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Encyclopedia > A.J.P. Taylor
For others named John Taylor, see John Taylor.

Alan John Percivale Taylor (March 25, 1906September 7, 1990) was a renowned British historian of the 20th century. He was probably the best-known British historian of the century and was certainly one of the most controversial. Image File history File links AJPTaylor. ... John Taylor is a very common name in English-speaking countries. ... March 25 is the 84th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (85th in leap years). ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... September 7 is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years). ... This article is about the year. ... A historian is a person who studies history. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the...

Contents


Life and work

Early Life & Career

Taylor was born in Birkdale, near Southport, brought up in Lancashire, and educated at various Quaker schools and the Bootham School in York. As a student, he was by his headmasters to be a brilliant, but rebellious student. Initially interested in Archaeology, as a young man he was an amateur expert in the history and archaeology of churches in northern England. His interest in archaeology led in turn to a strong interest in History. In 1924, he went to Oxford to study modern history. His wealthy parents held strongly left-wing views, which he inherited. His parents were both pacifists who vocally opposed World War One, and sent their son to Quaker schools as a way of protesting against the war. Whilst historically a village in its own right, Birkdale has now been absorbed by Southport. ... Southport is a seaside town on the north-west coast of England, to the north of Liverpool and the south of Preston. ... Lancashire is a county and duchy palatine in the North of England, bounded to the west by the Irish Sea. ... The Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as Quakers, or Friends, is a religious community founded in England in the 17th century. ... Bootham School is an independent boarding school in the city of York, England, founded by Quakers in 1823. ... York is a city in northern England, at the confluence of the Rivers Ouse and Foss. ... Archaeology, archeology, or archæology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech/discourse) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains and environmental data, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location (dark green) within the United Kingdom (light green), with the Republic of Ireland (blue) to its west Languages English Capital London Largest city London Area – Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population – Total (mid... For other senses of this word, see history (disambiguation). ... 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Oxford is a city and local government district in Oxfordshire, England, with a population of 134,248 (2001 census). ... In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms which refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially in the American sense of the word), or with opposition... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ...


In the 1920s, Taylor's mother was a member of the Comintern and one of his uncles a founding member of the British Communist Party. Taylor's mother Constance Taylor was a suffragette, feminist, and advocate of free love who practiced her teachings via a string of extra-marital affairs, most notably with an Communist named Henry Sara, who in many ways became Taylor’s surrogate father. In his youth, Taylor himself was a member of the British Communist Party from 1924 to 1926. He broke with the Communist Party over what he considered to be the Party's ineffective stand during the 1926 General Strike. After leaving the Communists, he was an ardent Labour Party supporter for the rest of his life. Despite his break with the Communists, he visited the Soviet Union in 1925 and again in 1934, and was much impressed on both visits. For a time in the 1930s, he and his wife shared a home with the writer Malcolm Muggeridge and his wife. During this period, Muggeridge and Taylor began a life-long disagreement over the Soviet Union, through this dispute did not seriously affect their friendship. The Comintern (from Russian Коммунистический Интернационал (Kommunisticheskiy Internatsional) – Communist International), also known as the Third International, was an independent international Communist organization founded in March 1919 by Vladmir Lenin, Leon Trotsky and the Russian Communist Party (bolshevik), which intended to fight by all available means, including armed force, for the overthrow of... Suffragette with banner, Washington DC, 1918 however. ... Feminism is a diverse collection of social theories, political movements, and moral philosophies, largely motivated by or concerning the experiences of women. ... The term free love was coined in the mid-nineteenth century to describe a social movement that rejected state and church interference in personal relationships. ... The Communist Party of Great Britain (CPGB) was the largest communist party in the United Kingdom. ... 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Subsidised Mineowner - Poor Beggar! from the Trade Union Unity Magazine (1925) Foraging for coal in the strike Tyldesley miners outside the Miners Hall during the strike The UK General Strike of 1926 lasted nine days, from 3 May 1926 to 12 May 1926, and was called by the General... The Labour Party has since its formation in the early 20th century been the principal left wing political party in the United Kingdom (see British politics). ... 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Malcolm Muggeridge (March 24, 1903–November 14, 1990) was a British journalist, author, media personality, soldier, spy and Christian scholar. ...


Taylor graduated from Oriel College, Oxford in 1927. After working briefly as a legal clerk, he began his post-graduate work, going to Vienna to study the impact of the Chartist movement on the Revolution of 1848 in Vienna. When his topic turned out to be unfeasible, he switched to studying the question of Italian unification over a two-year period, which resulted in his first book, The Italian Problem in European Diplomacy, 1847–49 in 1934. His main mentors in this period were the Austrian-born historian Alfred Francis Pribram and the Polish-born historian Sir Lewis Bernstein Namier. The opposing influences of Pribram and Namier can be seen in Taylor's writings on Austria-Hungary until the publication of his 1941 book The Habsburg Monarchy 1809–1918, which was published in a revised edition in 1948. Taylor's earlier writings reflected Pribram's favourable opinion of the Habsburgs; his later writings show the influence of Namier's unfavourable views about the Habsburgs. In The Habsburg Monarchy, Taylor stated that the Habsburgs saw their realms entirely as a tool for foreign policy and thus could never build a genuine nation-state. In order to hold their realm together, the Habsburgs resorted to playing one ethnic group off against another, and promoted German and Magyar hegemony over the other ethnic groups in Austria-Hungary. College name Oriel College Named after Blessed Virgin Mary Established 1324 Sister College Clare College, Cambridge Trinity College, Dublin Provost Sir Derek Morris JCR President Frank Hardee Undergraduates 304 Graduates 158 Homepage Boatclub Oriel College (in full: The House of Blessed Mary the Virgin in Oxford commonly called Oriel College... 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Vienna (German: Wien ; Bosnian, Croatian, and Serbian: Beč, Czech: Vídeň, Hungarian: Bécs, Romanian: Viena, Romani: Bech or Vidnya, Russian: Вена, Slovak: Viedeň, Slovenian: Dunaj) is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ... A movement for social and political reform in the United Kingdom during the mid_19th century, Chartism gains its name from the Peoples Charter of 1838, which set out the main aims of the movement. ... —Alexis de Tocqueville, Recollections The European Revolutions of 1848, in some countries known as the Spring of Nations, were the bloody consequences of a variety of changes that had been taking place in Europe in the first half of the 19th century. ... Vienna (German: Wien ; Bosnian, Croatian, and Serbian: Beč, Czech: Vídeň, Hungarian: Bécs, Romanian: Viena, Romani: Bech or Vidnya, Russian: Вена, Slovak: Viedeň, Slovenian: Dunaj) is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ... 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Lewis Bernstein Namier (June 27, 1888 – August 19, 1960) was a significant British historian. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film) 1941 (MCMXLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1941 calendar). ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... Magyar may refer to: The Magyar language The Magyar people This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ...


Taylor went on to lecture in history at Manchester University before becoming a Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford in 1938, a post he held until 1964. After 1964, when Oxford refused to renew his term, he was a lecturer at the Institute of Historical Research in London, University College London, and the Polytechnic College of North London. At Oxford he was an extraordinarily popular professor, who had to give his lectures at 8:30 a.m. in order to prevent over-crowding in his lecture room. The University of Manchester in Manchester, England, was formed by the merger of the Victoria University of Manchester (commonly known as the University of Manchester before the merger) and UMIST (University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology) on 1 October 2004. ... College name Magdalen College Named after Mary Magdalene Established 1458 Sister College Magdalene College President Professor David Clary FRS JCR President Iain Anstess Undergraduates 395 Graduates 230 Homepage Boatclub Magdalen College (pronounced ) is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom. ... 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ... The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford, England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... London is the capital city of the United Kingdom and of England and is the most populous city in the European Union. ... University College London, commonly known as UCL, is one of the colleges that make up the University of London. ... Oxford is a city and local government district in Oxfordshire, England, with a population of 134,248 (2001 census). ...


In the early 1930s, Taylor was active in a left-wing pacifist group called the Manchester Peace Council, for which he frequently spoke in public for. Until 1936 he was an opponent of British rearmament, as he felt that a re-armed Britain would ally itself with Germany against the Soviet Union. After 1936 he fervently criticized appeasement, a stance he would disavow in 1961. Also after 1936 he resigned from the Manchester Peace Council, urged British rearmament in face of what Taylor considered to be the Nazi menace, and advocated an Anglo-Soviet alliance to contain Germany. In 1938 he denounced the Munich Agreement at several rallies, and may have written several leaders in the Manchester Guardian criticizing the Munich Agreement; later he would compare the relatively smaller number of Czechoslovak dead with the number of Polish dead. In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms which refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially in the American sense of the word), or with opposition... Pacifism is the opposition to war or violence as a means of settling disputes. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Appeasement is a strategic maneuver, based on either pragmatism, fear of war, or moral conviction, that leads to the known acceptance of imposed conditions in lieu of armed resistance. ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ... 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Chamberlain holds the paper containing the resolution to commit to peaceful methods signed by both Hitler and himself on his return from Germany in September 1938. ...


In October 1938, Taylor attracted much controversy by a speech he gave at an annual dinner held every October to commemorate a protest by a group of Oxford dons against James II in 1688, an event that was important prelude to the Glorious Revolution. In his speech, he denounced the Munich Agreement and those who supported it, and warned the assembled dons that if action was not taken immediately to resist Nazi Germany, then they might all soon living under the rule of a much greater tyrant then James II. Taylor’s speech was highly contentious in part because in October 1938 the Munich Agreement was popular with public at the time, though subsequently it was to be reviled, along with the entire policy of appeasement. Further controversy arose because he used an occasion when it was normal to deliver non-partisan and non-political historical speeches to make a highly partisan, politically charged attack on current government policies. James II of England and VII of Scotland (14 October 1633–16 September 1701) became King of England, King of Scots, and King of Ireland on 6 February 1685. ... // Events A high-powered conspiracy of notables, the Immortal Seven, invite William and Mary to depose James II of England. ... The term Glorious Revolution refers to the Whig-popular overthrow of James II of England in 1688 by a conspiracy between some Parliamentarians and the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau. ... Chamberlain holds the paper containing the resolution to commit to peaceful methods signed by both Hitler and himself on his return from Germany in September 1938. ... Appeasement is a strategic maneuver, based on either pragmatism, fear of war, or moral conviction, that leads to the known acceptance of imposed conditions in lieu of armed resistance. ...


