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Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.
AMD Logo
Type Public (NYSE: AMD)
Founded 1969
Location Sunnyvale, California, USA
Industry Semiconductors
Products Microprocessors
Flash memory
Revenue $5.85 billion USD (2005)
Employees 18,100 (Nov 2005)
Website www.amd.com

Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. (abbreviated AMD; NYSE: AMD) is an American manufacturer of integrated circuits based in Sunnyvale, California. It is the second-largest supplier of x86-compatible processors, and a leading supplier of non-volatile flash memory. It was founded in 1969 by a group of defectors from Fairchild Semiconductor, including Jerry Sanders. AMD's current Chairman and CEO is Dr. Héctor Ruiz. The current president and Chief Operating Officer is Dirk Meyer. Image File history File links AMD_Logo. ... A public company is a company owned by the public rather than by a relatively few individuals. ... New York Stock Exchange (June 2003) The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) is one of the largest stock exchanges in the world. ... Location Location of Sunnyvale within Santa Clara County, California. ... A semiconductor is a material that is an insulator at very low temperature, but which has a sizable electrical conductivity at room temperature. ... Microprocessors, including an Intel 80486DX2 and an Intel 80386 A microprocessor (abbreviated as µP or uP) is an electronic computer central processing unit (CPU) made from miniaturized transistors and other circuit elements on a single semiconductor integrated circuit (IC) (aka microchip or just chip). ... A USB Flash Memory Device. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Image File history File links Green_Arrow_Up. ... This article is about general United States currency. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Employment is a contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee. ... Ongoing events • Abramoff-Reed gambling scandal • Al Jazeera bombing memo • Avian influenza (H5N1) outbreak • Black sites scandal • Conservative leadership race (UK) • Fuel prices • Irans nuclear program • Jilin chemical plant explosions • Kashmir earthquake • Malawi food crisis • Malaysian prisoner abuse scandal • New Delhi bombings investigation • Niger food crisis • North Indian cyclone... Website - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... New York Stock Exchange (June 2003) The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) , also nicknamed the Big Board, is the largest stock exchange in the world in dollar volume and second largest by number of companies listed. ... An integrated circuit (IC) is a thin chip consisting of at least two interconnected semiconductor devices, mainly transistors, as well as passive components like resistors. ... Location Location of Sunnyvale within Santa Clara County, California. ... x86 or 80x86 is the generic name of a microprocessor architecture first developed and manufactured by Intel. ... CPU redirects here. ... A USB Flash Memory Device. ... Fairchild Semiconductor introduced the first commercially available integrated circuit (although at almost the same time as one from Texas Instruments), and would go on to become one of the major players in the evolution of Silicon Valley in the 1960s. ... Walter Jeremiah Sanders III (Jerry Sanders) was a salesman at Fairchild Semiconductor in the 1960s. ... Héctor Ruiz Dr. Héctor de Jesús Ruiz (born December 25, 1945) is the current Chairman and CEO of semiconductor company Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


AMD is 15th among the Worldwide Top 20 Semiconductor Sales Leaders with revenues in 2005 of $3.9 billion. This article or section is missing needed references or citation of sources. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


AMD is best known for the Athlon, Opteron, Turion 64, Sempron, and Duron lines of x86-compatible processors. Athlon is the brand name applied to a series of different x86 processors designed and manufactured by AMD. The original Athlon, or Athlon Classic, was the first seventh-generation x86 processor and, in a first, retained the initial performance lead it had over Intels competing processors for a significant... The AMD Opteron is the first eighth-generation x86 processor (K8 core), and the first of AMDs AMD64 (x86-64) processors, released April 22, 2003. ... Turion 64 Logo Turion 64 X2 Logo Turion 64 is the brand name AMD applies to its 64-bit low-power (mobile) processors. ... AMD Sempron Logo Socket-A Sempron 3000+ Sempron is, as of 2006, AMDs entry-level desktop CPU, replacing the Duron processor and competing against Intels Celeron D processor. ... The AMD Duron was an x86-compatible computer processor manufactured by AMD. It was released on June 19, 2000 as a low-cost alternative to AMDs own Athlon processor and the Pentium III and Celeron processor lines from rival Intel. ...

Contents


Financial information

Its market capitalization was around US$13 billion at the end of 2005. Market capitalization, often abbreviated to market cap, is a measurement of corporate size that refers to the current stock price times the number of outstanding shares. ...


General history

Early AMD 8080 Processor (AMD AM9080ADC / C8080A), 1977
Early AMD 8080 Processor (AMD AM9080ADC / C8080A), 1977

The company started as a producer of logic chips in 1969, then entered the RAM chip business in 1975. That same year, it introduced a reverse-engineered clone of the Intel 8080 microprocessor. During this period, AMD also designed and produced a series of bit-slice processor elements (Am2900, Am29116, Am293xx) which were used in various minicomputer designs. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... A four-megabyte RAM card for the VAX 8600 computer (circa 1986). ... Reverse engineering (RE) is the process of taking something (a device, an electrical component, a software program, etc. ... Intel C8080A processor. ... Microprocessors, including an Intel 80486DX2 and an Intel 80386. ... Bit slicing is a technique for constructing a processor from modules, bit slice processors, each of which processes one bit field or slice of an operand. ... Am2900 is a family integrated circuits (ICs) created in 1975 by Advanced Micro Devices (AMD). ...


During this time, AMD attempted to embrace the perceived shift towards RISC with their own AMD 29K processor, and they attempted to diversify into graphics and audio devices as well as flash memory. It had some success in the mid-80s with the AMD7910 and AMD7911 "World Chip" FSK modem, one of the first multistandard devices that covered both Bell and CCITT tones at up to 1200 baud half duplex or 300/300 full duplex. While the AMD 29K survived as an embedded processor and AMD continues to make industry leading flash memory, AMD was not as successful with its other endeavors. AMD decided to switch gears and concentrate solely on Intel-compatible microprocessors and flash memory. This put them in direct competition with Intel for x86 compatible processors and their flash memory secondary markets. Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC), is a microprocessor CPU design philosophy that favors a smaller and simpler set of instructions that all take about the same amount of time to execute. ... The Am29000 families were created Advanced Micro Devices (AMD). ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: it is patent nonsense. ... A USB Flash Memory Device. ...


