... Extended Memory 64-bit Technology (EM64T) is Intels implementation of AMD64, a 64-bit extension to the IA-32 architecture. ... The AMD K8 generation of CPUs is the successor to the AMD K7 generation of CPUs. ... The AMD K9 generation of CPUs was the codename used to refer to dual core K8 processors. ... In computing, IA-64 (Intel Architecture-64) is a 64-bit processor architecture developed in cooperation by Intel and Hewlett-Packard, implemented by processors such as Itanium and Itanium 2. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
AMD64 Solutions (139 words)
The AMD Opteron™ processor, the AMD Athlon™ 64 processor, and AMD Turion™ 64 mobile technology comprise the AMD64 family.
AMD64 is designed to enable simultaneous 32- and 64-bit computing with no degradation in performance.
The same AMD64 technology that offers industry-leading performance, flexibility, and stability for enterprise-class computing systems is now available for high-end embedded designs.
AMD64 FAQs (788 words)
The AMD64 ISA is an AMD innovation that extends x86, the industry's most widely supported instruction set, and is designed to enable 64-bit computing while remaining compatible with the vast x86 infrastructure and industry experience.
AMD64 is designed to directly follow the evolutionary path of the industry-standard x86 ISA, allowing the technology industry to build a unified 64-bit computing infrastructure fully compatible with the ubiquitous x86 architecture.
AMD64 is designed to provide superior performance for applications requiring multi-processor scalability, larger addressable memory, video/audio/3-D processing or high computational accuracy.
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