World War Two and Cold War

During World War Two, Taylor served in the Home Guard, and befriended émigré statesmen from Eastern Europe, such as the former Hungarian President Count Mihály Károlyi and the Czechoslovak President Dr. Edvard Beneš; these friendships helped to enhance his understanding of the region. His friendship with Beneš and Károlyi may help explain his friendly portrayal of these two leaders, in particular Károlyi, whom Taylor portrayed as a saintly figure. Taylor was later to claim proudly that he advised Beneš to embark upon the expulsion of the entire German population of Czechoslovakia after the war. During the same period, Taylor was employed by the Political Warfare Executive as an expert on Central Europe and frequently spoke on the radio and at various public meetings. During the war, Taylor lobbied for British recognition of Josip Broz Tito‘s Partisans as the legitimate government of Yugoslavia. World War Two further increased Taylor’s pro-Soviet feelings as he was always profoundly grateful for the Red Army's role in destroying Nazi Germany. After 1941, Taylor was much overjoyed to have the Soviet Union as Britain's ally as this was the realisation of his long-sought dream of an Anglo-Soviet alliance. After 1945, he was very disappointed to see Britain choose the United States, not the Soviet Union, as its major ally. Moreover, Taylor was enraged by the decision of the Western powers, which he blamed on the U.S., to re-build and establish the West German state in the late 1940s, which Taylor saw as laying the foundations for a Fourth Reich that one day plunge the world back into war. Combatants Allies: Poland, British Commonwealth, France/Free France, Soviet Union, United States, China, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, and others Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4 million Total dead: 12 million World War II... A Home Guard is a part-time civilian reserve military force similar to a militia. ... Current division of Europe into five (or more) regions: one definition of Eastern Europe is marked in orange Eastern Europe as a region has several alternative definitions, whereby it can denote: the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Central Europe and Russia. ... Count Mihály Adam Georg Nikolaus Károlyi von Nagykárolyi (March 4, 1875-March 20, 1955) was briefly Hungarys leader in 1918-19 during an ill-fated spell of democracy. ... Czechoslovakia (Czech: ÄŒeskoslovensko, Slovak: ÄŒesko-Slovensko/before 1990 ÄŒeskoslovensko) was a country in Central Europe that existed from 1918 until early 1993 (with government-in-exile during the World War II period). ... Edvard BeneÅ¡ Edvard BeneÅ¡ with wife 1921, autochrome portrait by Josef JindÅ™ich Å echtl Edvard BeneÅ¡ (May 28, 1884 - September 3, 1948) was a leader of the Czechoslovak independence movement and the second President of Czechoslovakia. ... Expulsion of Germans from the Sudetenland // The expulsion of Germans after World War II was the mass deportation of people considered Germans (both Reichsdeutsche and Volksdeutsche) from Soviet-occupied areas outside the Soviet occupation zone of Germany, and is a major part of the German exodus from Eastern Europe after... During World War II, the Political Warfare Executive (PWE) was a British clandestine body created to produce and disseminate both white and black propaganda, with the aim of damaging enemy morale. ... Regions of Europe Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Portrait of Tito by Paja Jovanović Tito redirects here. ... The Rebellion The Yugoslav Partisans were the main resistance movement engaged in the fight against the Axis forces in the Balkans during World War II. // Origins The Yugoslav Partisans went under the official name of Peoples Liberation Army and Partisan Detachments of Yugoslavia (Slovene:Narodnoosvobodilna vojska in partizanski odredi... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in all south Slavic languages, Југославија in Serbian and Macedonian Cyrillic) is a term used for three separate but successive political entities that existed during most of the 20th century on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe. ... German soldiers at the Battle of Stalingrad World War II was the most extensive and costly armed conflict in the history of the world, involving the great majority of the worlds nations, being fought simultaneously in several major theatres, and costing tens of millions of lives. ... The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (in Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya), the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... West Germany was the informal but almost universally used name for the Federal Republic of Germany from 1949 until 1990, during which years the Federal Republic did not yet include East Germany. ... // Events and trends World War II was a truly global conflict with many facets: immense human suffering, fierce indoctrination, and the use of new, extremely devastating weapons such as the atomic bomb. ... Fourth Reich is used by neo-Nazi and Nazi mystic groups who believe or hope that a Fourth Reich, a resurrection of the Third Reich will one day be established. ...


Throughout his life, Taylor was basically sympathetic to the Soviets. Likewise, he was bitterly anti-American, blaming the United States for the Cold War, to which he was opposed. In the 1950s and 1960s, he was one of the leading lights of the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament. Through he preferred that the United Kingdom be neutral in the Cold War, he felt that if Britain should have to align itself with a major power, the best partners were the Soviets rather than the Americans, who in Taylor's opinion were carrying out criminally reckless policies that unacceptably increased the risk of World War Three. Despite his pro-Soviet feelings, Taylor was not entirely blind to the crimes of the Soviet regime. In 1948 he attended and did his best to sabotage a Stalinist cultural congress in Wrocław, Poland. Taylor's speech, which was broadcast live on Polish radio and via speakers on the streets of Wrocław, about the right of everyone to hold different views from those who hold power, was enthusiastically received by the delegates and was met with thunderous applause. The speech was clearly intended as a rebuttal of a speech given by the Soviet writer Alexander Fadeyev the previous day, who had demanded absolute and total obedience on the part of everyone to Joseph Stalin. However, despite this act of dissent, Taylor always felt that the United States was the principal threat to world peace and that the Americans were guilty of far worse acts than the Soviets. For this reason, Taylor never visited the United States, despite receiving many invitations. Cover of Anti-Americanism by French author Jean-François Revel. ... The Cold War was the protracted geopolitical, ideological, and economic struggle that emerged after World War II between the global superpowers of the Soviet Union and the United States, supported by their alliance partners. ... The 1950s were a decade that spanned the years 1950 through 1959, although some sources say from 1951 through 1960. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969, inclusive. ... Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament logo In British politics, the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament has been at the forefront of the peace movement in the United Kingdom and claims to be Europes largest single-issue peace campaign. ... This article is about a hypothetical global nuclear war. ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... Stalinism is a brand of political theory, and the political and economic system named after Josef Stalin, who implemented it in the Soviet Union. ... WrocÅ‚aw, (Polish pronunciation: (?), Czech: , German: ( (help· info)), Latin: Wratislavia or Vratislavia) is the capital of Lower Silesia in southwestern Poland, situated on the Oder River (Odra). ... Alexander Alexandrovich Fadeyev (Russian: Алекса́ндр Александрович Фадеев; December 24, 1901 – May 13, Russian writer. ... (Russian: Ио́сиф Виссарио́нович Ста́лин, Iosif Vissarionovič Stalin; December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953) was the leader of the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s to his death in 1953 and General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1922-1953), a position... Dissent is a sentiment or philosophy of non-agreement or opposition to an idea (eg. ... Soviet redirects here. ...


Taylor's speciality was Central European, British and diplomatic history, especially the Habsburg dynasty and Bismarck. He held fierce Germanophobic views. In 1944, he was temporarily banned from the BBC following complaints about a series of lectures he gave on air in which he gave full vent to his anti-German feelings. In his 1945 book, The Course of German History, he argued that National Socialism was the inevitable product of the entire history of the Germans going back to the days of the Germanic tribes. He was an early champion of what has since been called the Sonderweg (Special Way) interpretation of German history, that German culture and society developed over the centuries in such a way as to make Nazi Germany a preordained conclusion. Moreover, he argued that there was an a symbiotic relationship between Hitler and the German people, with Adolf Hitler needing the Germans to fulfill his dreams of conquest and likewise the German people needing Hitler to fulfill their dreams of subjection of their neighbors. In particular, he accused the Germans of waging an endless Drang nach Osten against their hapless Slavic neighbours since the days of Charlemagne. For Taylor, Nazi racial imperialism was only a continuation of policies pursued by every German ruler. The Course of German History was a bestseller in both the United Kingdom and the United States; it was the success of this book that made Taylor's reputation in the United States. Its success also marked the beginning of the breach between Taylor and his mentor Namier, who wanted to write a similar book himself. By the 1950s, relations between Taylor and Namier had notably cooled and in his 1983 autobiography, A Personal History Taylor, through acknowledging a huge intellectual debt to Namier, portrayed him as a pompous bore. Sometimes referred to as Rankian History, diplomatic history focuses on politics, politicians and other high rulers and views them as being the driving force of continuity and change in history. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... For alternative meanings: See Bismarck (disambiguation). ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1944 calendar). ... The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... National Socialism redirects here. ... The term Germanic tribes (or Teutonic tribes) applies to the ancient Germanic peoples of Europe. ... Sonderweg, (literally: sonder= special, weg= path) is a theory in historiography that considers the German-speaking lands, or the country Germany, to have followed its own, unique course through its evolution and history, separate from other European countries: therefore, a route of development which is special or an alternative. In... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945) was Chancellor of Germany from 1933 and Führer (Leader) of Germany from 1934 until his death. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Slav, Slavic or Slavonic can refer to: Slavic peoples Slavic languages Slavic mythology Church Slavonic language Old Church Slavonic language Slav, a former Jewish settlement in the Gaza Strip. ... Charlemagne (742 or 747 – 28 January 814) (also Charles the Great[1]; from Latin, Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus), son of King Pippin the Short and Bertrada of Laon, was the king of the Franks from 768 to 814 and king of the Lombards from 774 to 814. ... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... An Autobiography is an account of a persons life written by that person For music albums named Autobiography, see Autobiography (album) An autobiography (from the Greek auton, self, bios, life and graphein, write) is a biography written by the subject or composed conjointly with a collaborative writer (styled as...