8086, 80286, 80386, Am486

AMD 80286 1982
AMD 80286 1982

In February 1982, AMD signed a contract with Intel, becoming a licensed second-source manufacturer of 8086 and 8088 processors. IBM wanted to use the Intel 8088 in its IBM PC, but IBM's policy at the time was to require at least two sources for its chips. AMD later produced the 80286, or 286, under the same arrangement, but Intel cancelled the agreement in 1986, and refused to hand over technical details of the i386 part. The growing popularity of the PC clone market meant Intel could produce CPUs on its own terms, rather than IBM's. Image File history File links Amd_intel. ... Image File history File links Amd_intel. ... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... It has been suggested that Microprocessor 8086 be merged into this article or section. ... An Intel 8088 microprocessor The Intel 8088 is an Intel microprocessor based on the 8086, with 16-bit registers and an 8-bit external data bus. ... International Business Machines Corporation (IBM, or colloquially, Big Blue) (NYSE: IBM) (incorporated June 15, 1911, in operation since 1888) is headquartered in Armonk, New York, USA. The company manufactures and sells computer hardware, software, and services. ... IBM PC (IBM 5150) with keyboard and green screen monochrome monitor (IBM 5151), running MS-DOS 5. ... The Intel 80286 is an x86-family 16-bit microprocessor that was introduced by Intel on February 1, 1982. ... One of the first PCs from IBM - the IBM PC model 5150. ...


AMD challenged this decision, and subsequently won under arbitration. A long legal dispute followed, ending in 1991 when the Supreme Court of California sided with AMD and forced Intel to pay over $1 billion in compensation for violation of contract. Subsequent legal disputes centered on whether AMD had legal rights to use derivatives of Intel's microcode. Rulings were made in both directions. In the face of uncertainty, AMD was forced to develop "clean room" versions of Intel code. In this fashion, one engineering team described the function of the code, and a second team without access to the source code itself had to develop microcode that performed the same functionality. Justices of the Supreme Court of California (circa May 2005). ... Clean room design is the method of copying a design by reverse engineering and then recreating it without infringing any of the copyrights and trade secrets associated with the original design. ...


In 1991 AMD released the Am386, its clone of the later Intel 80386 processor. It took less than a year for AMD to sell a million units. AMD's 386DX-40 was very popular with smaller, independent clone manufacturers. AMD followed in 1993 with the Am486. Both sold at a significantly lower price than the Intel versions. The Am486 was used by a number of large OEMs, including Compaq, and proved popular, but again was just a clone of Intel's processor technology. But as product cycles shortened in the PC industry, cloning Intel's products became an ever less viable strategy for AMD, as it meant their technology would always be behind Intel. AMD Am386DX-40 CPU The Am386 central processing unit microprocessor was released by AMD in 1991. ... The Intel 80386 is a microprocessor which was used as the central processing unit (CPU) of many personal computers from 1986 until 1994 and later. ... AMD Am386DX-40 CPU The Am386 central processing unit microprocessor was released by AMD in 1991. ... AMD Am486 Microprocessor The Am486 was a 80486-class family of computer processors that were produced by AMD in the 1990s. ... AMD Am486 Microprocessor The Am486 was a 80486-class family of computer processors that were produced by AMD in the 1990s. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Compaq was a personal computer company founded in 1982 by Rod Canion, Jim Harris and Bill Murto. ...


On December 30, 1994 the Supreme Court of California finally formally denied AMD rights to use the i386's microcode. Afterwards AMD and Intel concluded an agreement, the details of which remain largely secret, which gave AMD the right to produce and sell microprocessors containing the microcodes of Intel 286, 386, and 486. The agreement appears to allow for full cross-licensing of patents and some copyrights, allowing each partner to use the other's technological innovations without charge. Whatever the details, no significant legal action had resulted between AMD and Intel (until the 2005 antitrust suits in Japan and the U.S.), and the agreement evidently provided a "clean break". December 30 is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 1 day remaining. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal. // Events January Bill Clinton January 1 : North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) goes into effect. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a state to a person for a fixed period of time in exchange for the regulated, public disclosure of certain details of a device, method, process or composition of matter (substance) (known as an invention) which is new, inventive, and... Copyright symbol. ...


K5

AMD's first completely in-house processor was the K5, launched belatedly in 1995. The "K" was a reference to "Kryptonite" which from comic book lore was the only substance that could harm Superman (a clear reference to Intel which was dominant in the market). AMD 5K86-P90 (SSA/5) Microprocessor The K5 was developed by AMD to compete with Intels Pentium microprocessor range. ... Superman, Phantom Zone criminals, and Jimmy Olsen, in front of a display of kryptonite models. ...


It was intended to compete directly with the Intel Pentium CPU, which had been released in 1993, but architecturally it had more in common with the newly-released Pentium Pro than the Pentium or Cyrix's 6x86, decoding x86 instructions into micro-ops and executing them on a RISC core. There were a number of problems. Many consumers were upset to learn the clock speed of their processor did not match the PR rating used to label some of the parts, and this was especially obvious at boot time, when the clock speed was posted to the main screen on many systems. Pentium logo, with MMX enhancement The Pentium is a fifth-generation x86 architecture microprocessor by Intel. ... Pentium Pro 256 KB Pentium Pro 512 KB Pentium Pro 1 MB Pentium Pro underside (256/512) Pentium II Overdrive The Pentium Pro is a sixth-generation x86 architecture microprocessor (P6 core) by Intel originally intended to replace the original Pentium in a full range of applications, but later reduced... Cyrix corporate logo Cyrix was a CPU manufacturer that began in 1988 as a specialist supplier of high-performance math co-processors for 286 and 386 systems. ... The Cyrix 6x86 is a sixth-generation, 32-bit 80x86-compatible microprocessor designed by Cyrix and manufactured by IBM and SGS-Thomson. ... The PR rating system was developed by AMD in the mid-1990s as a method of comparing their x86 processors to those of rival Intel. ...


