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Encyclopedia > AIDS in Africa
AIDS education at a school in Uganda.
AIDS education at a school in Uganda.

The HIV/AIDS epidemics spreading through the countries of Sub-Saharan Africa are highly varied. Although it is not correct to speak of a single African epidemic, Africa is without doubt the region most affected by the virus. Inhabited by just 10% of the world's population, Africa is estimated to have more than 60% of the AIDS-infected population. Download high resolution version (1816x1178, 174 KB)HIV/AIDS education at a school in Uganda. ... Download high resolution version (1816x1178, 174 KB)HIV/AIDS education at a school in Uganda. ... Human immunodeficiency virus (commonly known as HIV, and formerly known as HTLV-III and lymphadenopathy-associated virus) is a retrovirus that primarily infects vital components of the human immune system such as CD4+ T cells, macrophages and dendritic cells. ... The Red Ribbon is a symbol for solidarity with HIV-positive people and those living with AIDS. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS or Aids) is a collection of symptoms and infections in humans resulting from the specific damage to the immune system caused by infection with... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...

World region Adult HIV prevalence
(ages 15–49)
Total HIV
cases (0–49)
AIDS deaths
in 2005
Sub-Saharan Africa 6.1% 24.5m 2.0m
Worldwide 1.0% 38.6m 2.8m
North America 0.8% 1.3m 27,000
Western Europe 0.3% 720,000 12,000
Regional comparisons of HIV (Source: UNAIDS, 2006 Report on the global AIDS epidemic)

Contents


General overview

HIV prevalence is stable throughout most of Sub-Saharan Africa, is still rising in a few countries such as Madagascar and Swaziland and is falling in smaller areas in several other countries. Uganda has had the world's most successful national response to date, and has witnessed consistent national declines since the mid-1990s. However, several agencies have cautioned against viewing the stablised infection levels as the beginning of the end of the pandemic in Africa. Such trends often result from rising death rates from AIDS, which conceal a continuing high rate of new infections. When HIV prevalence falls, as in Uganda, the number of new infections can remain high. National prevalence statistics can also conceal much higher levels of infections in certain areas or among high-risk groups. In epidemiology, the prevalence of a disease in a statistical population is defined as the ratio of the number of cases of a disease present in a statistical population at a specified time and the number of individuals in the population at that specified time. ...

The number of African people infected with HIV has exploded since the mid-1980s.
Enlarge
The number of African people infected with HIV has exploded since the mid-1980s.

In the 35 African nations with the highest prevalence, average life expectancy is 48.3 years—6.5 years less than it would be without the disease. For the eleven countries in Africa with prevalence rates above 13%, life expectancy is 47.7 years—11.0 years less than would be expected without HIV/AIDS. Download high resolution version (964x580, 77 KB)This graph shows the prevelance of HIV and AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa from 1985 - 2003. ... Download high resolution version (964x580, 77 KB)This graph shows the prevelance of HIV and AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa from 1985 - 2003. ... World map showing Human Life expectancy Life expectancy is the average number of years remaining for a living being (or the average for a class of living beings) of a given age to live. ...


The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) has predicted outcomes for the region to the year 2025. These range from a plateau and eventual decline in deaths beginning around 2012 to a catastrophic continual growth in the death rate with potentially 90 million cases of infection. The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS, or UNAIDS, is the main advocate for accelerated, comprehensive and coordinated global action on the HIV epidemic. ...


Health spending in Africa has historically been inadequate, leaving a legacy of poor health care capacity in many regions. This situation was often compounded after independence by the distorted spending priorities of the many military regimes across the continent. The health care systems inherited from colonial powers were oriented toward curative treatment rather than preventative programs. Strong prevention programs are the cornerstone of effective national responses to AIDS, and the required changes in the health sector have presented a huge challenge. Augusto Pinochet (sitting) was an army general who led a military coup in Chile in 1973. ... See colony and colonisation for examples of colonialism which do not refer to Western colonialism. ...