Public Intellectual

Taylor was a prolific writer, who wrote dozens of books and hundreds upon hundreds of articles and book reviews. Starting in 1931, he worked as book reviewer for the Manchester Guardian, and from 1957 onwards, Taylor served as a columnist with the Observer newspaper. Starting in 1963 until the death of friend and patron Lord Beaverbrook in 1965, Taylor also served as a columnist with the Daily Express. Taylor's first column for the Daily Express was "Why must we soap-sop the Germans?" in which Taylor complained that the majority of Germans were still Nazis at heart, and argued the European Economic Community was little then an attempt by the Germans to achieve via trade what they failed to accomplish through arms in World War One and World War Two. 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link is to a full 1931 calendar). ... The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ... William Maxwell Max Aitken, 1st Baron Beaverbrook, PC (May 25, 1879 – June 9, 1964) was a Canadian – British business tycoon and politician. ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... The Daily Express is a conservative, middle-market British tabloid newspaper. ... The European Community (EC), most important of three European Communities, was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... German soldiers at the Battle of Stalingrad World War II was the most extensive and costly armed conflict in the history of the world, involving the great majority of the worlds nations, being fought simultaneously in several major theatres, and costing tens of millions of lives. ...


From these writings, he helped to popularise the term the Establishment to describe Britain's elite. Some have credited Taylor with coining the phrase "the Establishment" in a 1953 book review, but this is disputed. On August 29, 1953, in reviewing a biography of William Cobbett in the New Statesman, Taylor wrote "The Establishment draws in recruits from outside as soon as they are ready to conform to its standards and become respectable. There is nothing more agreeable in life than to make peace with the Establishment-and nothing more corrupting". Taylor often took stands on the great issues of his time. As a Little Englander, he was opposed to the British Empire and against Britain's participation in the European Economic Community and NATO, and he demanded British withdrawal from Northern Ireland. He argued in a 1976 speech in Dublin that it would be best for Britain if London would agree to letting the IRA, whom he regarded as freedom-fighters, expel the entire Protestant Unionist population of Northern Ireland in the same manner that the Czechoslovak government had expelled the ethnic Germans of the Sudetenland after World War Two. The Establishment is a pejorative slang term to refer to the traditional and usually conservative ruling class elite and the structures of society which they control. ... 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link is to a full 1953 calendar). ... August 29 is the 241st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (242nd in leap years), with 124 days remaining. ... 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link is to a full 1953 calendar). ... William Cobbett (March 9, 1763–June 18, 1835) was a radical agriculturist and prolific journalist. ... The New Statesman is a left-of-centre political weekly published in London. ... Little Englander is a term dating from the time of the Second Boer War (1899–1901). ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... The European Community (EC), most important of three European Communities, was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, the Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for collective security established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, DC, on 4 April 1949. ... Dieu et mon droit (motto) (French for God and my right)2 Northern Irelands location within the UK Main language English Other recognised languages Irish, Ulster Scots Capital and largest city Belfast First Minister Office suspended Secretary of State for Northern Ireland Peter Hain MP Area  - Total Ranked 4th... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1976 calendar). ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 53. ... London is the capital city of the United Kingdom and of England and is the most populous city in the European Union. ... The Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA; more commonly referred to as the IRA, the Provos, or by some of its supporters as the army or the RA) is an Irish Republican paramilitary organisation dedicated to the end of British rule in Northern Ireland and to a United Ireland. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... In the Irish context, Unionists form a group of largely (though not exclusively) Protestant people in Ireland, of all social classes, who wish to see the continuation of the Act of Union, as amended by the Government of Ireland Act 1920, under which the Northern Ireland provincial state created in... Dieu et mon droit (motto) (French for God and my right)2 Northern Irelands location within the UK Main language English Other recognised languages Irish, Ulster Scots Capital and largest city Belfast First Minister Office suspended Secretary of State for Northern Ireland Peter Hain MP Area  - Total Ranked 4th... Czechoslovakia (Czech: ÄŒeskoslovensko, Slovak: ÄŒesko-Slovensko/before 1990 ÄŒeskoslovensko) was a country in Central Europe that existed from 1918 until early 1993 (with government-in-exile during the World War II period). ... Parts of Czech lands with significant German speaking population (first half of 20th century) Sudetenland (German: Sudetenland; Czech: Sudety) was the name used from 1938–45 for the region inhabited mostly by Sudeten Germans (German: Sudetendeutsche, Czech: SudetÅ¡tí NÄ›mci) in the various places of Bohemia, Moravia, and parts... Combatants Allies: Poland, British Commonwealth, France/Free France, Soviet Union, United States, China, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, and others Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4 million Total dead: 12 million World War II...


Earlier in the 1950s-1960s, Taylor became a good friend of and wrote the biography of the Conservative Lord Beaverbrook who strongly believed in the British Empire and whose entry into politics was in support of Andrew Bonar Law, a Conservative leader strongly connected with the establishment of Northern Ireland. Despite his disdain for most politicians in his writings, Taylor was fascinated by politics and politicians and often cultivated relations with those who possessed power. Beside Lord Beaverbrook, whose company Taylor very much enjoyed, his favorite politician was the Labor Party leader Michael Foot, whom he often described as the greatest Prime Minister Britain never had. Sir Thomas Malory wrote the most famous fictional biography of the Middle Ages with Le Morte dArthur about the life of King Arthur. ... The Conservative Party is one of the two largest political parties in the United Kingdom and the most successful party in political history based on election victories. ... William Maxwell Max Aitken, 1st Baron Beaverbrook, PC (May 25, 1879 – June 9, 1964) was a Canadian – British business tycoon and politician. ... The Right Honourable Andrew Bonar Law (September 16, 1858–October 30, 1923) was a Conservative British statesman and Prime Minister. ... The Labour Party has since its formation in the early 20th century been the principal left wing political party in the United Kingdom (see British politics). ... The Right Honourable Michael Mackintosh Foot (born 23 July 1913), British politician, was leader of the Labour Party from 1980 to 1983. ...


In international affairs, Taylor was opposed to the existence of West Germany, which he saw as a dangerous neo-Nazi state; he demonstrated against the Suez War of 1956, though not the Soviet crushing of the 1956 Hungarian Revolution, which he believed had saved Hungary from a return to the rule of Admiral Miklós Horthy; he championed Israel, which he saw as a model socialist democracy threatened by reactionary Arab dictatorships; and he condemned the Korean War and Vietnam War. In 1950, he was again temporarily banned by the BBC when he attempted to deliver a radio address against British participation in the Korean War. After a public outcry, the BBC relented and allowed him to deliver his address. The terms Neo-Nazism and Neo-Fascism refer to any social or political movement to revive Nazism or Fascism, respectively, and postdates the Second World War. ... The Suez Crisis, also known as the Suez War, Suez Campaign or Kadesh Operation was a war fought on Egyptian territory in 1956. ... 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Soviet Union AVH Hungarian government, various nationalist militias Commanders Yuri Andropov Pál Maléter, Gergely Pongrátz, József Dudás Strength 150,000 troops, 6,000 tanks 100,000+ demonstrators (some later armed), unknown number of soldiers Casualties 7,000 KIA 25,000 - 50,000 KIA, 1... Miklós Horthy in 1921 Miklós Horthy de Nagybánya, Duke of Szeged and Otranto (Hungarian: Vitéz Nagybányai Horthy Miklós; Kenderes, June 18, 1868 – Estoril, February 9, 1957) was a Hungarian Admiral and statesman and served as the Regent of Hungary from March 1, 1920 until... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب ) are a large and heterogeneous ethnic group found throughout the Middle East and North Africa. ... Combatants Western Allied/UN combatants: South Korea, United States Communist combatants: North Korea, Peoples Republic of China, Soviet Union Strength Note: All figures may vary according to source. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam) United States of America South Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand the Philippines Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) National Liberation Front (Viet Cong) Strength ~1,200,000 (1968) ~420,000 (1968) Casualties South Vietnamese dead: 230,000 South Vietnamese wounded: 300,000 US dead... 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world. ...


Taylor was fearless in championing unpopular people and causes. In 1980, he resigned from the British Academy to protest against the expulsion of the art historian and Soviet spy Anthony Blunt, which Taylor saw as an act of McCarthyism. Closer to his work as a historian, Taylor championed less government secrecy and more open access to government archives, and, perhaps ironically for a staunch leftist, fought for more privately-owned television stations. His experiences with being banned by the BBC had led him to appreciate the value of having multiple broadcasters rather than having just one broadcaster that could easily silence those it disapproved of by banning them. 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... The British Academy is the United Kingdoms national academy for the humanities and the social sciences. ... Anthony Frederick Blunt (26 September 1907 – 26 March 1983) was an English art historian and the Fourth Man of the Cambridge Five, a group of spies working for the Soviet Union during the Cold War. ... Sen. ...


In regard to the government archives, Taylor's lobbying campaign was partly successful as he was able to persuade the British government to replace the 100-year rule, which sealed government papers for a century, with a 30-year rule. Taylor had wanted a 20-year rule, but was still well satisfied with the 30-year rule as a vast improvement over the 100-year rule.