More tellingly, the K5 could not match the 6x86's integer performance, nor the Pentium's FPU performance. AMD tended to use benchmarks for its rating systems that avoided FPU intensive tasks. This, combined with the large die size and the fact that the design scaled badly, doomed the K5 to near-total failure in the marketplace. To its credit, the K5 did not suffer from the compatibility problems of the 6x86 nor did it run as hot. A floating point unit (FPU) is a part of a CPU specially designed to carry out operations on floating point numbers. ... Look up die in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


While the K5 was arguably better than the Pentium classic technologically, with modern features such as out of order execution and micro-ops RISC core, AMD was slow by two years compared to Intel. Missing schedule deadlines and lack of manufacturing expertise in scaling designs would continue to plague AMD until the K7. With a new fabrication plant in Austin, they could not afford to wait for another inhouse design.


NexGen / K6

AMD-K6-2-300
Enlarge
AMD-K6-2-300

In 1996, AMD purchased NexGen specifically for the rights to their Nx series of x86 compatible processors. It is fair to say the technology gained in this acquisition saved AMD, which is somewhat ironic when one considers NexGen had been founded by ex-Intel employees. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1164x1086, 217 KB) An AMD K6-2 300 MHz processor. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1164x1086, 217 KB) An AMD K6-2 300 MHz processor. ... A NexGen Nx586 processor NexGen was a private semiconductor company that designed x86 PC central processing units until it was purchased by AMD in 1996. ... A NexGen Nx586 processor NexGen was a private semiconductor company that designed x86 PC central processing units until it was purchased by AMD in 1996. ...


AMD gave the NexGen design team their own building, left them alone, and gave them time and money to rework the Nx686. The result was branded the K6 processor, introduced in 1997. The redesign included a feedback dynamic instruction reordering mechanism, MMX instructions, and added the missing floating point unit (FPU). It was also made pin-compatible with Intel's Pentium, enabling it to be used in the widely available "Socket 7"-based motherboards. Like the Nx686 and Nx586 before it, the K6 translated the Pentium compatible x86 instruction set to RISC-like micro-instructions. In the following year, AMD released the K6-2 which added a set of floating point multimedia instructions called 3DNow!, preceding Intel's SSE instructions, as well as a new socket standard called "Super Socket 7", that extended the front side bus frequency from 66 to 100 MHz. History 1997 saw the arrival of AMDs K6 microprocessor. ... MMX is a SIMD instruction set designed by Intel, introduced in 1997 in their Pentium MMX microprocessors. ... Socket 7 is a physical and electrical specification for the x86 processor socket matching the pins on Pentium microprocessors manufactured by Intel, and compatibles made by Cyrix, AMD and others. ... Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC), is a microprocessor CPU design philosophy that favors a smaller and simpler set of instructions that all take about the same amount of time to execute. ... AMD K6-2 Microprocessor The AMD K6-2 architecture. ... The first 3DNow! CPU 3DNow! is the name of a multimedia extension created by AMD for its processors, starting with the K6-2 in 1998. ... The Super Socket 7, also referred to as Super 7 is an extension of the Socket 7 ZIF socket specification. ...


In January 1999, the final iteration of the K6-x series, the 450 MHz K6-III, was extremely competitive with Intel's top of the line chips. This chip was essentially a K6-2 with 256 kilobytes of full-speed level 2 cache integrated into the core and a better branch prediction unit. While it matched (generally beating) the Pentium II/III in integer operations, the FPU was a non-pipelined serial design and could not compete with Intel's more advanced FPU architecture. Although 3DNow! could theoretically compensate for this weakness, few game developers made use of it, the most notable exception being id Software's Quake II. K6-III+/450 The image above is proposed for deletion. ... A kilobyte (derived from the SI prefix kilo-, meaning 1000) is a unit of information or computer storage equal to either 1024 or 1000 bytes. ... In computer architecture, a branch predictor is the part of a processor that determines whether a conditional branch in the instruction flow of a program is likely to be taken or not. ... The first 3DNow! CPU 3DNow! is the name of a multimedia extension created by AMD for its processors, starting with the K6-2 in 1998. ... id Software (IPA: /ɪd sÉ”ft. ... Quake II, released on December 6, 1997, is a first person shooter game developed by id Software and distributed by Activision. ...


Throughout its lifetime, the K6 processor came close, but never equalled the performance of processor offerings from Intel. While there were brief periods when AMD announced a clock speed advantage, volume availability of products was limited as AMD suffered from manufacturing and yield problems. Furthermore, having deviated from the official Intel motherboard specifications with the Super Socket 7 format, the motherboards that worked with the K6 were of varying quality, especially in regards to their implementation of the graphical AGP specification. History 1997 saw the arrival of AMDs K6 microprocessor. ... The Super Socket 7, also referred to as Super 7 is an extension of the Socket 7 ZIF socket specification. ... An AGP slot (maroon, although the color is usually brown) and two PCI slots. ...


Overall the K6 proved popular with consumers, especially in markets outside North America, offering decent performance and a comparatively low price. But the problems surrounding the platform, and lack of availability for the announced high end parts, failed to establish AMD as a player in the corporate market. Intel responded to AMD's lower prices with the lower budget "Celeron" version of their Pentiums. While the Celerons were not as popular as Intel had hoped, this effectively left AMD struggling with low margins, chasing the low end of the market.


Athlon / K7

AMD Athlon "Classic" SlotA
AMD Athlon "Classic" SlotA

It was clear that if AMD was to survive, the company had to change strategy. CEO and founder Jerry Sanders recognized this, and developed a famous "Virtual Gorilla" strategy. This utilized strategic industry partnerships, to enable AMD to compete with Intel on a more equal technological footing. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1825x1086, 173 KB) Summary AMD Athlon Classic 700MHz SlotA Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: AMD ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1825x1086, 173 KB) Summary AMD Athlon Classic 700MHz SlotA Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: AMD ...


