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Encyclopedia > AIDS
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
Classification & external resources
The Red ribbon is a symbol for solidarity with HIV-positive people and those living with AIDS.
ICD-10 B24.
ICD-9 042
DiseasesDB 5938
MedlinePlus 000594
eMedicine emerg/253 
MeSH D000163

Acquired immune deficiency syndrome or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS or Aids) is a collection of symptoms and infections resulting from the specific damage to the immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in humans,[1] and similar viruses in other species (SIV, FIV, etc.). The late stage of the condition leaves individuals susceptible to opportunistic infections and tumors. Although treatments for AIDS and HIV exist to slow the virus' progression, there is no known cure. HIV, et al., are transmitted through direct contact of a mucous membrane or the bloodstream with a bodily fluid containing HIV, such as blood, semen, vaginal fluid, preseminal fluid, and breast milk.[2][3] This transmission can come in the form of anal, vaginal or oral sex, blood transfusion, contaminated hypodermic needles, exchange between mother and baby during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding, or other exposure to one of the above bodily fluids. Image File history File links Merge-arrows. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... For the disease Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, see AIDS. For the cues given by riders to their horses, see riding aids. ... Image File history File links LinkFA-star. ... Image File history File links Red_Ribbon. ... The red ribbon, a ribbon colored red, has several different meanings in different contexts. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... // A00-A79 - Bacterial infections, and other intestinal infectious diseases, and STDs (A00-A09) Intestinal infectious diseases (A00) Cholera (A01) Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers (A010) Typhoid fever (A02) Other Salmonella infections (A03) Shigellosis (A04) Other bacterial intestinal infections (A040) Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infection (A045) Campylobacter enteritis (A046) Enteritis due to Yersinia... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The Disease Bold textDatabase is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... MedlinePlus (medlineplus. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... In medicine, the term syndrome is the association of several clinically recognizable features, signs, symptoms, phenomena or characteristics which often occur together, so that the presence of one feature alerts the physician to the presence of the others. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus that affects domesticated housecats worldwide. ... Opportunistic infections are infections caused by organisms and usually do not cause disease in a person with a healthy immune system, but can affect people with a poorly functioning or suppressed immune system. ... Tumor or tumour literally means swelling, and is sometimes still used with that meaning. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... In medicine, transmission is the passing of a disease from an infected individual or group to a previously uninfected individual or group. ... The mucous membranes (or mucosae; singular: mucosa) are linings of mostly endodermal origin, covered in epithelium, and are involved in absorption and secretion. ... // Bodily fluids listed below are found in the bodies of men and/or women. ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... Horse semen being collected for breeding purposes. ... Vaginal lubrication is the naturally produced lubricating fluid that reduces friction during sexual intercourse. ... Pre-ejaculate (also known as pre-ejaculatory fluid or Cowpers fluid) is the clear lubricating fluid that is issued from a mans penis when he is aroused. ... It has been suggested that the section Benefits for the infant from the article Breastfeeding be merged into this article or section. ... Roman men having anal sex. ... Vaginal sex or vaginal intercourse is human sexual behavior involving the vagina, especially, but not limited to, the insertion of the erect penis into the vagina. ... Oral sex consists of all sexual activities that involve the use of the mouth, which may include use of the tongue, teeth, and throat, to stimulate genitalia. ... It has been suggested that Duration of sexual intercourse be merged into this article or section. ... Blood transfusion is the process of transferring blood or blood-based products from one person into the circulatory system of another. ... Different bevels on hypodermic needles. ... This article is about human pregnancy in biological females. ... Parturition redirects here. ... An infant breastfeeding International Breastfeeding Symbol (Matt Daigle, Mothering magazine contest winner 2006) Breastfeeding is the feeding of an infant or young child with milk from a womans breasts. ...


Most researchers believe that HIV originated in sub-Saharan Africa during the twentieth century;[4] it is now a pandemic, with an estimated 38.6 million people now living with the disease worldwide.[5] As of January 2006, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and the World Health Organization (WHO) estimate that AIDS has killed more than 25 million people since it was first recognized on June 5, 1981, making it one of the most destructive epidemics in recorded history. In 2005 alone, AIDS claimed an estimated 2.4–3.3 million lives, of which more than 570,000 were children.[5] A third of these deaths are occurring in sub-Saharan Africa, retarding economic growth and destroying human capital. Antiretroviral treatment reduces both the mortality and the morbidity of HIV infection, but routine access to antiretroviral medication is not available in all countries.[6] HIV/AIDS stigma is more severe than that associated with other life-threatening conditions and extends beyond the disease itself to providers and even volunteers involved with the care of people living with HIV. A political map showing national divisions in relation to the ecological break (Sub-Saharan Africa in green) A geographical map of Africa, showing the ecological break that defines the sub-Saharan area Sub-Saharan Africa is the term used to describe the area of the African continent which lies south... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s The 20th century lasted from 1901 to 2000 in the Gregorian calendar (often from (1900 to 1999 in common usage). ... This article is about large epidemics. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS, or UNAIDS, is the main advocate for accelerated, comprehensive and coordinated global action on the HIV epidemic. ... The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that acts as a coordinating authority on international public health. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... In epidemiology, an epidemic (from [[Latin language] epi- upon + demos people) is a disease that appears as new cases in a given human population, during a given period, at a rate that substantially exceeds what is expected, based on recent experience (the number of new cases in the population during... Ancient history is from the period of time when writing and historical records first appear, roughly 5,500 years before the Common Era. ... World GDP/capita changed very little for most of human history before the industrial revolution. ... Human capital is a way of defining and categorizing the skills and abilities as used in employment and as they otherwise contribute to the economy. ... “HAART” redirects here. ... In medicine, epidemiology and actuarial science, the term morbidity can refer to the state of being diseased (from Latin morbidus: sick, unhealthy), the degree or severity of a disease, the prevalence of a disease: the total number of cases in a particular population at a particular point in time, the... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Social stigma is severe social disapproval of personal characteristics or beliefs that are against cultural norms. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Contents

Infection by HIV

For more details on this topic, see HIV.
Scanning electron micrograph of HIV-1 budding from cultured lymphocyte.

AIDS is the most severe acceleration of infection with HIV. HIV is a retrovirus that primarily infects vital organs of the human immune system such as CD4+ T cells (a subset of T cells), macrophages and dendritic cells. It directly and indirectly destroys CD4+ T cells. CD4+ T cells are required for the proper functioning of the immune system. When HIV kills CD4+ T cells so that there are fewer than 200 CD4+ T cells per microliter (µL) of blood, cellular immunity is lost, leading to the condition known as AIDS. Acute HIV infection progresses over time to clinical latent HIV infection and then to early symptomatic HIV infection and later to AIDS, which is identified on the basis of the amount of CD4+ T cells in the blood and the presence of certain infections. Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... From [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... From [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... SEM Cambridge S150 at Geological Institute, University Kiel, 1980 SEM opened sample chamber The scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a type of electron microscope capable of producing high-resolution images of a sample surface. ... A scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of a single human lymphocyte. ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... Genera Alpharetrovirus Betaretrovirus Gammaretrovirus Deltaretrovirus Epsilonretrovirus Lentivirus Spumavirus A retrovirus is any virus belonging to the viral family Retroviridae. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... T cells are a subset of lymphocytes that play a large role in the immune response. ... A macrophage of a mouse stretching its arms to engulf two particles, possibly pathogens Macrophages (Greek: big eaters, makros = long, phagein = eat) are white blood cells, more specifically phagocytes, acting in the nonspecific defense as well as the specific defense system of vertebrate animals. ... Dendritic cells (DC) are immune cells and form part of the mammal immune system. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... Cell-mediated immunity is an immune response that does not involve antibodies but rather involves the activation of macrophages and natural killer cells, the production of antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, and the release of various cytokines in response to an antigen. ... In medicine, an acute disease is a disease with either or both of: a rapid onset; a short course (as opposed to a chronic course). ... In medicine, a disease is symptomatic when it is at a stage when the patient is experiencing symptoms. ...


In the absence of antiretroviral therapy, the median time of progression from HIV infection to AIDS is nine to ten years, and the median survival time after developing AIDS is only 9.2 months.[7] However, the rate of clinical disease progression varies widely between individuals, from two weeks up to 20 years. Many factors affect the rate of progression. These include factors that influence the body's ability to defend against HIV such as the infected person's general immune function.[8][9] Older people have weaker immune systems, and therefore have a greater risk of rapid disease progression than younger people. Poor access to health care and the existence of coexisting infections such as tuberculosis also may predispose people to faster disease progression.[7][10][11] The infected person's genetic inheritance plays an important role and some people are resistant to certain strains of HIV. An example of this is people with the CCR5-Δ32 mutation are resistant to infection with certain strains of HIV.[12] HIV is genetically variable and exists as different strains, which cause different rates of clinical disease progression.[13][14][15] The use of highly active antiretroviral therapy prolongs both the median time of progression to AIDS and the median survival time. Antiretroviral drugs are medications for the treatment of infection by the retrovirus HIV. Different antiretroviral drugs act at various stages of the HIV life cycle. ... In probability theory and statistics, a median is a type of average that is described as the number dividing the higher half of a sample, a population, or a probability distribution, from the lower half. ... Following infection with HIV-1, the rate of clinical disease progression varies between individuals. ... A year (from Old English gÄ“r) is the time between two recurrences of an event related to the orbit of the Earth around the Sun. ... Look up Month in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For more details on each day of the week, see days of the week. ... A physician visiting the sick in a hospital. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or TuBerculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... Look up resistance in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... In biology, Strain can be used two ways. ...


Diagnosis

Since June 5, 1981, many definitions have been developed for epidemiological surveillance such as the Bangui definition and the 1994 expanded World Health Organization AIDS case definition. However, clinical staging of patients was not an intended use for these systems as they are neither sensitive, nor specific. In developing countries, the World Health Organization staging system for HIV infection and disease, using clinical and laboratory data, is used and in developed countries, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Classification System is used. is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... Epidemiology is the study of factors affecting the health and illness of populations, and serves as the foundation and logic of interventions made in the interest of public health and preventive medicine. ... In October 1985, a conference of public health officials including representatives of the Centers for Disease Control and World Health Organization met in Bangui to develop a definition of AIDS for use in countries where testing for HIV antibodies was not available. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into AIDS. (Discuss) The 1994 expanded World Health Organization AIDS case defintion is an expansion on the earlier bangui definition, which merely incorporates a statement that serological testing (no particular type specified) should be done, but that if serological... The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that acts as a coordinating authority on international public health. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ...


WHO disease staging system for HIV infection and disease

In 1990, the World Health Organization (WHO) grouped these infections and conditions together by introducing a staging system for patients infected with HIV-1.[16] An update took place in September 2005. Most of these conditions are opportunistic infections that are easily treatable in healthy people. WHO Disease Staging System for HIV Infection and Disease are produced by the World Health Organisation. ... The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that acts as a coordinating authority on international public health. ... Opportunistic infections are infections in immunodeficient patients caused by pathogens which are incapable of causing infection in immunocompetent individuals. ...

In medicine, a disease is asymptomatic when it is at a stage where the patient does not experience symptoms. ... The mucous membranes (or mucosae; singular: mucosa) are linings of mostly endodermal origin, covered in epithelium, and are involved in absorption and secretion. ... The Upper respiratory tract refers to the the following parts of the respiratory system: nose and nasal passages paranasal sinuses throat or pharynx Upper respiratory tract infections are among the most common infections in the world. ... Look up chronic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Types 5-7 on the Bristol Stool Chart are often associated with diarrhea Diarrhea (in American English) or diarrhoea (in British English) is a condition in which the sufferer has frequent watery, loose bowel movements (from the Greek word διάρροια; literally meaning through-flowing). Acute infectious diarrhea is a common cause... The heart and lungs (from an older edition of Grays Anatomy) The lung is an organ belonging to the respiratory system and interfacing to the circulatory system of air-breathing vertebrates. ... For other uses, see Brain (disambiguation). ... The esophagus (also spelled oesophagus/œsophagus, Greek ), or gullet is an organ in vertebrates which consists of a muscular tube through which food passes from the pharynx to the stomach. ... The trachea, or windpipe, is a tube that has an inner diameter of about 12mm and a length of about 10-16cm. ... A bronchus (plural bronchi, adjective bronchial) is a caliber of airways in the the respiratory tract that conducts air into the lungs. ... Human respiratory system The lungs flank the heart and great vessels in the chest cavity. ...