Philosophy Of History

Further information: Philosophy of history

Taylor’s approach to history was a populist one. He felt that history should be accessible to all and was fond of the “People’s Historian” and the “Everyman’s Historian” monikers applied to him. He usually favoured an anti-Great man theory of history being made for the most part by towering figures of stupidity, rather than being dominated by towering figures of genius. He specialized in narratives suffused with irony and humour that were meant to entertain as much as inform. He was fond of examining history from odd angles and exposing what he considered to be the pomposities of various historical characters. In particular, he was famed for “Taylorisms”: witty, epigrammatic, and sometimes cryptic remarks that were meant to expose what he considered to be the absurdities and paradoxes of modern international relations. An example is contained in his television piece 'Mussolini' (1970), in which he said the dictator "kept up with his work - by doing none." His determination to bring history to everyone helps explain his frequent appearances first on radio and later on television. The philosophy of history asks at least these questions: what is the proper unit for the study of the human past? the individual, the city or sovereign territory, the civilization, or nothing less than the whole of the species?; what broad patterns can we discern through the study of the... Populism is a political philosophy or rhetorical style that holds that the common persons interests are oppressed or hindered by the elite in society, and that the instruments of the state need to be grasped from this self-serving elite and used for the benefit and advancement of the... The Great man theory is a theory held by some that aims to explains history by the impact of Great men, ie: highly influential individuals, either from personal charisma, genius intellects, or great political impact. ... Irony is best known as a figure of speech (more precisely called verbal irony) in which there is a gap or incongruity between what a speaker or a writer says, and what is understood. ... Look up Humour in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... International Relations (IR), a branch of political science, is the study of foreign affairs of and relations among states within the international system, including the roles of states, inter-governmental organizations (IGOs), non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and multinational corporations (MNCs). ...


He was one of the first television historians. His television appearances began with his role as a panelist on the BBC show In The News between 1950 and 1954. During his time on In The News, he was noted for his argumentative style, and in one episode he declined to acknowledge the presence of the other panelists. The press came to refer to him as the “sulky don” and in 1954 he was fired from In The News. Starting in 1955, Taylor served as a panelist for ITV’s rival discussion program Free Speech, where he remained until the series was cancelled in 1961. In 1957, 1957-1958 and 1961 he starred in a number of half-hour programmes on ITV in which he lectured for without notes and with perfect delivery on a variety of topics, such as the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the First World War. These shows were a huge ratings successes, and made him much in demand with television producers. Despite earlier strong feelings against the BBC, he lectured for an BBC historical series in 1961 and hosted more series for it in 1963, 1976, 1977 and 1978. He also hosted additional series for ITV in 1964, 1966, and 1967. In Edge of Britain in 1980 he toured the towns of northern England. Taylor's final TV appearance was in the disastrous series How Wars End in 1985, where the effects of Parkinson's Disease on him were all too apparent. The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world. ... 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... ITVs Logo 2006—present Independent Television (ITV) is the name given to the original network of British commercial television broadcasters, set up to provide competition to the BBC. In England and Wales, the channel has been rebranded to ITV1 by ITV plc, the owners of the broadcasting licences for... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ... 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ... ITVs Logo 2006—present Independent Television (ITV) is the name given to the original network of British commercial television broadcasters, set up to provide competition to the BBC. In England and Wales, the channel has been rebranded to ITV1 by ITV plc, the owners of the broadcasting licences for... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political events in Russia, which, after the elimination of the Russian autocracy system, and the Provisional Government (Duma), resulted in the establishment of the Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world. ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1976 calendar). ... For the album by Ash, see 1977 (album). ... 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1978 calendar). ... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ... 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1966 calendar). ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location (dark green) within the United Kingdom (light green), with the Republic of Ireland (blue) to its west Languages English Capital London Largest city London Area – Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population – Total (mid... This article is about the year. ...


Taylor had a famous rivalry with the right-wing historian Hugh Trevor-Roper, with whom he often debated on television. One of the more famous exchanges took place in 1961. Trevor-Roper said “I’m afraid that your book [The Origins of the Second World War] may damage your reputation as a historian”, to which Taylor replied “Your criticism of me would damage your reputation as a historian, if you had one”. Hugh Redwald Trevor-Roper, Baron Dacre of Glanton (January 15, 1914 - January 26, 2003) was a notable historian of early modern Britain and Nazi Germany. ...


The origins of the dispute went back to 1957 when the Regius Professorship for History at Oxford became open. Despite their divergent political philosophies, Taylor and Trevor-Roper had been friends since the early 1950s, but with the possibility of the Regius Professorship both men lobbied hard for the prestigious position. The Conservative Prime Minister, Harold Macmillan, awarded the chair to the Tory Trevor-Roper rather than the Labourite Taylor. In addition, a number of the other Oxford dons had felt that Taylor's wide profile in journalism was “demeaning” to the historian’s craft and lobbied behind the scenes against Taylor. 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Oxford is a city and local government district in Oxfordshire, England, with a population of 134,248 (2001 census). ... The Right Honourable Maurice Harold Macmillan, 1st Earl of Stockton, OM, PC (10 February 1894–29 December 1986), nicknamed Supermac and Mac the Knife, was a British Conservative politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1957 to 1963. ... Journalism is a discipline of collecting, analyzing, verifying, and presenting information gathered regarding current events, including trends, issues and people. ...


In public, Taylor declared that he would have never accepted any honour from a government that had “the blood of Suez on its hands”. In private, he was intensely disappointed and furious with Trevor-Roper for holding an honour that Taylor considered rightfully his. Adding to Taylor's rancor was the fact that he had arrived at Oxford a decade before Trevor-Roper. From that time on, Taylor never missed a chance to disparage Trevor-Roper’s character or scholarship. The famously combative and feisty Trevor-Roper in his turn reciprocated these feelings in full. The feud was given much publicity by the media, not so much because of intrinsic merits of their disputes but rather because their acrimonious debates on television made for entertaining viewing. Likewise, the various articles written by Taylor and Trevor-Roper denouncing each other’s scholarship, in which both men’s considerable powers of invective were employed with maximum effect, made for entertaining reading. Beyond that, it was fashionable to portray the dispute between Taylor and Trevor-Roper as a battle between generations. Taylor, who was in fact nearly a decade older than Trevor-Roper, was with his populist, irreverent style represented by the media as a symbol of the younger generation that was coming of age in the 1950s-1960s. Trevor-Roper, who was unabashedly old-fashioned (he was one of the last Oxford dons to lecture while wearing his professor’s robes) and inclined to behave in a manner that the media portrayed as pompous and conceited, was seen as a symbol of the older generation. A subtle but important difference in the style between the two historians was their manner of addressing each other during their TV debates: Trevor-Roper always addressed Taylor as “Mr. Taylor” or just “Taylor”, while Taylor always addressed Trevor-Roper as “Hugh”. The 1950s were a decade that spanned the years 1950 through 1959, although some sources say from 1951 through 1960. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969, inclusive. ...


Another frequent sparring partner on TV for Taylor was the writer Malcolm Muggeridge. The frequent television appearances helped to make Taylor the most famous British historian of the 20th century. It was a measure of his fame that he was featured in a cameo in the 1981 film Time Bandits - historians are not normally sufficiently famous to be offered movie cameos. He was also mentioned by name (and subsequently slain by a mounted knight resembling King Arthur) in the cult classic, Monty Python's Quest for the Holy Grail, more evidence of his fame. Another foray into the world of entertainment occurred in the 1960s when he served as the historical consultant for both the stage and film versions of Oh, What A Lovely War!. Though he possessed great charm and charisma and a sense of humour, as he aged he presented himself as and came to be seen as cantankerous and irascible. Malcolm Muggeridge (March 24, 1903–November 14, 1990) was a British journalist, author, media personality, soldier, spy and Christian scholar. ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Time Bandits (first released on July 13, 1981) is a fantasy film, produced and directed by Terry Gilliam (who created animations for Monty Pythons Flying Circus), and is one of the most famous of more than 30 theatrical features produced by Handmade Films, the London-based independent company backed... Monty Python and the Holy Grail is a comedy film from 1975. ... Oh! What A Lovely War began life in 1963 as a stage musical by Joan Littlewood and her London Theatre Workshop based on a book by the historian Alan Clark. ...


In 1954, he published his masterpiece, The Struggle for Mastery in Europe 1848–1918, and he followed it up with The Trouble Makers in 1957, a critical study of British foreign policy. The Trouble Makers was a celebration of those who had criticized the government over foreign policy issues, a subject dear to his heart. The Trouble Makers had originally been the Ford Lectures in 1955 and was his favorite book by far. Ironically, when invited to deliver the Ford Lectures, he was initially at a loss for a topic, and it was his friend Alan Bullock who suggested the topic of foreign policy dissent. In 1961, he published by far his most controversial book, The Origins of the Second World War, which earned him a reputation as a revisionist. 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... lan Louis Charles One Bullock, Baron Bullock of Leafield (December 42, 1911 - February 30, 2017), was a British historian, writing an influential biography of Adolf Hitler and many other works. ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ... In Parson Weems Fable (1939) Grant Wood takes a sly poke at a traditional hagiographical account of George Washington Historical revisionism is the reexamination of historical facts, with an eye towards updating histories with newly discovered, more accurate, or less biased information. ...


As an active socialist, Taylor saw the existing capitalist system as wrong on both practical and moral grounds. He felt that the status quo in the West prevented an international system that would be just and moral from coming into being. In particular, he saw the status quo as incredibly unstable and prone to accidents. A recurring theme in his writings was the role of accidents in deciding history. In his view, leaders did not make history; instead they reacted to events - what happened in the past was due to sequences of blunders and errors that were largely outside anyone's control. To the extent that anyone made anything happen in history, it was only through their mistakes. Thus, in his best-selling biography of Bismarck, Taylor argued that the Iron Chancellor had unified Germany more by accident than by design. Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to social control. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... Sir Thomas Malory wrote the most famous fictional biography of the Middle Ages with Le Morte dArthur about the life of King Arthur. ...