The fruits of this were shown in August of 1999, when AMD released the Athlon (K7) processor. Notably, the design team was led by Dirk Meyer, one of the lead engineers on the DEC Alpha project. Jerry Sanders had approached many of the engineering staff to work for AMD as DEC wound the project down, in this fashion acquiring a genuine world-class-enterprise-level processor design team, for a bargain basement price. It should be noted, though, that the Athlon design team included those who worked on both the K5 and K6. Athlon is the brand name applied to a series of different x86 processors designed and manufactured by AMD. The original Athlon, or Athlon Classic, was the first seventh-generation x86 processor and, in a first, retained the initial performance lead it had over Intels competing processors for a significant... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... DEC Alpha AXP 21064 Microprocessor The DEC Alpha, also known as the Alpha AXP, is a 64-bit RISC microprocessor originally developed and fabricated by Digital Equipment Corp. ...


The Athlon had an advanced micro-architecture geared towards overall performance, with a notably powerful FPU. When compared to the P6 the Athlon was superior, solving many of the problems and bottlenecks that were inherent in the Intel design. The Athlon had a higher average execution per clock throughput. The fundamental reason that such a large design discrepancy was possible is that the original P6 had a much smaller transistor budget, since it was fabricated on a much earlier design process than the Athlon. Early samples of the Athlon had branch predictor problems as well as low clock rates, but when it shipped with all architectural fixes at an amazing (for the time) 650 MHz, it sent shockwaves through the industry. i686 is the name given to the similar instruction sets used by several Intel and Intel-compatible microprocessors. ... i686 is the name given to the similar instruction sets used by several Intel and Intel-compatible microprocessors. ...


Intel was immediately forced into a panicked internal re-design of the P6 core, which fixed many of the pipeline stalls that compromised its performance. The result was called the "Coppermine" revision. However, the rushed nature of the work put enormous pressure on Intel's manufacturing facilities and, even after it was announced, availability of the improved Coppermine chips was poor. Coppermine is a type of microprocessor, a particular version of the Pentium III, made by Intel. ...


In comparison, AMD found processor yields exceeded expectations. As a result, AMD announced 900-MHz and 1-GHz Athlons in early March 2000, and delivered them in volume that same month, again surprising the industry. Intel announced a 1-GHz Pentium a few days after AMD did, but was unable to ship the part in volume for several months. Working with Motorola as part of the "Virtual Gorilla" strategy, AMD also perfected copper interconnect manufacturing over a year before Intel, enjoying a clear advantage in manufacturing process technology, further improving clock speeds. Compounding Intel's embarrassment, an attempt to leapfrog AMD with a 1.13-GHz Pentium III resulted in an unreliable product that worked only on one specific customized motherboard and was heavily panned by prominent industry critics [1]. That chip was soon withdrawn from the market, having been installed in only a small handful of OEM systems [2]. All of this greatly bolstered AMD's credibility in the market; what was formerly a producer of cut-rate clone chips was now increasingly being considered a viable competitor and rival to Intel. Motorola (NYSE: MOT) is an international communications company based in Schaumburg, Illinois, a Chicago suburb. ...


AMD worked hard to increase the reliability and performance of motherboards for the Athlon with a quality assurance program. Confident with their unprecedented control of the performance end of the market, AMD was able to release a second line of budget processors, based on the Athlon core called the Duron. The combination of these astonishing technical and marketing successes did much to repair AMD's reputation, and the long time industry jokes about the company noticeably dried up. AMD continued to undercut Intel on price at the low end with the K6, and as Intel suffered part shortages and yield problems, AMD's market share briefly rose to 23%. The AMD Duron was an x86-compatible computer processor manufactured by AMD. It was released on June 19, 2000 as a low-cost alternative to AMDs own Athlon processor and the Pentium III and Celeron processor lines from rival Intel. ...


From a marketing point of view, AMD made the most of its performance advantage, greater consistency in delivery, and better system stability. The center point of its technical marketing strategy was a very large complement of easily reproducible performance benchmarks, based on a wide variety of applications. These efforts were bolstered by review sites and magazines, which were able to add their own performance benchmarks which verified AMD's claims of performance superiority of the Athlon versus its competition from Intel for many years. The importance of this publicity to AMD's credibility and reputation going forward cannot be overemphasized.


The spectacular success of the Athlon K7 processor started to diminish once Intel introduced the Pentium 4 processor. Though the K7 was capable of much greater clock speeds than the Pentium 3 line, the new Netburst architecture, designed to deliver all of its performance through deep pipeline, high clock speed methodologies started to outpace the Athlon Line. The early Pentium 4 did not quite realize the actual performance Intel had hoped for, and in some applications the original K7 Thunderbird architecture exceeded the P4 in per-cycle performance. Because the popular consensus was that the P4 was faster, the Athlon XP was released, although the chip itself was not tremendously improved (other than the progressional clock-speed increase). The Athlon XP remained competitive with overall performance until the release of the Pentium 4 Northwood CPU, which ran much more efficiently than the early Pentium 4s, and at even greater clock cycles, topping out at 3.4 GHz. New Intel Pentium 4 with Hyper Threading logo The Pentium 4 is a seventh-generation x86 architecture microprocessor produced by Intel and is their first all-new CPU design, called the NetBurst architecture, since the Pentium Pro of 1995. ... The Pentium III is an x86 (more precise - i686) architecture microprocessor by Intel, introduced on February 26, 1999. ... The NetBurst Microarchitecture is the name given to the new architecture that succeded the P6 microarchitecture in the x86 family of CPUs made by Intel. ... New Intel Pentium 4 with Hyper Threading logo The Pentium 4 is a seventh-generation x86 architecture microprocessor produced by Intel and is their first all-new CPU design, called the NetBurst architecture, since the Pentium Pro of 1995. ...


