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Encyclopedia > AMD Virtualization

x86 virtualization is the method by which x86-based "guest" operating systems are run under another "host" x86 OS, with little or no modification of the guest OS. The x86 processor architecture did not originally meet the Popek and Goldberg virtualization requirements. As a result, it was very difficult to implement a general virtual machine on an x86 processor. In 2005 and 2006, extensions to their respective x86 architectures by Intel and AMD resolved this and other virtualization difficulties. x86 or 80x86 is the generic name of a microprocessor architecture first developed and manufactured by Intel. ... The Popek and Goldberg virtualization requirements are a set of sufficient conditions for a computer architecture to efficiently support system virtualization. ... In general terms, a virtual machine in computer science is software that creates a virtualized environment between the computer platform and the end user in which the end user can operate software. ... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. ...

Contents

Software techniques

On February 8, 1999, VMware introduced the first x86 virtualization product, "VMware Virtual Platform", based on earlier research by its founders at Stanford University. VMware filed for a patent on their techniques in October 1998, which was granted as U.S. Patent 6,397,242 on May 28, 2002. VMware and similar virtualization software for the x86 must employ very sophisticated techniques to trap and virtualize the execution of certain instructions. These techniques incur some performance overhead as compared to a VM running on a natively virtualizable architecture such as the IBM System/370 or Motorola MC68020. February 8 is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Old Farts by the Sometimes-United Nations. ... VMware Inc. ... Stanford redirects here. ... May 28 is the 148th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (149th in leap years). ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ...


Kevin Lawton started the Plex86 project (originally called "freemware") to create a Free software for x86 virtualization. The focus of this project has since changed to support only Linux as a guest operating system, but prior to that Mr. Lawton published the paper Running multiple operating systems concurrently on an IA32 PC using virtualization techniques, which gives an analysis of what aspects of the x86 architecture are hard to virtualize and some techniques to overcome these difficulties. Plex86 is a project to create a virtual machine for the x86 architecture that runs Linux operating system. ... This article is about free software as defined by the sociopolitical free software movement; for information on software distributed without charge, see freeware. ...


Microsoft offers two Windows-based x86 virtualization products, Microsoft Virtual PC and Microsoft Virtual Server, based on technology they acquired from Connectix. The Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual sales of US$44. ... Virtual PC is an emulation suite for Apple Mac OS X, and a virtualization suite for Microsoft Windows operating systems. ... Microsoft Virtual Server is a virtualization solution that facilitates the creation of virtual machines on the Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 operating systems. ... Connectix Corporation was a software and hardware company, noted for having released innovative products that were either made obsolete as Apple incorporated the ideas into system software, or were sold to other companies once they become popular. ...


The research systems Denali, L4, and Xen explored ways to provide high performance virtualization of x86 by implementing a virtual machine that differs from the raw hardware. Operating systems are ported to run on the resulting virtual machine, which does not implement the hard-to-virtualize parts of the actual x86 instruction set. This technique is known as paravirtualization. In computing, Denali is an operating system, according to [1], an IA-32 virtual machine monitor, that allows for untrusted services to be run in isolated (protected) domains. ... L4 is, collectively, a family of related computer programs. ... Xen is an open source virtual machine monitor, or hypervisor, developed by the University of Cambridge. ... In computer science, porting is the adaptation of a piece of software so that it will function in a different computing environment to that for which it was originally written. ... In computing, paravirtualization is a virtualization technique that presents a software interface to virtual machines that is similar but not identical to that of the underlying hardware. ...


Hardware support

Intel and AMD have independently developed virtualization extensions to the x86 architecture. They are not directly compatible with each other, but serve largely the same functions. Either will allow a virtual machine hypervisor to run an unmodified guest operating system without incurring significant emulation performance penalties. A hypervisor in computing is a scheme which allows multiple operating systems to run, unmodified, on a host computer at the same time. ... This article is about emulation in computer science. ...


Intel VT (IVT)

Intel's virtualization extension for 32-bit and 64-bit x86 architecture is named IVT (short for Intel Virtualization Technology), and is sometimes referred to by the code name "Vanderpool". Intel has also published specifications for Vanderpool for the IA-64 (Itanium) processors; formerly the IA-64 virtualization was code-named "Silvervale". In computing, IA-64 (or ia64, short for Intel Architecture-64) is a 64-bit processor architecture developed in cooperation by Intel and Hewlett-Packard, implemented by processors such as Itanium and Itanium 2. ... Itanium 2 logo Old Itanium logo The Itanium is an IA-64 microprocessor developed jointly by Hewlett-Packard and Intel. ...


Intel VT was officially launched at the Intel Developer Forum Spring 2005. It is available on most Pentium 4 6x2, Pentium D 9x0, Xeon 3xxx/5xxx/7xxx, Core Duo and Core 2 Duo processors. On some implementations, Vanderpool support may be switched off in the BIOS/EFI. New Intel Pentium 4 with Hyper Threading logo The Pentium 4 is a seventh-generation x86 architecture microprocessor produced by Intel and is their first all-new CPU design, called the NetBurst architecture, since the Pentium Pro of 1995. ... Pentium D logo as of 2006. ... Xeon logo The Xeon is Intels name for its server-class PC microprocessors intended for multiple-processor machines. ... Intel Core is the name used for the processor codenamed Yonah (Hebrew transliteration for Jonah - יונה), released on January 5, 2006. ... Core 2 Duo brand logo Core 2 Extreme brand logo Core 2 is an eighth-generation x86 architecture microprocessor produced by Intel based on an all-new CPU architecture called the Intel Core microarchitecture, which is the successor of NetBurst microarchitecture that has powered most Intel processors since 2000. ... Phoenix AwardBIOS CMOS Setup utility on a standard PC BIOS, in computing, stands for Basic Input/Output System or Basic Integrated Operating System. ... Simple depiction of the workings of Extensible Firmware Interface Extensible Firmware Interface (EFI) is the name for a system developed by Intel that is designed to replace the aging BIOS used by personal computers. ...