CDC classification system for HIV infection

In the beginning, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) did not have an official name for the disease, often referring to it by way of the diseases that were associated with it, for example, lymphadenopathy, the disease after which the discoverers of HIV originally named the virus.[17][18] They also used Kaposi's Sarcoma and Opportunistic Infections, the name by which a task force had been set up in 1981.[19] In the general press, the term GRID, which stood for Gay-Related Immune Deficiency, had been coined.[20] However, after determining that AIDS was not isolated to the homosexual community,[19] the term GRID became misleading and AIDS was introduced at a meeting in July 1982.[21] By September 1982 the CDC started using the name AIDS, and properly defined the illness.[22] In 1993, the CDC expanded their definition of AIDS to include all HIV positive people with a CD4+ T cell count below 200 per µL of blood or 14% of all lymphocytes.[23] The majority of new AIDS cases in developed countries use either this definition or the pre-1993 CDC definition. The AIDS diagnosis still stands even if, after treatment, the CD4+ T cell count rises to above 200 per µL of blood or other AIDS-defining illnesses are cured. This classification system is how the United States agency, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) classifies HIV disease and infection. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ... Lymphadenopathy is a term meaning disease of the lymph nodes. ... Gay-related immune deficiency (GRID) was the original name for AIDS, a name proposed after public health scientists noticed clusters of Kaposis sarcoma and Pneumocycstis pneumonia among gay males in California and New York City. ... Since its coinage, the word homosexuality has acquired multiple meanings. ... A scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of a single human lymphocyte. ... World map indicating Human Development Index (as of 2004). ...


HIV test

Main article: HIV test

Many people are unaware that they are infected with HIV.[24] Less than 1% of the sexually active urban population in Africa has been tested, and this proportion is even lower in rural populations. Furthermore, only 0.5% of pregnant women attending urban health facilities are counseled, tested or receive their test results. Again, this proportion is even lower in rural health facilities.[24] Therefore, donor blood and blood products used in medicine and medical research are screened for HIV. Typical HIV tests, including the HIV enzyme immunoassay and the Western blot assay, detect HIV antibodies in serum, plasma, oral fluid, dried blood spot or urine of patients. However, the window period (the time between initial infection and the development of detectable antibodies against the infection) can vary. This is why it can take 3–6 months to seroconvert and test positive. Commercially available tests to detect other HIV antigens, HIV-RNA, and HIV-DNA in order to detect HIV infection prior to the development of detectable antibodies are available. For the diagnosis of HIV infection these assays are not specifically approved, but are nonetheless routinely used in developed countries. Randal Tobias, U.S. Global AIDS Coordinator, being publicly tested for HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia in an effort to reduce the stigma of being tested. ... Blood donation is a process by which a blood donor voluntarily has blood drawn for storage in a blood bank or for subsequent use in a blood transfusion. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... An immunoassay is a biochemical test that measures the concentration of a substance in a biological liquid, typically serum or urine, using the reaction of an antibody or antibodies to its antigen. ... A Western blot. ... Each antibody binds to a specific antigen; an interaction similar to a lock and key. ... Blood plasma is the liquid component of blood, in which the blood cells are suspended. ... Blood plasma is the liquid component of blood, in which the blood cells are suspended. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... In medicine, the window period for a test designed to detect a specific disease (particularly infectious disease) is the time between first infection and when the test can detect that infection. ... Seroconversion is the development of detectable specific antibodies to microorganisms in the serum as a result of infection or immunization. ... Ribonucleic acid or RNA is a nucleic acid polymer consisting of nucleotide monomers that plays several important roles in the processes that translate genetic information from deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) into protein products; RNA acts as a messenger between DNA and the protein synthesis complexes known as ribosomes, forms vital portions... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... An assay is a procedure where the concentration of a component part of a mixture is determined. ... A developed country is a country that has achieved (currently or historically) a high degree of industrialization, and which enjoys the higher standards of living which wealth and technology make possible. ...


Symptoms and complications

A generalized graph of the relationship between HIV copies (viral load) and CD4 counts over the average course of untreated HIV infection; any particular individual's disease course may vary considerably.
 
CD4+ T Lymphocyte count (cells/mm³)
 
HIV RNA copies per mL of plasma

The symptoms of AIDS are primarily the result of conditions that do not normally develop in individuals with healthy immune systems. Most of these conditions are infections caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites that are normally controlled by the elements of the immune system that HIV damages. Opportunistic infections are common in people with AIDS.[25] HIV affects nearly every organ system. People with AIDS also have an increased risk of developing various cancers such as Kaposi's sarcoma, cervical cancer and cancers of the immune system known as lymphomas. Graph showing HIV copies and CD4 counts over course of HIV infection File links The following pages link to this file: HIV Categories: GFDL images ... Graph showing HIV copies and CD4 counts over course of HIV infection File links The following pages link to this file: HIV Categories: GFDL images ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... Subkingdom/Phyla Chytridiomycota Blastocladiomycota Neocallimastigomycota Glomeromycota Zygomycota Dikarya (inc. ... A parasite is an organism that spends a significant portion of its life in or on the living tissue of a host organism and which causes harm to the host without immediately killing it. ... Opportunistic infections are infections caused by organisms and usually do not cause disease in a person with a healthy immune system, but can affect people with a poorly functioning or suppressed immune system. ... In biology, an organ is a group of tissues which perform some function. ... Cervical cancer is a malignant cancer of the cervix. ... This article is about lymphoma in humans. ...


Additionally, people with AIDS often have systemic symptoms of infection like fevers, sweats (particularly at night), swollen glands, chills, weakness, and weight loss.[26][27] After the diagnosis of AIDS is made, the current average survival time with antiretroviral therapy (as of 2005) is estimated to be more than 5 years,[28] but because new treatments continue to be developed and because HIV continues to evolve resistance to treatments, estimates of survival time are likely to continue to change. Without antiretroviral therapy, death normally occurs within a year.[7] Most patients die from opportunistic infections or malignancies associated with the progressive failure of the immune system.[29] This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... SWEAT is an OLN/TSN show hosted by Julie Zwillich that aired in 2003-2004. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about biological evolution. ... In medicine, malignant is a clinical term that is used to describe a clinical course that progresses rapidly to death. ...


The rate of clinical disease progression varies widely between individuals and has been shown to be affected by many factors such as host susceptibility and immune function[8][9][12] health care and co-infections,[7][29] as well as factors relating to the viral strain.[14][30][31] The specific opportunistic infections that AIDS patients develop depend in part on the prevalence of these infections in the geographic area in which the patient lives.


Major pulmonary illnesses

X-ray of Pneumocystis jirovecii caused pneumonia. There is increased white (opacity) in the lower lungs on both sides, characteristic of Pneumocystis pneumonia
  • Pneumocystis pneumonia (originally known as Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, and still abbreviated as PCP, which now stands for Pneumocystis pneumonia) is relatively rare in healthy, immunocompetent people, but common among HIV-infected individuals. It is caused by Pneumocystis jirovecii. Before the advent of effective diagnosis, treatment and routine prophylaxis in Western countries, it was a common immediate cause of death. In developing countries, it is still one of the first indications of AIDS in untested individuals, although it does not generally occur unless the CD4 count is less than 200 per µL.[32]
  • Tuberculosis (TB) is unique among infections associated with HIV because it is transmissible to immunocompetent people via the respiratory route, is easily treatable once identified, may occur in early-stage HIV disease, and is preventable with drug therapy. However, multidrug resistance is a potentially serious problem. Even though its incidence has declined because of the use of directly observed therapy and other improved practices in Western countries, this is not the case in developing countries where HIV is most prevalent. In early-stage HIV infection (CD4 count >300 cells per µL), TB typically presents as a pulmonary disease. In advanced HIV infection, TB often presents atypically with extrapulmonary (systemic) disease a common feature. Symptoms are usually constitutional and are not localized to one particular site, often affecting bone marrow, bone, urinary and gastrointestinal tracts, liver, regional lymph nodes, and the central nervous system.[33] Alternatively, symptoms may relate more to the site of extrapulmonary involvement.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (500x700, 75 KB) Summary http://history. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (500x700, 75 KB) Summary http://history. ... Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is a form of pneumonia caused by the yeast-like fungal microorganism Pneumocystis jirovecii (Jirovecii is pronounced yee row vet zee eye). The causal agent was originally described as a protozoan and spelled and prior to then was formerly classified as a form of Pneumocystis carinii, a... Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is a form of pneumonia caused by the yeast-like fungal microorganism Pneumocystis jirovecii (Jirovecii is pronounced yee row vet zee eye). The causal agent was originally described as a protozoan and spelled and prior to then was formerly classified as a form of Pneumocystis carinii, a... persons with functioning immune system This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is a form of pneumonia caused by the yeast-like fungal microorganism Pneumocystis jirovecii (Jirovecii is pronounced yee row vet zee eye). The causal agent was originally described as a protozoan and spelled and prior to then was formerly classified as a form of Pneumocystis carinii, a... Prophylaxis refers to any medical or public health procedure whose purpose is to prevent, rather than treat or cure, disease. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or TuBerculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... Multidrug resistance is the ability of pathologic cells to withstand chemicals that are designed to aid in the eradication of such cells. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the skeletal organs. ... Upper and Lower gastrointestinal tract The gastrointestinal tract (GI tract), also called the digestive tract, or the alimentary canal, is the system of organs within multicellular animals that takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste. ... The liver is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ... Lymph nodes are components of the lymphatic system. ... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ...

Major gastro-intestinal illnesses

Esophagitis (or Oesophagitis) is inflammation of the esophagus. ... The esophagus (also spelled oesophagus/Å“sophagus, Greek ), or gullet is an organ in vertebrates which consists of a muscular tube through which food passes from the pharynx to the stomach. ... In anatomy, the stomach is a bean-shaped hollow muscular organ of the gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication. ... Species Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) This article is about the virus. ... Species see text Cytomegalovirus (CMV) (from the Greek cyto-, cell, and -mega-, large) is a viral genus of the Herpesviruses group: in humans it is commonly known as human herpesvirus 5 (HHV-5). ... Species see text Mycobacterium is the a genus of actinobacteria, given its own family, the Mycobacteriaceae. ... Types 5-7 on the Bristol Stool Chart are often associated with diarrhea Diarrhea (in American English) or diarrhoea (in British English) is a condition in which the sufferer has frequent watery, loose bowel movements (from the Greek word διάρροια; literally meaning through-flowing). Acute infectious diarrhea is a common cause... Species Salmonella bongori Salmonella enterica Salmonella arizonae Salmonella enteritidis Salmonella typhi Salmonella typhimurium Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped Gram-negative enterobacteria that causes typhoid fever, paratyphoid fever, and foodborne illness. ... Species S. boydii S. dysenteriae S. flexneri S. sonnei This article is about the bacteria. ... Species Listeria monocytogenes Listeria ivanovii Listeria innocua Listeria welshimeri Listeria seegligeri Listeria grayi Listeria innocua Listeria is a bacterial genus containing six species. ... Species C. fetus C. jejuni Campylobacter is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria. ... E. coli redirects here. ... Cryptosporidiosis is a parasitic disease affecting the intestines of mammals that is caused by Cryptosporidium, a protozoan parasite in the phylum Apicomplexa. ... An intestinal infection that causes diarrhea and wasting in persons with HIV. It results from two different species of microsporidia, a protozoal parasite. ... Trinomial name Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis is a pathogenic bacteria in the genus Mycobacteria. ... Species see text Cytomegalovirus (CMV) (from the Greek cyto-, cell, and -mega-, large) is a viral genus of the Herpesviruses group: in humans it is commonly known as human herpesvirus 5 (HHV-5). ... Colitis is a digestive disease characterized by inflammation of the colon. ... Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ... Binomial name Hall & OToole, 1935 Clostridium difficile or CDF/cdf (commonly mistaken  , alternatively and correctly pronounced ) (also referred to as C. diff or C-diff) is a species of bacteria of the genus Clostridium which are gram-positive, anaerobic, spore-forming rods (bacillus). ... The gastrointestinal or digestive tract, also referred to as the GI tract or the alimentary canal or the gut, is the system of organs within multicellular animals which takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste. ... In medical circles, wasting refers to the process by which a debilitating disease causes muscle and fat tissue to waste away. ...