Unable to compete with the raw clock speeds offered by the P4, from the start of the Athlon XP era, AMD began using a nomenclature that compares performance of the Athlon XP, with that of an earlier Thunderbird core revision. In reality most people saw the model numbering scheme for what it was - an attempt to disguise AMD's clock speed disadvantage compared to the P4. It did, however, make some consumers wary of the idea that Intel's high clockspeeds did not necessarily yield superior performance over the Athlon XP. This definition began to be applied more loosely over time as AMD struggled to compete with the ramping clock speeds of the Northwood core (>3.0 GHz). The credibility of the scheme was only saved by the arrival of the K8, where model numbers once again correlated more reasonably to actual performance. Athlon is the brand name applied to a series of different x86 processors designed and manufactured by AMD. The original Athlon, or Athlon Classic, was the first seventh-generation x86 processor and, in a first, retained the initial performance lead it had over Intels competing processors for a significant...


AMD64 / K8

The K8 is a major revision of the K7 architecture, with the most notable features being the addition of a 64 bit extension to the x86-64 instruction set (called AMD64), the incorporation of an on-chip memory controller, and the implementation of an extremely high performance point to point multiprocessor capable interconnect called HyperTransport. The extension of the x86 to 64 bits was important to AMD, because it marked a true attempt to wrestle the leadership of the x86 standard away from Intel. AMD64 Logo AMD64 (also x86-64 or x64) is a 64-bit microprocessor architecture and corresponding instruction set designed by Advanced Micro Devices. ... HyperTransport logo HyperTransport (HT), formerly known as Lightning Data Transport (LDT), is a bidirectional serial/parallel high-bandwidth, low-latency computer bus. ...


This move by AMD was well timed to take advantage of a product hole in Intel's roadmap, namely a Pentium-compatible CPU that can deal with the inevitable transition to 64 bits. Some viewed this transition as slightly premature; however, it helped AMD to snatch the standard away from Intel, and its quality 32-bit backwards compatibility made it a feasible chip even for home users. AMD's standard was adopted by Microsoft, Linux and even Sun Microsystems. This left Intel in a position where they were forced to make an agreement with AMD to use the AMD64 extensions for their own 64-bit (EM64T) processors. The K8 is also notable for its Direct Connect Architecture. Extended Memory 64-bit Technology (EM64T) is Intels implementation of AMD64, a 64-bit extension to the IA-32 architecture. ... The Direct Connect Architecture is the I/O architecture of the Athlon64 and Opteron microprocessors from AMD. It consists of the combination of three elements: The microprocessor is directly connected to DRAM memory through an integrated memory controller. ...


The AMD64 project can be seen as the culmination of Jerry Sanders' "Virtual Gorilla" strategy, in which he set a corporate goal for AMD to become a powerful research corporation in its own right, and not just a low-margin, low-value, commodity clone manufacturer. AMD64 Logo AMD64 (also x86-64 or x64) is a 64-bit microprocessor architecture and corresponding instruction set designed by Advanced Micro Devices. ...


The Opteron is the server version of the K8. AMD originally designed the Opteron to compete against Intel's IA-64 Itanium architecture, but the failure of the IA-64 project to leverage volume sales means that the Opteron now competes with Intel's Xeon processor. AMD's technical leadership has considerably improved their credibility, and enabled AMD to make increasing market share inroads into the corporate sector. The AMD Opteron is the first eighth-generation x86 processor (K8 core), and the first of AMDs AMD64 (x86-64) processors, released April 22, 2003. ... In computing, IA-64 (or ia64, short for Intel Architecture-64) is a 64-bit processor architecture developed in cooperation by Intel and Hewlett-Packard, implemented by processors such as Itanium and Itanium 2. ... Itanium brand logo The Intel Itanium processor. ... In computing, IA-64 (or ia64, short for Intel Architecture-64) is a 64-bit processor architecture developed in cooperation by Intel and Hewlett-Packard, implemented by processors such as Itanium and Itanium 2. ... Xeon logo The Xeon is Intels name for its server-class PC microprocessors intended for multiple-processor machines. ...


On April 21, 2005 AMD released the world's first x86 server chip built on dual core technology, which was in the plans of the K8 line of processors from 2001 onward. The initial release were accompanied by the availability of the Opteron 865, 870,875,880 and 885 processors, and the 2xx version followed shortly afterwards. April 21 is the 111th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (112th in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A dual-core CPU combines two independent processors and their respective caches and cache controllers onto a single silicon chip, or integrated circuit. ... The AMD Opteron is the first eighth-generation x86 processor (K8 core), and the first of AMDs AMD64 (x86-64) processors, released April 22, 2003. ...


On May 31, 2005 AMD released its first desktop-based dual core processor family — the Athlon 64 X2. Unlike Intel's dual-core designs, the X2 mates two cores into a single chip, rather than two chips into a single package. Intel's method may have theoretical yield advantages, but gives up some performance advantages since interprocessor communication still happens over external pins, rather than internally. The X2 marks a significant step towards even greater productivity and scalability, especially for multi-threaded software applications. May 31 is the 151st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (152nd in leap years), with 214 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A multi-core microprocessor is one which combines two or more independent processors into a single package, often a single integrated circuit (IC). ... Athlon 64 X2 Logo Athlon 64 X2 E6 3800+ The Athlon 64 X2 is the first dual-core desktop CPU manufactured by AMD. It is essentially a processor consisting of two Athlon 64 cores joined together on one die with some additional control logic. ...


[Expand] AMD AM2 technology that uses DDR2 (as compared to DDR with the current AMD X2 Dual series) The last microprocessor minor revision based on K8 technology (Rev. F) is due in the form of Socket S1 mobile chips (Turions) in May of 2006. Socket AM2 and Socket F chips will be released in May of 2006 (5/23 for AM2) including the support for the DDR2 memory standard. (Out of Context - Please Revise)


On May 18, 2006, Dell announced that it would roll out new servers based on AMD's Opteron chips by the end of 2006, thus ending an exclusive relationship with supplier Intel. Dell said it would include Opterons only in 'high-end servers with four-processor servers'. With this announcement, AMD currently (2006) supplies every major PC manufacturer with server chips, an important breakthrough for AMD. May 18 is the 138th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (139th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Ext. AMD64 / K8L

AMD K8L is a minor revision of the AMD64 microarchitecture and hardware platform, and is due mid 2007. Die Analysis of one of the four cores of K8L die excluding the L2 cache(rotated by 90°, full picture with 4 core below), by Hans de Vries from chip-architect. ...


