FACTOID # 16: In the 2000 Presidential Election, Texas gave Ralph Nader the 3rd highest popular vote count of any US state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > AMD 29000
AMD 29000 Microprocessor
Enlarge
AMD 29000 Microprocessor

The AMD 29000, often simply 29k, was a popular family of RISC-based 32-bit microprocessors and microcontrollers from Advanced Micro Devices. They were, for a time, the most popular RISC chips on the market, widely used in laser printers from a variety of manufacturers. In late 1995 AMD dropped development of the 29k because the design team was transferred to support the PC side of the business. What remained of AMD's embedded business was realigned towards the embedded 186 family of 80186 derivatives. The majority of AMD's resources were then concentrated on their high-performance, desktop x86 clones, using many of the ideas and individual parts of the latest 29k to produce the AMD K5. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (678x678, 28 KB) Description: AMD 29000 Microprocessor Source: http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (678x678, 28 KB) Description: AMD 29000 Microprocessor Source: http://www. ... Reduced Instruction Set Computing (RISC), is a microprocessor CPU design philosophy that favors a smaller and simpler set of instructions that all take about the same amount of time to execute. ... Microprocessors, including an Intel 80486DX2 and an Intel 80386 A microssor (abbreviated as µP or uP) is a computer electronic component made from miniaturized transistors and other circuit elements on a single semiconductor integrated circuit (IC) (aka microchip or just chip). ... A microcontroller is a computer-on-a-chip optimised to control electronic devices. ... For other possible meanings of AMD see AMD (disambiguation) Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. ... A laser printer is a common type of computer printer that produces high quality printing, and is able to produce both text and graphics. ... AMD 5K86-P90 (SSA/5) Microprocessor The K5 was developed by AMD to compete with Intels Pentium microprocessor range. ...


The 29000 evolved from the same Berkeley RISC design that also led to the Sun SPARC and Intel i960. One "trick" used in all of the Berkeley-derived designs is the concept of register windows, a technique used to speed up procedure calls significantly. The basic idea is to use a large set of registers as stack, loading local data into a set of registers during a call, and marking them "dead" when the procedure returns. Values being returned from the routines would be placed in the "global page", the top eight registers in the SPARC (for instance). It is interesting to note that the competing early RISC design from Stanford University looked at this concept, but decided that improved compilers could make more effecient use of the registers than a hard-wired window, something that has proven true over the years. Berkeley RISC was one of two seminal research projects into RISC-based microprocessor design. ... Sun UltraSPARC II Microprocessor SPARC (Scalable Processor ARChitecture) is a pure big-endian RISC microprocessor architecture originally designed in 1985 by Sun Microsystems. ... Intels i960 (or 80960) was a RISC-based microprocessor design that became quite popular during the early 1990s as an embedded microcontroller, for some time likely the best-selling CPU in that field, pushing the AMD 29000 from that spot. ... In computer engineering, the use of register windows is a technique to improve the performance of a particularly common operation, the procedure call. ... In computer science, a subroutine (function, procedure, or subprogram) is a sequence of code which performs a specific task, as part of a larger program, and is grouped as one, or more, statement blocks; such code is sometimes collected into software libraries. ... In computer architecture, a processor register is a small amount of very fast computer memory used to speed the execution of computer programs by providing quick access to commonly used values—typically, the values being in the midst of a calculation at a given point in time. ... For other meanings of Stanford, see Stanford (disambiguation). ...


In the original Berkeley design, SPARC, and i960, the windows were fixed in size. A routine using only one local variable would still use up eight registers on the SPARC, wasting this expensive resource. It was here that the 29000 differed from these earlier designs, in that it used a variable window size to improve usage. In this example only two registers would be used, one for the local variable, another for the return address. It also added more registers, including the same 128 registers for the procedure stack, but adding another 64 for global access. In comparison the SPARC had 128 registers in total, and the global set was a standard window of eight. These changes, combined with a "halfway smart" compiler, resulted in the best of both worlds in performance -- high performance for procedure calls, while still having lots of global registers for general purpose work. The 29000 also "extended" the register window stack with an in-memory (and in theory, in-cache) stack. When the window filled the calls would be pushed off the end of the register stack into memory, restored as required when the routine returned. Generally the 29000's register usage was considerably more advanced than competing designs based on the Berkeley concepts.


Another difference, this one not so odd, is that the 29000 included no special-purpose condition code register. Any register could be used for this purpose, allowing the conditions to be easily saved at the expensive of complicating some code. An instruction prefetch buffer was used that stored up to 16 instructions, used to improve performance during branches -- the 29000 did not include any branch prediction system so there was a delay if a branch was taken (nor was it originally superscalar, so it could not "do both sides" as is common in some designs). The buffer mitigated this by storing four instructions from the "other side" of the branch, which could be run instantly while the buffer was re-filled with new instructions from memory. A superscalar CPU architecture implements a form of parallelism on a single chip, thereby allowing the system as a whole to run much faster than it would otherwise be able to at a given clock speed. ...