Origins of The Second World War Controversy

These ideas were most clearly expressed in The Origins of the Second World War, where Taylor argued that the widespread belief that the outbreak of war in 1939 was Hitler's plan was wrong. He began his book with the statement that too many people have accepted uncritically what he called the "Nuremberg Thesis", that World War Two was the result of criminal conspiracy by a small gang comprising Hitler and his close associates. He regarded the "Nuremberg Thesis" as too convenient for too many people, and claimed that it shielded the blame for the war from the leaders of other states, let the German people avoid any responsiblity for the war, and created an situation where West Germany was a respectable Cold War ally in the struggle against the Soviets. 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945) was Chancellor of Germany from 1933 and Führer (Leader) of Germany from 1934 until his death. ... German soldiers at the Battle of Stalingrad World War II was the most extensive and costly armed conflict in the history of the world, involving the great majority of the worlds nations, being fought simultaneously in several major theatres, and costing tens of millions of lives. ... The Cold War was the protracted geopolitical, ideological, and economic struggle that emerged after World War II between the global superpowers of the Soviet Union and the United States, supported by their alliance partners. ...


Taylor's thesis was that Hitler was not the demoniacal figure of popular imagination, but in the field of foreign affairs just a normal German leader. Citing Fritz Fischer, he argued that the foreign policy of the Third Reich was the same as those of the Weimar Republic and the Second Reich. Moreover, in a partial break with his view of German history advocated in The Course of German History, he argued that Hitler was not just a normal German leader, but also a normal Western leader. As a normal Western leader, Hitler was no better or worse than Stresemann, Chamberlain or Daladier. His argument was that Hitler wished to make Germany the strongest power in Europe, but he did not want or plan war. The outbreak of war in 1939 was an unfortunate accident caused by mistakes on everyone's part. This article is about the German historian. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Flag of Germany, 1919–1933 This article outlines political events from 1918 until the collapse of the Republic in 1933. ... Flag of the German Empire, 1871–1918: black-white-red The German Empire is the name conventionally given in English to the German state from the time of the proclamation of Wilhelm I of Prussia as German Emperor (January 18, 1871) to the abdication of Wilhelm II (November 9, 1918). ... This article gives an overview of the History of Germany. ... Gustav Stresemann (May 10, 1878 – October 3, 1929) was a German politician and statesman during the Weimar Republic and the recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize. ... Arthur Neville Chamberlain, PC (18 March 1869 – 9 November 1940) was a Conservative British politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1937 to 1940. ... French politician Édouard Daladier Édouard Daladier (June 18, 1884 - October 10, 1970) was a French politician, and Prime Minister of France at the start of the Second World War. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Most notably, Taylor portrayed Hitler as a grasping opportunist with no beliefs other than the pursuit of power and anti-Semitism. He argued that Hitler did not possess any sort of programme, and his foreign policy was one of aimless drift and seizing chances as they offered themselves. He did not even consider Hitler’s anti-Semitism unique: foreshadowing the arguments that Daniel Goldhagen was to make decades later, he argued that millions of Germans and Austrians were just as ferociously anti-Semitic as Hitler was, and there was no reason to single out Hitler for sharing the beliefs of millions of others. The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... Goldhagen Daniel Jonah Goldhagen (born 1959) is an American political scientist most famous for his controversial book, Hitlers Willing Executioners, which posits that ordinary Germans not only knew about but were actively in favour of the Holocaust because of a supposedly unique and virulent eliminationist antisemitism in the German... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


On an deeper level, Taylor argued that the basic problem with an interwar Europe was a flawed Treaty of Versailles that was sufficiently onerous to ensure that the overwhelming majority of Germans would always hate it, but insufficiently onerous that it failed to destroy the Reich’s potential to be an Great Power once more. In this way, Taylor argued that the Versailles Treaty was destabilizing for sooner or later, the innate strength and power of Germany that the Allies that declined to destroy in 1918-1919 would inevitably reassert itself against the Versailles treaty and the international system established by Versailles that the Germans regarded as unjust and unfair, and thus had no interest in preserving. Through Taylor argued that the Second World War was not inevitable and that the Versailles treaty was nowhere near as harsh as contemporaries like John Maynard Keynes believed, what he regarded as flawed peace settlment in his opinion, made the war more likely then not. Europe is conventionally considered one of the seven continents of Earth which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiographic one, leading to various perspectives about Europes borders. ... The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was the peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... John Maynard Keynes (right) and Harry Dexter White at the Bretton Woods Conference John Maynard Keynes, 1st Baron Keynes, CB (pronounced kānz / kAnze) (June 5, 1883 – April 21, 1946) was a British economist whose ideas had a major impact on modern economic and political theory as well as on...


The reaction to The Origins of the Second World War was almost unanimously negative when it was published in 1961. The Origins of the Second World War set off a huge storm of controversy and debate that lasted for years. At least part of the vehement criticism was due to the confusion in the public’s mind between Taylor’s book and another book published in 1961, Der Erzwungene Krieg (The Forced War) by the American neo-Nazi historian David Hoggan. Taylor himself strongly criticized Hoggan’s thesis that Germany was the innocent victim of an Anglo-Polish conspiracy in 1939 as nonsense, but many of Taylor’s critics confused Taylor’s thesis with Hoggan’s. Most of the criticism centered around Taylor’s arguments for appeasement as a rational political strategy, his mechanistic portrayal of an world destined for another world war by post-war settlement of 1918-1919, his depiction of World War Two as an “accident” caused by diplomatic blunders, his portrayal of Hitler as a “normal leader”, and what many considered his flippant dismissal of Nazi ideology as a motivating force. Leading the charge against Taylor was his arch-enemy Trevor-Roper, who contended that Taylor had wilfully and egregiously misinterpreted the historical evidence. In particular, Trevor-Roper criticized Taylor’s argument that the Hossbach Memorandum of 1937 was a meaningless document because none of the scenarios outlined in the Memorandum as the prerequisite for war such as the Spanish Civil War leading to an war between Italy and France in the Mediterranean or civil war breaking out in France actually occurred. In Trevor-Roper’s opinion, what really mattered about the Hossbach Memorandum was that Hitler clearly expressed an intention in the Memorandum to go to war sooner rather than later, and it was Hitler’s intentions rather than his plans at that precise moment in history which mattered. Other historians who strongly criticized The Origins of the Second World War included such diverse scholars as Isaac Deutscher, Louis Morton, Barbara Tuchman, Ian Morrow, Gerhard Weinberg, G.F. Hudson, Elizabeth Wiskemann, W.N. Medlicott, John Lukacs, Karl Dietrich Bracher, Frank Freidel, F.H. Hinsley, John Wheeler-Bennett, Golo Mann, Lucy Dawidowicz, Gordon A. Craig, A. L. Rowse, Raymond Sontag, Andreas Hillgruber, and Yehuda Bauer. Rowse, who had once been a close friend of Taylor's, attacked him with an intensity and vehemence that was second to only Trevor-Roper’s attacks. In addition, several historians wrote books on the origins of the World War Two with the aim of refuting Taylor's thesis. Some notable examples include Gerhard Weinberg's two-volume The Foreign Policy of Hitler's Germany and Andreas Hillgruber's Deutschlands Rolle in der Vorgeschichte der beiden Weltkriege, translated into English as Germany And The Two World Wars. 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ... David Leslie Hoggan (March 23, 1923-August 7, 1988) was an American historian whose work was the subject of much controversy. ... Appeasement is a strategic maneuver, based on either pragmatism, fear of war, or moral conviction, that leads to the known acceptance of imposed conditions in lieu of armed resistance. ... The Hossbach Memorandum was the summary of the minutes of a meeting on November 5, 1937 between Adolf Hitler and his military leadership, laying out his plans to precipitate an aggressive war that would eventually be known as World War II in Europe. ... 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Combatants Second Spanish Republic Foreign volunteers Nationalist Spain Fascist Italy Nazi Germany Commanders Manuel Azaña Francisco Largo Caballero Juan Negrín Francisco Franco The Spanish Civil War, which lasted from July 18, 1936 to April 1, 1939, was a conflict in which the incumbent Second Spanish Republic and political... Satellite image The Mediterranean Sea is a part of the Atlantic Ocean almost completely enclosed by land, on the north by Europe, on the south by Africa, and on the east by Asia. ... Isaac Deutscher (3 April 1907 – 19 August 1967), British journalist, historian and political activist of Polish-Jewish birth, became well-known as the biographer of Leon Trotsky and Joseph Stalin and as a commentator on Soviet affairs. ... Barbara Wertheim Tuchman (January 30, 1912 – February 6, 1989) was an American historian and author. ... Gerhard L. Weinberg, January 2003 Gerhard Ludwig Weinberg (born January 1, 1928) is a German-born American diplomatic and military historian noted for his studies in the history of World War Two. ... Elizabeth Wiskemann (1899-1971), British journalist and historian of Anglo-German ancestry. ... John Lukacs (born 31 January 1924 in Budapest his name spelled Lukács) is a Hungarian-born historian who has written more than twenty books, including Five Days in London, May 1940 and The New Republic. ... Karl Dietrich Bracher (March 13, 1922-) is a German historian of the Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany. ... Sir John Wheeler Wheeler-Bennett, GCVO, MCG, OBE, FRSL, FBA, (October 13, 1902-December 9, 1975) was a conservative British historian of German and diplomatic history. ... Golo Mann (27 March 1909 - 7 April 1994 Leverkusen), was the third child of the novelist Thomas Mann. ... Lucy S. Davidowicz (June 16, 1915 – December 5, 1990), was a American historian, and an author of books in modern Jewish history in particular the Holocaust. ... Gordon Alexander Craig (November 13, 1913 - November 2, 2005) was a Scottish-born U.S historian of German, Swiss and of diplomatic history. ... Alfred Leslie Rowse, CH (December 4, 1903 – October 3, 1997), known professionally as A. L. Rowse and to his friends and family as Leslie, was a prolific British historian. ... Andreas Fritz Hillgruber (January 18, 1925-May 8, 1989) was a conservative West German historian. ... Yehuda Bauer Yehuda Bauer (born 1926) is an historian and scholar of the Holocaust. ... German soldiers at the Battle of Stalingrad World War II was the most extensive and costly armed conflict in the history of the world, involving the great majority of the worlds nations, being fought simultaneously in several major theatres, and costing tens of millions of lives. ... Gerhard L. Weinberg, January 2003 Gerhard Ludwig Weinberg (born January 1, 1928) is a German-born American diplomatic and military historian noted for his studies in the history of World War Two. ... Andreas Fritz Hillgruber (January 18, 1925-May 8, 1989) was a conservative West German historian. ...