See AMD K8L for more information. Die Analysis of one of the four cores of K8L die excluding the L2 cache(rotated by 90°, full picture with 4 core below), by Hans de Vries from chip-architect. ...


Geode

In August 2003 AMD also purchased the Geode business (originally the Cyrix MediaGX) from National Semiconductor to augment its existing line of embedded x86 processor products. During the second quarter of 2004, it launched new low-power Geode NX processors based on the K7 Thoroughbred architecture with speeds of 667MHz and 1GHz (fanless), and 1.4GHz (TDP 25W). The Geode is the brand given to series of x86-compatible microprocessors produced by AMD which it targets at the embedded computing market. ... Cyrix corporate logo Cyrix was a CPU manufacturer that began in 1988 as a specialist supplier of high-performance math co-processors for 286 and 386 systems. ... Cyrix Media GX Microprocessor Introduced in 1997, the MediaGX CPU was an x86 processor manufactured by designed by Cyrix and manufactured by National Semiconductor. ... Categories: Electronics companies of the United States | Companies based in California | Corporation stubs ... The Thermal Design Point or Thermal Design Power (TDP) represents the maximum amount of power the thermal solution in a computer system is required to dissipate. ...


Alchemy

In February 2002, AMD acquired Alchemy Semiconductor and continued its line of processor in MIPS architecture processors, targets the handheld and Portable media player markets. In 13 June 2006, AMD officially announced that the Alchemy processor line will be transferred to Raza Microelectronics Inc. A MIPS R4400 microprocessor made by Toshiba MIPS, for Microprocessor without interlocked pipeline stages, is a RISC microprocessor architecture developed by MIPS Computer Systems Inc. ... A portable multimedia player, or PMP is a hard disk or flash memory based electronic device, such as an MP3 player, which is capable of storing and playing files in one or more media formats. ... The Alchemy processor is a low power processor family from Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. ...


Pacifica

AMD's Athlon 64 series of processors are slated to include virtualization through the Pacifica technology specification. This technology stands in direct competition to Intel's 'Vanderpool' virtualization technology (now known as VT). In computing, virtualization is the process of presenting a logical grouping or subset of computing resources so that they can be accessed in ways that give benefits over the original configuration. ... Virtualization Technology is the name of the mutually incompatible virtualization technologies from Intel and AMD, previously known by their respective codenames Vanderpool and Pacifica. They allow a single machine to run multiple operating systems at once without incurring significant emulation costs. ... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ...


Current production

"AMD Saxony" in Dresden, Germany is the major wafer production site
"AMD Saxony" in Dresden, Germany is the major wafer production site

AMD's main microprocessor manufacturing and design facilities are located in Dresden, Germany. The rest of the microprocessor manufacturing is in Taiwan made by third-party manufacturers under strict license from AMD. Between 2003 and 2005, they constructed a second manufacturing (300mm) plant nearby in order to increase the number of chips they can produce, thus becoming more competitive with Intel. The new plant has been named "Fab 36", in recognition of AMD's 36 years of operation, and is expected to reach full production in mid 2006. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1120x840, 267 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): AMD Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1120x840, 267 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): AMD Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... The Free State of Saxony (German: Freistaat Sachsen; Sorbian: Swobodny Stata Sakska) is at a land area of 18,413 km² and a population of 4. ... From left to right: Brühls Terrace; the Hofkirche and the castle; the Semper Opera House. ... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ...


As part of its expanding microprocessor design program, AMD started an engineering design center in Bangalore. The AMD India Engineering Centre Private Limited, which is started in July, will contribute to the design of future generations of AMD microprocessors. The standalone facility will occupy approximately 38,000 square feet (3,500 m²) and is located in Richmond Road, Bangalore, Karnataka, India. The Vidhana Soudha is the seat of Karnatakas Legislative assembly Bangalore (Kannada: ; (?) in Kannada and // in English) is the capital of the Indian state of Karnataka. ...


The most powerful dual-core non server processor avaiable from AMD now is the AMD 64 FX-62, which runs at 2.8GHz with a 2 x 1MB cache. It is available on the market for around $1000 U.S.


Partnerships

AMD continues to use industry partnerships as a means to counter Intel's superior financial resources. Notably NVIDIA's nForce2 chipset generated substantial revenues for NVIDIA as a popular enthusiast part. Image File history File links NVIDIA_Logo. ... NVIDIA Corporation (NASDAQ: NVDA) is a major supplier of graphics processors (graphics processing units, GPUs), graphics cards, and media and communications devices for PCs and game consoles such as the original Xbox and the new upcoming next generation Playstation 3. ... The nForce2 Chipset was released by NVIDIA as a refresh to the original nForce product offering. ...


HyperTransport is a point to point interconnect standard developed by AMD and Alpha Processor Incorporated, and then turned over to an industry standards body for finalization. It is used in the nForce3, nForce4, and nForce 500 series chipsets. While not intended as a revenue-generating product line for AMD, by providing technological leadership, AMD enhances its standing within the computer industry. Again, innovation is key to AMD's "Virtual Gorilla" corporate strategy. HyperTransport logo HyperTransport (HT), formerly known as Lightning Data Transport (LDT), is a bidirectional serial/parallel high-bandwidth, low-latency computer bus. ... nVidia nForce3 logo The correct title of this article is nForce3. ... The nForce4 is a computer chipset released by NVIDIA in October, 2004. ... The nForce 500 computer chipset, successor to the nForce4, was revealed by NVIDIA on 2006-03-07. ...