Major neurological illnesses

  • Toxoplasmosis is a disease caused by the single-celled parasite called Toxoplasma gondii; it usually infects the brain causing toxoplasma encephalitis but it can infect and cause disease in the eyes and lungs.[36]
  • Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a demyelinating disease, in which the gradual destruction of the myelin sheath covering the axons of nerve cells impairs the transmission of nerve impulses. It is caused by a virus called JC virus which occurs in 70% of the population in latent form, causing disease only when the immune system has been severely weakened, as is the case for AIDS patients. It progresses rapidly, usually causing death within months of diagnosis.[37]
  • AIDS dementia complex (ADC) is a metabolic encephalopathy induced by HIV infection and fueled by immune activation of HIV infected brain macrophages and microglia which secrete neurotoxins of both host and viral origin.[38] Specific neurological impairments are manifested by cognitive, behavioral, and motor abnormalities that occur after years of HIV infection and is associated with low CD4+ T cell levels and high plasma viral loads. Prevalence is 10–20% in Western countries[39] but only 1–2% of HIV infections in India.[40][41] This difference is possibly due to the HIV subtype in India.
  • Cryptococcal meningitis is an infection of the meninx (the membrane covering the brain and spinal cord) by the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. It can cause fevers, headache, fatigue, nausea, and vomiting. Patients may also develop seizures and confusion; left untreated, it can be lethal.

A parasite is an organism that spends a significant portion of its life in or on the living tissue of a host organism and which causes harm to the host without immediately killing it. ... Encephalitis is an acute inflammation of the brain, commonly caused by a viral infection. ... For other uses, see Eye (disambiguation). ... This article is about the viral disease. ... A demyelinating disease is any disease of the nervous system in which the myelin sheath of neurons is damaged. ... Myelin is an electrically insulating phospholipid layer that surrounds the axons of many neurons. ... An axon, or nerve fiber, is a long slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, which conducts electrical impulses away from the neurons cell body or soma. ... The JC virus (JCV) is a type of human polyomavirus (formerly known as papovavirus) and is genetically similar to BK virus and SV40. ... Virus latency is the ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). ... AIDS dementia complex (ADC; also known as HIV dementia, HIV encephalopathy and HIV-associated dementia) has become a common neurological disorder associated with HIV infection and AIDS. It is is a metabolic encephalopathy induced by HIV infection and fueled by immune activation of brain macrophages and microglia. ... Encephalopathy literally means disease of the brain. ... A macrophage of a mouse stretching its arms to engulf two particles, possibly pathogens Macrophages (Greek: big eaters, makros = long, phagein = eat) are white blood cells, more specifically phagocytes, acting in the nonspecific defense as well as the specific defense system of vertebrate animals. ... Microglia cells positive for lectins Microglia are a type of glial cell that act as the immune cells of the Central nervous system (CNS). ... A neurotoxin is a toxin that acts specifically on nerve cells – neurons – usually by interacting with membrane proteins such as ion channels. ... The meninges (singular meninx) are the system of membranes that envelop the central nervous system. ... The Spinal cord nested in the vertebral column. ... Cryptococcus is a genus of fungus. ... A headache (cephalalgia in medical terminology) is a condition of pain in the head; sometimes neck or upper back pain may also be interpreted as a headache. ... The word fatigue is used in everyday living to describe a range of afflictions, varying from a general state of lethargy to a specific work induced burning sensation within muscle. ... For other uses, see Nausea (disambiguation). ... Vomiting (also throwing up or emesis) is the forceful expulsion of the contents of ones stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose. ... This article is about epileptic seizures. ...

Major HIV-associated malignancies

Kaposi's sarcoma

Patients with HIV infection have substantially increased incidence of several malignant cancers. This is primarily due to co-infection with an oncogenic DNA virus, especially Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), and human papillomavirus (HPV).[42][43] The following confer a diagnosis of AIDS when they occur in an HIV-infected person. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1350x900, 820 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): AIDS Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1350x900, 820 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): AIDS Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... An oncogene is a modified gene that increases the malignancy of a tumor cell. ... A DNA virus is a virus belonging to either Group I or Group II of the Baltimore classification system for viruses. ... The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), also called Human herpesvirus 4 (HHV-4), is a virus of the herpes family (which includes Herpes simplex virus and Cytomegalovirus), and is one of the most common viruses in humans. ... Species See text Papillomaviruses are viruses that commonly cause warts. ...

  • Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is the most common tumor in HIV-infected patients. The appearance of this tumor in young homosexual men in 1981 was one of the first signals of the AIDS epidemic. Caused by a gammaherpes virus called Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV), it often appears as purplish nodules on the skin, but can affect other organs, especially the mouth, gastrointestinal tract, and lungs.
  • High-grade B cell lymphomas such as Burkitt's lymphoma, Burkitt's-like lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), and primary central nervous system lymphoma present more often in HIV-infected patients. These particular cancers often foreshadow a poor prognosis. In some cases these lymphomas are AIDS-defining. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) or KSHV cause many of these lymphomas.
  • Cervical cancer in HIV-infected women is considered AIDS-defining. It is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV).

In addition to the AIDS-defining tumors listed above, HIV-infected patients are at increased risk of certain other tumors, such as Hodgkin's disease and anal and rectal carcinomas. However, the incidence of many common tumors, such as breast cancer or colon cancer, does not increase in HIV-infected patients. In areas where HAART is extensively used to treat AIDS, the incidence of many AIDS-related malignancies has decreased, but at the same time malignant cancers overall have become the most common cause of death of HIV-infected patients.[44] {{{subdivision_ranks}}} Subfamily Gammaherpesvirinae Gammaherpesvirinae is a subfamily of Herpesviridae primarily distinguished by reproducing at a more variable rate than other subfamilies of Herpesviridae. ... Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the eighth human herpesvirus; its formal name according to the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses is HHV-8. ... A nodule describes an aggregation of similar cells or particles in a number of scientific fields: In medicine it refers to a small aggregation of cells. ... male human mouth The mouth, also known as the buccal cavity or the oral cavity, is the orifice through which an organism takes in food and water. ... B cells are lymphocytes that play a large role in the humoral immune response (as opposed to the cell-mediated immune response). ... This article is about lymphoma in humans. ... Burkitts lymphoma (or Burkitts tumor, or Malignant lymphoma, Burkitts type) is a cancer of the lymphatic system (in particular, B lymphocytes). ... Primary CNS lymphoma is a primary intracranial tumor usually present in those with severe immunosuppression --- commonly in those with AIDS --- and represents around 20% of all cases of lymphomas in HIV infection (other types being Burkitts lymphoma and immunoblastic lymphoma). ... The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), also called Human herpesvirus 4 (HHV-4), is a virus of the herpes family (which includes Herpes simplex virus and Cytomegalovirus), and is one of the most common viruses in humans. ... Cervical cancer is a malignant cancer of the cervix. ... “HPV” redirects here. ... Anal cancer is a distinct entity from the more common colorectal cancer. ... Colorectal cancer, also called colon cancer or bowel cancer, includes cancerous growths in the colon, rectum and appendix. ... Breast cancer is cancer of breast tissue. ... Diagram of the stomach, colon, and rectum Colorectal cancer includes cancerous growths in the colon, rectum and appendix. ... The term antiretroviral drugs is used to describe drugs used against HIV infection (HIV is an RNA retrovirus). ...


Other opportunistic infections

AIDS patients often develop opportunistic infections that present with non-specific symptoms, especially low-grade fevers and weight loss. These include infection with Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare and cytomegalovirus (CMV). CMV can cause colitis, as described above, and CMV retinitis can cause blindness. Penicilliosis due to Penicillium marneffei is now the third most common opportunistic infection (after extrapulmonary tuberculosis and cryptococcosis) in HIV-positive individuals within the endemic area of Southeast Asia.[45] In medicine, low-grade fever is a continuous or fluctuating low fever, typically defined as never exceeding 38. ... Trinomial name Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis is a pathogenic bacteria in the genus Mycobacteria. ... Species see text Cytomegalovirus (CMV) (from the Greek cyto-, cell, and -mega-, large) is a viral genus of the Herpesviruses group: in humans it is commonly known as human herpesvirus 5 (HHV-5). ... CMV (Cytomegalovirus) is a DNA virus in the family Herpesviridae. ... This article is about the visual condition. ... Penicilliosis is an infection caused by Penicillium marneffei. ... Binomial name Penicillium marneffei Segretain Penicillium species are usually regarded as unimportant in terms of causing disease. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ...


Transmission and prevention

Estimated per act risk for acquisition
of HIV by exposure route[46]
Exposure Route Estimated infections
per 10,000 exposures
to an infected source
Blood Transfusion 9,000[47]
Childbirth 2,500[48]
Needle-sharing injection drug use 67[49]
Receptive anal intercourse* 50[50][51]
Percutaneous needle stick 30[52]
Receptive penile-vaginal intercourse* 10[50][51][53]
Insertive anal intercourse* 6.5[50][51]
Insertive penile-vaginal intercourse* 5[50][51]
Receptive oral intercourse* 1[51]§
Insertive oral intercourse* 0.5[51]§
* assuming no condom use
§ source refers to oral intercourse
performed on a man

The three main transmission routes of HIV are sexual contact, exposure to infected body fluids or tissues, and from mother to fetus or child during perinatal period. It is possible to find HIV in the saliva, tears, and urine of infected individuals, but there are no recorded cases of infection by these secretions, and the risk of infection is negligible. Sexual behavior is a form of physical intimacy that may be directed to reproduction (one possible goal of sexual intercourse) and/or to the enjoyment of activity involving sexual gratification. ... “Unborn child” redirects here. ... Perinatal defines the period occurring around the time of birth (5 months before and 1 month after). ... Saliva is the watery and usually frothy substance produced in the mouths of humans and some animals. ... The tear system. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Sexual contact

The majority of HIV infections are acquired through unprotected sexual relations between partners, one of whom has HIV. Heterosexual intercourse is the primary mode of HIV infection worldwide.[54] Sexual transmission occurs with the contact between sexual secretions of one partner with the rectal, genital or oral mucous membranes of another. Unprotected receptive sexual acts are riskier than unprotected insertive sexual acts, with the risk for transmitting HIV from an infected partner to an uninfected partner through unprotected anal intercourse greater than the risk for transmission through vaginal intercourse or oral sex. Oral sex is not without its risks as HIV is transmissible through both insertive and receptive oral sex.[55] The risk of HIV transmission from exposure to saliva is considerably smaller than the risk from exposure to semen; contrary to popular belief, one would have to swallow gallons of saliva from a carrier to run a significant risk of becoming infected.[56] Unprotected sex refers to any act of sexual intercourse in which the participants use no forms of protection from sexually transmitted diseases. ... The mucous membranes (or mucosae; singular: mucosa) are linings of mostly endodermal origin, covered in epithelium, and are involved in absorption and secretion. ... Saliva is the watery and usually frothy substance produced in the mouths of humans and some animals. ... Horse semen being collected for breeding purposes. ...


Approximately 30% of women in ten countries representing "diverse cultural, geographical and urban/rural settings" report that their first sexual experience was forced or coerced, making sexual violence a key driver of the HIV/AIDS pandemic.[57] Sexual assault greatly increases the risk of HIV transmission as protection is rarely employed and physical trauma to the vaginal cavity frequently occurs which facilitates the transmission of HIV.[58] This article is about large epidemics. ...


Sexually transmitted infections (STI) increase the risk of HIV transmission and infection because they cause the disruption of the normal epithelial barrier by genital ulceration and/or microulceration; and by accumulation of pools of HIV-susceptible or HIV-infected cells (lymphocytes and macrophages) in semen and vaginal secretions. Epidemiological studies from sub-Saharan Africa, Europe and North America have suggested that there is approximately a four times greater risk of becoming infected with HIV in the presence of a genital ulcer such as those caused by syphilis and/or chancroid. There is also a significant though lesser increased risk in the presence of STIs such as gonorrhea, Chlamydial infection and trichomoniasis which cause local accumulations of lymphocytes and macrophages.[59] Sexually-transmitted infections (STIs), also known as sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs), are diseases that are commonly transmitted between partners through some form of sexual activity, most commonly vaginal intercourse, oral sex, or anal sex. ... In zootomy, epithelium is a tissue composed of a layer of cells. ... An ulcer (from Latin ulcus) is an open sore of the skin, eyes or mucous membrane, often caused by an initial abrasion and generally maintained by an inflammation and/or an infection. ... A scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of a single human lymphocyte. ... A macrophage of a mouse stretching its arms to engulf two particles, possibly pathogens Macrophages (Greek: big eaters, makros = long, phagein = eat) are white blood cells, more specifically phagocytes, acting in the nonspecific defense as well as the specific defense system of vertebrate animals. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by Treponema pallidum. ... Chancroid is a sexually transmitted disease characterized by painful sores on the genitalia. ... Gonorrhea (gonorrhoea in British English) is amongst the most common sexually transmitted diseases in the world and is caused by Gram-negative bacterium Neisseria gonorrheae. ... Chlamydia is a common term for infection with any bacterium belonging to the phylum Chlamydiae. ... Trichomoniasis, sometimes referred to as trich, is a common sexually transmitted disease that affects 7. ...