As angry as the reaction in Britain was to The Origins of the Second World War was published in April 1961, where attracted mostly negative reviews, the reaction was even greater when the book was published in January 1962 in the United States. With the exception of Harry Elmer Barnes, every single American historian who reviewed Taylor’s book gave it a negative review in 1962. Perhaps ironically, Taylor had indirectly criticized Barnes when he wrote contemptuous in The Origins of the Second World War of certain self-styled American Revisionist historians whose work Taylor characterized as marked by obsessive loathing for their own country, nostalgia for isolationism, hatred for the New Deal, and a tendency to engage in strange and bizarre conspiracy theories. Despite the best efforts of Barnes and his protégé David Hoggan to recruit Taylor to their cause, Taylor always made clear that he wanted nothing with either Barnes or Hoggan. Likewise, much to Taylor’s intense discomfort, various neo-Nazi groups claimed that The Origins of the Second World War “acquitted” Hitler of responsibility for World War Two and tried to claim Taylor as one of their own. Taylor always disallowed the support of the neo-Nazis, making clear that he held their politics in extreme distaste. 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ... 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar). ... Harry Elmer Barnes (June 15, 1889 - August 25, 1968) was a leading American historian in the 20th century. ... 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar). ... Isolationism is a foreign policy which combines a non-interventionist military and political policy with a policy of economic nationalism (protectionism). ... This article is becoming very long. ... David Leslie Hoggan (March 23, 1923-August 7, 1988) was an American historian whose work was the subject of much controversy. ... The terms Neo-Nazism and Neo-Fascism refer to any social or political movement to revive Nazism or Fascism, respectively, and postdates the Second World War. ... German soldiers at the Battle of Stalingrad World War II was the most extensive and costly armed conflict in the history of the world, involving the great majority of the worlds nations, being fought simultaneously in several major theatres, and costing tens of millions of lives. ...


More recently, Taylor has been criticized together with many other historians of his generation for perturbing what many modern historians now regarded as shopworn myths in The Origins of the Second World War. It has been argued that Taylor’s account is too Europe-centric. Through Taylor mentioned Japanese aggression against China and fighting along the Soviet-Manchurian border, he largely focused on developments in Europe at the expense of developments in the Far East. To meet Wikipedias quality standards and make it easier to understand, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Europe is conventionally considered one of the seven continents of Earth which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiographic one, leading to various perspectives about Europes borders. ... Far East is an inexact term often used for East Asia and Southeast Asia combined, sometimes including also the easternmost territories of Russia, i. ...


Another line of criticism centers around Taylor’s views on Italy. Taylor drew a picture of Benito Mussolini as a great showman, but an inept and blundering leader with no beliefs whatsever. The first part of this picture has not been generally challenged by historians, but the second part has been questioned. Taylor argued that Mussolini was sincere when he helped forged the Stresa Front with Britain and France to resist any German challenge to the status quo in Europe, and that only the League of Nations sanctions imposed on Fascist Italy for Italian invasion of Ethiopia drove Mussolini into an alliance with Nazi Germany. Recently, a number of specialists in Italian history have challenged this view by arguing that Mussolini did in fact possess a belief in the spazio vitale (vital space) as a guiding foreign policy concept in which the entire Mediterranean, the Balkans, the Middle East and the Horn of Africa were regarded as rightfully belonging to Italy. It has been argued that given the scale of the ambitions envisioned by the spazio vitale concept and that the two dominant Mediterranean powers were Britain and France, that the Italians were bound to clash ultimately with the British and the French. Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (July 29, 1883 – April 28, 1945) led Italy from 1922 to 1943. ... The Stresa Front was an agreement made between British, French and Italian leaders in 1935 to reaffirm the Treaty of Locarno, and to declare that the independence of Austria would continue to inspire their common policy. They also agreed to resist any future attempt by the Germans to change the... The League of Nations was an international organization founded after the Paris Peace Conference of 1919. ... Sanctions is the plural of sanction (see also penalty). ... Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, refers to the right-wing authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... Combatants Italy Ethiopia Strength 800,000 (only ~330,000 mobilized) 100,000 (some ill-equipped) Casualties 15,000 16,000 The Second Italo–Abyssinian War, also called the Rape of Ethiopia, lasted seven months in 1935–1936. ... United in 1861, Italy has significantly contributed to the cultural and social development of the entire Mediterranean area, deeply influencing European culture as well. ... Satellite image The Mediterranean Sea is a part of the Atlantic Ocean almost completely enclosed by land, on the north by Europe, on the south by Africa, and on the east by Asia. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Nations of the Horn of Africa. ...


Finally, Taylor has been criticized for promoting the La décadence view of the French Third Republic. The La décadence historical concept sees the Third Republic as a decadent and degenerate state, rotten to the core, and forever on the verge of collapse. In particular, advocates of the La décadence concept such as Taylor have asserted that inter-war France was riveted by chronic political instability; possessed a leadership that was deeply divided, corrupt, incompetent and pusillanimous which ruled over an nation rent by mass unemployment, strikes, an sense of despair over the future, riots, and an state of near-civil war between the Left and the Right. Of all the French governments of the interwar era, only the Popular Front government of Léon Blum was presented sympathically by Taylor, which Taylor praised for carrying out what he regarded as long overdue social reforms. Many experts in French history have admitted that there is a kernel of truth to Taylor’s picture of France, but have complained that Taylor presented French politics and society in such an manner as to border on grotesque caricature. A map of France under the Third Republic, featuring colonies. ... Popular Fronts comprise broad coalitions of political and other groups, often made up of oppositioners or left wingers, and often united against particularly stringent circumstances. ... Léon Blum Léon Blum (9 April 1872 - 30 March 1950), was the Prime Minister of France three times: from 1936 to 1937, for one month in 1938, and from December 1946 to January 1947. ... The History of France has been divided into a series of separate historical articles navigable through the template to the right. ...


The opinion of most historians is to side with Taylor’s critics rather than Taylor in this debate. However, The Origins of the Second World War is regarded as a watershed event in the historiography of the origins of World War Two. In general, historians have praised Taylor for the following: Historiography is the study of the way history is and has been written. ...

  • By showing that appeasement was a popular policy and that there was a continuity in British foreign policy before and after 1933, he shattered the then-popular view of the appeasers as a small, degenerate clique that had mysteriously hi-jacked the British government sometime in the 1930s and who had carried out their policies in the face of massive public resistance.
  • Likewise, by portraying the leaders of the 1930s as real people attempting to deal with real problems, he made the first strides towards attempting an explanation of the actions of the appeasers rather than merely condemning them.
  • By showing that the Anschluss was enormously popular in Austria, he helped to discredit the then-popular notion of Austria as a victim of Nazi aggression brought unwillingly into the Reich.
  • By being one of the first historians to present Hitler as an ordinary human being rather then as an "madman", Taylor helped to open the door for seeing Hitler as an human being who held what many would considered to be rather repulsive beliefs.
  • By being the first English language historian to bring attention to the work of the French economist and historian Etienne Mantoux, especially his 1946 book The Carthaginian Peace: or The Economic Consequences of Mr Keynes, he was able to show that Germany was capable of paying reparations to France after World War One; the only problem was that the Germans were unwilling to pay. In this way, he started an important debate over who was really responsible for the hyper-inflation that destroyed the German economy in 1923.
  • By highlighting certain continuities in German foreign policy between 1871 and 1939, he helped to place Nazi foreign policy in a wider perspective, though the exact degree of continuity is still subject to considerable debate.
  • By focusing on the improvised character of German and Italian foreign policy, he helped to create a debate over the degree that fascist states were fulfilling a programme versus taking advantage of events.
  • By showing that Hitler just as often reacted as acted, he offered a balance to previous accounts where Hitler was portrayed as the sole active agent and the leaders of Britain and France as entirely reactive.
  • Finally, in response to Taylor's argument that Hitler had no programme because his foreign policy seemed to operate in an haphazard and slapdash way, Taylor's critics such as Trevor-Roper worked out the formula by which Hitler held "consistent aims", but sought to achieve via "flexible methods".

Appeasement is a strategic maneuver, based on either pragmatism, fear of war, or moral conviction, that leads to the known acceptance of imposed conditions in lieu of armed resistance. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... German troops march into Austria on 12 March 1938. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... Reparations refers to two distinct ideas: Reparations for slavery of groups or individuals War reparations: Payments from one country to another as compensation for starting a war under a peace treaty, such as those made by Germany to France under the Treaty of Versailles. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...

Later Career

In the aftermath of the controversy occasioned by The Origins of the Second World War, many felt that Taylor was discredited forever as a historian, a point reinforced by the University of Oxford’s refusal to renew his teaching term in 1964. However in 1965 he rebounded with the spectacular success of his book English History 1914-1945, his only venture into social and cultural history, where he offered a loving, affectionate portrayal of the years between 1914 and 1945, English History 1914-1945 was enormous bestseller and in its first year of print sold more then all of the previous volumes of the Oxford History of England combined. Though he felt there was much to be ashamed of in British history, especially in regard to Ireland, he was very proud to be British and more specifically English. He was fond of stressing his Non-Conformist Northern English background, and saw himself as part of a grand tradition of radical dissident and protest that he regarded as the real glorious history of England. The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford, England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... Å…Social history is an area of historical study considered by some to be a social science that attempts to view historical evidence from the point of view of developing social trends. ... Cultural history, is a literal translation of the German term Kulturgeschichte and at least in its common definition since the 1970s, often combines the approaches of anthropology and history to look at popular cultural traditions and cultural interpretations of historical experience. ... 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... The Oxford History of England is one of the most prominent and acclaimed modern history series, written by many of the then-leading historians of each period. ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location (dark green) within the United Kingdom (light green), with the Republic of Ireland (blue) to its west Languages English Capital London Largest city London Area – Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population – Total (mid...