AMD has also formed a strategic partnership with IBM, under which AMD gained silicon on insulator (SOI) manufacturing technology, and detailed advice on 90-nm implementation. IBM holds many patents on SOI technology, and Intel is reluctant to implement the process for this reason, despite the significant reductions in power consumption offered. Silicon on insulator (SOI) is a layered structure consisting of a thin layer of silicon, from 50 nm to 100 µm, which is created on an insulating substrate, which is usually sapphire or silicon with an insulating layer of silicon dioxide(SiO2) 80 nm to 3 µm thick on its...


AMD is also loosely partnered with end-user companies such as HP, Compaq, ASUS, Alienware, Acer, Evesham Technology, Dell and several others in the area of processor distribution. Due to recent events regarding the lawsuit filed against Intel, AMD has gained a significant amount of marketshare hold in the end-user market. ... Compaq was a personal computer company founded in 1982 by Rod Canion, Jim Harris and Bill Murto. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Acer (LSE: ACID) (Chinese:宏碁股份有限公司) is a Taiwan-based company which by 2004 had grown to be one of the worlds top five branded PC vendors. ... Evesham Technology is a computer company based in Evesham, England. ... Dells, see Dell (disambiguation) Dell Inc. ...


Unlike some other companies, AMD provided the technical details required for the open source BIOS project LinuxBIOS [3]. Phoenix AwardBIOS on a standard PC BIOS, in computing, stands for Basic Input/Output System or Basic Integrated Operating System. ... LinuxBIOS is an Open Source project aimed at replacing the normal BIOS with a compressed Linux kernel that is bootable from a cold start. ...


Flash technology

While less visible to the general public than its CPU business, AMD is also a global leader in flash memory. To compete with Intel, AMD established a 50-50 partnership with Fujitsu called FASL in 1993, with manufacturing facilities in Aizu-Wakamatsu, Japan. In 2003 the long-term partnership was merged into a new company called FASL LLC, globally branded as Spansion[4], headquartered in Sunnyvale, California, USA. Under the deal, AMD took a 60 percent stake; Fujitsu 40 percent. Spansion has recently been spun off into its own IPO where AMD now owns only about 37% of the company. A USB Flash Memory Device. ... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... For the district in Saga, Japan, see Fujitsu, Saga. ... Aizuwakamatsu castle Aizuwakamatsu (会津若松市; -shi) is a city located in Fukushima, Japan. ... Location Location of Sunnyvale within Santa Clara County, California. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ...


The new company sells flash memory products through AMD and Fujitsu and their respective sales forces. Notable product families include Mirrorbit flash. In periods the flash business has been extremely profitable, exceeding the financial performance of the CPU division, although the industry is somewhat prone to boom-bust cycles. AMD / Spansion claim a number of important milestones in Flash development [5].

  • 1992: "Negative Gate Erase" technology introduced
  • 1996: Industry's first 2.7-volt flash device
  • 1997: Industry's first 1.8-volt flash device
  • 1998: AMD and Fujitsu's first page-mode flash device
  • 1999: AMD and Fujitsu's first burst-mode flash device
  • 2001: MirrorBit™ technology introduced
  • 2002: Advanced Sector Protection introduced
  • 2003: Industry's first 512-megabit NOR flash memory unveiled

AMD no longer directly participates in the Flash memory devices market. AMD entered into a non-competition agreement, as of December 21, 2005, with Fujitsu and Spansion, pursuant to which it agreed not to directly or indirectly engage in a business that manufactures or supplies standalone semiconductor devices (including single chip, multiple chip or system devices) containing only Flash memory. [6]


Lawsuits against Intel Corporation

AMD has a long history of litigation with former partner and x86 creator Intel. In 2005, following an investigation, the Japan Federal Trade Commission found Intel guilty on a number of violations. On June 27, 2005, AMD won an antitrust suit against Intel in Japan, and on the same day, AMD filed a broad antitrust complaint against Intel in the U.S. Federal District Court in Delaware. The complaint alleges systematic use of secret rebates, special discounts, threats, and other means used by Intel to lock AMD processors out of the global market. In 2005 and 2006 AMD has issued subpoenas against major computer manufacturers such as Dell, Microsoft, IBM, HP, Sony, Toshiba, and many others. Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... June 27 is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 187 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Antitrust is also the name of a movie, see Antitrust (film) Antitrust or competition laws are laws whose stated purpose is the promotion of economic and business competition by prohibiting anti-competitive behavior and unfair business practices. ... Official language(s) None Capital Dover Largest city Wilmington Area  Ranked 49th  - Total 2,491 sq mi (6,452 km²)  - Width 30 miles (48 km)  - Length 100 miles (161 km)  - % water 21. ... Dells, see Dell (disambiguation) Dell Inc. ... The Microsoft Corporation (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with 2005 global annual sales of US$39. ... Big Blue redirects here. ...


A recent point of contention between AMD and Intel involves the popular Skype application. Skype version 2.0 added a 10-way conference call feature which could only be enabled on Intel dual-core processors; AMD dual-core processors cannot take advantage of the feature. Intel has acknowledged paying money to Skype to restrict this feature to Intel CPUs only, a move which many consider to be an abuse of power. It was widely suspected that the 10-way conference call feature would work equally well, or even better on AMD dual-core processors and that there was no real technological justification for restricting it to Intel CPUs. These suspicions were validated in early March 2006, when noted hacker Maxxuss released a simple crack that enabled the feature on AMD CPUs by simply preventing Skype from detecting that the host computer uses an AMD processor. ZDnet's article and more detail regarding the Skype-Intel controversy. Skype (pronunciation: rhymes with type) is a proprietary peer-to-peer Internet telephony (VoIP) network, founded by the Swedish Niklas Zennström and Danish Janus Friis, the creators of KaZaA. It competes against existing open VoIP protocols such as SIP, IAX, and H.323. ... A conference call is a telephone call where the calling party wants to have more than one called party listen in to the audio portion of the call. ... Hackers are sometimes portrayed as mysterious and strange. ...