AMD virtualization (AMD-V)

AMD's virtualization extension to the 64-bit x86 architecture is named AMD Virtualization (also known by the abbreviation AMD-V), and is sometimes referred to by the code name "Pacifica".


AMD processors using Socket AM2, Socket S1, and Socket F include AMD Virtualization support. In May 2006, AMD introduced such versions of the Athlon 64 and Turion 64 processors. It is expected that Opteron processors with AMD Virtualization support will be announced in August 2006. The Socket AM2, previously known as Socket M2, is a CPU socket designed for AMD desktop processors, including the performance, mainstream and value segments. ... Socket S1 is the new type of CPU socket predicted to be used by AMD for their new Turion and Athlon 64 Mobile processors. ... Socket F is a New socket designed by AMD for its Opteron Line of CPUs, this socket has 1207 pins and is estimated to be released around 2006. ... The Athlon 64 is an eighth-generation, AMD64 architecture microprocessor produced by AMD, released on September 23, 2003[1]. It is the third processor to bear the name Athlon, and the immediate successor to the Athlon XP[2]. The second processor (after the Opteron) to implement AMD64 architecture and the... Turion 64 Logo Turion 64 X2 Logo Turion 64 is the brand name AMD applies to its 64-bit low-power (mobile) processors. ... AMDs Opteron It should be possible to replace this fair use image with a free one. ...


Software utilizing VT

The following software is known to conditionally make use of virtualization technology features:

  • Microsoft Virtual PC [citation needed]
  • Microsoft Virtual Server — a future version (Virtual Server 2005 R2 SP1, to be released in Q1 2007[1][2]) will support Intel VT and AMD Pacifica extensions.
  • Parallels Workstation — lightweight hypervisor with Intel VT-x and AMD AMD-V support (AMD support on Macs is nonexistent as Macs don't use AMD processors)
  • TRANGO real-time embedded hypervisor
  • VMware — on Intel processors, VMware Workstation 5.5 requires Intel VT to execute 64-bit guests.[3] For 32-bit guests, use of VT is possible but not enabled by default because for normal workloads it's slower.[4][5]
  • Virtual Iron - Virtual Iron 3.0, derived from open source Xen project, uses hardware-assisted virtualization (VT) to provide support for unmodified guest operating systems (Linux and Windows) with near native performance. Virtual Iron refers to this architecture as "native virtualization".
  • Xen — Xen 3.0 uses Intel VT to execute unmodified guest operating systems. Both Intel and AMD have contributed support for their virtualization extensions to the Xen virtual machine monitor, allowing it to execute unmodified guest operating systems.

Virtual PC is an emulation suite for Apple Mac OS X, and a virtualization suite for Microsoft Windows operating systems. ... Microsoft Virtual Server is a virtualization solution that facilitates the creation of virtual machines on the Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 operating systems. ... Parallels Workstation is the first commercial software product released by Parallels, Inc. ... VMware Inc. ... In computing, native virtualization is a virtualization technique that presents a software virtual machine by leveraging hardware-based Virtualization Technology supported by some CPUs. ... For other uses, see Xen (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Xen (disambiguation). ...

Performance

As virtualization software vendors have begun to use these new hardware virtualization features, benchmarks are showing that the hardware virtualization features do not provide any general performance boost, when compared with an entirely software-based approach.[1][4] Future revisions of the hardware virtualization technologies are speculated to incrementally address the performance concerns.


See also

In computing, virtualization is a technique for hiding the physical characteristics of computing resources from the way in which other systems, applications, or end users interact with those resources. ... // Timelines 1960 IBM Sun Hewlett-Packard 1999 February 8, 1999, VMware introduced VMware Virtual Platform. ... In general terms, a virtual machine in computer science is software that creates a virtualized environment between the computer platform and the end user in which the end user can operate software. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This comparison of Application Virtual Machines lists some of the common software virtual machines that implement the concept of Application Virtualization, typically for the purpose allowing application binaries to be portably run on many different computer architectures and operating systems. ... This article is about emulation in computer science. ... In computing, paravirtualization is a virtualization technique that presents a software interface to virtual machines that is similar but not identical to that of the underlying hardware. ... Operating System-level Virtualization is a server virtualization technology which virtualizes servers on a operating system (kernel) layer. ...

References

  1. ^ a b Virtual Server 2005 R2 SP1 Beta 1 download link and availability details. technet.com (2006-04-28).
  2. ^ Virtual Server 2005 R2 SP1 - beta 2 feature listing. Microsoft.
  3. ^ Hardware Requirements for 64-Bit Guest Operating Systems. VMWare.
  4. ^ a b Adams, Keith; Agesen, Ole (2006). A Comparison of Software and Hardware Techniques for x86 Virtualization. VMWare.
  5. ^ How to check if Vanderpool usage is enabled?. VMware (March 2006). Article suggests adding monitor_control.vt32 = "TRUE" to the *.vmx file will enable use of hardware VT.

2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 28 is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 247 days remaining. ... VMware Inc. ... VMware Inc. ... VMware Inc. ...

External links

General links
Hardware virtualization VT from Intel
Hardware virtualization Pacifica from AMD
(non-x86) Hardware virtualization from IBM
(non-x86) Hardware virtualization for SPARC

 
 

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