Without the kind of nutrition, health care and medicines (such as anti-retrovirals) that are available in developed countries, large numbers of people in these countries will begin to develop full-blown AIDS. They will not only be unable to work, but will also require significant medical care. It is forecast that this will likely cause a collapse of economies and societies in the region. In some heavily infected areas, the epidemic has left behind many orphans being cared for by elderly grandparents. UNAIDS, WHO and UNDP have already documented decreasing life expectancies and lowering of GNP in many African countries with prevalence rates of 10% or more. Antiretroviral drugs are medications for the treatment of infection by the retrovirus HIV. Different antiretroviral drugs act at various stages of the HIV life cycle. ... The Red Ribbon is a symbol for solidarity with HIV-positive people and those living with AIDS. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS or Aids) is a collection of symptoms and infections in humans resulting from the specific damage to the immune system caused by infection with... UNAIDS, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, is a United Nations program designed to coordinate the worldwide response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. ... Who can refer to: WHO, World Health Organization The Who, a British rock band The Guess Who, a Canadian rock band who (pronoun), an English language interrogative pronoun. ... The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the largest multilateral source of grant technical assistance in the world. ... Measures of national income and output are used in economics to estimate the value of goods and services produced in an economy. ...


Many governments in sub-Saharan Africa denied that there was a problem for years, and are only now starting to work towards solutions. Lack of money is the core reason why most AIDS deaths occur in Third World countries. All areas of HIV prevention are underfunded when compared to even conservative estimates of the problems. For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ...

Changes in life expectancy in several African countries. Botswana has been particularly badly hit [1], whilst public education projects campaigns have had a positive effect in Uganda [2]. (Source: World Bank World Development Indicators, 2004).
Changes in life expectancy in several African countries. Botswana has been particularly badly hit [1], whilst public education projects campaigns have had a positive effect in Uganda [2]. (Source: World Bank World Development Indicators, 2004).

A tiny minority of scientists claim that as many as 40% of HIV infections in African adults may be associated with injections[3]. However this theory is rejected by the majority of experts[4]. Aids in Africa - Life expectancy File links The following pages link to this file: AIDS in Africa Categories: GFDL images ... Aids in Africa - Life expectancy File links The following pages link to this file: AIDS in Africa Categories: GFDL images ... Logo of the World Bank The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD, in Romance languages: BIRD), better known as the World Bank, is an international organization whose original mission was to finance the reconstruction of nations devastated by WWII. Now, its mission has expanded to fight poverty by means...


Measuring the epidemic

It should be borne in mind that national prevalence levels present a delayed representation of the epidemic as they account for the HIV infections of many years previously. That is, prevalence includes everyone in the country living with HIV and AIDS. Incidence, in contrast, measures the number of new infections, usually over the previous year. Unfortunately, there is no reliable way to assess incidence in sub-Saharan Africa. The closest approximation has been found to be prevalence in 15–24 year old pregnant women attending antenatal clinics, these measurements are known as serosurveys.


However, some doubt has been cast on the such reporting of HIV cases by health units, which rarely operate in remote rural communities and do not account for people who may decide, for example, to die at home or seek traditional healthcare. New national population or household-based surveys are increasingly being used to address the shortfalls in serosurveys. These collect data from both sexes, non-pregnant women and from the more remote areas, resulting in a more refined overall picture when combined with antenatal data. These measurements have adjusted the recorded national prevalence levels for several countries in Africa and elsewhere.


Both serosurveys and national surveys have their disadvantages. People may not participate in household surveys because they fear they may be HIV positive or because they are absent from home, excluding the high risk group of travelling labourers. Extrapolating national data from antenatal surveys relies on a set of key assumptions which may not hold across all regions and at different stages in an epidemic.


Occasionally, observers have gone so far as to suggest there may be significant disparities between official figures and actual HIV prevalence in some countries, such as Uganda. The Ugandan government vigorously maintains, however, that the figures are accurate.


As a word of caution, it should be born in mind, that the numbers that are generated by these surveys largely determine how the epidemic is viewed. Serosurveys routinely give much higher national infection rates (40% higher or more) than the far more representative national surveys (called DHS or Demographic and Health Surveys) which in Africa are often carried out in coordination with the CDC, instead of by the WHO/UNAIDS. The hysterical atmosphere that is created by serosurvey results (see the bloodred charts on this page) give rise to wrongheaded national health policies, which together with healthcare and food access cutting "Structural Adjustment Programs" in fact kill far more people due to malaria, tuberculosis and malnutrition, than HIV ever can.


