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Encyclopedia > AES process

On January 2, 1997 the National Institute of Standards and Technology, or NIST, called for cryptographers to propose a new standard block cipher for United States Government use in non_classified but sensitive applications. (Knowledge of what is used for classified applications is itself classified.) The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) was intended to replace Triple DES, itself a interim fix for the aging Data Encryption Standard (DES). The primary motivation for a new standard was the fact that DES has a relatively small 56-bit key which was becoming vulnerable to brute force attacks. In addition the DES was designed primarily for hardware and is relatively slow when implemented in software. While Triple_DES avoids the problem of a small key size, it is very slow in software, and also unsuitable for limited-resource platforms.

Since the specification for the AES is not secret, it is expected that the cipher will also see much use in non-government applications, and outside the US. This was the case for its predecessors DES and Triple-DES.

The requirements for the new standard were quite tough. A block size of 128 bits was specified, and key sizes of 128, 192, and 256 bits had to be supported. The cipher had to be secure and speed was also considered important. It also had to be capable of running in extremely small embedded systems with limited amounts of RAM and ROM.

Fifteen different designs were submitted from several different countries. They were, in alphabetical order:

CAST-256, CRYPTON, DEAL, DFC, E2, FROG, HPC, LOKI97, MAGENTA, MARS, RC6, Rijndael, SAFER+, Serpent, and Twofish.

Some were found to be less secure than required, but for most no attacks of significance were found. A shortlist of five designs was selected for Round 2 of the selection process:

MARS, RC6, Rijndael, Serpent, and Twofish.

On October 2, 2000, NIST announced that Rijndael had been selected as the proposed AES, and underwent the process of being made the official standard. On November 26, 2001, NIST announced that AES was approved as FIPS PUB 197.

See also

Block ciphers edit  (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:Block_ciphers&action=edit)
Algorithms: 3-Way | AES | Akelarre | Blowfish | Camellia | CAST-128 | CAST-256 | CMEA | DEAL | DES | DES-X | FEAL | FROG | G-DES | GOST | ICE | Iraqi | KASUMI | KHAZAD | Khufu and Khafre | LOKI89/91 | LOKI97 | Lucifer | MacGuffin | Madryga | MAGENTA | MARS | MISTY1 | MMB | NewDES | RC2 | RC5 | RC6 | REDOC | Red Pike | S-1 | SAFER | SEED | Serpent | SHACAL | SHARK | Skipjack | Square | TEA | Triple DES | Twofish | XTEA
Design: Feistel network | Key schedule | Product cipher | S-box | SPN   Attacks: Brute force | Linear / Differential cryptanalysis | Mod n | XSL   Standardisation: AES process | CRYPTREC | NESSIE   Misc: Avalanche effect | Block size | IV | Key size | Modes of operation | Piling-up lemma | Weak key

  Results from FactBites:
Advanced Encryption Standard - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1720 words)
AES was adopted by National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) as US FIPS PUB 197 in November 2001 after a 5-year standardisation process (see Advanced Encryption Standard process for more details).
AES is fast in both software and hardware, is relatively easy to implement, and requires little memory.
AES operates on a 4×4 array of bytes, termed the state (versions of Rijndael with a larger block size have additional columns in the state).
Advanced Encryption Standard process - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (592 words)
The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), the block cipher ratified as a standard by National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), was chosen using a process markedly more open and transparent than its predecessor, the ageing Data Encryption Standard (DES).
This process won plaudits from the open cryptographic community, and helped to increase confidence in the security of the winning algorithm from those who were suspicious of backdoors in the predecessor, DES.
On November 26, 2001, NIST announced that AES was approved as FIPS PUB 197.
  More results at FactBites »



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