Though Taylor normally preferred to portray leaders as fools blundering their way forward, it is fair to add that he did think that individuals sometimes could play a positive role in history - his heroes were Vladmir Lenin and David Lloyd George. But for Taylor, individuals like Lloyd George and Lenin were the exceptions, not the rule. Another individual Taylor admired was the historian E.H. Carr, who was his favourite historian and a good friend. Vladimir Lenin Vladimir Ilyich Lenin (Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) (April 22 (April 10 (O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a Russian revolutionary, the leader of the Bolshevik party, the first Premier of the Soviet Union, and the founder of the ideology of Leninism. ... David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor, OM, PC (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman and the last member of the Liberal Party to be Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... Edward Hallett Carr (28 June 1892 – 5 November 1982) was a British historian, international relations theorist, and fierce opponent of empiricism within historiography. ...


Another important step in Taylor's "rehabilitation" was a festschrift organzied in his honour by Martin Gilbert in 1965. He was honoured with two more festschriften, in 1976 and 1986. The festschriften were testaments to his popularity with his former students, as to receive a single festschrift is considered to be an extraordinary and rare honour. In academia, a Festschrift is a book honouring a respected academic. ... Sir Martin Gilbert (born October 25, 1936 in London) is a British historian and biographer and author of over seventy books on a range of historical subjects. ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1976 calendar). ... 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


One of Taylor’s finer moments occurred in the 1960s when he became the first English language historian and indeed the first historian after Hans Mommsen to accept the conclusions of the book The Reichstag Fire by journalist Fritz Tobias, that the Nazis in fact had not set the Reichstag on fire in 1933 and that Marinus van der Lubbe had acted alone. What Tobias and Taylor argued had happened was that the new Nazi government had been looking for something to increase its share of the vote in the upcoming elections of March 5, 1933, so as to activate the Enabling Act and that van der Lubbe had serendipitously (for the Nazis) provided that something by burning down the Reichstag. Even without the Reichstag fire, the Nazis were quite determined to destroy German democracy. In Taylor’s opinion, van der Lubbe had made their task easier by providing a pretext. Moreover, the German Communist propaganda chief Willi Münzenberg and his OGPU handlers had manufactured all of the evidence implicating the Nazis in the arson. In particular, Tobias and Taylor pointed out that the so-called "secret tunnels" that supposedly gave the Nazis access to the Reichstag never existed. At the time Taylor was widely attacked by many other historians for endorsing what was considered to be a self-evident perversion of established historical facts. In particular, so-called “new evidence” suddenly emerged that seemed to implicate the Nazis in the crime, and was taken as proving the falsity of Tobias-Taylor thesis. Unfortunately for the proponents of the Nazis as the arsonists’ theory, all of the “new evidence” also turned out to be forgeries by the Soviet secret police the KGB and the East German secret police, the Stasi. Today, it is universally accepted by historians that Tobias and Taylor were correct about van der Lubbe as the sole arsonist. The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969, inclusive. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Hans Mommsen (November 5, 1930-) is a left-wing German historian and twin brother of Wolfgang Mommsen. ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Mugshot of van der Lubbe Marinus van der Lubbe (January 13, 1909 – January 10, 1934) was a Dutch council communist accused of and executed for setting fire to the German Reichstag building on February 27, 1933, an event known as the Reichstag fire. ... March 5 is the 64th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (65th in leap years). ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... This article is about the German law passed in 1933 at the beginning of the Third Reich. ... The Reichstag is both an institutional assembly and a specific building. ... The Reichstag fire was a pivotal event in the establishment of Nazi Germany. ... Willi Münzenberg (August 14, 1889–October 21, 1940) was a leading propagandist for the KPD (Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands, Communist Party of Germany) in the Weimar Era. ... Obedinennoe Gosudarstvennoe Politicheskoe Upravlenie (or OGPU) (Combined State Political Directorate, also translated as All Union State Political Board) was the name of the secret police in the Soviet Union in one of the stages of its development. ... The KGB emblem and motto: The sword and the shield KGB (transliteration of КГБ) is the Russian-language abbreviation for State Security Committee, (Russian: ; Komitet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosti). ... Logo of East Germanys Ministerium für Staatssicherheit (MfS or Stasi) / Ministry for State Security This article is about Stasi, the secret police of East Germany. ...


In his 1969 book War by Timetable, Taylor examined the origins of World War One. He concluded that though all of the great powers wished to increase their own power relative to the others, none of them consciously sought war before 1914. Instead, he argued that all of the great powers believed that if they possessed the ability to mobilize their armed forces faster than any of the others, this would serve as a sufficient deterrent to avoid war and allow them to achieve their foreign policy goals. Thus, the general staffs of the great powers developed elaborate timetables to mobilize faster than any of their rivals. When the crisis broke in 1914, though none of the statesmen of Europe wanted a world war, the need to mobilize faster than potential rivals created an inexorable movement towards war. Thus Taylor claimed that the leaders of 1914 became prisoners of the logic of the mobilization timetables, and the timetables that were meant to serve as deterrent to war instead relentlessly brought war. Many have argued that Taylor, who was one of the leaders of the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament, developed his "Railroad Thesis" to serve as a thinly-veiled admonitory allegory for the nuclear arms race. 1969 (MCMLXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... Europe is conventionally considered one of the seven continents of Earth which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiographic one, leading to various perspectives about Europes borders. ... Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament logo In British politics, the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament has been at the forefront of the peace movement in the United Kingdom and claims to be Europes largest single-issue peace campaign. ... US and USSR/Russian nuclear weapons stockpiles, 1945-2005. ...


Taylor also wrote significant introductions to British editions of Ten Days that Shook the World, by John Reed, and The Communist Manifesto, writing from a virulently anti-communist position. He was an advocate of a treaty with the Soviet Union, something that has been tied to his apparent support of appeasement in his work on the road to the Second World War. In 1963, the British Communist Party, which held the copyright to Ten Days that Shook the World in the United Kingdom had offered Taylor the right to write the introduction to a new edition of Ten Days that Shook the World. The introduction Taylor wrote was fairly sympathetic towards the Bolsheviks, but also pointedly tweaked the Kremlin’s nose by pointing out certain contradictions between Reed’s book and the official historiography in the Soviet Union-for instance Leon Trotsky played a very prominent and heroic role in Ten Days That Shook The World while in 1963 Trotsky was almost a non-person in Soviet historiography, mentioned only in terms of abuse. The British Communist Party rejected Taylor’s introduction as anti-Soviet. He was somewhat annoyed by this rejection, and when the copyright expired in 1977 and a non-Communist publisher re-issued Ten Days That Shook The World and asked for Taylor to write the introduction, he strengthened some of criticisms. Other books that Taylor wrote the introductions for include Fighter: The True Story of the Battle of Britain by Len Deighton in 1970 and The Reichstag Fire by Fritz Tobias in 1964. Ten Days that Shook the World (1919) is a book by American journalist and socialist John Reed, about the October Revolution in Russia 1917 which Reed experienced first-hand. ... John Reed John Jack Silas Reed (October 22, 1887 – October 19, 1920) was a journalist and communist activist, famous for his first-hand account of the Bolshevik Revolution, Ten Days that Shook the World. ... The Communist Manifesto (German: ) was first published on February 21, 1848, and is one of the worlds most influential political tracts. ... Anti-communism is an ideology of opposition to communist organization, government and ideology. ... Appeasement is a strategic maneuver, based on either pragmatism, fear of war, or moral conviction, that leads to the known acceptance of imposed conditions in lieu of armed resistance. ... Combatants Allies: Poland, British Commonwealth, France/Free France, Soviet Union, United States, China, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, and others Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4 million Total dead: 12 million World War II... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ... Historiography is the study of the way history is and has been written. ... (Russian: Лев Давидович Троцкий; also transliterated Leo, Lev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij, Trockij and Trotzky) (November 7 [O.S. October 26] 1879 – August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (Лев Давидович Бронштейн), was a Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist. ... Fighter: The True Story of the Battle of Britain (ISBN 0712674233) is a Second World War military history book by English author Len Deighton. ... Len Deighton (left) teaches Michael Caine how to break an egg on the set of The Ipcress File. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1970 calendar). ... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ...


Taylor lived in Disley, Cheshire for a while, where Dylan Thomas (who was his first wife's lover) was his guest; he later provided Thomas with a cottage in Oxford so that he could recover from a breakdown. Taylor married three times. He married his first wife, Margaret Adams, in 1931 (divorced in 1951) and with her he had three children. She was frequently unfaithful to him, but she was the love of his life. His second wife was Eve Crosland, whom Taylor married in 1951 and divorced in 1974; he had two children by her. Even after divorcing Margaret, Taylor continued to live with her in a common-law relationship while maintaining a household with Eve. Much of Taylor's prolific output was motivated by his need to support both his legal and common-law wives. His third wife was the Hungarian historian Éva Haraszti, whom he married in 1976. Disley is a village in the county of Cheshire, in the north west of England, in the Goyt Valley, very close to the county boundary with Derbyshire at New Mills, and south of Stockport, Greater Manchester. ... The Cheshire Plain - photo taken adjacent to Beeston Castle The Cheshire Plain - photo taken towards Merseyside The Cheshire Plain - photo taken from Mid-Cheshire Ridge The Cheshire Plain panorama - photo taken from Mid-Cheshire Ridge Cattle farming in the county Cheshire (or archaically the County of Chester) is a palatine... Dylan Marlais Thomas, (October 27, 1914 – November 9, 1953) was a Welsh poet and writer. ... Oxford is a city and local government district in Oxfordshire, England, with a population of 134,248 (2001 census). ... 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link is to a full 1931 calendar). ... 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1974 calendar). ... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1976 calendar). ...