The first 29000 was released in 1988, including a built-in MMU but floating point support was offloaded to the 29027 FPU. The 29005 was a cut-down version (???). The line was upgraded with the 29030/29035, which included 8k/4k of instruction cache. Another update included the FPU on-die and added 4k of data cache to produce the 29040. The final general purpose version was the 29050, which was a superscalar design that could issue four instructions per clock, and included out-of-order and speculative execution, as well as a much faster FPU. MMU is an acronym for: Memory management unit, in computer architecture Manned Maneuvering Unit, in astronautics Manchester Metropolitan University Multimedia University, private university in Malaysia This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... A floating-point number is a digital representation for a number in a certain subset of the rational numbers, and is often used to approximate an arbitrary real number on a computer. ... A floating point unit (FPU) is a part of a CPU specially designed to carry out operations on floating point numbers. ... A superscalar CPU architecture implements a form of parallelism on a single chip, thereby allowing the system as a whole to run much faster than it would otherwise be able to at a given clock speed. ...


The 29000 core was also used in a microcontroller family. The 29200 and 29205 were released with different performance and add-on features.


Several portions of the 29050 design were used as the basis for the K5 series of x86 compatible processors. The FPU was used without change, while the rest of the core design was used along with complex microcode to translate x86 instructions to 29k-like code on the fly. A microprogram is a program consisting of microcode that controls the different parts of a computers central processing unit (CPU). ...


External links


List of AMD microprocessors | AMD | List of AMD CPU slots, sockets

Am2900 | Am29000 | Am286 | Am386 | Am486 | Am5x86 | K5 | K6 | K6-2 | K6-III | Duron | Sempron | Athlon | Athlon 64 | Athlon 64 X2 | Turion 64 | Opteron AMD logo, claiming fair use This is a copyrighted and/or trademarked logo. ... This article gives is a list of AMD (Advanced Micro Devices) microprocessors (µPs), sorted by generation and release year. ... Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. ... Here is a list of sockets and slots used by AMD central processing units: Am486: Same as Intel. ... AMD started in the x86 business as a second-source manufacturer for Intels chip designs. ... AMD Am386DX-40 CPU The Am386 central processing unit microprocessor was released by AMD in 1991. ... The Am486 was a 80486-class family of computer processors that were produced by AMD in the 1990s. ... AMD 5x86-P75 The AMD 5x86 processor is an x86-compatible CPU introduced in 1995 by AMD for use in 486-class computer systems. ... AMD 5K86-P90 (SSA/5) Microprocessor The K5 was developed by AMD to compete with Intels Pentium microprocessor range. ... History 1997 saw the arrival of AMDs K6 microprocessor. ... AMD K6-2 Microprocessor The K6-2 was a x86 microprocessor manufactured by AMD, available in speeds ranging from 266 to 550 MHz. ... The K6-III was an x86 microprocessor manufactured by AMD, the last and fastest of all Socket 7 processors. ... The AMD Duron is an x86-compatible computer processor manufactured by AMD. It was released in the summer of 2000 as a low-cost alternative to AMDs own Athlon processor and the Pentium III and Celeron processor lines from rival Intel. ... Sempron 3000+ Sempron is AMDs newest low-end CPU. It is replacing the Duron processor, and will compete against Intels Celeron D processor. ... Athlon is the brand name applied to a series of different x86 processors designed and manufactured by AMD. The original Athlon, or Athlon Classic, was the first seventh-generation x86 processor and, in a first, retained the initial performance lead it had over Intels competing processors for a significant... It has been suggested that Athlon 64 X2 be merged into this article or section. ... Athlon 64 X2 Logo Athlon 64 X2 E6 3800+ The Athlon 64 X2 is the first dual-core desktop CPU manufactured by AMD. It is essentially a processor consisting of two Athlon 64 cores joined together on one die with some additional control logic. ... Turion 64 is AMDs 64-bit mobile processor, intended to compete with Intels Pentium M. It is compatible with AMDs Socket 754 and is equipped with 512 or 1024 KB of L2 cache, a 64-bit single channel on-die memory controller, and an 800MHz HyperTransport bus. ... The AMD Opteron is the first eighth-generation x86 processor (K8 core), and the first of AMDs AMD64 (x86-64) processors, released April 22, 2003. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
AMD 29000 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (719 words)
The AMD 29000, often simply 29k, was a popular family of RISC-based 32-bit microprocessors and microcontrollers from Advanced Micro Devices.
The majority of AMD's resources were then concentrated on their high-performance, desktop x86 clones, using many of the ideas and individual parts of the latest 29k to produce the AMD K5.
The first 29000 was released in 1988, including a built-in MMU but floating point support was offloaded to the 29027 FPU.
AMD 29000 - definition of AMD 29000 in Encyclopedia (770 words)
In late 1995 AMD dropped development of the 29k; although sales were strong the need to support third party developers for compilers and other tools ate up all of the profits sales generated.
Instead AMD concentrated on their x86 clones, using many of the ideas and individual parts of the latest 29k to produce the AMD K5.
The FPU was used without change, while the rest of the core design was used along with complex microcode to translate x86 instructions to 29k-like code on the fly.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m