See also

Walter Jeremiah Sanders III (Jerry Sanders) was a salesman at Fairchild Semiconductor in the 1960s. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Héctor Ruiz Dr. Héctor de Jesús Ruiz (born December 25, 1945) is the current Chairman and CEO of semiconductor company Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. ... A NexGen Nx586 processor NexGen was a private semiconductor company that designed x86 PC central processing units until it was purchased by AMD in 1996. ... Athlon is the brand name applied to a series of different x86 processors designed and manufactured by AMD. The original Athlon, or Athlon Classic, was the first seventh-generation x86 processor and, in a first, retained the initial performance lead it had over Intels competing processors for a significant... The AMD Duron was an x86-compatible computer processor manufactured by AMD. It was released on June 19, 2000 as a low-cost alternative to AMDs own Athlon processor and the Pentium III and Celeron processor lines from rival Intel. ... AMD Sempron Logo Socket-A Sempron 3000+ Sempron is, as of 2006, AMDs entry-level desktop CPU, replacing the Duron processor and competing against Intels Celeron D processor. ... The Athlon 64 is an eighth-generation, AMD64 architecture microprocessor produced by AMD, released on September 23, 2003[1]. It is the third processor to bear the name Athlon, and the immediate successor to the Athlon XP[2]. The second processor (after the Opteron) to implement AMD64 architecture and the... The AMD Opteron is the first eighth-generation x86 processor (K8 core), and the first of AMDs AMD64 (x86-64) processors, released April 22, 2003. ... Turion 64 Logo Turion 64 X2 Logo Turion 64 is the brand name AMD applies to its 64-bit low-power (mobile) processors. ... The following article is about the multinational corporation; intel is also an abbreviation for intelligence, used in reference to military intelligence and espionage. ... Am2900 is a family integrated circuits (ICs) created in 1975 by Advanced Micro Devices (AMD). ... The Am29000 families were created Advanced Micro Devices (AMD). ... AMD 5K86-P90 (SSA/5) Microprocessor The K5 was developed by AMD to compete with Intels Pentium microprocessor range. ... History 1997 saw the arrival of AMDs K6 microprocessor. ... Athlon is the brand name applied to a series of different x86 processors designed and manufactured by AMD. The original Athlon, or Athlon Classic was the first seventh-generation x86 processor and, in a first, retained the initial performance lead it had over Intels competing processors for a significant... The AMD K8 generation of CPUs is the successor to the AMD K7 generation of CPUs. ... Die Analysis of one of the four cores of K8L die excluding the L2 cache(rotated by 90°, full picture with 4 core below), by Hans de Vries from chip-architect. ... The AMD K10 is AMDs next generation of processor. ... AMD64 Logo AMD64 (also x86-64 or x64) is a 64-bit microprocessor architecture and corresponding instruction set designed by Advanced Micro Devices. ... The Geode is the brand given to series of x86-compatible microprocessors produced by AMD which it targets at the embedded computing market. ... The Alchemy processor is a low power processor family from Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. ... This article gives is a list of AMD (Advanced Micro Devices) microprocessors (µPs), sorted by generation and release year. ... Here is a list of sockets and slots used by AMD central processing units: Am486: Same as Intel. ... Athlon is the name of a family of CPUs designed by AMD, targeted mostly at the desktop market. ... The Athlon XP microprocessor from AMD is a seventh-generation CPU targeted at the consumer market. ... . // Desktop processors Duron Spitfire (Model 3, 180 nm) Duron 600 Duron Morgan (Model 7, 180 nm) Duron Applebred (Model 8, 130 nm) Mobile processors Mobile Duron Spitfire (Model 3, 180 nm) Mobile Duron Morgan (Model 7, 180 nm) Notes Note 1: Durons use a double data rate (DDR) front side... The Sempron is AMDs newest low-end CPU, replacing the Duron processor. ... . ... Opteron is the name of a family of CPUs designed by AMD for the server market. ... . Turion 64 is the name of a family of CPUs designed by AMD for the mobile computing market. ... This table contains general information about NVIDIAs GPUs and videocards based on official NVIDIA specifications. ... This table contains general information about ATis GPUs and videocards based on official ATi specifications. ...

External links

List of AMD microprocessors • AMD • List of AMD CPU slots, sockets
Am2900 • Am29000 • Am286 • Am386 • Am486 • Am5x86 • K5 • K6 • K6-2 • K6-III • Duron • Sempron • Athlon • Athlon 64 • Athlon 64 X2 • Turion 64 • Turion 64 X2 • Opteron
  Major computing companies  v·d·e 
Hardware companies: AMD - Cisco - Dell - Intel - Motorola - Nokia - Samsung - Sony - TI - Toshiba
Software companies: Amazon - eBay - Google - Novell - Oracle - SAP - Yahoo!
Hardware/software companies: Apple - EMC - HP - IBM - Microsoft - Sun

  Results from FactBites:
 
AMD - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3945 words)
AMD later produced the 80286, or 286, under the same arrangement, but Intel cancelled the agreement in 1986, and refused to hand over technical details of the i386 part.
AMD originally designed the Opteron to compete against Intel's IA-64 Itanium architecture, but the failure of the IA-64 project to leverage volume sales means that the Opteron now competes with Intel's Xeon processor.
AMD K8L is a major revision of the AMD64 microarchitecture and hardware platform, and is due late in 2006 or early in 2007.
AMD - definition of AMD in Encyclopedia (2047 words)
AMD gained a reputation of making a somewhat slower and less reliable "x86 clone" even though the performance difference was slight and the best K6 compatible motherboards were very reliable.
AMD also released a second line of processors based on the Athlon core called the Duron which was a slower and cheaper version of the processor aimed at competing against the still-shipping Celeron processor, providing some insulation for the Athlon against AMD's prior reputation for only making cheaper and slower "Intel clones".
AMD then released Athlon 64 and Athlon 64 FX in September 2003 based on the same core architecture, which most benchmarks indicated both as performing equal or better than the Pentium 4.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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