Transmission of HIV depends on the infectiousness of the index case and the susceptibility of the uninfected partner. Infectivity seems to vary during the course of illness and is not constant between individuals. An undetectable plasma viral load does not necessarily indicate a low viral load in the seminal liquid or genital secretions. Each 10-fold increment of blood plasma HIV RNA is associated with an 81% increased rate of HIV transmission.[59][60] Women are more susceptible to HIV-1 infection due to hormonal changes, vaginal microbial ecology and physiology, and a higher prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases.[61][62] People who are infected with HIV can still be infected by other, more virulent strains. The index case or patient zero is the initial patient in the population sample of an epidemiological investigation. ... Viral load is a measure of the severity of a viral infection, and can be estimated by calculating the amount of virus in an involved body fluid, e. ... Virulence is a term used to refer to either the relative pathogenicity or the relative ability to do damage to the host of an infectious agent. ...


During a sexual act, only male or female condoms can reduce the chances of infection with HIV and other STDs and the chances of becoming pregnant. The best evidence to date indicates that typical condom use reduces the risk of heterosexual HIV transmission by approximately 80% over the long-term, though the benefit is likely to be higher if condoms are used correctly on every occasion.[63] The effective use of condoms and screening of blood transfusion in North America, Western and Central Europe is credited with contributing to the low rates of AIDS in these regions. Promoting condom use, however, has often proved controversial and difficult. Many religious groups, most noticeably the Roman Catholic Church, have opposed the use of condoms on religious grounds, and have sometimes seen condom promotion as an affront to the promotion of marriage, monogamy and sexual morality. Defenders of the Catholic Church's role in AIDS and general STD prevention state that, while they may be against the use of contraception, they are strong advocates of abstinence outside marriage.[64] This attitude is also found among some health care providers and policy makers in sub-Saharan African nations, where HIV and AIDS prevalence is extremely high.[65] They also believe that the distribution and promotion of condoms is tantamount to promoting sex amongst the youth and sending the wrong message to uninfected individuals. However, no evidence has been produced that promotion of condom use increases sexual promiscuity,[66] and abstinence-only programs have been unsuccessful in the United States both in changing sexual behavior and in reducing HIV transmission.[67] Evaluations of several abstinence-only programs in the US showed a negative impact on the willingness of youths to use contraceptives, due to the emphasis on contraceptives' failure rates.[68] The male latex condom, if used correctly without oil-based lubricants, is the single most effective available technology to reduce the sexual transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Manufacturers recommend that oil-based lubricants such as petroleum jelly, butter, and lard not be used with latex condoms, because they dissolve the latex, making the condoms porous. If necessary, manufacturers recommend using water-based lubricants. Oil-based lubricants can however be used with polyurethane condoms.[69] Latex condoms degrade over time, making them porous, which is why condoms have expiration dates. In Europe and the United States, condoms have to conform to European (EC 600) or American (D3492) standards to be considered protective against HIV transmission. A condom is a device, usually made of latex, or more recently polyurethane, that is used during sexual intercourse. ... A pregnant woman Pregnancy is the process by which a mammalian female carries a live offspring from conception until it develops to the point where the offspring is capable of living outside the womb. ... Heterosexuality is a sexual orientation characterized by esthetic attraction, romantic love or sexual desire exclusively for members of the opposite sex or gender, contrasted with homosexuality and distinguished from bisexuality and asexuality. ... “Catholic Church” redirects here. ... Marriage is an interpersonal relationship with governmental, social, or religious recognition, usually intimate and sexual, and often created as a contract, or through civil process. ... Faithfulness redirects here. ... Abstinence is a voluntary restraint from indulging a desire or appetite for certain bodily activities that are widely experienced as giving pleasure. ... “Promiscuous” redirects here. ... For other uses, see latex (disambiguation). ... Petroleum jelly, vaseline, petrolatum or soft paraffin [3] is a semi-solid mixture of hydrocarbons, originally promoted as a topical ointment for its healing properties. ... For other uses, see Butter (disambiguation). ... This article is about the fat. ... For other uses, see latex (disambiguation). ... Porosity is a measure of the void spaces in a material, and is measured as a fraction, between 0–1, or as a percentage between 0–100%. The term porosity is used in multiple fields including manufacturing, earth sciences and construction. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A polyurethane is any polymer consisting of a chain of organic units joined by urethane links. ... Shelf-life is the length of time that corresponds to a tolerable loss in quality of a processed food. ...


The female condom is an alternative to the male condom and is made from polyurethane, which allows it to be used in the presence of oil-based lubricants. They are larger than male condoms and have a stiffened ring-shaped opening, and are designed to be inserted into the vagina. The female condom contains an inner ring, which keeps the condom in place inside the vagina — inserting the female condom requires squeezing this ring. However, at present availability of female condoms is very low and the price remains prohibitive for many women. Preliminary studies suggest that, where female condoms are available, overall protected sexual acts increase relative to unprotected sexual acts, making them an important HIV prevention strategy.[70] Recently female condoms or femidoms have become available. ... A polyurethane is any polymer consisting of a chain of organic units joined by urethane links. ...


With consistent and correct use of condoms, there is a very low risk of HIV infection. Studies on couples where one partner is infected show that with consistent condom use, HIV infection rates for the uninfected partner are below 1% per year.[71]


The United States government and health organizations both endorse the ABC Approach to lower the risk of acquiring AIDS during sex:

Abstinence or delay of sexual activity, especially for youth,
Being faithful, especially for those in committed relationships,
Condom use, for those who engage in risky behavior.

This approach has been very successful in Uganda, where HIV prevalence has decreased from 15% to 5%. However, more has been done than just this. As Edward Green, a Harvard medical anthropologist, put it, "Uganda has pioneered approaches towards reducing stigma, bringing discussion of sexual behavior out into the open, involving HIV-infected people in public education, persuading individuals and couples to be tested and counseled, improving the status of women, involving religious organizations, enlisting traditional healers, and much more." However, criticism of the ABC approach is widespread because a faithful partner of an unfaithful partner is at risk of contracting HIV and that discrimination against women and girls is so great that they are without voice in almost every area of their lives.[72] Other programs and initiatives promote condom use more heavily. Condom use is an integral part of the CNN Approach. This is: Exclusive English shoe maker based out of Northampton, England. ... Harvard University is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, and a member of the Ivy League. ... See Anthropology. ...

Condom use, for those who engage in risky behavior,
Needles, use clean ones,
Negotiating skills; negotiating safer sex with a partner and empowering women to make smart choices.

In December 2006, the last of three large, randomized trials confirmed that male circumcision lowers the risk of HIV infection among heterosexual African men by around 50%. It is expected that this intervention will be actively promoted in many of the countries worst affected by HIV, although doing so will involve confronting a number of practical, cultural and attitudinal issues. Some experts fear that a lower perception of vulnerability among circumcised men may result in more sexual risk-taking behavior, thus negating its preventive effects.[73] Furthermore, South African medical experts are concerned that the repeated use of unsterilized blades in the ritual circumcision of adolescent boys may be spreading HIV.[74] A randomized controlled trial (RCT) is a form of clinical trial, or scientific procedure used in the testing of the efficacy of medicines or medical procedures. ... This article is about male circumcision. ...


Exposure to infected body fluids

This transmission route is particularly relevant to intravenous drug users, hemophiliacs and recipients of blood transfusions and blood products. Sharing and reusing syringes contaminated with HIV-infected blood represents a major risk for infection with not only HIV, but also hepatitis B and hepatitis C. Needle sharing is the cause of one third of all new HIV-infections and 50% of hepatitis C infections in North America, China, and Eastern Europe. The risk of being infected with HIV from a single prick with a needle that has been used on an HIV-infected person is thought to be about 1 in 150 (see table above). Post-exposure prophylaxis with anti-HIV drugs can further reduce that small risk.[75] Health care workers (nurses, laboratory workers, doctors etc) are also concerned, although more rarely. This route can affect people who give and receive tattoos and piercings. Universal precautions are frequently not followed in both sub-Saharan Africa and much of Asia because of both a shortage of supplies and inadequate training. The WHO estimates that approximately 2.5% of all HIV infections in sub-Saharan Africa are transmitted through unsafe healthcare injections.[76] Because of this, the United Nations General Assembly, supported by universal medical opinion on the matter, has urged the nations of the world to implement universal precautions to prevent HIV transmission in health care settings.[77] An intravenous drug (IV drug) is a drug administered intravenously, either by an intravenous drip or a syringe. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Blood transfusion is the process of transferring blood or blood-based products from one person into the circulatory system of another. ... A syringe nowadays nearly always means a medical syringe, but it can mean any of these: A simple hand-powered piston pump consisting of a plunger that can be pulled and pushed along inside a cylindrical tube (the barrel), which has a small hole on one end, so it can... Hepatitis B is an inflammation of the liver and is caused by the Hepatitis B virus (HBV), a member of the Hepadnavirus family[1] and one of hundreds of unrelated viral species which cause viral hepatitis. ... This page is for the disease. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is any prophylactic treatment started immediately after exposure to a disease (such as a disease-causing virus), in order to prevent the disease from breaking out. ... For other uses, see Tattoo (disambiguation). ... Body piercing is a form of body modification. ... Universal precautions is the term used to describe the practice in medicine of avoiding contact with patients bodily fluids, by means of the wearing of nonporous articles such as gloves, goggles, and face shields. ... The United Nations General Assembly (GA) is one of the five principal organs of the United Nations. ...


The risk of transmitting HIV to blood transfusion recipients is extremely low in developed countries where improved donor selection and HIV screening is performed. However, according to the WHO, the overwhelming majority of the world's population does not have access to safe blood and "between 5% and 10% of HIV infections worldwide are transmitted through the transfusion of infected blood and blood products".[78] Blood transfusion is the process of transferring blood or blood-based products from one person into the circulatory system of another. ... Look up who in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Medical workers who follow universal precautions or body-substance isolation, such as wearing latex gloves when giving injections and washing the hands frequently, can help prevent infection by HIV.


All AIDS-prevention organizations advise drug-users not to share needles and other material required to prepare and take drugs (including syringes, cotton balls, the spoons, water for diluting the drug, straws, crack pipes, etc). It is important that people use new or properly sterilized needles for each injection. Information on cleaning needles using bleach is available from health care and addiction professionals and from needle exchanges. In some developed countries, clean needles are available free in some cities, at needle exchanges or safe injection sites. Additionally, many nations have decriminalized needle possession and made it possible to buy injection equipment from pharmacists without a prescription. A needle exchange programme is a controversial public service endorsed by some governments which give clean needles to intravenous drug addicts, in exchange for education of the drug user. ... Safe injection sites are places for intravenous injectors of illegal drugs to use their drugs in a controlled and monitored environment. ...


Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT)

The transmission of the virus from the mother to the child can occur in utero during the last weeks of pregnancy and at childbirth. In the absence of treatment, the transmission rate between the mother to the child during pregnancy, labor and delivery is 25%. However, when the mother has access to antiretroviral therapy and gives birth by caesarean section, the rate of transmission is just 1%.[48] A number of factors influence the risk of infection, particularly the viral load of the mother at birth (the higher the load, the higher the risk). Breastfeeding increases the risk of transmission by 10–15%. This risk depends on clinical factors and may vary according to the pattern and duration of breast-feeding. In Utero is the third and final studio album by the American grunge band Nirvana, released on September 21, 1993 by Geffen Records (DGC). ... A caesarean section (AE cesarean section), or c-section, is a form of childbirth in which a surgical incision is made through a mothers abdomen (laparotomy) and uterus (hysterotomy) to deliver one or more babies. ... An infant breastfeeding International Breastfeeding Symbol (Matt Daigle, Mothering magazine contest winner 2006) Breastfeeding is the feeding of an infant or young child with milk from a womans breasts. ...