Another anomaly is the fact that countries in Africa (including Swaziland, see map) have the highest population growth in the world. The population of South Africa went from 40.6 million in 1996, to 44.8 million in 2001 and 46.9 million in mid-year 2005 (see population censuses of Statistics South Africa). This can mean only one of two things. HIV/AIDS in Africa is only one among a large number of killer diseases and as a result has a limited impact on population growth. Or, the numbers are wrong. As the serosurvey numbers are much higher than the national survey numbers, it should be seriously considered that HIV infection numbers in Africa are at best shaky, at worst dramatically overstated. Another factor which may distort the numbers is South Africa's large illegal immigration problem.


See on this:

  • [5]
  • South Africa, population census 2001 (compared with 1996 data)

[6]


Access to treatment

"Treatment is technically feasible in every part of the world. Even the lack of infrastructure is not an excuse—I don't know a single place in the world where the real reason AIDS treatment is unavailable is that the health infrastructure has exhausted its capacity to deliver it. It's not knowledge that's the barrier. It's political will." Peter Piot, Executive Director of UNAIDS

New anti-retroviral drugs (ARVs) can slow down and even reverse the progression of the HIV virus, delaying the onset of AIDS by twenty years or more. Because of their high cost, however, only 7% of the 6 million people in developing countries who are urgently in need of ARV treatment are able to access them. Antiretroviral drugs are medications for the treatment of infection by the retrovirus HIV. Different antiretroviral drugs act at various stages of the HIV life cycle. ...


Access to drugs is increasingly recognised as a key component to comprehensive AIDS strategies. ARVs play a central role in prevention as well as treatment. People are more likely to come forward for testing if there is some hope of receiving treatment and are more likely to adopt lower risk behaviours to avoid infecting others. ARVs also reduce the amount of HIV in the blood, thus reducing the risk of further transmission. Slowing the onset of AIDS allows people to continue leading a relatively normal life, fully contributing to the social and economic life of their country. Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ...


The use of ARVs must be continuous, in order to prevent the number of drug-resistant strains of HIV from spreading. In areas where drug therapy is expensive, such resistant strains have been observed as people have interrupted their treatment at times when they cannot afford to continue purchasing the drugs. There is no available cure for HIV and no prospect of one being developed for a significant time to come. Once ARV treatment has started, it must be continued for the rest of the patient's life.


In Europe, ARV treatment is very expensive: it can cost between $10,000 and $15,000 per person per year (pppy). The key factor in the expense of ARVs is their patent status, allowing drug companies to profit from their costly research and further incentivise future development. However, some international aid organisations such as VSO, Oxfam and Médecins Sans Frontières have questioned whether the revenues generated by ARVs really tally with research costs. A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a state to a person for a fixed period of time in exchange for the regulated, public disclosure of certain details of a device, method, process or composition of matter (substance) (known as an invention) which is new, inventive, and... Voluntary Service Overseas (VSO) is an international development charity that works through experienced volunteers living and working as equals alongside local partners. ... Oxfam International, founded in 1995, is a confederation of 12 independent, not-for-profit, secular, community-based aid and development organisations who work with local partners in over 100 countries worldwide to reduce poverty, suffering, and injustice. ... Médecins Sans Frontières ( (help· info)) is a secular humanitarian-aid non-governmental organisation best known for its projects in war-torn regions and developing countries facing endemic disease. ...


By contrast, in some African countries, ARVs are available for under $140 pppy. They are supplied by drug manufacturers in India, South Africa, Brazil, Thailand, and China,who have manufactured generic copies of patented ARV drugs. Fees are not paid to the patent holders and the drugs can consequently be distributed at prices agreeable to the governments and people of developing countries. The reduction in cost has come about from a combination of generic production and 'price offers', voluntary donations by companies. Patent holders began to reduce their prices when faced with competition from politically savvy generic firms. A generic drug (pl. ... A compulsory license is a license to use a patent, copyright, or other exclusive right that a government forces the holder to grant to others. ...