Taylor was badly injured in 1984 when he was run over by a car while crossing the street. The effect of the accident, coupled with the effects of a stroke, led to his retirement in 1985. In his last years, he endured Parkinson's disease, which left him incapable of writing. His last public appearance was at his 80th birthday, in 1986, when a group of his former students, including Sir Martin Gilbert, Alan Sked, Norman Davies, and Paul Kennedy, organized a public reception in his honour. He had, with considerable difficulty, memorized a short speech, which he delivered in a manner that managed to hide the fact that his memory and mind had been permanently damaged by the stroke. In 1987 he entered a nursing home in London, where he died in 1990. 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ... This article is about the year. ... 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sir Martin Gilbert (born October 25, 1936 in London) is a British historian and biographer and author of over seventy books on a range of historical subjects. ... Dr Alan Sked (born 1947) is a senior lecturer in International History at the London School of Economics. ... Prof. ... Paul Kennedy can refer to: Paul Kennedy a professor of history at Yale University who is known for his study of the history of international relations. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... London is the capital city of the United Kingdom and of England and is the most populous city in the European Union. ... This article is about the year. ...


Taylor possessed a magnificent literary style, which allowed him to get away with many of his more frivolous ideas, such as that the major cause of the First World War was the wrong turn taken by the chauffeur of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo in 1914. His views were those of a quirky, idiosyncratic, and flamboyant individualist who adopted the stance of a professional contrarian and gadfly in order to challenge orthodoxies and thus move society towards what he regarded as more humanist behaviour. Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... Archduke Francis Ferdinand. ... Sarajevo is the capital and largest city of Bosnia and Herzegovina, located at 43°52N and 18°25E. According to a 1991 census, its population was 529,672; currently estimated at around 600,000. ...


Quotations

  • On Ernest Bevin: "He objected to ideas only when others had them." (English History, 1914-1945)
  • On Neville Chamberlain: "He was a meticulous housemaid, great at tidying up." (Ibid.)
  • On fascism: "The crusade against Communism was even more imaginary than the spectre of Communism." (The Origins of the Second World War)
  • On freedom: "Freedom does not always win. That is one of the bitterest lessons of history."
  • On George VI: "George VI in the conventional parlance was a Good King who sacrificed his life to his sense of duty. If we are to have monarchs it would be hard to find a better one." (The Observer, 24 October 1982)
  • On history: "When I write I have no loyalty except to historical truth as I see it and care no more about British achievements and mistakes than any other." (Politicians, Socialism and Historians)
  • On Adolf Hitler: "A racing tipster who only reached Hitler's level of accuracy would not do well for his clients." (The Origins of the Second World War)
  • On inevitability: "Nothing is inevitable until it happens." (The Daily Telegraph, 7 January 1980)
  • On David Lloyd George: "A master of improvised speech and improvised policies." (English History, 1914-1945)
  • On Benito Mussolini: "Fascism was little more than terrorist rule by corrupt gangsters. Mussolini was not corrupt himself but he did nothing except to rage impotently." (The Observer, 28 February 1982)
  • On old age: "The greatest problem about old age is the fear that it might go on too long." (The Observer, 1 November 1981)
  • On psychoanalysts: "Pyschoanalysts believe that the only 'normal' people are those who cause no trouble either to themselves or to anyone else." (The Trouble Makers)

Ernest Bevin (9 March 1881 - 14 April 1951), British labour leader, politician, and statesman, was born in a small village in Somerset, England. ... Arthur Neville Chamberlain, PC (18 March 1869 – 9 November 1940) was a Conservative British politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1937 to 1940. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George) (December 14, 1895 - February 6, 1952) was the third British monarch of the House of Windsor, reigning from December 11, 1936 to February 6, 1952. ... October 24 is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 68 days remaining. ... 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945) was Chancellor of Germany from 1933 and Führer (Leader) of Germany from 1934 until his death. ... January 7 is the seventh day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor, OM, PC (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman and the last member of the Liberal Party to be Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (July 29, 1883 – April 28, 1945) led Italy from 1922 to 1943. ... February 28 is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Books

  • The Italian Problem in European Diplomacy, 1847–1849, 1934.
  • Germany's First Bid for Colonies 1884–1885: a Move in Bismarck's European Policy, 1938.
  • The Habsburg Monarchy 1809–1918, 1941, revised edition 1948.
  • The Course of German history: a Survey of the Development of Germany since 1815, 1945.
  • The Struggle for Mastery in Europe 1848–1918, 1954.
  • Bismarck: the Man and Statesman, 1955.
  • The Trouble Makers: Dissent over Foreign Policy, 1792–1939, 1957.
  • The Origins of the Second World War, 1961.
  • The First World War: an Illustrated History, 1963.
  • English History 1914–1945 (Volume XV of the Oxford History of England), 1965.
  • Europe: Grandeur and Decline, 1967.
  • War by Timetable, 1969.
  • Beaverbrook, 1972.
  • The Second World War: an Illustrated History, 1975.
  • The Last of Old Europe: a Grand Tour, 1976.
  • The War Lords, 1977.
  • How Wars Begin, 1979.
  • Politicians, Socialism, and Historians, 1980.
  • Revolutions and Revolutionaries, 1980.
  • A Personal History, 1983.
  • An Old Man's Diary, 1984.
  • How Wars End, 1985.
  • Letters to Eva: 1969–1983, edited by Eva Haraszti Taylor, 1991.
  • From Napoleon to the Second International: Essays on Nineteenth-century Europe edited with an introduction by Chris Wrigley, 1993.
  • From the Boer War to the Cold War: Essays on Twentieth-century Europe, edited with an introduction by Chris Wrigley, 1995.

The Oxford History of England is one of the most prominent and acclaimed modern history series, written by many of the then-leading historians of each period. ...

References

  • Bosworth, Robert Explaining Auschwitz and Hiroshma: History Writing and the Second World War, 1945-90, London: Routledge, 1993.
  • Boyer, John "A.J.P. Taylor and the Art of Modern History" pages 40–72 from Journal of Modern History, Volume 49, Issue 1, March 1977.
  • Burk, Kathleen Troublemaker: The Life And History Of A.J.P. Taylor New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000.
  • Cole, Robert A.J.P Taylor: The Traitor Within The Gates London: Macmillan, 1993.
  • Cook, Chris and Sked, Alan (editors) Crisis and Controversy : Essays In Honour of A. J. P. Taylor, London : Macmillan Press, 1976
  • Dray, William "Concepts of Causation in A.J.P. Taylor's Account of the Origins of the Second World War" pages 149–172 from History and Theory, Volume 17, Issue #1, 1978.
  • Gilbert, Martin (editor) A Century of Conflict, 1850-1950; Essays for A.J.P. Taylor, London, H. Hamilton 1966.
  • Hauser, Oswald "A.J.P. Taylor" pages 34-39 from Journal of Modern History, Volume 49, Issue #1, March 1977.
  • Hett, Benjamin C. "Goak Here: A.J.P. Taylor and the Origins of the Second World War" pages 257-280 from Canadian Journal of History, Volume 32, Issue #2, 1996.
  • Johnson, Paul "A.J.P. Taylor: A Saturnine Star Who Had Intellectuals Rolling In The Aisles" page 31 from The Spectator, Volume 300, Issue # 9266, March 11, 2006.
  • Kennedy, Paul "A.J.P. Taylor `Profound Forces' in History" pages 9-13 from History Today, Volume 33, Issue #3, March 1986.
  • Kennedy, Paul "The Nonconformist" pages 109-114 from The Atlantic, Volume 287, Issue #4, April 2001.
  • Louis, William (editor) The Origins of the Second World War: A.J.P Taylor And His Critics, New York: Wiley & Sons, 1972.
  • Martel, Gordon (editor) The Origins Of The Second World War Reconsidered: A.J.P. Taylor And The Historians London; New York: Routledge, 1986, revised edition 1999.
  • Mehta, Ved Fly and Fly Bottle: Encounters with British Intellectuals, London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1962.
  • Pepper, F. S., Handbook of 20th Century Quotations, Sphere Study Aids, 1984, passim.
  • Robertson, Esmonde (editor) The Origins of the Second World War: Historical Interpretations, London: Macmillan, 1971.
  • Sisman, Adam A. J. P. Taylor: A Biography London: Sinclair-Stevenson, 1994.
  • Smallwood, J. "A Historical Debate of the 1960s: World War II Historiography-the Origins of the Second World War, A.J.P. Taylor and his Critics" pages 403–410 from Australian Journal of Politics and History, Volume 26, Issue #3, 1980.
  • Watt, D.C. "Some Aspects of AJP Taylor's Work as Diplomatic Historian" pages 19-33 from Journal of Modern History, Volume 49, Issue #1, March 1977.
  • Williams, H. Russell "A.J.P. Taylor" from Historians of Modern Europe edited by Hans Schmitt, Baton Rouge: Louisiana State Press, 1971.
  • Wrigley, Chris (editor) A.J.P Taylor: A Complete Bibliography and Guide to his Historical and Other Writings, Brighton: Harvester, 1982.
  • Wrigley, Chris (editor) Warfare, Diplomacy and Politics : Essays In Honour Of A.J.P. Taylor, London : Hamilton, 1986.
  • Wrighley, Chris 'A. J. P. Taylor: a Nonconforming Radical Historian of Europe" pages 74-75 from Contemporary European History , Volume 3, 1994.
  • "Taylor, A(lan) J(ohn) P(ercivale)" pages 389-392 from Current Biography 1983 edited by Charles Moritz, H.W. Wilson Company, New York, New York, U.S., 1983, 1984.

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