Studies have shown that antiretroviral drugs, caesarean delivery and formula feeding reduce the chance of transmission of HIV from mother to child.[79] Current recommendations state that when replacement feeding is acceptable, feasible, affordable, sustainable and safe, HIV-infected mothers should avoid breast-feeding their infant. However, if this is not the case, exclusive breast-feeding is recommended during the first months of life and discontinued as soon as possible.[5] In 2005, around 700,000 children under 15 contracted HIV, mainly through MTCT, with 630,000 of these infections occurring in Africa.[80] Of the estimated 2.3 million 1.7–3.5 million children currently living with HIV, 2 million (almost 90%) live in sub-Saharan Africa.[5]


Prevention strategies are well known in developed countries, however, recent epidemiological and behavioral studies in Europe and North America have suggested that a substantial minority of young people continue to engage in high-risk practices and that despite HIV/AIDS knowledge, young people underestimate their own risk of becoming infected with HIV.[81] However, transmission of HIV between intravenous drug users has clearly decreased, and HIV transmission by blood transfusion has become quite rare in developed countries.


Treatment

See also HIV Treatment and Antiretroviral drug.

There is currently no vaccine or cure for HIV or AIDS. The only known methods of prevention are based on avoiding exposure to the virus or, failing that, an antiretroviral treatment directly after a highly significant exposure, called post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP).[75] PEP has a very demanding four week schedule of dosage. It also has very unpleasant side effects including diarrhea, malaise, nausea and fatigue.[82] Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... “HAART” redirects here. ... An HIV vaccine is a hypothetical vaccine against HIV, the etiological agent of AIDS. As there is no known cure for AIDS, the search for a vaccine has become part of the struggle against the disease. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is any prophylactic treatment started immediately after exposure to a disease (such as a disease-causing virus), in order to prevent the disease from breaking out. ... Types 5-7 on the Bristol Stool Chart are often associated with diarrhea Diarrhea (in American English) or diarrhoea (in British English) is a condition in which the sufferer has frequent watery, loose bowel movements (from the Greek word διάρροια; literally meaning through-flowing). Acute infectious diarrhea is a common cause... Malaise is a feeling of general discomfort or uneasiness, an out of sorts feeling, often the first indication of an infection or other disease. ... For other uses, see Nausea (disambiguation). ... The word fatigue is used in everyday living to describe a range of afflictions, varying from a general state of lethargy to a specific work induced burning sensation within muscle. ...

The chemical structure of Abacavir

Current treatment for HIV infection consists of highly active antiretroviral therapy, or HAART.[83] This has been highly beneficial to many HIV-infected individuals since its introduction in 1996 when the protease inhibitor-based HAART initially became available.[6] Current optimal HAART options consist of combinations (or "cocktails") consisting of at least three drugs belonging to at least two types, or "classes," of anti-retroviral agents. Typical regimens consist of two nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NARTIs or NRTIs) plus either a protease inhibitor or a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI). Because HIV disease progression in children is more rapid than in adults, and laboratory parameters are less predictive of risk for disease progression, particularly for young infants, treatment recommendations are more aggressive for children than for adults.[84] In developed countries where HAART is available, doctors assess the viral load, rapidity in CD4 decline, and patient readiness while deciding when to recommend initiating treatment.[85] Image File history File links Abacavir_structure. ... Image File history File links Abacavir_structure. ... The term antiretroviral drugs is used to describe drugs used against HIV infection (HIV is an RNA retrovirus). ... The term antiretroviral drugs is used to describe drugs used against HIV infection (HIV is an RNA retrovirus). ... Reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTIs) are a class of antiretroviral drug used to treat HIV infection. ... Protease inhibitors are a class of medication used to treat or prevent viral infections. ... Antiretroviral drugs are medications for the treatment of infection by retroviruses, primarily HIV. Different classes of antiretroviral drugs act at different stages of the HIV life cycle. ... Viral load is a measure of the severity of a viral infection, and can be estimated by calculating the amount of virus in an involved body fluid, e. ...


HAART allows the stabilization of the patient’s symptoms and viremia, but it neither cures the patient of HIV, nor alleviates the symptoms, and high levels of HIV-1, often HAART resistant, return once treatment is stopped.[86][87] Moreover, it would take more than the lifetime of an individual to be cleared of HIV infection using HAART.[88] Despite this, many HIV-infected individuals have experienced remarkable improvements in their general health and quality of life, which has led to the plummeting of HIV-associated morbidity and mortality.[89][90][91] In the absence of HAART, progression from HIV infection to AIDS occurs at a median of between nine to ten years and the median survival time after developing AIDS is only 9.2 months.[7] HAART is thought to increase survival time by between 4 and 12 years.[92][93] This average reflects the fact that for some patients — and in many clinical cohorts this may be more than fifty percent of patients — HAART achieves far less than optimal results. This is due to a variety of reasons such as medication intolerance/side effects, prior ineffective antiretroviral therapy and infection with a drug-resistant strain of HIV. However, non-adherence and non-persistence with antiretroviral therapy is the major reason most individuals fail to get any benefit from and develop resistance to HAART.[94] The reasons for non-adherence and non-persistence with HAART are varied and overlapping. Major psychosocial issues, such as poor access to medical care, inadequate social supports, psychiatric disease and drug abuse contribute to non-adherence. The complexity of these HAART regimens, whether due to pill number, dosing frequency, meal restrictions or other issues along with side effects that create intentional non-adherence also has a weighty impact.[95][96][97] The side effects include lipodystrophy, dyslipidaemia, insulin resistance, an increase in cardiovascular risks and birth defects.[98][99] In medicine, epidemiology and actuarial science, the term morbidity can refer to the state of being diseased (from Latin morbidus: sick, unhealthy), the degree or severity of a disease, the prevalence of a disease: the total number of cases in a particular population at a particular point in time, the... In probability theory and statistics, a median is a type of average that is described as the number dividing the higher half of a sample, a population, or a probability distribution, from the lower half. ... In medicine, lipodystrophy is a condition characterized by abnormal or degernative conditions of the bodys fat tissue. ... Hypercholesterolemia (literally: high blood cholesterol) is the presence of high levels of cholesterol in the blood. ... Insulin resistance is the condition in which normal amounts of insulin are inadequate to produce a normal insulin response from fat, muscle and liver cells. ... The circulatory system or cardiovascular system is the organ system which circulates blood around the body of most animals. ... A congenital disorder is a medical condition or defect that is present at or before birth (for example, congenital heart disease). ...


Daily multivitamin and mineral supplements have been found to reduce HIV disease progression among men and women. This could become an important low-cost intervention provided during early HIV disease to prolong the time before antiretroviral therapy is required.[100] Some individual nutrients have also been tried.[101][102] Anti-retroviral drugs are expensive, and the majority of the world's infected individuals do not have access to medications and treatments for HIV and AIDS.[103] It has been postulated that only a vaccine can halt the pandemic because a vaccine would possibly cost less, thus being affordable for developing countries, and would not require daily treatments.[103] However, after over 20 years of research, HIV-1 remains a difficult target for a vaccine.[103]


Research to improve current treatments includes decreasing side effects of current drugs, further simplifying drug regimens to improve adherence, and determining the best sequence of regimens to manage drug resistance. A number of studies have shown that measures to prevent opportunistic infections can be beneficial when treating patients with HIV infection or AIDS. Vaccination against hepatitis A and B is advised for patients who are not infected with these viruses and are at risk of becoming infected.[104] Patients with substantial immunosuppression are also advised to receive prophylactic therapy for Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP), and many patients may benefit from prophylactic therapy for toxoplasmosis and Cryptococcus meningitis as well.[82] A vial of the vaccine against influenza. ... Hepatitis (plural hepatitides) implies injury to liver characterised by presence of inflammatory cells in the liver tissue. ... Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia or Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is a form of pneumonia caused by the yeast-like fungal microorganism Pneumocystis jiroveci (sometimes spelled jirovecii and formerly classified as Pneumocystis carinii). ... Cryptococcus is a genus of fungus. ... Meningitis is the inflammation of the protective membranes covering the central nervous system, known collectively as the meninges. ...


Various forms of alternative medicine have been used to treat symptoms or alter the course of the disease.[105] In the first decade of the epidemic when no useful conventional treatment was available, a large number of people with AIDS experimented with alternative therapies. The definition of "alternative therapies" in AIDS has changed since that time. Then, the phrase often referred to community-driven treatments, untested by government or pharmaceutical company research, that some hoped would directly suppress the virus or stimulate immunity against it. Examples of alternative medicine that people hoped would improve their symptoms or their quality of life include massage, stress management, herbal and flower remedies such as boxwood,[106][107] and acupuncture;[105] when used with conventional treatment, many now refer to these as "complementary" approaches. Despite the widespread use of complementary and alternative medicine by people living with HIV/AIDS, the effectiveness of these therapies has not been established.[108] Alternative medicine is defined as any of various systems of healing or treating disease (as chiropractic, homeopathy, or faith healing) not included in the traditional medical curricula taught in the United States and Britain.[1] Complementary medicine is defined as any of the practices (as acupuncture) of alternative medicine accepted... In epidemiology, an epidemic (from [[Latin language] epi- upon + demos people) is a disease that appears as new cases in a given human population, during a given period, at a rate that substantially exceeds what is expected, based on recent experience (the number of new cases in the population during... Alternative medicine is defined as any of various systems of healing or treating disease (as chiropractic, homeopathy, or faith healing) not included in the traditional medical curricula taught in the United States and Britain.[1] Complementary medicine is defined as any of the practices (as acupuncture) of alternative medicine accepted... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A cluttered environment with too many tasks can lead to stress. ... This article is about the box tree. ... Acupuncture chart from Hua Shou (fl. ...


Epidemiology

Main article: AIDS pandemic
Prevalence of HIV among adults per country at the end of 2005.
     15–50%      5–15%      1–5%      0.5–1.0%      0.1–0.5%      <0.1%      no data

UNAIDS and the WHO estimate that AIDS has killed more than 25 million people since it was first recognized in 1981, making it one of the most destructive epidemics in recorded history. Despite recent, improved access to antiretroviral treatment and care in many regions of the world, the AIDS epidemic claimed an estimated 2.8 million (between 2.4 and 3.3 million) lives in 2005 of which more than half a million (570,000) were children.[5] Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has led to the deaths of more than 25 million people since it was first recognized in 1981, making it one of the most destructive epidemics in recorded history. ... Image File history File links HIV_Epidem. ... Image File history File links HIV_Epidem. ...


Globally, between 33.4 and 46 million people currently live with HIV.[5] In 2005, between 3.4 and 6.2 million people were newly infected and between 2.4 and 3.3 million people with AIDS died, an increase from 2003 and the highest number since 1981.[5]


Sub-Saharan Africa remains by far the worst affected region, with an estimated 21.6 to 27.4 million people currently living with HIV. Two million [1.5–3.0 million] of them are children younger than 15 years of age. More than 64% of all people living with HIV are in sub-Saharan Africa, as are more than three quarters (76%) of all women living with HIV. In 2005, there were 12.0 million [10.6–13.6 million] AIDS orphans living in sub-Saharan Africa 2005.[5] South & South East Asia are second worst affected with 15%. AIDS accounts for the deaths of 500,000 children in this region. Two-thirds of HIV/AIDS infections in Asia occur in India, with an estimated 5.7 million infections (estimated 3.4 – 9.4 million) (0.9% of population), surpassing South Africa's estimated 5.5 million (4.9–6.1 million) (11.9% of population) infections, making it the country with the highest number of HIV infections in the world.[109] In the 35 African nations with the highest prevalence, average life expectancy is 48.3 years— 6.5 years less than it would be without the disease.[110] Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has led to the deaths of more than 25 million people since it was first recognized in 1981, making it one of the most destructive epidemics in recorded history. ... Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has led to the deaths of more than 25 million people since it was first recognized in 1981, making it one of the most destructive epidemics in recorded history. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... World map of human life expectancy, 2005 Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average length of survival of a living thing. ...


The latest evaluation report of the World Bank's Operations Evaluation Department assesses the effectiveness of the World Bank's country-level HIV/AIDS assistance, defined as policy dialogue, analytic work, and lending, with the explicit objective of reducing the scope or impact of the AIDS epidemic.[111] This is the first comprehensive evaluation of the World Bank's HIV/AIDS support to countries, from the beginning of the epidemic through mid-2004. Because the Bank's assistance is for implementation of government programs by government, it provides important insights on how national AIDS programs can be made more effective. ‹ The template below is being considered for deletion. ...


The development of HAART as effective therapy for HIV infection and AIDS has substantially reduced the death rate from this disease in those areas where it is widely available. This has created the misperception that the disease has gone away. In fact, as the life expectancy of persons with AIDS has increased in countries where HAART is widely used, the number of persons living with AIDS has increased substantially. In the United States, the number of persons with AIDS increased from about 35,000 in 1988 to over 220,000 in 1996. The term antiretroviral drugs is used to describe drugs used against HIV infection (HIV is an RNA retrovirus). ...