Another component of the cost of HIV therapy is the need for regular testing of viral load and CD4 cell count in order to prevent cases of drug-resistance. This, however, requires expensive laboratory equipment and good logistics, whose cost per patient in African countries are greater than those for the ARVs. So the total cost of the therapy still amounts to $800, if it is done according to Western standards of excellence.[7] The Red Ribbon is a symbol for solidarity with HIV-positive people and those living with AIDS. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS or Aids) is a collection of symptoms and infections in humans resulting from the specific damage to the immune system caused by infection with... Viral load is a measure of the severity of a viral infection, and can be estimated by calculating the amount of virus in an involved body fluid, e. ... CD4 (cluster of differentiation 4) is a molecule that is expressed on the surface of T helper cells (as well as regulatory T cells and dendritic cells). ...


Consequently, ARV treatment is still relatively expensive for most Africans; for those living below the poverty threshold of a $2 / day income, it is still inaccessible. So the only option for treating especially the poor patients is providing free treatment. Map of countries showing percentage of population who have an income below the national poverty threshold The poverty threshold, or poverty line, is the level of income below which one cannot afford to purchase all the resources one requires to live. ...


The World Health Organisation's 3 by 5 initiative aims to provide three million people with ARV treatment by the end of 2005. International aid organisations have lobbied for an expansion of generic production in developing countries, for immediate short term and stable, predictable long term financing of the 3 by 5 initiative. For other meanings of the acronym WHO, see WHO (disambiguation) WHO flag Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the World Health Organization (WHO) is an agency of the United Nations, acting as a coordinating authority on international public health. ... An index card in a card catalog An index card is a piece of heavy paper stock, cut to a standard size and often used for recording individual items of information that can then be easily rearranged and filed. ...


The DREAM (short for "Drug Resources Enhancement against Aids and Malnutrition", which used to be "Drug Resource Enhancement against AIDS in Mozambique") promoted by the Community of Sant'Egidio has proven to be an efficient means of giving access to free ARV treatment with generic HAART drugs to the poor on a large scale: So far, 5,000 people are receiving ARV treatment, especially in Mozambique, but the program is being built up also in other countries: Malawi, Guinea, Tanzania and others. Despite being free, the program aims at excellence in treatment, providing the best existent range of drugs (HAART) and regular blood testing according to European standards. It is linked with a nutrition program as well as guidance and sanitary education by volunteers (other HIV patients taking part in the program), which encourages new patients to comply and come to the appointments. The compliance rate is very high (94%). Pierre-Cécile Puvis de Chavannes: The Dream, 1883 A girl sleeps in her bed, before reaching REM sleep. ... The Community of SantEgidio is a Christian community that is officially recognized by the Catholic church as a Church public lay association. It claims 50,000 members in more than 70 countries. ... Look up Generic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The term antiretroviral drugs is used to describe drugs used against HIV infection (HIV is an RNA retrovirus). ... The term antiretroviral drugs is used to describe drugs used against HIV infection (HIV is an RNA retrovirus). ... Compliance can mean: In mechanical science, the inverse of stiffness (see stiffness). ...

National infection rates for HIV. No data is available for white coloured areas.
Enlarge
National infection rates for HIV. No data is available for white coloured areas.

Info: Map of Africa coloured according to the percentage of the Adult (ages 15-49) population with HIV/AIDS. Colour chart present in image. ... Info: Map of Africa coloured according to the percentage of the Adult (ages 15-49) population with HIV/AIDS. Colour chart present in image. ...

Regional analysis

East-central Africa

In this article, East and central Africa consists of Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Democratic Republic of Congo, the Congo Republic, Gabon, Equatorial Guinea, the Central African Republic, Rwanda, Burundi and Ethiopia and Eritrea on the Horn of Africa. In 1982, Uganda was the first state in the region to declare HIV cases. This was followed by Kenya in 1984 and Tanzania in 1985.