In Africa, the number of MTCT and the prevalence of AIDS is beginning to reverse decades of steady progress in child survival. Countries such as Uganda are attempting to curb the MTCT epidemic by offering VCT (voluntary counseling and testing), PMTCT (prevention of mother-to-child transmission) and ANC (ante-natal care) services, which include the distribution of antiretroviral therapy.


Economic impact

Changes in life expectancy in some hard-hit African countries.
 
Botswana
 
Zimbabwe
 
Kenya
 
South Africa
 
Uganda

HIV and AIDS retard economic growth by destroying human capital. UNAIDS has predicted outcomes for sub-Saharan Africa to the year 2025. These range from a plateau and eventual decline in deaths beginning around 2012 to a catastrophic continual growth in the death rate with potentially 90 million cases of infection.[5] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... World GDP/capita changed very little for most of human history before the industrial revolution. ... Human capital is a way of defining and categorizing the skills and abilities as used in employment and as they otherwise contribute to the economy. ...


Without proper nutrition, health care and medicine that is available in developed countries, large numbers of people in these countries are falling victim to AIDS. They will not only be unable to work, but will also require significant medical care. The forecast is that this will likely cause a collapse of economies and societies in the region. In some heavily infected areas, the epidemic has left behind many orphans cared for by elderly grandparents. The updated USDA food pyramid, published in 2005, is a general nutrition guide for recommended food consumption for humans. ... Orphans, by Thomas Kennington An orphan (from the Greek ορφανός) is a person (typically a child), who has lost both parents, often through death. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The increased mortality in this region will result in a smaller skilled population and labor force.[112] This smaller labor force will be predominantly young people, with reduced knowledge and work experience leading to reduced productivity. An increase in workers’ time off to look after sick family members or for sick leave will also lower productivity. Increased mortality will also weaken the mechanisms that generate human capital and investment in people, through loss of income and the death of parents.[112] By killing off mainly young adults, AIDS seriously weakens the taxable population, reducing the resources available for public expenditures such as education and health services not related to AIDS resulting in increasing pressure for the state's finances and slower growth of the economy. This results in a slower growth of the tax base, an effect that will be reinforced if there are growing expenditures on treating the sick, training (to replace sick workers), sick pay and caring for AIDS orphans. This is especially true if the sharp increase in adult mortality shifts the responsibility and blame from the family to the government in caring for these orphans. Population decline is the reduction over time in a regions census. ... Work experience is the experience that a person has working, or working in a specific field or occupation. ... Sick Leave (or Sickness Pay or Sick Pay) is an employee benefit in the form of paid leave which can be taken during periods of sickness. ... Invest redirects here. ... Income, generally defined, is the money that is received as a result of the normal business activities of an individual or a business. ... “Taxes” redirects here. ... Public finance (government finance) is the field of economics that deals with budgeting the revenues and expenditures of a public sector entity, usually government. ...


On the level of the household, AIDS results in both the loss of income and increased spending on healthcare by the household. The income effects of this lead to spending reduction as well as a substitution effect away from education and towards healthcare and funeral spending. A study in Côte d'Ivoire showed that households with an HIV/AIDS patient spent twice as much on medical expenses as other households.


UNAIDS, WHO and the United Nations Development Programme have documented a correlation between the decreasing life expectancies and the lowering of gross national product in many African countries with prevalence rates of 10% or more. Indeed, since 1992 predictions that AIDS would slow economic growth in these countries have been published. The degree of impact depended on assumptions about the extent to which illness would be funded by savings and who would be infected.[113] Conclusions reached from models of the growth trajectories of 30 sub-Saharan economies over the period 1990–2025 were that the economic growth rates of these countries would be between 0.56 and 1.47% lower. The impact on gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was less conclusive. However, in 2000, the rate of growth of Africa's per capita GDP was in fact reduced by 0.7% per year from 1990–1997 with a further 0.3% per year lower in countries also affected by malaria.[114] The forecast now is that the growth of GDP for these countries will undergo a further reduction of between 0.5 and 2.6% per annum.[112] However, these estimates may be an underestimate, as they do not look at the effects on output per capita.[115] The United Nations Development Programe (UNDP), the United Nations global development network, is the largest multilateral source of development assistance in the world. ... Measures of national income and output are used in economics to estimate the value of goods and services produced in an economy. ... World GDP/capita changed very little for most of human history before the industrial revolution. ... Nominal GDP per person (capita) in 2006. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ...


Many governments in sub-Saharan Africa denied that there was a problem for years, and are only now starting to work towards solutions. Underfunding is a problem in all areas of HIV prevention when compared to even conservative estimates of the problems.


The launching of the world's first official HIV/AIDS Toolkit in Zimbabwe on October 3, 2006 is a product of collaborative work between the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, World Health Organization and the Southern Africa HIV/AIDS Information Dissemination Service. It is for the strengthening of people living with HIV/AIDS and nurses by minimal external support. The package, which is in form of eight modules focusing on basic facts about HIV and AIDS, was pre-tested in Zimbabwe in March 2006 to determine its adaptability. It disposes, among other things, categorized guidelines on clinical management, education and counseling of AIDS victims at community level.[116] is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Red Cross and the Red Crescent emblems, the symbols from which the Movement derives its name. ... The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that acts as a coordinating authority on international public health. ... This article is about the country on the southern tip of the African continent. ...


The Copenhagen Consensus is a project that seeks to establish priorities for advancing global welfare using methodologies based on the theory of welfare economics. The participants are all economists, with the focus of the project being a rational prioritization based on economic analysis. The project is based on the contention that, in spite of the billions of dollars spent on global challenges by the United Nations, the governments of wealthy nations, foundations, charities, and non-governmental organizations, the money spent on problems such as malnutrition and climate change is not sufficient to meet many internationally-agreed targets. The highest priority was assigned to implementing new measures to prevent the spread of HIV and AIDS. The economists estimated that an investment of $27 billion could avert nearly 30 million new infections by 2010. Copenhagen Consensus is a project which seeks to establish priorities for advancing global welfare using methodologies based on the theory of welfare economics. ... Welfare economics is a branch of economics that uses microeconomic techniques to simultaneously determine the allocational efficiency of a macroeconomy and the income distribution associated with it. ...


Stigma

AIDS Awareness Sign. Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam (August 2005).

AIDS stigma exists around the world in a variety of ways, including ostracism, rejection, discrimination and avoidance of HIV infected people; compulsory HIV testing without prior consent or protection of confidentiality; violence against HIV infected individuals or people who are perceived to be infected with HIV; and the quarantine of HIV infected individuals.[117] Stigma-related violence or the fear of violence prevents many people from seeking HIV testing, returning for their results, or securing treatment, possibly turning what could be a manageable chronic illness into a death sentence and perpetuating the spread of HIV.[118] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 432 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (520 × 721 pixel, file size: 79 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) AIDS Awareness Sign. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 432 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (520 × 721 pixel, file size: 79 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) AIDS Awareness Sign. ... “Saigon” redirects here. ... Pieces of broken pottery as voting tokens. ... Rejection may mean: In psychology, rejection is an emotion felt by most humans (and possibly other higher animals) when another person denies a personal request, particularly if it is an emotional advance. ... This article is about discrimination in the social science context. ... Avoidance is a 2002 novel by Michael Lowenthal. ... Consent (as a term of jurisprudence) is a possible justification against civil or criminal liability. ... Confidentiality has been defined by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) as ensuring that information is accessible only to those authorized to have access and is one of the cornerstones of Information security. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


AIDS stigma has been further divided into the following three categories:

  1. Instrumental AIDS stigma—a reflection of the fear and apprehension that are likely to be associated with any deadly and transmissible illness.[119]
  2. Symbolic AIDS stigma—the use of HIV/AIDS to express attitudes toward the social groups or lifestyles perceived to be associated with the disease.[119]
  3. Courtesy AIDS stigma—stigmatization of people connected to the issue of HIV/AIDS or HIV- positive people.[120]

Often, AIDS stigma is expressed in conjunction with one or more other stigmas, particularly those associated with homosexuality, bisexuality, promiscuity, and intravenous drug use. Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... “Bisexual” redirects here. ... “Promiscuous” redirects here. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


In many developed countries, there is an association between AIDS and homosexuality or bisexuality, and this association is correlated with higher levels of sexual prejudice such as anti-homosexual attitudes.[121] There is also a perceived association between AIDS and all male-male sexual behavior, including sex between uninfected men.[119] World map indicating Human Development Index (as of 2004). ... A protest by The Westboro Baptist Church; a group identified by the Anti-Defamation League as virulently homophobic. ...


Those most likely to hold misconceptions about HIV transmission and to harbor HIV/AIDS stigma are less educated people and people with high levels of religiosity or conservative political ideology.[119][121][122]

For more details on this topic, see Stigma and HIV-AIDS, A review of the literature[123]

Origin of HIV

Main article: AIDS origin

AIDS was first reported June 5, 1981, when the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recorded a cluster of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (now still classified as PCP but known to be caused by Pneumocystis jirovecii) in five homosexual men in Los Angeles.[124] Scanning electron micrograph of HIV-1 budding from cultured lymphocyte. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ... Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is a form of pneumonia caused by the yeast-like fungal microorganism Pneumocystis jirovecii (Jirovecii is pronounced yee row vet zee eye). The causal agent was originally described as a protozoan and spelled and prior to then was formerly classified as a form of Pneumocystis carinii, a... Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is a form of pneumonia caused by the yeast-like fungal microorganism Pneumocystis jirovecii (Jirovecii is pronounced yee row vet zee eye). The causal agent was originally described as a protozoan and spelled and prior to then was formerly classified as a form of Pneumocystis carinii, a... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ...


Three of the earliest known instances of HIV infection are:

  1. A plasma sample taken in 1959 from an adult male living in Kinshasa, today part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.[125]
  2. HIV found in tissue samples from "Robert R.", a 15 year old African-American teenager who died in St. Louis in 1969.[126]
  3. HIV found in tissue samples from Arvid Noe, a Norwegian sailor who died around 1976.[127]

Two species of HIV infect humans: HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is more virulent and more easily transmitted. HIV-1 is the source of the majority of HIV infections throughout the world, while HIV-2 is not as easily transmitted and is largely confined to West Africa.[128] Both HIV-1 and HIV-2 are of primate origin. The origin of HIV-1 is the Central Common Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) found in southern Cameroon.[129] It is established that HIV-2 originated from the Sooty Mangabey (Cercocebus atys), an Old World monkey of Guinea Bissau, Gabon, and Cameroon. Kinshasa (formerly Léopoldville or, before 1960, also Leopoldstad) is the capital and largest city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. ... Robert R. (early 1954 – May 16, 1969) was an African-American Missouri teenager who was the victim of the first confirmed case of HIV/AIDS in North America. ... Arvid Noe (1943-1976) was a Norwegian sailor famous for being the first known human death as a result of AIDS. Noe frequently went from sailing trips from Norway to Africa during the 1960s. ... The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a frequently mutating retrovirus that attacks the human immune system and which has been shown to cause acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). ... The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a frequently mutating retrovirus that attacks the human immune system and which has been shown to cause acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ... Families 15, See classification A primate is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all the species commonly related to the lemurs, monkeys, and apes, with the latter category including humans. ... Binomial name (Blumenbach, 1775) distribution of Common Chimpanzee. ... Binomial name (Audebert, 1797) The Sooty Mangabey (Cercocebus atys), also called Tom Midwood and is an Old World monkey of Guinea Bissau, Gabon, Penis land and Côte dIvoire. ... Subfamilies Cercopithecinae - 11 genera Colobinae - 10 genera The Old World monkeys or Cercopithecidae are a group of primates, falling in the superfamily Cercopithecoidea in the clade Catarrhini. ... Motto Unidade, Luta, Progresso(Portuguese) Unity, Struggle, Progress Anthem Esta é a Nossa Pátria Bem Amada(Portuguese) Capital (and largest city) Bissau1 Official languages Portuguese Government Republic  -  President João Bernardo Vieira  -  Prime Minister Martinho Ndafa Kabi Independence from Portugal   -  Declared September 24, 1973   -  Recognised September 10, 1974  Area  -  Total...