Country Adult prevalence Total HIV Deaths 2003
Uganda 4.1% 450,000 78,000
Kenya 6.7% 1,100,000 150,000
Tanzania 8.8% 1,500,000 160,000
Congo 4.9% 80,000 9,700
Congo DR 4.2% 1,000,000 100,000
Ethiopia 4.4% 1,400,000 120,000
Eritrea 2.7% 55,000 6,300
HIV in East-central Africa (Source: UNAIDS)

Some areas of East Africa are beginning to show substantial declines in the prevelance of HIV infection. In the early 1990s, 13% of Ugandan residents were HIV positive; This has now fallen to 4.1% by the end of 2003. Evidence may suggest that the tide may also be turning in Kenya: prevalence fell from 13.6% in 1997–1998 to 9.4% in 2002. Data from Ethiopia and Burundi are also hopeful. HIV prevalence levels still remain high, however, and it is too early to claim that these are permanent reversals in these countries' epidemics.


Most governments in the region established AIDS education programmes in the mid-1980s in partnership with the World Health Organization and international NGOs. These programmes commonly taught the 'ABC' of HIV prevention: a combination of abstinence (A), fidelity to your partner (Be faithful) and condom use (C). The efforts of these educational campaigns appear now to be bearing fruit. In Uganda, awareness of AIDS is demonstrated to be over 99% and more than three in five Ugandans can cite two or more preventative practices. Youths are also delaying the age at which sexual intercourse first occurs. The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations, acting as a coordinating authority on international public health, headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. ... A non-governmental organization (NGO) is a non-profit group or association that acts outside of institutionalized political structures and pursues matters of interest to its members by lobbying, persuasion, or direct action. ... Abstinence is a voluntary forbearance from indulging a desire or appetite for certain bodily activities that are widely experienced as giving pleasure. ...


Circumcision of the penis is believed to reduce the risk of HIV infection in males. This may have contributed to the relatively lower rates of infection in Congo, Ethiopia and Eritrea, where circumcision is widely practised, as compared to other countries in the region. Circumcision is the removal of some or all of the foreskin (prepuce) from the penis. ...


There are no non-human vectors of HIV infection. The spread of the epidemic across this region is closely linked to the migration of labour from rural areas to urban centres, which generally have a higher prevalence of HIV. Labourers commonly picked up HIV in the towns and cities, spreading it to the countryside when they visited their home. Empirical evidence brings into sharp relief the connection between road and rail networks and the spread of HIV. Long distance truck drivers have been identified as a group with the high-risk behaviour of sleeping with prostitutes and a tendency to spread the infection along trade routes in the region. Infection rates of up to 33% were observed in this group in the late 1980s in Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania. Traditionally in medicine, a vector is an organism that does not cause disease itself but which spreads infection by conveying pathogens from one host to another. ... This article is about non-human migration. ...


West Africa

For the purposes of this discussion, Western Africa shall include the coastal countries of Mauritania, Senegal, The Gambia, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria and the landlocked states of Mali, Burkina Faso and Niger.


The region has high levels of infection of both HIV-1 and HIV-2. The onset of the HIV epidemic in West Africa began in 1985 with reported cases in Cote d'Ivoire, Benin and Mali. Nigeria, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Cameroon, Senegal and Liberia followed in 1986. Sierra Leone, Togo and Niger in 1987; Mauritiana in 1988; The Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, and Guinea in 1989; and finally Cape Verde in 1990. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a frequently mutating retrovirus that attacks the human immune system and which has been shown to cause acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). ... The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a frequently mutating retrovirus that attacks the human immune system and which has been shown to cause acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). ...


HIV prevalence in West Africa is lowest in Chad, Niger, Burkina Faso, Mali, Mauritania and highest in Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, and Nigeria. Nigeria has the second largest HIV prevalence in Africa after South Africa, although the infection rate (number of patients relative to the entire population) based upon Nigeria's estimated population is much lower, generally believed to be well under 7%, as opposed to South Africa's which is well into the double-digits (nearer 30%).


The main driver of infection in the region is commercial sex. In the Ghanaian capital Accra, for example, 80% of HIV infections in young men had been acquired from women who sell sex. In Niger, the adult national HIV prevalence was 1% in 2003, yet surveys of sex workers in different regions found a HIV infection rate of between 9 and 38%. Prostitution is the sale of sexual services. ... Accra, population 1,970,400 (2005), is the capital of Ghana. ...


Southern Africa

In the mid-1980s, HIV and AIDS were virtually unheard of in Southern Africa - it is now the worst-affected region in the world. There has been no sign of overall national decline in any of the eleven countries: Angola, Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa, the two small states of Lesotho and Swaziland and the island of Madagascar. In its December 2005 report, UNAIDS reports that Zimbabwe has experienced a drop in infections; however, most independent observers find the confidence of UNAIDS in the Mugabe government's HIV figures to be misplaced, especially since infections have continued to increase in all other southern African countries (with the exception of a possible small drop in Botswana). Almost 30% of the global number of people living with HIV live in an area where only 2% of the world's population reside. Robert Mugabe Robert Gabriel Mugabe KCB (born February 21, 1924) has been the head of government in Zimbabwe, first as Prime Minister and later as first executive President, since 1980. ...


Nearly every country in the region has a national HIV prevalence level of at least 10%. The only exception to this rule is Angola, with a rate of less than 5%. Tragically, this is not the result of a successful national response to the threat of AIDS but of a long running civil war.


Most HIV infections found in Southern Africa are HIV-1, the world's most common HIV infection, which predominates everywhere except West Africa, home to HIV-2. The first cases of HIV in the region were reported in Zimbabwe in 1985. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a frequently mutating retrovirus that attacks the human immune system and which has been shown to cause acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). ... The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a frequently mutating retrovirus that attacks the human immune system and which has been shown to cause acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). ...


Other Causes of AIDS in Africa

According to a Time magazine article called "Death Stalks a Continent," some causes of AIDS are:

  • AIDS patients are afraid to admit their disease, for fear that they will be made social outcasts
  • The developed world is working, but it is not enough
  • Even though many people are educated, they still allow AIDS to spread sexually
  • Thousands are not educated
  • No money

References

  1.   This is the cost pppy of the DREAM program. Source: IPS News. "A Church Group Makes Strides in Supplying ARVs"
  • UNAIDS Epidemic Update December 2004
  • UNAIDS 2004 Report on the global AIDS epidemic
  • Treating AIDS Now, Romilly Greenhill, People & Planet, March 2004
  • Encyclopedia of AIDS: A Social, Political, Cultural, and Scientific Record of the HIV Epidemic, Raymond A. Smith (ed), Penguin Books

Pierre-Cécile Puvis de Chavannes: The Dream, 1883 A girl sleeps in her bed, before reaching REM sleep. ... People & Planet, often abbreviated to P&P, is the largest student network in the UK campaigning to alleviate world poverty, defend human rights and protect the environment. ...

External links

  • The United Nations UNAIDS Programme - www.unaids.org
  • UNAIDS Sub-Saharan Africa page
  • www.AidsAndAfrica.com
  • Aids Africa Support Projects
  • Website of the DREAM program
  • HRC/Eldis HIV and AIDS Resource Guide New research and other resources on HIV and AIDS in developing countries
  • Aids Africa relief programmes from SOS Children's Villages
  • National AIDS Control Programme (NACP), Tanzania

  Results from FactBites:
 
AIDS in Africa - definition of AIDS in Africa in Encyclopedia (370 words)
Sub-Saharan Africa is currently the area where AIDS is taking the largest toll.
Social movements in countries like South Africa, as well as international development agencies such as Oxfam, have insisted that developing countries should be permitted to manufacture cheap, generic copies of patented AIDS medicines, a move generally resisted by the pharmaceutical companies of developed countries.
Scientific studies have suggested that AIDS spread initially in West Africa, but it is possible that there were several separate "initial sources".
Q and A Health - AIDS In Africa - Health (759 words)
AIDS in Africa is Caused by Starvation and Medications 7 March 2002.
Liaisons fueling AIDS in Africa By Edward C. Green/ John Berman.
yaledailynews.com - Yale Bristol-Myers and AIDS in Africa
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