Most experts believe that HIV probably transferred to humans as a result of direct contact with primates, for instance during hunting or butchery.[130] A more controversial theory known as the OPV AIDS hypothesis suggests that the AIDS epidemic was inadvertently started in the late 1950s in the Belgian Congo by Hilary Koprowski's research into a polio vaccine.[131][132] According to scientific consensus, this scenario is not supported by the available evidence.[133][134][135] According to the oral polio vaccine (OPVA) AIDS hypothesis, the AIDS pandemic originated from live polio vaccines prepared in chimpanzee tissue cultures (at least some of which were almost certainly contaminated with chimpanzee SIV) which were administered to up to one million Africans between 1957 and 1960. ... Motto: Travail et Progres (Work and Progress) The Belgian Congo Capital Léopoldville/Leopoldstad Political structure Colony Governor  - 1908-1910 Baron Wahis  - 1946-1951 Eugène Jacques Pierre Louis Jungers  - 1958-1960 Henri Arthur Adolf Marie Christopher Cornelis History  - Established 15 November, 1908  - Congolese independence 30 June, 1960 The Belgian... Hilary Koprowski, Warsaw (Poland), September 16, 2007 Hilary Koprowski Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Hilary Koprowski Hilary Koprowski (b. ... Poliomyelitis (polio), or infantile paralysis, is a viral paralytic disease. ... A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to establish immunity to a disease. ... Scientific consensus is the collective judgment, position, and opinion of the community of scientists in a particular field of science at a particular time. ...


Alternative hypotheses

Main article: AIDS reappraisal

A small minority of scientists and activists question the connection between HIV and AIDS,[136] the existence of HIV itself,[137] or the validity of current testing and treatment methods. These claims have been examined and widely rejected by the scientific community,[138] although they have had a political impact, particularly in South Africa, where governmental acceptance of AIDS denialism has been blamed for an ineffective response to that country's AIDS epidemic.[139][140][141] The AIDS reappraisal movement or AIDS dissident movement, pejoratively referred to as AIDS denialism, is a loosely connected group of activists, journalists, scientists, and HIV-positive persons who dispute the scientific consensus that the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the cause of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


HIV and AIDS misconceptions

A number of misconceptions have arisen surrounding HIV/AIDS. Three of the most common are that AIDS can spread through casual contact, that sexual intercourse with a virgin will cure AIDS, and that HIV can infect only homosexual men and drug users. Other misconceptions are that any act of anal intercourse between gay men can lead to AIDS infection, and that open discussion of homosexuality and HIV in schools will lead to increased rates of homosexuality and AIDS.[142] The spread of HIV and AIDS has affected millions of people worldwide; According to the 2006 AIDS Epidemic Update, published by the UNAIDS/World Health Organization, there were an estimated 39. ...


Notes and references

  1. ^ Marx, J. L. (1982). "New disease baffles medical community". Science 217 (4560): 618–621. PubMed. 
  2. ^ Divisions of HIV/AIDS Prevention (2003). HIV and Its Transmission. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention. Retrieved on 2006-05-23.
  3. ^ San Francisco AIDS Foundation (2006-04-14). How HIV is spread. Retrieved on 2006-05-23.
  4. ^ Gao, F., Bailes, E., Robertson, D. L., Chen, Y., Rodenburg, C. M., Michael, S. F., Cummins, L. B., Arthur, L. O., Peeters, M., Shaw, G. M., Sharp, P. M. and Hahn, B. H. (1999). "Origin of HIV-1 in the Chimpanzee Pan troglodytes troglodytes". Nature 397 (6718): 436–441. PubMed doi:10.1038/17130. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i UNAIDS (2006). "Overview of the global AIDS epidemic", 2006 Report on the global AIDS epidemic (PDF). 
  6. ^ a b Palella, F. J. Jr, Delaney, K. M., Moorman, A. C., Loveless, M. O., Fuhrer, J., Satten, G. A., Aschman and D. J., Holmberg, S. D. (1998). "Declining morbidity and mortality among patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection. HIV Outpatient Study Investigators". N. Engl. J. Med 338 (13): 853–860. PubMed. 
  7. ^ a b c d e Morgan, D., Mahe, C., Mayanja, B., Okongo, J. M., Lubega, R. and Whitworth, J. A. (2002). "HIV-1 infection in rural Africa: is there a difference in median time to AIDS and survival compared with that in industrialized countries?". AIDS 16 (4): 597–632. PubMed. 
  8. ^ a b Clerici, M., Balotta, C., Meroni, L., Ferrario, E., Riva, C., Trabattoni, D., Ridolfo, A., Villa, M., Shearer, G.M., Moroni, M. and Galli, M. (1996). "Type 1 cytokine production and low prevalence of viral isolation correlate with long-term non progression in HIV infection". AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 12 (11): 1053–1061. PubMed. 
  9. ^ a b Morgan, D., Mahe, C., Mayanja, B. and Whitworth, J. A. (2002). "Progression to symptomatic disease in people infected with HIV-1 in rural Uganda: prospective cohort study". BMJ 324 (7331): 193–196. PubMed. 
  10. ^ Gendelman, H. E., Phelps, W., Feigenbaum, L., Ostrove, J. M., Adachi, A., Howley, P. M., Khoury, G., Ginsberg, H. S. and Martin, M. A. (1986). "Transactivation of the human immunodeficiency virus long terminal repeat sequences by DNA viruses". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 83 (24): 9759–9763. PubMed. 
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  133. ^ Worobey M, Santiago ML, Keele BF, Ndjango JB, Joy JB, Labama BL, Dhed'A BD, Rambaut A, Sharp PM, Shaw GM, Hahn BH (2004). "Origin of AIDS: contaminated polio vaccine theory refuted". Nature 428 (6985): 820. PubMed. 
  134. ^ Berry N, Jenkins A, Martin J, Davis C, Wood D, Schild G, Bottiger M, Holmes H, Minor P, Almond N (2005). "Mitochondrial DNA and retroviral RNA analyses of archival oral polio vaccine (OPV CHAT) materials: evidence of macaque nuclear sequences confirms substrate identity". Vaccine 23: 1639–1648. PubMed. 
  135. ^ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2004-03-23). Oral Polio Vaccine and HIV / AIDS: Questions and Answers. Retrieved on 2006-11-20.
  136. ^ Duesberg, P. H. (1988). "HIV is not the cause of AIDS". Science 241 (4865): 514, 517. PubMed. 
  137. ^ Papadopulos-Eleopulos, E., Turner, V. F., Papadimitriou, J., Page, B., Causer, D., Alfonso, H., Mhlongo, S., Miller, T., Maniotis, A. and Fiala, C. (2004). "A critique of the Montagnier evidence for the HIV/AIDS hypothesis". Med Hypotheses 63 (4): 597–601. PubMed. 
  138. ^ For evidence of the scientific consensus that HIV is the cause of AIDS, see (for example):
    • (2000) "The Durban Declaration". Nature 406 (6791): 15-6. DOI:10.1038/35017662. PMID 10894520.  - full text here.
    • Cohen, J. (1994). "The Controversy over HIV and AIDS". Science 266 (5191): 1642–1649. 
    • Various. Focus on the HIV-AIDS Connection: Resource links. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Retrieved on 2006-09-07.
    • O'Brien SJ, Goedert JJ (1996). "HIV causes AIDS: Koch's postulates fulfilled". Curr. Opin. Immunol. 8 (5): 613-8. PMID 8902385. 
    • Galéa P, Chermann JC (1998). "HIV as the cause of AIDS and associated diseases". Genetica 104 (2): 133-42. PMID 10220906. 
  139. ^ Watson J (2006). "Scientists, activists sue South Africa's AIDS 'denialists'". Nat. Med. 12 (1): 6. DOI:10.1038/nm0106-6a. PMID 16397537. 
  140. ^ Baleta A (2003). "S Africa's AIDS activists accuse government of murder". Lancet 361 (9363): 1105. PMID 12672319. 
  141. ^ Cohen J (2000). "South Africa's new enemy". Science 288 (5474): 2168-70. PMID 10896606. 
  142. ^ Blechner, M. (1997) Hope and Mortality: Psychodynamic Approaches to AIDS and HIV. Hillsdale, NJ: The Analytic Press.

The National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHSTP) is a part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and is responsible for public health surveillance, prevention research, and programs to prevent and control human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), other sexually transmitted diseases... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (or CDC) is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services based in Atlanta, Georgia. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Committed to ending the pandemic and human suffering caused by HIV, the San Francisco AIDS Foundation develops innovative solutions, combining scientific evidence with community experience to fight HIV/AIDS and promote health. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 14 is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 261 days remaining. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... UNAIDS, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, is a United Nations program designed to coordinate the worldwide response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ... 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Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Department of Health and Human Services, often abbreviated HHS, is a Cabinet department of the United States government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services. ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Department of Health and Human Services, often abbreviated HHS, is a Cabinet department of the United States government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services. ... is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Selenium (disambiguation). ... This article is about the nutrient. ... UNAIDS, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, is a United Nations program designed to coordinate the worldwide response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ‹ The template below is being considered for deletion. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... UNAIDS, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, is a United Nations program designed to coordinate the worldwide response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. ... The International Center for Research on Women (ICRW) was founded in 1976 and works with international organizations and world governments to promote gender equitable development. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Scientific consensus is the collective judgment, position, and opinion of the community of scientists in a particular field of science at a particular time. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) is a component of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Image File history File links AIDS.ogg This is a spoken word version of the article AIDS. (audio help) Duration: 48:09 Created by: Moulder Date recorded: 2006-06-12 Accent: U.S., California Sex: Male Refer to: List of spoken articles Wikiproject Spoken Wikipedia Permission is granted to copy... Image File history File links Sound-icon. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Sound-icon. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... The genome and proteins of HIV have been the subject of extensive research since the discovery of the virus in 1983. ... Randal Tobias, U.S. Global AIDS Coordinator, being publicly tested for HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia in an effort to reduce the stigma of being tested. ... This classification system is how the United States agency, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) classifies HIV disease and infection. ... Following infection with HIV-1, the rate of clinical disease progression varies between individuals. ... An HIV vaccine is a hypothetical vaccine against HIV, the etiological agent of AIDS. As there is no known cure for AIDS, the search for a vaccine has become part of the struggle against the disease. ... WHO Disease Staging System for HIV Infection and Disease are produced by the World Health Organisation. ... AIDS dementia complex (ADC; also known as HIV dementia, HIV encephalopathy and HIV-associated dementia) has become a common neurological disorder associated with HIV infection and AIDS. It is is a metabolic encephalopathy induced by HIV infection and fueled by immune activation of brain macrophages and microglia. ... “HAART” redirects here. ... Scanning electron micrograph of HIV-1 budding from cultured lymphocyte. ... Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has led to the deaths of more than 25 million people since it was first recognized in 1981, making it one of the most destructive epidemics in recorded history. ... A United States HIV/AIDS Memorial Museum, to be located in Newark, New Jersey, is being planned for opening in 2006. ... This is a timeline of AIDS, including some discussion of early AIDS cases (especially those before 1980). ... According to the oral polio vaccine (OPVA) AIDS hypothesis, the AIDS pandemic originated from live polio vaccines prepared in chimpanzee tissue cultures (at least some of which were almost certainly contaminated with chimpanzee SIV) which were administered to up to one million Africans between 1957 and 1960. ... The AIDS reappraisal movement or AIDS dissident movement, pejoratively referred to as AIDS denialism, is a loosely connected group of activists, journalists, scientists, and HIV-positive persons who dispute the scientific consensus that the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the cause of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). ... The Duesberg hypothesis is the claim, associated with Peter Duesberg, that various non-infectious factors such as recreational and pharmaceutical drug use are the cause of AIDS, and that HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is a harmless passenger virus. ... The International AIDS Society is the custodian of the International AIDS Conferences, the paramount gathering of all disciplines in HIV/AIDS now held every two years. ... The International AIDS Society (IAS) is the worlds professional society for scientists, health care and public health workers, and others engaged in HIV/AIDS prevention, control and care. ... The Red Ribbon is the global symbol for solidarity with HIV-positive people and those living with AIDS. World AIDS Day, observed December 1 each year, is dedicated to raising awareness of the global AIDS pandemic caused by the spread of HIV infection. ... The Treatment Action Campaign is a South African grassroots pressure group which was founded by Zackie Achmat, an HIV-positive activist who refused anti-retroviral treatment (ARVs) until they were universally available. ... The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS, or UNAIDS, is the main advocate for accelerated, comprehensive and coordinated global action on the HIV epidemic. ... Presidents Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief (Pepfar) is a USA government fund to aid Africa combat AIDS by injecting 15 billion American dollars over a 5 year period. ... The AIDS Quilt The AIDS Memorial Quilt is an enormous quilt made as a memorial to and celebration of the lives of people who have died of AIDS-related causes. ... The spread of HIV and AIDS has affected millions of people worldwide; According to the 2006 AIDS Epidemic Update, published by the UNAIDS/World Health Organization, there were an estimated 39. ... This is a categorized, alphabetical list of people who are known to have been infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the pathogen that causes AIDS, including those who have died. ... The People With AIDS (PWA) Self-Empowerment Movement was a movement of those diagnosed with AIDS and grew out of San Francisco. ... Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has led to the deaths of more than 25 million people since it was first recognized in 1981, making it one of the most destructive epidemics in recorded history. ... This article or section needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... HIV and AIDS in South Africa are a major health concern, and around 5. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... == [[ This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Brazilian AIDS program logo The first AIDS case was identified in Brazil in 1982. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... // History In the early 1980s, doctors in Los Angeles, New York City, and San Francisco began seeing young men with Kaposis Sarcoma, a cancer usually associated with elderly men of Mediterranean ethnicity. ... People living with HIV/AIDS by country The adult HIV prevalence at the end of 2004 This is a list of countries and territories by people living with HIV/AIDS and the prevalence rate among adults, based on data from various sources, such as the The CIA World Factbook [1... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... // A00-A79 - Bacterial infections, and other intestinal infectious diseases, and STDs (A00-A09) Intestinal infectious diseases (A00) Cholera (A01) Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers (A010) Typhoid fever (A02) Other Salmonella infections (A03) Shigellosis (A04) Other bacterial intestinal infections (A040) Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infection (A045) Campylobacter enteritis (A046) Enteritis due to Yersinia... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... This article is about the disease. ... Post-polio syndrome (PPS) is a condition that frequently affects survivors of poliomyelitis, a viral infection of the nervous system, after recovery from an initial paralytic attack of the virus. ... Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare chronic, progressive encephalitis that affects primarily children and young adults, caused by defective measles virus (which can be a result of a mutation of the virus itself). ... This article is about the viral disease. ... Encephalitis lethargica (EL) is an atypical form of encephalitis. ... Lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM), is a rodent-borne viral infectious disease that presents as aseptic meningitis, encephalitis or meningoencephalitis. ... Tick-borne meningoencephalitis or Tick-borne encephalitis is a tick-borne viral infection of the central nervous system affecting humans as well as most other mammals. ... Tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP) is an infection of the spinal cord by Human T-lymphotropic virus resulting in paraparesis or weakness of the legs. ... Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) are a group of illnesses that are caused by several distinct families of viruses: Arenavirus, Filoviridae, Bunyaviridae and Flavivirus. ... Dengue fever (IPA: ) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) are acute febrile diseases, found in the tropics, with a geographical spread similar to malaria. ... Chikungunya is a relatively rare form of viral fever caused by an alphavirus that is spread by mosquito bites from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, though recent research by the Pasteur Institute in Paris claims the virus has suffered a mutation that enables it to be transmitted by Aedes albopictus (Tiger mosquito). ... Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is a viral zoonosis (affects primarily domestic livestock, but can be passed to humans) causing fever. ... Species Junín virus Argentine hemorrhagic fever, known locally as mal de los rastrojos, is a hemorrhagic fever and zoonotic infectious disease occurring in Argentina. ... Species Machupo virus Bolivian hemorrhagic fever (BHF), also known as black typhus or Machupo virus, is a hemorrhagic fever and zoonotic infectious disease occurring in Bolivia. ... Lassa fever is an acute viral hemorrhagic fever first described in 1969 in the Nigerian town of Lassa in the Yedseram River valley. ... Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a widespread tick-borne viral disease, a zoonosis of domestic animals and wild animals, that may affect humans. ... Omsk hemorrhagic fever is a viral hemorrhagic fever caused by a Flavivirus. ... Kyasanur forest disease is a tick-borne viral hemorrhagic fever endemic to South Asia. ... The Marburg virus is the causative agent of Marburg hemorrhagic fever. ... For other uses, see Ebola (disambiguation). ... Beyond overall skin structure, refer below to: See-also. ... The mucous membranes (or mucosae; singular: mucosa) are linings of mostly endodermal origin, covered in epithelium, and are involved in absorption and secretion. ... Skin lesions caused by Chickenpox A lesion is any abnormal tissue found on or in an organism, usually damaged by disease or trauma. ... This article is about the disease. ... South Park episode, see Chickenpox (South Park episode). ... Herpes zoster, colloquially known as shingles, is the reactivation (from the general area of the spinal cord) of varicella zoster virus (VZV, primary infection of which leads to chickenpox), one of the Herpesviridae group, leading to a crop of painful blisters over the area of a dermatome. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a contagious disease unique to humans. ... Monkeypox is a disease caused by the Monkeypox virus. ... Rubella, commonly known as German measles, is a disease caused by the rubella virus. ... A plantar wart (verruca pedis, VP; also commonly called a verruca) is a wart caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV). ... Cowpox is a disease of the skin caused by a virus (Cowpox virus) that is related to the Vaccinia virus. ... Vaccinia virus (VACV or VV) is a large, complex enveloped virus belonging to the poxvirus family of viruses. ... Molluscum contagiosum (MC) is a viral infection of the skin or occasionally of the mucous membranes. ... species Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) Human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) Exanthem subitum (meaning sudden rash), also referred to as roseola infantum (or rose rash of infants), sixth disease and (confusingly) baby measles, or three day fever, is a benign disease of children, generally under two years old, whose manifestations... Fifth disease is also referred to as erythema infectiosum (meaning infectious redness) and as slapped cheek syndrome, slap face or slapped face. ... Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is caused by a number of enteroviruses in the family Picornaviridae. ... Not to be confused with hand, foot and mouth disease. ... Hepatitis (plural hepatitides) implies injury to liver characterised by presence of inflammatory cells in the liver tissue. ... Hepatitis A (formerly known as infectious hepatitis) is an acute infectious liver disease caused by the hepatovirus hepatitis A virus. ... Hepatitis B is an inflammation of the liver and is caused by the Hepatitis B virus (HBV), a member of the Hepadnavirus family[1] and one of hundreds of unrelated viral species which cause viral hepatitis. ... This page is for the disease. ... Hepatitis E is an acute viral hepatitis (liver inflammation) caused by infection with a virus called hepatitis E virus (HEV). ... The Respiratory System Among four-legged animals, the respiratory system generally includes tubes, such as the bronchi, used to carry air to the lungs, where gas exchange takes place. ... For the H5N1 subtype generating the concern see H5N1. ... Acute viral nasopharyngitis, often known as the common cold, is a viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory system (nose and throat). ... Influenza, commonly known as flu, is an infectious disease of birds and mammals caused by an RNA virus of the family Orthomyxoviridae (the influenza viruses). ... Severe acute respiratory syndrome or SARS is a respiratory disease in humans which is caused by the SARS coronavirus. ... Viral pneumonia is an inflammation of the lung caused by a virus. ... Species see text Cytomegalovirus (CMV) (from the Greek cyto-, cell, and -mega-, large) is a viral genus of the Herpesviruses group: in humans it is commonly known as human herpesvirus 5 (HHV-5). ... Bornholm disease or pleurodynia is a disease caused by the Coxsackie virus. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... AIDS dementia complex (ADC; also known as HIV dementia, HIV encephalopathy and HIV-associated dementia) has become a common neurological disorder associated with HIV infection and AIDS. It is is a metabolic encephalopathy induced by HIV infection and fueled by immune activation of brain macrophages and microglia. ... Genital warts (or Condyloma, Condylomata acuminata, or venereal warts) is a highly contagious sexually transmitted infection. ... A sexually transmitted infection (STI) is an illness caused by an infectious pathogen that has a significant probability of transmission between humans by means of sexual contact, including vaginal intercourse, oral sex, and anal sex. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Chancroid is a sexually transmitted disease characterized by painful sores on the genitalia. ... Binomial name Haemophilus ducreyi A chancroid is an STD characterized by painful sores on the genitalia. ... Chlamydia is a common term for infection with any bacterium belonging to the phylum Chlamydiae. ... Binomial name Chlamydia trachomatis Busacca, 1935 Chlamydia trachomatis is a species of the chlamydiae, a group of obligately intracellular bacteria. ... Granuloma inguinale or Donovanosis is a bacterial disease caused by the organism Calymmatobacterium granulomatis. ... Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV), also known as lymphopathia venerea, tropical bubo, climatic bubo, strumous bubo, poradenitis inguinales, Durand-Nicolas-Favre disease and lymphogranuloma inguinale, is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the invasive serovars L1, L2, or L3 of Chlamydia trachomatis. ... Binomial name Chlamydia trachomatis Busacca, 1935 Chlamydia trachomatis is a species of the chlamydiae, a group of obligately intracellular bacteria. ... Gonorrhea (gonorrhoea in British English) is amongst the most common sexually transmitted diseases in the world and is caused by Gram-negative bacterium Neisseria gonorrheae. ... Binomial name Neisseria gonorrhoeae Zopf, 1885 Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a species of Gram-negative bacteria responsible for the disease gonorrhoea. ... Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by Treponema pallidum. ... Binomial name Treponema pallidum Schaudinn & Hoffmann, 1905 Treponema pallidum is a gram-negative spirochaete bacterium and is considered to be metabolically crippled. ... Binomial name Ureaplasma urealyticum Shepard et al. ... Wikisource has an original article from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica about: Protozoa Protozoa (in Greek proto = first and zoa = animals) are single-celled eukaryotes (organisms whose cells have nuclei) that commonly show characteristics usually associated with animals, most notably mobility and heterotrophy. ... Trichomoniasis, sometimes referred to as trich, is a common sexually transmitted disease that affects 7. ... Binomial name Trichomonas vaginalis (Donné 1836) Trichomonas vaginalis, an anaerobic, parasitic flagellated protozoan, is the causative agent of trichomoniasis, and is the most common pathogenic protozoan infection of humans in industrialized countries. ... Low Temperature Scanning Electron Microscope (LTSEM) image of Varroa destructor on a honey bee host Mites parasitising a harvestman Parasitism is one version of symbiosis (living together), a phenomenon in which two organisms which are phylogenetically unrelated co-exist over a prolonged period of time, usually the lifetime of one... Binomial name Pthirus pubis (L., 1758, originally Pediculus pubis) Crab lice (singular, louse) commonly called crabs due to their resemblance to a crab, are one of three kinds of human lice in the large group of lice families, the others being head lice and body lice, which live in clothing. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... Cervical cancer is a malignant cancer of the cervix. ... Genital warts (or Condyloma, Condylomata acuminata, or venereal warts) is a highly contagious sexually transmitted infection. ... “HPV” redirects here. ... Hepatitis B is an inflammation of the liver and is caused by the Hepatitis B virus (HBV), a member of the Hepadnavirus family[1] and one of hundreds of unrelated viral species which cause viral hepatitis. ... This article is about the disease. ... Species Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) This article is about the virus. ... Molluscum contagiosum (MC) is a viral infection of the skin or occasionally of the mucous membranes. ... Inflammation of the tissues of the cervix is known as cervicitis. ... Epididymitis is a medical condition in which the epididymis becomes inflamed. ... Infertility primarily refers to the biological inability of a man or a woman to contribute to conception. ... Non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) is an inflammation of the urethra which is not caused by gonorrheal infection. ... Pelvic inflammatory disease (or disorder) (PID) is a generic term for infection of the female uterus, fallopian tubes, and/or ovaries as it progresses to scar formation with adhesions to nearby tissues and organs. ... In most systems of human pregnancy, the condition, premature birth (also known as a preterm birth), occurs when the baby is born within sooner than 36 weeks of completed gestation. ... Proctitis (Noun) Inflammation of the rectum. ... Prostatitis is any form of inflammation of the prostate gland. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Urethritis is an inflammation of the urethra. ...

External links

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ... UNAIDS, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, is a United Nations program designed to coordinate the worldwide response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ... FRONTLINE is a public affairs television program of varying length produced at WGBH in Boston, Massachusetts, and distributed through the Public Broadcasting Service network in the United States. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


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AIDS - home (397 words)
The AIDS Editors and the publisher are pleased to announce the open archive initiative for the journal.
AIDS operates a Fast Track procedure for priority papers, so you will see all the important work your colleagues are involved with in the shortest time possible.
The Editors, themselves noted international experts who know the demands of your work, are committed to making AIDS the most distinguished and innovative journal in the field.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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